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Recent Studies and Activities on

Weather Modification in China

Dr. Zhanyu YAO


Key Lab. for Cloud Physics & Weather Modification
Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences
yaozy@cams.cma.gov.cn
Outline
1. Backgroung
2. Recent Status of Weather
Modification Activities in China
3. Recent Studies on Weather
Modification in China
4. Successful cases on precipitation
enhancement in Cuba in July 2006
5. Prize on WM we won in 2006
1. Background
• China is located in the east of the Asian
continent, has a land area of about 9.6
million km2, and is the third-largest country
in the world.
CHINA
• China is the most populous country in
the world, with 1.3 billion people at the end
of 2001, one fifth of the world’s total.
A country with frequent natural disasters
Over 70% are meteorological disasters
Drought High Temp. Torrential Strong wind
rain

Thunder storm El Nino Flood Dust Storm


Major Weather/Climate Events in 2003
The mean precipitation in 2003 was 626.7 mm,
which was 22.6 mm more than normal;The Forest
mean annual temperature was 9.9℃, which Droughts
was 0.7℃higher than normal, a fifth warmest Fire
year since 1961.
Excessive
Rainfall Storm surge,
Sand/Dust
Storms Forest heavy rainfall
Fires
Flood
Emergency
Warm but
higher
rainfall
Low temp,
rainy

Wide-spread
Strong wind & Floods
dusty weather
Severe persistent
droughts
avalanche

Thunder & Heat Wave &


Geological Lightening Forest fire
disasters disasters
Hit by 6 typhoons Late & weak
Source: CMA Monsoon
Meteorological Disasters in China
Caused Losses (in 100M RMB/13M US$)
2978
3000 2822

2500
1876 1863 1964 1962 2031
2000

1500 1216
994
1000 854
614
500

0
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
Percentage of Meteorological Disasters
Caused Losses (in GDP)

6.0% 5.6%

5.0%
4.0% 4.2%
3.8%
4.0%
3.3% 3.2% 3.2%
2.9%
3.0% 2.6%
2.4% 2.3%
2.0%

1.0%

0.0% 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
The most serious meteorological
disaster in China is extensive drought

From 1990 to 2000


♦ 59 million hectares of farmlands were, on
average, affected by drought.
♦ 26 million hectares of farmlands were
suffered from bad drought.
♦ Grain loss due to drought amounted to
62% of total grain loss.
Drought & water resource
Global flesh water demand in 21th century

The World Vision Report

6 billion people consume 54% global fresh water presently.


It will reach 70% in 2025 just due to population increase.
Average fresh water occupancy per person
in China is less than ¼ that of the world
m3/person
8000
7342
7000

6000 Alert line for lack of water


5000

4000

3000
2200
1760
2000

1000
1700

0
Would Ave. China Ave. Now China Ave. in 2030
Yearly average precipitation
800
• World 800mm
700
• Asia 740mm 世界
600
• China 648.4mm
500
19% less than that 亚洲
of the world 400
12% less than that 300 中国
of Asia 200
• Northwest China 100 中国
242mm 西部
0
7.3% that of China 年平均降
水量
Uneven distribution of precipitation by space
results in uneven distribution of water resource by space

<25mm

>1800mm

Distribution of yearly average precipitation (1956-2000)


Water of
Uneven distribution availability
precipitation by &
time
distribution
results in uneven distribution of water-China
resource by time

Source:
IIASA
Another serious meteorological
disaster in China is hailstorm

From 1990 to 2000,


♦ 1.7 million hectares of farmlands were,
on average, affected by hailstorms.
♦ Hailstorms cause serious economic
losses.
Hailstone disaster caused
huge losses in Guangdong
and Guizhou during March
and April 2005
8787 cars were damaged by hailstone in Beijing on 31 May 2005
Fog disaster

北京大雾天数
呈增长趋势
Industrialisation and
entironment worsen
— unconsciousness
weather modification
2. Recent Status of
Weather Modification
Activities in China
2.1 General situation
The State Council
adopted the
“Regulations
on Administration
of Weather
Modification” on
March 13, 2002
Weather modification history
in China

♦ 50 years Since 1958


Responsibilities of China
Meteorological Administration (CMA)
in weather modification activities

• to organize, coordinate and guide the


weather modification activities including
operation, demonstration and research
programs throughout the country
Weather modification activities
in China

♦ organized by local governments


♦ operated by local meteorological
services
Weather modification activities
in China In 2005
• 1,952 counties of 31 provinces carrying out
precipitation enhancement and hail suppression
by using artilleries and rocket launchers on
ground
• 21 provinces carrying out precipitation
enhancement by using 37 airplanes equipped
with AgI, dry ice or liquid nitrogen generators
and PMS probes.
Weather modification facilities
in China In 2005

7,071 “37”
artilleries

34 specialized
airplanes
4,687
rocket
launchers
Weather modification people
in China In 2005
Over 37,210
full-time and
part-time
people
Weather modification consumes
in China In 2005

996,720 artillery shells 84,416 rockets

11,820 Kg
676 Kg AgI
(silver iodide)
liquid CO2
9,760 litres (carbon dioxide)
liquid nitrogen
Weather modification benefit
in China In 2005

Total Investment 494.53M RMB


(US$ 63.4M)

Total Benefit 13.34B RMB


(US$ 1.71B)

Ratio (I/B) 1:27


No effect on environment
National Standard of safety Ag+
concentration in water:
0.05 mg/L
Observation of Ag+ concentration in rain
after cloud seeding with AgI in China:

< 0.0002mg/L
2.2 New-Generation Doppler
Weather Radar Project
z New-generation Doppler weather radar
(CINRAD) observation network
– Objective: 158 new radars
– 110 radars has been in use so far
zRealizing operation condition and
potential and commanding WM
operation rely much on radar
observation
New-Generation Weather Radar Network
(158)
New Generation Doppler Radar Network

110
2.3 Precipitation enhancement
Purposes of precipitation enhancement:
♦ for water-store-up of the main
reservoirs and the river basins
♦ for fighting drought
♦ for forest and grass fire control
♦ for environmental improvement
♦ ……
Facilities for precipitation enhancement:
♦ Specialized airplanes
♦ “37” artilleries
♦ Rocket launchers
♦ Ground-based AgI generators

……
Cheyenne IIIA
An-26 Airplane
Yun-12 Airplane
Yun-8 Airplane
Yun-7 Airplane
MA-60 Airplane
Twin Otter Airplane
IL-14 Airplane
Pyrotechnics for cloud seeding
Pyrotechnics for cloud seeding
AgI flare launcher and flame
AgI flare launcher and flame
AgI flare launcher
Ground operation
“37” artillery
“37” artillery
♦ The artillery shoots a shell to reach a
maximum height of 6,000 meters.
♦ Each shell contains 1 or 4 grams of
AgI which would produce 1010⎯4×1010
ice nuclei at -4oC.
Rocket launcher (new)
Rocket launcher (new)
Rocket launcher (new)
Rocket launcher (new)

Rockets
♦ The maximum flying height of a
rocket is about 8,000m.
♦ A rocket contains 8 grams of AgI
with a production of approximately
1011 ice nuclei.
2.4 Hail Suppression
♦ Only “37” artilleries and rocket launchers are
used in hail suppression operations in China,
which is mainly based on the introduction of
competing embryos.
♦ Some experiments showed that the height
and temperature of 45db radar-echo contour
were the good indicators for the occurrence of
a hailstorm.
2.5 Fog dispersal
♦ Experiments and operations that dissipate
supercooled fog by seeding with ice-forming
agents have been conducted at some airports
and highways in the northern China.
♦ The experiments that dissipate warm fog by
heating and evaporating cloud droplets were
carried out at the Chendu Airport, located in
southwest of China.
2.6 Lightening suppression

♦ The experiments of lightening suppression


were carried out at Pingliang, Gansu Province
in the western China by launching small
Robert which pulled grounding slender lead to
trigger lightening in thunderstorms.
♦ The positive results of the experiments
were confirmed by the numerical simulations.
3. Recent Studies on Weather
Modification in China
3.1 The “tenth five-year” project

The Demonstration of Precipitation


Enhancement Techniques
2001-2005
A national key research project sponsored and funded
by the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology

research fund: 10.5M RMB (USD$1.35M)


Main Goal

Comprehensive Investigate Investigate Develop


detecting regional cloud- evaluation catalyzing
techniques water resource techniques techniques

Demonstrating experiment

Establish a comprehensive techniques for


precipitation enhancement
Main Work & Results
z Develop and integrate comprehensive
detecting techniques for precipitation
augment
z Investigate regional cloud-water resource
and its potential of precipitation
enhancement
z Develop numerical models for precipitation
enhancement simulation
z Develop catalyzing techniques for
precipitation enhancement
z Investigate statistical and physical
evaluation techniques for effectiveness of
cloud seeding
z Carry out field experiments for precipitation
enhancement in the demonstration regions
z Integrate comprehensive techniques to set
up a demonstration system for precipitation
enhancement
(1) Refitting a specialized aircraft for observation
and cloud-seeding, integrating aircraft-based
detecting system, and realizing real-time aircraft-
ground data transmission.
Microwave radiometer

OAP-2DP
FSSP-100
AgI generator
OAP-2DC

Yun-12 Aircraft
Vertical distribution of cloud droplet concentration, diameter, LWC in a
stratiform cloud from FSSP-ER

Snow crystal image observed by 2D-P


98 cases data
about cloud and
precipitation
structure were
obtained through
15 field experiment
The vehicle-loading 5-cm Doppler weather radar

Transmitter
& Receiver Operation
Generator system
(2) Developing satellite retrieval technique for
cloud physics parameter and unmanned aircraft
observation and cloud seeding
40.5 40.5

40 40

39.5 39.5

39 39

115 115.5 116 116.5 117 117.5 118 115 115.5 116 116.5 117 117.5 118

Cloud droplet effective radius retrieval

unmanned aircraft Cloud droplet imager


(3) Developing an assessment technique to evaluate
regional cloud-water resources and its potential for
precipitation enhancement under different cloud
conditions in the demonstrated areas
冰相层 70

70
( a) zztrigx1-1h
混合层
zztrigx2-1h
( b) 冰相层
nytrigx1-1h
nytrigx2-1h
60 混合层
zztrigx3-1h
60 液水层 nytrigx3-1h
液水层
50
50
40

(% )
40
(% )

30
30

20
20

10
10

0
0

9:00 11:00 13:00 15:00 17:00 19:00 21:00 23:00 1:00 4:00 6:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 20:00 22:00 0:00 2:00
Time Time

Time variation of contribution to the ground hourly rain by that


from ice layer, mix layer and liquid water layer in Zhengzhou and
Nanyang on 19-20 Oct. 2002
Cloud
图 2.7. 2005 年 6 月 25 日 12UTC 评估的垂直 图 2.8. 2005 年 6 月 25 日 12UTC 增

积分的云水量分布(.单位:kg/m2) 雨潜力指数的水平分布
precipitation
potential in
Beijing on
25-26 June

图 2.9. 2005 年 6 月 25 日 12UTC 凝结水 图 2.10. 2005 年 6 月 25 日 12UTC 6 小时


降水效率的水平分布(模式) 凝结水降水量的水平分布(观测+模式)
(4) Setting up concept model of precipitation
enhancement under main cloud system in
demonstration

Concept model of precipitation enhancement


under cold whorl cloud system in Beijing
Concept model of precipitation enhancement
under cold front cloud system in Henan
(5) Developing several numerical models including a
non-hydrostatic cloud model with the considerations
of explicit cloud and precipitation processes and cloud
seeding, an improved cloud model with bin
microphysics, and improved convective and stratus
cloud models.
Using these numerical models to assess regional
cloud-water resource and its potential for precipitation
enhancement, and cloud-seeding effectiveness.
Simplified Ice Scheme in CAMS Model

Vapor Qv
Condensation /
Evaporation
Condensation / Nucleation
Evaporation
Sublimation /
Evaporation

Cloud water T>0℃ Auto Rain water T>0℃


conversation
Supercooled water T< 0℃ Collision Ice or Graupel T< 0℃
Falling

Multiplication/Freezing Melting &


Falling
Complex Mixed Cloud Scheme
Qv
Condensation / Condensation /
Evaporation Evaporation

Collision/Conversion
Sublimation /
Evaporation
Qc Qr,Nr Sublimation /
Sublimation / Evaporation
Evaporation
Collision/Freezing Collision/Freezing
Multiplication
Nucleation

Qi,Ni Conversion/ Qs,Ns Conversion/ Qg,Ng


Collision
Collision
Initial Field in Convective Cloud Model

Output
Outputof
ofMM5
MM5
Adjusting initial field of
vapor & hydrometeor Initial
Initialfield
field
of
of
convective
convective
cloud
cloud
Observation model
Observationofofweather
weather model
radar
radar&&raingauges
raingauges

Motion,continuity
Motion,continuity Calculating
Calculatingpress.
press.&&
equations, temp.
temp.disturbance
equations,&&radar
radarobserv.
observ. disturbance
Simulation of AgI seeding on the ground and its diffusion
and transportation in the cloud (Beijing, 25 June 2005)
(6) Developing airborne AgI flame, unmanned
aircraft, airborne generator of liquid CO2 etc.

Airborne AgI flame


Unmanned aircraft and AgI flame
(7) Developing new prescription of AgI-explosive mixture
of artillery shells and rockets to get high seeding rate
0#与1#的比较 0#与4#的比较

1.E+14 1.E+14

1.E+13 1.E+13

1.E+12 1.E+12

Several times

成核率(个/克AgI)

成核率(个/克AgI)
1.E+11 1.E+11

1.E+10 1.E+10

improved 1.E+09 1.E+09

nucleus-making 1.E+08

1.E+07
1.E+08

1.E+07

rate for 3# 1.E+06


5 10
温度(℃)
15 20
1.E+06
5 10
温度(℃)
15 20

prescription 1.E+14
0#与2#的比较

1.E+14
0#与3#的比较

1.E+13 1.E+13

1.E+12 1.E+12
成核率(个/克AgI)

成核率(个/克AgI)
1.E+11 1.E+11

1.E+10 1.E+10

1.E+09 1.E+09

1.E+08 1.E+08

1.E+07 1.E+07

1.E+06 1.E+06
5 10 15 20 5 10 15 20
温度(℃) 温度(℃)
Explosion experiment for 3# prescription shell
Developing a cloud chamber for measuring
ice nuclei in the field
(8) Forming optimized cloud seeding scheme by
field test for various cloud seeding facilities

外挂式AgI焰
外挂式AgI丙酮
弹发射架 仓贮式液氮
燃烧发生器
喷撒出口
(9) Improving statistical test technique to
be fitted to the demonstrating areas, and
developing a comprehensive technique
combining statistical, physical and
numerical simulation methods.
1/m3 1/m3

0.00E+00
5.00E+07
1.00E+08
1.50E+08

0. 00E+00
1. 00E+07
2. 00E+07
3. 00E+07
4. 00E+07
16:36:41 16:15:51
16:36:57 16:16:07
16:37:16 16:16:26
16:37:32 16:16:42
16:37:51 16:17:01

(作业前)
(作业前)

16:38:07 16:17:17
time

t i me
16:38:26 16:17:36
16:38:42 before cloud seeding 16:17:52
16:39:01 16:18:11
PMS20050321-2 FSSP0-数浓度-4200m高度平飞

PMS20050321-2 FSSP0-数浓度-5000m高度平飞
16:39:17 16:18:27
16:39:36 16:18:46
16:39:52

1/m3 1/m3
0. 00E+00
1. 00E+07
2. 00E+07
3. 00E+07
4. 00E+07

0. 00E+00
5. 00E+06
1. 00E+07
1. 50E+07

17:11:32 16:20:17
17:12:17 16:21:21
17:13:02 16:22:22
17:13:47 16:23:26
17:14:32 16:24:27
17:15:17 16:25:31
( 作业前)

17:16:02 16:26:32
再次平飞(作业后)

t i me
t i me

16:27:36
FSSP numeral concentrations of particles

17:16:47
17:17:32 16:28:37
17:18:17 16:29:41
after cloud seeding

17:19:02 16:30:42
PMS20050321-2 FSSP0- 数浓度-4200m高度
PMS20050321- 2 FSSP0- 数浓度- 4500m高度平飞

17:19:47 16:31:46
17:20:32 16:32:47
17:21:17 16:33:51
g/m3 g/m3

0
0. 05
0. 1
0. 15

0
0. 05
0. 1
0. 15
0. 2
16:36:41 16:15:51
16:36:52 16:16:06

16:37:06 16:16:21

16:37:17 16:16:36

16:37:31 16:16:51

16:37:42 16:17:06
( 作业前)

(作业前)
16:17:21
16:37:56 t i me

t i me
16:17:36
16:38:07
16:17:51
16:38:21
before cloud seeding
16:18:06
16:38:32
16:18:21
16:38:46
PMS20050321- 2 FSSP0- 液水量- 4200m高度平飞

PMS20050321-2 FSSP0-含水量-5000m高度平飞

16:18:36
16:38:57
16:18:51
16:39:11

g/m3 g/m3
0
0. 05
0. 1
0. 15
0. 2

0
0. 02
0. 04
0. 06
0. 08
0. 1

17:11:32 16:20:17
17:12:12 16:21:16
17:12:52 16:22:12
17:13:32 16:23:11
17:14:12 16:24:07
17:14:52 16:25:06
17:15:32 16:26:02
(作业前)

17:16:12 16:27:01
t i me

t i me

16:27:57
再次平飞(作业后)

17:16:52
Liquid water contents calculated by FSSP

17:17:32 16:28:56
17:18:12 16:29:52
17:18:52 16:30:51
PMS20050321-2 FSSP0- 含水量-4200m高度

after cloud seeding

17:19:32 16:31:47
PMS20050321-2 FSSP0- 液水量-4500m高度平飞

17:20:12 16:32:46
17:20:52 16:33:42
um
um

0
10
20
30
40
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
16:36:41
16:15:51
16:36:56
16:16:07
16:37:11 16:16:26
16:37:26 16:16:42
16:37:41 16:17:01
16:37:56 16:17:17

t i me
t i me 16:17:36

(作业前)
16:38:11
(作业前)

16:38:26 before cloud seeding 16:17:52


16:18:11
16:38:41
16:18:27
16:38:56
16:18:46
16:39:11
PMS20050321-2 FSSP0-平均直径-5000m高度平飞
PMS20050321-2 FSSP0- 平均直径-4200m高度平飞

系列3
系列2
系列1
系列3
系列2
系列1

um um
0
10
20
30
40

0
10
20
30
40

17:11:32 16:20:17
17:12:21 16:21:26
17:13:07 16:22:32
17:13:56 16:23:41
17:14:42 16:24:47
17:15:31 16:25:56
17:16:17 16:27:02
t i me

t i me

17:17:06 16:28:11
(作业前)

17:17:52 16:29:17
再次平飞(作业后)

17:18:41 16:30:26
17:19:27 16:31:32
17:20:16 16:32:41
after cloud seeding

17:21:02 16:33:47
Average diameter of particles measured by FSSP

PMS20050321-2 FSSP0- 平均直径-4200m高度


PMS20050321-2 FSSP0- 平均直径-4500m高度平飞

系列3
系列2
系列1

系列3
系列2
系列1
FSSP-0 numeral concentration and calculated CLW
HN20050321-2 FSSP0 unseeded HN20050321-2 FSSP0 unseeded
Concentration(4200m) seeded Calculated LWC(4200m) seeded
1.E+07 0.0150

8.E+06

Calculated LWC(g/m3)
0.0120
N(1/m3)

6.E+06 0.0090
4.E+06 0.0060
2.E+06
0.0030
0.E+00
0.0000
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1112 13 1415 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

channels channels

unseeded unseeded
HN20050321-2 FSSP0 HN20050321-2 FSSP0
seeded-3min later seeded-3min later
Calculated LWC (5000m)
Concentration(5000m) seeded-10min later
seeded-10min later
0.0080
2.E+06
0.0060

LWC(g/m3)
N(1/m3)

Calculated
1.E+06 0.0040

0.0020
0.E+00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 0.0000
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15
channels channels
FSSP 2000000

1800000
自然云5060m
numeral concentration 1600000
催化云5060m
and calculated CLW 1400000

FSSP0浓度( cm- 3)
1200000

1000000

800000

16:36-16:49 unseeded 600000

400000

16:49-17:09 seeded 200000

0
0 10 20 30 40 50
直径( um)
0. 008

0. 007

0. 006
FSSP0含水量( g m- 3)

0. 005

0. 004

0. 003

0. 002 自然云5060m
催化云5060m
0. 001

0
0 10 20 30 40 50
直径( um)
HN20050321-2 FSSP0 unseeded
FSSP-0 Average diameter (4200m) seeded

30
Average diameter
25

diameter(um)
20

15

10

0
MND RMD VMD

unseeded
HN20050321-2 FSSP0
seeded-3min later
Average diameter (5000m)
seeded-10min later
35

30

25
diameter(um)

20

15

10

0
MND RMD VMD
2DC images and spectrums of concentration and calculated CLW

16:16 16:26

16:57 17:02
Comparison between seeding area (A) and comparing
areas (C1, C2) of radar echo and echo area
2000

1800 35dBZ 作业区


1600

1400

1200 C1_35dbz
Area(km2)

A_35dbz
1000 C2_35dbz
800

600

400
对比区
200
作业起始时间
0
11:00 11:16 11:30 11:45 12:00 12:16 12:34 12:46
C1
time

C2
(10) Integrating comprehensive
techniques and demonstration system
for precipitation enhancement and
notably improved ability of precipitation
enhancement in demonstration areas
Technical Integration
Cloud water Numerical Seeding
Detection Evaluation
resource simulation technique

Demonstration Platform

Database Forecast

Application
甘肃

Demonstration and application

飞机集中探测区 青海
天气雷达(3部)
探空站(2个)
雨量点(22个)
闪电监测点(3站)
风廓线仪(1部)
雨滴谱观测点(1个)
GPS水汽监测站(8个)
无人飞机(1架)
3.2 The “eleventh five-year” project

Key Technology and Equipment Research


and Development on Weather Modification

2006-2010
A national key research project sponsored and funded
by the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology

research fund: 25M RMB (USD$3.21M)


Seven Subprograms
1. Study on cloud and precipitation structure
and process
2. Study on precipitation enhancement
techniques for cumulus-stratiform mixed
cloud
3. Study on precipitation enhancement
techniques for warm cloud
4. Study on fog dispersion techniques around
Beijing area
5. Study on cloud seeding techniques by
unmanned aircraft
6. Study and develop equipment for
precipitation enhancement and fog
dispersion
7. Integration and demonstration on
comprehensive precipitation enhancement
techniques
4. Successful cases on precipitation
enhancement in Cuba in July 2006
Crocodile Island — CUBA
Holguin province of Cuba

Easten five provinces of Cuba


Topography of easten five provinces and
Holguin Province of Cuba
Las Tunas
Holguin
9300.5 km2
Grupo
Maniabón

Sierra Cristal

Sagua
Baracoa

Granma Guantánamo
Santiago
de Cuba
Climate of Holguin Province of Cuba
Coastal area
Tm: 24.4 – 28.4
Rm: 600 – 800 Tropical
mm Húmedo

Mountain area
Tm: 19.1 –
23.4
Rm: > 3000
mm

Interior area
Tm: 22.8 – 27.1
Rm: 1200 – 1600
mm
150 Km
Radar Location

Ionization Station

Ground Generator
100 Km
Principal Target Zone

50 Km
An-26 aircraft
Launcher
and flares
from China
Launcher and flares from China
Date Cloud Flare Time of Seeding Observation
Flight Flight
1-Jul 1:05 Flight over Target area
3-Jul 8 62 2:30 1
4-Jul 15 106 1:55 1
5-Jul Cancel by Meteorological situation (wave)
6-Jul 1:15 Checking for Temperature Sensor
7-Jul Cancel by Meteorological situation (hight pressure)
8-Jul 11 75 1:55 1
9-Jul 11 105 2:00 1
10-Jul 13 96 2:15 1
11-Jul 11 99 1:50 1
12-Jul 6 89 1:50 1
13-Jul Cancel for maintenance of airplane
14-Jul Cancel for maintenance of airplane
15-Jul Cancel for maintenance of airplane
16-Jul 11 95 1:45 1
17-Jul Cancel for maintenance of left launcher
18-Jul 10 99 1:35 1
19-Jul 1:10 Cancel in flight for Aerogaviota company
20-Jul 0:20 Cancel in flight for problem with an engine
21-Jul 12 96 1:45 1
22-Jul 15 121 2:00 1
23-Jul 12 94 1:45 1
24-Jul Holliday
25-Jul Holliday
26-Jul Holliday
27-Jul Cancel for airplane missing
28-Jul 10 96 4:35 1
29-Jul Cancel by Meteorological situation (hight pressure)
30-Jul Cancel for maintenance
31-Jul 9 64 1:35 1
Total-> 154 1297 33:05:00 14
Satelite_Vapor_Jul_04_10am
July 04
Cloud Seeding (black circ le)
Dams (blue square)

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130


Rain compare in July
Municipality Sum July this History From 1 History 1
year Average in January to 31 January to
whole July July this year 31 July
Holguín City 208 87 787 579
+121 +208

Gibara 143 79 621 532


+64 +89

AVERAGE 133 77 649 635


PROVINCE +56 +14
Compare of water in reservoirs in July 2006
(Hm3 = million of cubic meters )

reservoir Volume total Volume Actual


(Hm3) (Hm3)
Cacoyuguin 5.620 5.620
Güirabo 15.200 15.200
Gibara 65.600 20.626
Tacajó 12.000 8.043
Naranjo 11.650 3.956
TOTAL 568.238 436.077
PROVINCE
5. Prize on weather modification
we won in 2006
Awarded by United Arab Emirates
Awarded by China Meteorological
Administration
Awarded by Cuba

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