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Preface

This is our 9th edition of Yojana Gist released for the month of December, 2015 on Climate Change

and related issues. Yet the message delivered in the last edition remains the same. Yojana
magazine (released by Ministry of I&B) is increasingly finding a place in the questions of
both UPSC Prelims and Mains.

Every Issue of Yojana deals with a single topic comprehensively sharing views from a wide
spectrum ranging from academicians to policy makers to scholars. The magazine is essential
to build an in-depth understanding of various socio-economic issues.

From the exam point of view, however, not all articles are important. Some go into scholarly
depths and others discuss agendas that are not relevant for your preparation. Added to this
is the difficulty of going through a large volume of information, facts and analysis to finally
extract their essence that may be useful for the exam.

We are not discouraging from reading the magazine itself. So, do not take this as a
document which you take, read, remember and reproduce in the examination. Its only
purpose is to equip you with the right understanding. But, if you do not have enough time to
go through each and every Yojana magazine, you can rely on the content provided here for
it sums up the most essential points from all the articles in Yojana.

You need not put hours and hours in reading Yojana and making its notes in pages. We
believe, a smart study, rather than hard study, of Yojana can improve your preparation
levels.

Think, learn, practice and keep improving! That is the key to success

Climate Change

Source: http://tunza.eco-generation.org/resourcesView.jsp?boardID=climateChange&viewID=827

Source:vox.com

Responsible Steps taken by India:


Prepared National Action Plan on Climate Change + State-wise Plan
Energy efficiency + Sustaining Himalayan Ecosystem + Forests + Water &
Air + Strategic Knowledge build-up for Climate change
Target of generating 20,000 MW of solar power by 2020 out of which
achieved almost about 1200 mw
Voluntary commitment of reducing emission intensity of GDP by 20-25%
by 2020
Adaptive Mechanism: Agriculture (Organic Farming + Watershed
management)
BEE Ratings: For electrical appliances- To understand the increase in the
bill and thus, buy less energy consuming appliances
Bharat IV Emissions + Wind energy generation- Govt. offers concessions
to companies who establish wind farms
Set up of largest Solar pond- Bhuj, Rajasthan
Experimental Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Plant- Kerela

National Biofuel Policy- Biofuels will be grown on non-agricultural land


using Jatropha

National Clean Energy Fund (NCEF): India has taken a number of


concrete steps to enable the transition towards a cleaner environment
and NCEF is one of the major initiatives taken, to provide an impetus for
the development of clean energy
Introduced in the 2010-2011 budget
Objective: Funding research and innovative projects in clean energy
technologies
National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency (NMEEE) The key
focus for government action for energy efficiency and is divided into four
components:
Perform, Achieve and Trade (PAT): A scheme for trading in energy
efficiency certificates; mandatory for all large industrial units and
facilities in thermal power, aluminum, cement, fertilizers, chlor-alkali,
steel, paper and pulp, and textiles

Energy Efficiency Financing Platform


Market Transformation for Energy Efficiency
Framework for Energy Efficient Economic Development

Source:shaktifoundation.in

www.dailymail.co.uk

Source: www.climateeye.com

Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs)

Under the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), countries


across the globe, committed to create a new international climate agreement by
the conclusion of the Paris Climate Summit in December 2015, by publicly outlining
the actions they intend to take, to counter climate change from their end.

Estimated Emission: The total carbon dioxide emissions expected after the
reduction from these commitments amounts to 750 billion tonnes until 2030 i.e., if
the budget for the future is 1,000 billion tonnes for the next 80 years, 75 per cent
would be consumed in only the first 15.

Indias INDCs:
Overall1. Maintains ambition in emissions intensity reduction (35% should be achievable) but
balances it with the significant need for adaptation
2. Expanded its already aggressive renewable energy and non-fossil energy targets
(four fold increase in absolute terms)
3. Call for global technology partnerships, particularly on clean coal and energy storage
that should be inclusive in membership, targeted for outcomes and innovative in
terms of co-development and co-ownership of intellectual property

Enhancing Forest Carbon Sinks


Full implementation of Green India Mission

Launched Green Highways Policy: 140,000 km long tree-line along both sides of
national highways. 1% of project cost to be earmarked for plantation
Plantation along Rivers: Part of the Namami Gange

Mission

Finance Commission (FC) Incentive for creation of carbon sink: Devolution of funds
to states from federal pool (attaches 7.5 % weight to area under forest)
Reduction in consumption of wood/ biomass as fuel
Funds from Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority
(CAMPA): USD 6 billion proposed to be given to States
Other Policies including:
REDD-plus
National Agro-forestry Policy (NAP)
Joint Forest Management
National Afforestation Programme

Increase the Share of Non Fossil Fuel Based Electricity


Goal:
To achieve 40% of electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel by 2030
A jump of 33% over non-fossil fuel capacity of 2015
India running one of the largest renewable capacity expansion programs in world
The 175 GW target by 2022 will result in abatement of 326 million tons of CO2
equivalent/year. More progress after 2022.
To include wind power, solar, hydropower, biomass, waste to energy and nuclear

power.
Solarization of all petrol pumps, toll plazas across country

Ongoing scheme for development of

25 Solar Parks
Ultra-Mega Solar Power Projects
Canal top solar projects
One hundred thousand solar pumps for farmers

India to anchor a global solar alliance


New missions on wind energy and waste to energy
Green Energy Corridor projects being rolled out to ensure evacuation from renewable
energy plants

Increase its share in renewable energy


To 40% in installed capacity by 2030

For socio-economic development and economic growth

Definite Correlation: Access to energy on one hand and educational attainment and
literacy on the other

Renewable Energy- Mainstay of an effective Climate change Mitigation Strategy

NAPCC:

Lays special emphasis on energy efficiency & renewable energy

Goal of 15% of total electricity to come from renewable energy by 2020

Solar and Wind energy will increase from current 4060 MW and 23.76 GW in 2015 to
100 GW and 60 GW by 2022 respectively and an increase even after that.

It is envisaged to increase biomass installed capacity to 10 GW by 2022 from current


capacity of 4.4 GW.

Special programmes to promote small and mini hydel projects, new and efficient
designs of water mills have been introduced for electrification of remote villages and
will continue to be promoted.

Nuclear energy will be promoted from the current capacity of 5780 MW to 63 GW


installed capacity by the year 2032, if supply of fuel is ensured.

Clean coal will be promoted by increasing the efficiency standards and old inefficient
thermal stations will be assigned mandatory targets for improving energy efficiency

Courtesy- https://factly.in/understanding-india-climate-change-national-action-plan-indc/

Climate Change & Equity


Geopolitics of Climate Change
Developed Countries:

Biggest emitters of CO2


Come under the Common but Differentiated principle (CBDR)- Possesses a larger
responsibility for responsible action to allow developing countries to:
Improve energy access
Grow economically and sustainably

Developing Countries:

Possesses poor technologies Burning of fuel inefficiently


Blamed for climate impacts and pushed for tougher climate action
Eg: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) report in 2002 highlighted
about "Asian brown cloud"
(Conspiracy to shift blames; later termed as Atmospheric Brown Cloud)
Pollutants and particles from biomass burning and industrial emissions had
formed a three-kilometre-thick brownish layer over many regions in Asia
Pollution build-up and disruption in rainfall and wind pattern
10 per cent reduction in solar energy causing a corresponding decrease in the
evaporation of moisture that controls summer rainfall

Emission Reduction:
Needs to be taken seriously

Will lead to abrupt patterns of rainfall and drought


Agriculture & livelihood of people will suffer
More poverty traps & difficulty in eradication of the same Stand to lose
developmental gains

Limited Carbon Space

Will get exhausted if used at the present rate by countries like USA and China
Post 2030, if it continues, developing countries might not get enough time to
leverage their economic standing and might have to go for emergency cutting of
emissions
Widened the Trust-gap

The Carbon Budget Aproach


Idea- Treating the Earth as 'Global Commons' (in terms of carbon)
Calculation of Cumulative emissions of relevant quality- Provides insights into how much
emission is globally allowed
Depends- On the probability that the given quantum of cumulative emissions would not
lead to a temperature increase exceeding 2 deg Celsius (limit of the world as a whole)
INDC/Country- A claim on the remaining carbon budget
Need for a long-term goal (INDC)- Will not have an adequate carbon budget available in the
near future; Over-occupation of carbon space by the developed countries might leave no
space for the developing countries

Source:adb.org

Climate Change & Agriculture


Agriculture represents a core part of the Indian economy and provides food and livelihood
activities to much of the Indian population. While the magnitude of impact varies greatly by
region, climate change is expected to impact on agricultural productivity and shifting crop
patterns.
One of the main driving forces in gas emissions and land use effects; contributes to
greenhouse gas increases through land use in different ways:

CO2 emissions linked to deforestation in temperate regions: where forests and


woodlands are cleared to make room for fields and pastures.
Methane emissions from rice cultivation and enteric fermentation in cattle
Nitrous oxide emissions from fertilizer applications

Predicted effects of climate change on agriculture over the next 50 years


Climatic element

Expected
2050's

changes

by Confidence
Effects on agriculture
in prediction

CO2

Increase from 360 ppm to


450 - 600 ppm (2005 levels Very high
now at 379 ppm)

Good for crops: increased


photosynthesis; reduced
water use

Sea level rise

Rise by 10 -15 cm
Increased in south and
Very high
offset in north by natural
subsistence/rebound

Loss of land, coastal


erosion,
flooding,
salinisation of groundwater

Rise by 1-2 C. Winters


warming
more
than
High
summers.
Increased
frequency of heat waves

Faster, shorter, earlier


growing seasons, range
moving north and to higher
altitudes, heat stress risk,
increased
evapotranspiration

Precipitation

Seasonal changes by 10% Low

Impacts on drought risk'


soil workability, water
logging irrigation supply,
transpiration

Storminess

Increased wind speeds,


especially in north. More Very low
intense rainfall events.

Lodging,
reduced
rainfall

Variability

Increases
climatic

Changing risk of damaging


events (heat waves, frost,

Temperature

across most
Very low
variables.

soil
erosion,
infiltration of

Predictions uncertain

droughts floods) which


effect crops and timing of
farm operations

Source: Climate change and Agriculture, MAFF (2000)

Observed Impacts

Kharif crops to be impacted more by rainfall variability while rabi crops by minimum
temperature

Wheat is likely to be negatively impacted in rabi due to terminal heat stress

Rice in the IGP to be impacted both by temperature and water availability

Legume crops like soybean and groundnut are likely to be benefited due to increased
temperature/CO2 if water availability is not limited

Milk yield in livestock to be impacted during heat waves

Changes in breeding season in marine fisheries with shift in seasonal catch

Significant negative impact on commercial poultry due to heat stress

More opportunities for rain water harvesting due to high intensity rainfall but
greater loss of top soil due to erosion

Models used to predict climate change impacts on agriculture

INFOCROP- A generic growth model for various crops was developed by IARI for
optimal resource and agronomic management options

INFOCANE- A simple sugarcane growth model, was developed by IARI to measure


effects on cane yield

Simple tea and coconut models were developed for tropical India and Sri Lanka

Pest damage mechanisms were coupled with INFOCROP for simulating the effect of
pests (impact of climate change and its variability on incidence of pests for various
crops)

Interaction effects of climate changes (temperature rise, rainfall and radiation


changes), with irrigation and nitrogen amounts, and agronomic management
practices were established for various agro-ecologies- Used to calculate the actual

impact of climate change on agricultural production as well for suggesting agro- and
resource management options for sustaining production in India

Policy implications of these predictions


The policy implications for climate change impacts in agriculture are multi-disciplinary, and
include possible adaptations to:
Food security policy: To account for changing crop yields (increasing in some areas and
decreasing in others) as well as shifting boundaries for crops, and the impact that this can
have on food supply
Trade policy: Changes in certain crops can affect imports/exports, depending on the crop
Livelihoods: With agriculture contributing significantly to GNP, it is critical that policy
addresses

Issues of loss of livelihood with changes in crops,

The need to shift some regions to new crops, and

The associated skills training required.

Water policy: Because impacts vary significantly according to whether crops are rain fed or
irrigated, water policy will need to consider the implications for water demand of
agricultural change due to climate change.
Adaptive measures: Need to consider adaptive measures to cope with changing agricultural
patterns. Certain measures may include:

Introduction of the use of alternative crops,

Changes to cropping patterns, and

Promotion of water conservation and irrigation techniques

Case Study: Heat Wave in AP,2003


Continuous higher temperatures during critical growth stages of rabi crops
reduced the crop yields considerably
Livestock
Heat wave led to a reduce in milk yield by 1030% in first lactation and 520% in
second and third lactation periods in cattle and buffaloes
Affects the growth , puberty and maturity of crossbreed of cows and buffaloes
Fish:

Mortality of fish in shallow water ponds


Reduction in fish catch in the water bodies due to movement of fish into the deeper
layers

GIAHS

To safeguard and support the worlds agri-cultural heritage systems

By: FAO in 2002

Promotes public understanding, awareness, national and international recognition


of Agricultural Heritage systems

Safeguard- the social, cultural, economic and environmental goods and services
these provide to family farmers, smallholders, indigenous peoples and local
communities

Foster an integrated approach combining sustainable agriculture and rural


development

Document indigenous knowledge

Pokkali Rice

Synonymous with organic paddy

Unique saline-tolerant rice variety organically cultivated in the water-logged coastal


regions

Regions: Alappuzha, Thrissur and Ernakulam districts of Kerala

Had received a geographical indication registration in 2008

Decline in acreage:

High labour costs,

Lack of suitable machinery available for farming due to heavy clay content,

Heavy reliance on manual labour (costly as well as climate dependent)

Source:www.vox.com

Source:www.thequint.com

Climate Change and Sustainable Development


What is Sustainable Development?
The World Commission on Environment and Development aka Brundtland Commission
defined Sustainable Development as a process that meets the needs of the present
generation without compromising over the ability of future generations to meet their own
needs. It was formally accepted in the UN Conference on Environment and Development
held in Rio in 1992, popularly known as the Earth Summit.
The two major international initiatives of this decade targeting biodiversity management as
a means of meeting the challenges posed by global climate change and a poor state of
human well-being in developing countries are:
1. International Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES)
2. UN-Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing
countries (UN-REDD)

Importance of Himalayas and the need for its protection


1. Himalayan mountain region is one of the 34 global biodiversity hotspots
2. It is part of one of the eight centres of crop diversity and thus harbours biological
resources with potential benefits to the global community
3. It stores the highest ice mass next to polar regions, feeding the mighty rivers like
Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Mekong, supporting the livelihoods of millions of
poor people.
4. It is covered by partly/fully eight developing countries (viz., Afghanistan, Bangladesh,
India, Nepal, China, Bhutan and Myanmar) where climate change
mitigation/adaption and biodiversity conservation need to be coupled with socioeconomic development of local people for ensuring sustainable flow of global
benefits from it, i.e. harmonization of the priorities for socio-economic development
stressed by the local people and environmental conservation by the developed
world.
Responding to the global importance of Himalayas, India has drawn a National Mission on
Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem as part of the National Action Plan on Climate
Change.

The Eight Millennium Development Goals (2000-2015) vs The Seventeen Sustainable


Development Goals (2015-2030)
MILLENNIUM DEVELOPEMNT GOALS (2000- SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS (20152015)
2030)
1. Reduce extreme hunger and poverty

1. End Poverty
2. End hunger

2. Achieve universal primary education

4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality


education

3. Promote gender equality and empower


women
5. Achieve gender equality
10. Reduce inequality within and among
countries

4. reduce child mortality

3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well


being

5. Improve maternal health


6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other
diseases

7. Ensure environmental sustainability

6. Ensure availability and sustainable


management of water and sanitation for all
7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable,
sustainable and modern energy for all
8. Promote sustained, inclusive, and
sustainable economic growth, full and
productive employment, and decent work
for all
9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote
inclusive and sustainable industrialisation,
foster innovation
11. Make cities and human settlements

inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable


12. Ensure sustainable consumption and
production patterns
13. take urgent action to combat climate
change and its impacts (taking note of
agreements made by the UNFCCC forum)
14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans,
seas and marine resources for sustainable
development

8. Promote global partnership

15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable


use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably
manage forests, combat desertification and
halt and reverse land degradation and halt
biodiversity loss
16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies
for sustainable development, provide access
to justice for all and build effective,
accountable and inclusive institutions at all
levels
17. Strengthen the means of implementation
and revitalise the global partnership for
sustainable development

What strategies can India adopt to insulate lives and livelihoods from the
adverse impact of unfavourable climate?
Adaptation Strategies

Our strategy should be to maximise the production benefits of good monsoons and
minimise the adverse impact of climate change.
The action plans for adaptation and mitigation have to be local.
We will have to establish at the Panchayat level, Climate Risk Management Centres
and train a cadre of Community Climate Risk Managers.

Farming systems for adaptation to climate change will have to be designed by ICAR,
Agricultural Universities and Krishi Vigyan Kendras and popularised through local
men and women trained to become Climate Risk Managers.
There will be a need for anticipatory research in several areas of farming which will
need change.
Urgent action is needed in the conservation of Climate Smart Millets and their
reintroduction in the diet. Millets and other underutilised crops are more tolerant to
drought and heat and are also nutritious.
Another area which will require anticipatory attention is the preparation for more
frequent floods and hailstorms.
The mangrove forests along the 7500kms of shoreline should be conserved and their
area be increased. Mangroves serve as bio-shields.
Nearly 97 per cent of the global water resource is sea water. There is scope now for
bio-saline farming involving both halophytes (salt tolerant plants) and marine
aquaculture.
The government of Kerala has decided to establish an International Research and
training Centre in Below Sea Level Farming in Kuttanad for the purpose of equipping
coastal communities in the science and art of bio-saline and below sea level
agriculture. Such a Centre will also be of interest to areas like Sunderbans and
countries like Maldives.
The Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) has ceclared the Kuttanad Farming
System as a Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS).
The M S Swaminathan Research Foundation has established in Vedaranyam in Tamil
Nadu, a Genetic Garden of Halophytes in order to conserve halophytes and make
them available to breeders for designing climate smart coastal agricultural methods.
All the programmes relating to climate change adaptation and mitigation must be
gender sensitive by making participation of women.

Mitigation Strategies

Reducing deforestation and promoting Afforestation in a people centred manner will


help to reduce the CO2 burden in the atmosphere.
Methane, which is another GHG, can be used to promote biogas plants. This will help
to both prevent methane accumulation in the atmosphere and at the same time,
provide fuel and fertilizer to the farmer.
Nitrous oxide emissions as a result of fertilizer application can be reduced through
the use of neem coated urea.
In fact, at the local level, the most effective method of contributing to the low
carbon development pathway is the principle a biogas plant, few fertilizer trees
and a farm pond in every farm.

Information technology can be used to provide information to small scale fishermen


data on wave heights from different distances from the shoreline as well as
information on where the fish are.

PRELIMS QUESTIONS
Q.1) Consider the following statements regarding Earth Overshoot Day
1. It is calculated by dividing world capacity by World ecological deficit and multiplying
by 365
2. It is also called as Ecological Debt Day
3. It is calculated by dividing World biocapacity by world Ecological Footprint and
multiplying by 365
Select the correct statement/s
a)
b)
c)
d)

Only 2
1 and 2
1, 2 and 3
2 and 3

Solution (d)

Q.2) Consider the following w.r.t Global Environment Facility (GEF)


1. Global Environment Facility was established in the Rio Summit 1992
2. World Bank and IUCN are implementing partners of GEF
Select the correct statement/s
a)
b)
c)
d)

Only 1
Only 2
Both
None

Solution (c)

Q.3) Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) is an initiative started by


a)
b)
c)
d)

Food and Agriculture Organization


United Nation Environment Programme
United Nations Development Programme
United Nations World Food Programme

Solution (a)

Q.4) According to IPCC AR5 Report


1. The risks to coral reefs increases to very high levels with even a 1 degree C rise in
temperature
2. The risks to crop production reach high levels for most regions and crop till 2 degree
C or higher temperature rise.
Select the correct statement/s
a)
b)
c)
d)

Only 1
Only 2
Both
None

Solution (a)
The risk to crop production does not reach high levels for most regions and crops till 2
degree C or higher temperature rise.

Q.5) Consider the statements w.r.t Global Green House Gases Emissions by Sectors
1. Agriculture contribute more GHG emission as compared to Manufacturing and
Construction sector
2. Land-Use Change and Forestry contributes more GHG emission as compared to
Agriculture
Select the correct statement/s
a)
b)
c)
d)

Only 1
Only 2
Both
None

Solution (a)

Energy Supply- 28%


Agriculture- 14%
Manufacturing- 12%
Land-Use Change and Forestry- 12%