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LT

THE
EIGHTEENTH
of this month The Metropolitan Museum of Art will open an
exhibition that has nothing to do with art in the narrow sense- but everything to do
with this Museum, its evolving role and purpose, what we hope is its emerging position
as a positive, relevant, and regenerative force in modern society. The title of the exhibition is "Harlemon My Mind": The CulturalCapitalof Black America, I9oo-I968.
It is an exhibition that attempts, through photographs, films, television, documentary recordings of sounds and voices, music, and memorabilia, to convey that most
difficult of things, a cultural and historical experience, a total environment - one particular world, in fact, which has been known intimately only to the Black people of
New York City - Harlem. It doesn't interpret or explain. It sticks to the facts, Harlem's
historical events over the past sixty-eight years, its literature, theater, politics, music,
art, and business.Three Blacks and three whites conceived the show and put it on, in
thirteen of the Metropolitan's Special Exhibition Galleries.The Henry Luce Foundation, Inc., acting with imagination and concern, generously underwrote the cost of
the exhibition.
Why The Metropolitan Museum of Art? The question was asked of us right from the
beginning, posed almost as a challenge, and it will, I am sure, continue to be asked.
Let me say first that our Charter, which is almost a hundred years old, enjoined the
Museum to apply itself vigorously not only to the study of the fine arts but to relate
them to "practicallife" as well. "Practical life" in this day can mean nothing less than
involvement, an active and thoughtful participationin the events of our time. For too
long museums have drifted passively away from the center of things, out to the periphery where they play an often brilliant but usually tangential role in the multiple lives
of the nation.
ON

Contents
The Black Artist in
America: A Symposium
ROMARE
SAM

BEARDEN

GILLIAM,

RICHARD

JR.

HUNT

LAWRENCE
JACOB
TOM LLOYD
WILLIAMS

WILLIAM
HALE

WOODRUFF

245

The Metropolitan Museum


of Art: Cultural Power
in a Time of Crisis
BARRY

N.

SCHWARTZ

262

Poor People's Plan


TUCKER

PRISCILLA

265

Salvation Art
FRANK

CONROY

270

An Interview
WITH
SCHWARZ,
JANE
WILSON
BURCH

273

Harlem, A Cultural History:


Selected Bibliography
JEAN

BLACKWELL

HUTSON

280

The MetropolitanMuseumof Art Bulletin


VOLUME

XXVII,

NUMBER

JANUARY

I969

Publishedmonthly from October to June and quarterlyfrom July to September.Copyright?i969


by The MetropolitanMuseumof Art, Fifth Avenueand 82nd Street, New York, N. Y. I0028. Second
classpostagepaidat New York, N. Y. Subscriptions$5.00 a year. Singlecopiesfifty cents. Sent free to
Museummembers.Four weeks'notice requiredfor changeof address.Back issuesavailableon microfilm fromUniversityMicrofilms,313 N. First Street, Ann Arbor,Michigan.VolumesI-xxxvII (19051942) availableas a clothbound reprint set or as individual yearly volumes from Arno Press, 330
MadisonAvenue,New York, N. Y. 10oI7, or from the Museum,Box 255, GracieStation,New York,
N. Y. I0028. Editor of Publications:Leon Wilson.Editor-in-chiefof the Bulletin:KatharineH. B.
Stoddert;Editors of the Bulletin:JoanK. Foley and Anne Preuss;Designer:Peter Oldenburg.Assistants on this issue:SusanCopelloand Ashton Hawkins.

243

Photographs: cover, frontispiece, p. 242, by


George Frye; p. 24r, by Reginald McGhee

Speakingfor this Museum,we have by and large been unresponsiveto socialand


politicalevents.Perhaps,given our own struggleto grow,it couldn'thave beenotherwise. But to continueto do so would be irresponsible."Harlemon My Mind"signals
the turningpoint.
The exhibition,frankly,is an experimentalone, the firstmajorstep towardrethinking and expandingour conceptsof whatexhibitionsshoulddo. We want to explorethe
essentialnatureof the Museum,of worksof art, and of our changingrelationshipto
the visitingpublic, to scholars,to the educationalprocess,and to the urbanenvironment in whichwe find ourselves.
The MetropolitanMuseum'srole has alwaysbeen to make people see. Today we
must ask them, and ourselves,to look as well: to look searchinglyat thingsthat have
to be faced,suchasour communitiesandour environment.If we pretendto any maturity as an institutionwe have to begindirectingour resourcestowardlargerhumanist
ends.
At one level the Museum'scollectionsareindividual,fragmentedstatements- great
worksof art isolatedfrom their time and place.At a much more difficultlevel they
interrelate;it would not be far-fetchedto suggestthat what the complexDNAstructure is to the mysteryand secretof life, worksof art are to the secretof the human
condition,humanrelations,and what we reallymean by man'sculturalheritageand
history.
"Harlemon My Mind"is this Museum'sattempt to plumb the secretof Harlem,
of its uniqueachievementsand contributionsto Americanlife, its energy,genius,and
spirit.I don't know of any institutionbetterqualified,by reasonof its basichumanist
orientation,its acuteandintelligentsensitivityfor a disparaterangeof culturalexpressions,betterqualifiedthan this one to attemptsuchan exhibition.
Our hope for the exhibitionis that it communicatea senseof place and a way of
of the tragediesandtriumphsof BlackHarlem.
living.That it engenderan appreciation
That it make us realizethat we must begin to look to the great Negro past for our
of the Americanexperience,andlook to it as well forwhatevercommon
understanding
hope we have for the future.
THOMAS

244

P. F.

HOVING,

Director

The
A

Black

Artist

Symposium

in

America:
ROMARE
SAM

BEARDEN,

HUNT

RICHARD

TOM

LAWRENCE
LLOYD

WILLIAM
HALE

WILLIAMS

WOODRUFF

We arehereto discusssomeof the problems of the Black artist in America.I think one of the
most perplexingis the problemof makinga living. During the last two or threeyearsthisproblemhasbeenmet
to somedegreeby moreteachingjobs beingmadeavailableto us, but it's stillhardfor the Blackartistto support
himself. I'd like to hear some of the membersof the
panelrespondto this question.
MR. LLOYD:
Many Black artists can't support themselves throughtheir art- there may be one or two, but
it's most difficult.First of all becausethe Black artist's
very existencehas beendeniedso long that peopledon't
know of him- even in the Blackcommunity.Therefore
his struggleto reachthe top has been a greatone, and I
envy three gentlemenwho are sitting here-Mr. Bearden, Mr. Lawrence,Mr. Woodruff-who have made it.
I know what kind of struggleany Black artist who's
made it has gone through,and thereforeI beara great
deal of respectfor you gentlemen.
MR. BEARDEN:
Well, Tom, would you like to explore
that a little further?You said that the Black artist is
unknownin the Blackcommunity.What could be done
to have him better known?Within his own community
and within the mainstreamof Americanart?
MR. LLOYD:
First, I think he has to be acceptedin the
galleries;the museumshave to recognizethat he has
somethingto contributeto his own culture,to the Black
communities,and I think they have failedmiserablyto
do this. Sure,within the last couple of yearsI've heard
aboutexhibitionsdedicatedto showthe accomplishment

MR. BEARDEN:

JR.

GILLIAM,

JACOB

Moderator

of the Black artistand I've been in some,but what has


happenedfor the two hundredyearsbeforethat?What
has happenedwith some three hundred,four hundred
art galleriesin greaterNew York?What has happened
with the museums?
MR. BEARDEN:
Maybe Hale Woodruffcan reply to
thesequestions,becausehe has a greatknowledgeof art
history and has lived throughsome of these problems.
MR.

WOODRUFF:

Well, I agree that it's very tough for

the Blackartistnot only to makea living but even, first,


to makeanythingout of his art. I think this is also true
of the whiteartist.I suspectthe economicproblemvaries
for all artists,andeach mustcome to gripswith it, somehow, in his own way. Of coursethe idealsolutionwould
be the ongoingsaleof his art product.This opportunity
has come to a few artists and will doubtlesscome to
and
others,althoughslowly,in the future. Scholarships
to
a
few
Black
been
have
awarded
artists, but
grants
such grantsare usuallyof short durationand therefore
do not meet the long-termneeds of artistsin general.
The majorityof artists,Blackandwhite, resortto teaching as a meansof meeting economicneeds,while some
artistsengagein other types of employment.
Generallyspeaking,the Black artist has not had the
sameopportunitiesto exhibit in the big nationalannuals
and biennialsas otherartistshave. A numberof galleries
exhibit the worksof a few leadingBlack artists,but by
and large the Black artist has not come beforea very
large public throughgallery shows, which could open
up to him channelsof purchaseand public recognition.
245

The Metropolitan Museum of Art


is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend access to
The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin

www.jstor.org

Supportfrom the Blackcommunityfor the Blackartist


is graduallydeveloping,but it seems that the real job
still remainsin the handsof the art institutions- galleries and museums-to providethe Black artistwith that
kind of professionaland prestigioussupporthe needsfor
his continueddevelopmenton both the economicand
aestheticlevels.
In writing about this once I said that
MR. BEARDEN:
the best-knownBlack artistsinceHenry O. Tannerwas
certainlyJacobLawrence.Jacobhas been one of the artists who has been in showsand representedus through
the years, and I'd like Jake to give us his thoughtson
the economicproblemsof the Black artist.
I surely agree with Mr. Lloyd and
MR. LAWRENCE:
Mr. Woodruff,but I thinkit takeson anotherdimension
than just the economic.I think it's a psychologicalone.
Mr. Lloyd asked what can be done, what can help. I
think one thing we can do is just what we'redoingnow,
and more of it. It's going to take education- educating
the white communityto respectand to recognizethe intellectualcapacityof Blackartists.We've beenaccepted
in the theater to a greaterdegree than we have in the
fine arts.Why is this so? I think it's becausein this area
we are recognizedto have a naturalability. But still,
there's a psychologicalproblem.You take a man like
Bill Robinson,who neverattainsthe samekind of recognition as a Gene Kelly. They say we're supposedto be
good cooks, but we've never been made chefs in the
we've neverbeenaskedto give cooking
Waldorf-Astoria,
lessonson television.Why?Becausethiscallsfor a certain
recognitionon the partof the white communitythat you
have an intellectualcapacitythat either they don't want
to recognizeor areso brainwashed
that they can'taccept.
On the other hand,none of us wants to be selectedas
"the one and only" or "one of the few." Mr. Bearden
andMr. WoodruffandI havebeenparticipatingin shows
for a numberof years, and the rest of you have come
along- I've seenyour names.But none of us appreciates
the idea of "We'llacceptyou and this is it." It's going
to take just what we'redoing now to educatethe white
community.I thinktheymusthavea psychologicalblock
becausethey refuseto see and refuseto recognizewhat
we can do. The mere fact that we're here, having this
discussion,indicatesthis. We're alwaysin Negroshows,
not just shows.I don't know of any other ethnic group
that has been given so much attention but ultimately
forgotten.You take a man like HoracePippin,who I'm
surewasa greater"primitive"thanGrandmaMoses.But
comparetheamountof recognitionthe twohavereceived.
MR. WILLIAMS:
It seems that one of the underlying
246

thingswe'retalkingaboutis that basicallywe comefrom


a nonvisualcultureor people. There haven't been that
many visual arts-paintings, sculpture-exposed to the
Blackcommunityitself.I think that one of the mechanisms that helps a young persondecide to be an artist is
what resourcesthere are for him to go to. One of the
thingsI'm interestedin, one of the necessities,is to provide facilities. Provide a situation where these young
peoplecancomeand be helpedin a constructivemanner,
not just in the usualsuperficialart-schoolmethods.
Getting backto shows,oneof the thingsthat'shappening is that every showthat concernsBlackartistsis really
a sociologicalshow.The "Harlemon My Mind"show is
a pointingexampleof total rejectionon the part of the
establishment,of saying"Well, you're really not doing
art," or of not dealingwith the artiststhat may exist or
do exist in Harlem.These showsdeal with the sociological aspectsof a community,a historicalthing. I think
the natureof thispanelis just that again- anothersociologicalthing, insteadof dealingwith pressingissues.The
questionis "You'rea Black artist;what are you doing,
what do you want to do, where do you want to go?"
insteadof saying"Youarein it, you'rean artistwho has
been suppressed,how can we help you?" I'm somewhat
irritatedby and somewhatopposedto the natureof this
panel, especiallywhen you attach the "Black artist"
thing to it, becauseI think we'reperpetuatingthe ideas
that we'retryingto get awayfrom.Therearetwo different questionsaboutBlackidentity.BlackmenandBlack
artists-they're different questions and somehow they
seem to be throwntogetheras one that can be answered
with somesimplestatement.There are as many answers
to that questionas thereare peoplesitting here.
MR. BEARDEN:
Bill, we'regoingto discusssomeof these
questionsof identity later, so at this point I'd like you
to develop some of the programsyou have in mind for
the communityand, to use an old cliche, for the economic bettermentof the artist.
MR. WILLIAMS:
One of the thingsthat we've thought
and talkedaboutwasan artist-in-residence
program.The
natureof this programwould be that we askan artistor
groupof artists,as professionalpeople, to serveas artists
in residencein a particularcommunity.They would be
totally supported;that is, their studio bills and living
expenseswould be paid. We're not talking about the
usualgrantlevel of two or three thousanddollars;we're
talkingabout ten or fifteen thousanddollars.What they
wouldbe askedto do in returnwouldbe to producetheir
own work,produceit on a serious,aggressivelevel, and
also to act as maleimages,symbolsof attainmentfor the

community.An aspiringartistcouldcometo them- they


could be almost apprentices-and could be supported,
that is, providedwith a studio and materialsor with
minimumliving expenses.This is kind of an idealistic
proposal,but I'm sure if we can have this panel, if we
can have fifty Black shows,we can have this idealistic
proposal.
MR. HUNT:
There are things like that in operationin
othercities,in St. Louis,for example.They havea grant
fromthe RockefellerFoundationandfromthe Danforth
Foundationto set up this kind of artist-in-residence
program,with apprenticesand studiospace,and something
like a ten-thousand-dollar-a-year
stipend.I don't seewhy
it couldn't be done in New York, becausethere are
even more resourceshere, certainlyin terms of artists
available.That sort of thing has been developedin Illinois, too; I've beeninvolvedwith the IllinoisArtsCouncil. They've startedan artist-in-residence
programthat
doesn't deal specificallywith Negro communities,but
with a number of outlying communitiesthat for one
reason or another don't have access to this culturalenrichmenttype of program.
MR. GILLIAM:
A similarkind of artist-in-residence
prois
on
gram going in Washington,in whichI'm a participant. The stipendis five thousanddollarsand studiofacilitiesareprovided.It's not specificallydirectedtoward
the Blackcommunity,but the majorityof Washington's
populationis Black.
SinceI'm fromWashingtonmy experienceshave been
totallydifferent,and that leadsme to raiseanotherquestion in relationto the problemof economics,and this is
aboutthe extent that the Blackartisthasbeenrecognized
by the Black community.The answermight be what
Mr. Williamshas suggested,a matter of sociologyor a
matterof economicson a greaterscale.We've beenprevented from being visuallyminded becausewe've had
to be so industriallyminded.This economicfactorwould
probablyprevent someonelike myself from a southern
communityfrom comingto schoolin New York, as opposed to staying in my own communityand going to
school.How areyou going to thinkaboutthingslike art
when it's all you can do to get any kind of job? These
kindsof thingshave been prevalentissues.
MR. BEARDEN:
Hale, perhapsyou could sum up some
of theseeconomicproblemsin relationto the future.Do
you think a young man like Williamswill have a better
prospectof makinga living as an artistthan you had?
MR. WOODRUFF:
First, I'd like to say thatI don'tagree
entirelywith WilliamsandGilliamon the notionthatwe
are not visuallyminded. I'm older than anybody here

and I've lived long enoughto see scoresof Blackartists,


whoneverreallymadeit, comeandgo. They didn'tmake
it for many of these economicreasons,but basicallyI
think they didn't make it becausetherewas no kind of
world for them, either in the Black communityor the
white community.I don't want to sound chauvinistic,
but I thinkevery Blackmanhascertainsensitivitiesand
sensibilitiesthat come out in variousart forms.The fact
thatmusicis one of ourstrengthsprobablyis no accident.
The fact that we don't have a visualhistoryor a history
of creatingvisualworksin this country is a fact of circumstance,and doesn'tmean that the visualworldwas
neveropen to us or that we neveropenedour eyes to it.
I thinkit's chieflyeconomic.In the twentiesand thirties
there were many Black artists.Read some booksabout
it: you'll see name after nameof artistswho have since
fromthe scene.They simplycouldnot make
disappeared
it in the so-calledfine arts, but many of these fellows
got into the non-fine-artsareas,like illustration,design,
teaching.You rarely,if ever, hearabout them, but they
are there.Whatwe'rediscussingnow is the so-calledfine
arts area.When you ask me what'sgoing to come-we
don't know. But here is a practicalpoint: I believe that
in the visualartsthere'ssomethingmorethanjust painting for MadisonAvenueor a galleryshowor a museum
show.I know of many young Blackartistswho are successfuldesigners- TV designers,industrialdesigners,and
so on. This is a very realand practicalworld.
The Americanhasa notionthat fine artsarethe greatest thing that ever existed, and he may very well be
right. I don't know that you've got to worry too much
aboutthatyoungsterwho'sgoingto be an artist,whether
he's in the ghetto or in Nob Hill or wherever.Circumstancesaregoingto leadhiminto it, andI thinkjustabout
every man at this table has come into art in that way.
The establishmentof centersin the ghetto andelsewhere,
availableto allpeopleaswellas the peoplewholive there,
will be a way of not only discoveringtalent but also of
encouragingit and helpingit to develop. But I'm very
wary of urging these fourteen-and fifteen-year-oldsto
go into art as a profession.Let them makeup their own
minds. I think the whole world of art should be open
to them and made availablefor them to become involved, either as active participantsor appreciator-consumersof art.
But is that worldopen to them?
MR. LLOYD:
In termsof what it has been and is
MR. WOODRUFF:
now for a lot of people,I don't know. It's hardenough
for the best to make it in the fine arts area.I see the
future as being one where there are conduciveatmos247

pheres,facilities,and people to work with these youngsters.There might be no teachingin the senseof having
classes,but simplyevery facility imaginable,and guides
and teachersto workwith them. If a youngsterwantsto
throwsome clay around,let him do it: if he gets sick of
that and wants to carve some wood, that's fine. This is
the kind of orientationI think would be helpful in developinginterest,activity, and participation.
I think there needs to be a giganticeffort
MR. LLOYD:
to bringart to young Blackkidsin an enormousproject.
I don't think they have anywherenearthe sameopportunity as anyoneelse. I think young white kids are exposed to art at a very early age; their mothersgo to
museumsand dragthe kids alongand they get a look at
art when they'rethreeor four.This doesn'thappenwith
Blackkids.
When I said the visual world was
MR. WOODRUFF:
open to Blackkids, I meant thingsthat every man sees,
even if it's an old backfence. I certainlyagreethat they
need art broughtto them.
This is one of my pet things:it's very imMR. LLOYD:
portant to bringart to Black people. Right now, we're
not goingto museumsandto artgalleries.I've beengoing
to them for somethinglike twenty-fiveyearsandI could
count the Black peopleI've seen. We have to bring art
to the Black communities.We should have things like
the "wallof pride."We have to beautifythe Blackcommunities,with treesor whatever;we have to havemonuments to Black heroes, right on Seventh Avenue. It's
importantfor Black people to have this identity. They
have to feel this pride.It's our responsibilityto bringit
to them.We canbeginby usingposters,by usingexisting
billboards,and we have to get the money to do this. A
group of Black artistsshouldget togetherand do these
postersandput themup andlet peoplesee them.Perhaps
a place like the Metropolitanshouldfinancesomething
like that.
MR.

GILLIAM:

Up to now our major interest hasn't been

in promotingculture, in promotingawarenessof Black


art and artists.We do have to begin to make the Black
communitymore aware,more visuallyoriented.
MR.

BEARDEN:

It seems to me that a big problem con-

frontsthe Blackartistafterhe decidesto becomea professionalartist.He's twenty-five,or twenty-six,or twentyseven. He's married.He has one or two children.It's
difficultgetting a foothold into the art world;trying to
havehis workexposed;tryingto makea living,probably
by having anotherjob - teachingor something.I'd like
Mr. Hunt, Mr. Gilliam,Mr. Lloyd, and Mr. Williams
to begin this discussionon professionalproblemsthey
248

themselvesare probably dealing with. How does the


young Blackartistmakea living?What are someof the
thingsthat arewrong?Whatwouldyou like to see done?
MR. LLOYD:
There shouldbe manymoreopportunities
open to the young Black artist. It's a peculiarthing: I
teach painting and sculpturein a programcalled the
Adult Creative Arts Workshop,sponsoredby the Departmentof Parks:a ceramicsclasswas introducedand
I went aroundlooking for a potter, a Black potter. I
searchedthe whole of New York and I found three.
There might be more, but I only found three and they
were already employed. I really thought about that.
Here in New York, with millionsof people, how is it
that there are only two or three Black potters?There's
somethingwrong here; someonehas perpetratedsome
kind of evil on the Black racethat'sunbelievable.
MR. GILLIAM:
Why is the issuefindinga Black potter
to teach a Black child as opposedto finding a potter?
MR. LLOYD:
Oh, I think that's very important.We
were talking about Black art: I think there'sgoing to
be Blackart, I think there'sgoing to be a separateBlack
community.If there is separateBlack art it might be a
good thing, becausewhat's gone before hasn't been a
good thing.
MR. WILLIAMS:
How would this Blackart be different
fromwhite art?
MR. LLOYD:
Well, it would be differentinasmuchas
one of our mainaimsshouldbe relatingto Blackpeople.
Black artistsshould be workingin Black communities.
MR. WILLIAMS:
The questionI'm reallyposingis how
does one make art relevantto its community?
MR. LLOYD:
I think the artist is more than just someone who paintsor someonewho makessculpture.I think
he hasa compact,a relationshipwith the peoplethat the
ordinarypersondoesn'thave. I thinkhe can bringabout
changes.
MR. BEARDEN:
Well, let me ask you a question,Tom.
You'regoing to have a show shortlyat the Studio Museum in Harlem.Tell us how you feel what you have
done relatesto the Harlemcommunity.Do you wish to
direct your art to the community?
MR. LLOYD:
Yes. I hope my showwill makeBlackpeople awareof what's happeningin art today. A lot of
Blackpeopleareinvolvedin helpingme formthat show,
in helping me make my sculptures;that's part of the
museumidea, and I don't think this has happenedbefore. But mainlyI think Black people can relateto my
work-it's a visual thing. When I was working in my
studio little Black kids would come up to my door and
just look at my light sculptureand they'd like it and

somehowrelateto it.
MR.

WILLIAMS:

Yes, but would a white kid do the

samething, though?
MR.

LAWRENCE:

Yes.

But I'm interestedin a Blackkid.


MR. WILLIAMS:
And if so, if a white kid woulddo the
samething, what makesit Blackart then?Beyond that
you did it?
MR. LLOYD:
I don't know what makes it Black art
except that it existsin the Blackcommunity.

MR.

LLOYD:

MR.

WILLIAMS:

Yes, but you could have made the

same formson Ioth Street as well, so it's not uniquely


relatedto that particularcommunity.
MR. LLOYD:
It's relatedbecauseI'm Black,andI know
wheremy feelingslie.
MR.

WILLIAMS:

Yes, but see, what I'm trying to get

at is that we talk aboutmakingBlackart. And if we're


reallytalkingaboutBlackart, we'retalkingaboutsomething in which the formsareuniquelyBlack.
MR. LLOYD:
We're talking about communication.I
don't even know that we're talkingaboutforms necessarily.It's like how you feel and what you're doing. I
mean, with the kind of thing I do, most people don't
even associateme with being Black, and when they see
me they'rerathershockedand in somecasesratherhurt
and I don't knowwhy.
MR. GILLIAM:
IStherea specificformof art thata Black
artistdoes that shouldbe immediatelyidentifiable?
MR. LLOYD: There has been in the past-Black artists
were primarilyknownas socialpainters.But that's not
what I mean:I know that it's very importantfor me to
relateto Blackpeoplewith my work,and I have to tag
myselfas beingBlackand beinginterestedin the Black
man.This is partof my very existence.It's importantto
somehowrelateto our own people.
MR. WOODRUFF: What you're supporting and asserting

then is the Black artist, not Black art.

Yeah,I'm supportingthe Blackartist,but


by supportingthe Black artist, naturallyI'm also supporting the Black community.I think that this is so
MR.

LLOYD:

important.
MR. WOODRUFF:
MR.

WILLIAMS:

It is.
Maybe I'm dwelling on a point, but

"Blackart's"kind of a touchy thing with me ...


MR. LLOYD:
No, don't you see? Black art can be any
kind of art, it can be anything.It can be a paintingof
a little Black child or a laserbeam runningaroundthe
room.We have to projectthat the artistis Black.
MR. WILLIAMS:
My point is that it canbe a laserbeam
or a de Kooningdrawingor a numberof other things.

Photograph: George Frye

It seems to me that we're belaboring the label of Black


art for nothing. What you're saying is that you should
have a commitment to the Black community, to educate them to the visual world. We're not talking about
Black art per se.
MR. LLOYD:
Not in that sense, no. But only in the
sense that the Black artist hasn't ever been publicized.
He doesn't exist. I'm with a group called Black Visual
Environments, and we're a group of professional artists
who hope to bring a big, big change about in New York
through various means - putting pressureon people if we
have to, but mainly by working in the Black communities. We're not going to teach art, we're going to get
involved in the whole political structure.
MR. WILLIAMS:
It seems to me that you couldn't really
make art as we know it now welcome or relevant to the
Black community.
MR. LLOYD:
Why not? You mean to say if there was a
statue of Martin Luther King on Seventh Avenue ...
MR. WILLIAMS:
We're not talking about statues.
There's a difference.
MR. LLOYD:
But we're talking about art.
MR. WILLIAMS:
Yeah, but statues aren't necessarily
art. What I'm trying to say is that if you took your light
pieces and put them on I25th Street there would be a
certain amount of exposure to your community, but
would that exposure make the pieces relevantto the community-the total Black community and not just the
kids you're working with?
MR. LLOYD:
It's relevant to the Black community if
they can identify with it. If I put up a statue of Stokely
Carmichael, like, people are going to identify with that.
MR. WILLIAMS:
But then by the same token I can take
a newspaper clipping of Martin Luther King and blow
it up and everyone will identify, but I can't necessarily
call that art.

MR.

LLOYD:

MR.

WILLIAMS:

No, I wouldn'tcall that art either.


It's a higheraestheticthat we're talk-

ing about.
LLOYD:
Of courseit is-I'm a professionalartist,
you know.I'm talkingabouta certainformof art that's
meaningful.
MR. BEARDEN:
Tom, in otherwords,you'resayingthat
you want to direct your effortstowardthe Black community,and the merefact thatyou arethereandmaking
your work accessibleand in a certainsensedirectingit
to them wouldclassifythe workas Blackart. This work
could take any form?
MR. LLOYD:
Yes. It could be kineticor light sculpture,
it could be painting,it could be anything,if the person
who does it has these thingsin mind.
MR. LAWRENCE:
We're involved in many problems
here. I agreewith Mr. Beardenthat economicproblems
lead into the professionalones. Somehowwe've missed
one very importantthing- governmentinvolvementin
art. If we go backabout thirty yearswe'llfind that some
of the greatestprogress,economic,professional,and so
on, was made then, by the greatestnumberof artistsnot only Negro artistsbut white onesas well. The greatest exposurefor the greatestnumberof peoplecameduring this periodof governmentinvolvementin the arts.
That is what manyprofessionalorganizations
like Artists
the
theater
and
so
have
been
on,
groups,
Equity,
trying
to do. The governmenthasmadestabsat it - you've got
variouscommitteesandthey'vegivenstipends,but nothing massivelike the thing thirty yearsago. I thinkwhat
we need is a massivegovernmentinvolvementin the arts
- by municipalgroupsor by the state or by privateorganizationsor by museumslike the Metropolitan.What
we need is moreconcernwith the philosophyof socialism
- that's the only way we'regoing to achievethis sort of
progress,and we, the Negro artists,are going to benefit
by this.
That leadsme into anotherthing. I think we must be
very carefulnot to isolateourselves,becausemanyof the
thingswe'retalkingaboutnot only pertainto the Negro
artist but pertainto the artist generally.If they're accomplishedwe will all benefitby them.
I also think that many of these problemswe're mentioning have to be solved individually.You may feel,
Mr. Lloyd, and I may feel that we have to work in a
community that's predominatelyNegro, like Harlem.
Othersmay feel that we will benefitto a greaterdegree
by workingoutsideof the communityand being (this is
an unfortunateterm) "integratedinto the mainstream"
of the overallnationalcommunity.

MR.

250

LLOYD:
Yeah, but haven'twe been integratedfor
so long? I mean, where are we now? We're here, you
know, talkingabout the bad situationwe're in because
we've been integrated.
MR. LAWRENCE:
Who's been integrated?We've never
been integrated.
MR. LLOYD:
There's never beenany realunity amongst
the Black artists.

MR.

MR. LAWRENCE:

Oh sure there's been, man, you don't

know your history. I think Black artistshad a greater


degreeof unity when I was a youngsterthan they have
now. ProbablyMr. Woodruffcan give you a better account of this sincehe's olderthanI am, but at any rate,
right after the Reconstructionand maybe before,you
had variousart communitiesamongyour Negro artists.
You had your Walkergroup, your Darktowersgroup,
whichwasa very tight
you hadyourNegro Renaissance,
There
were
cultural
organization.
groups- maybetoo isobut
did
have them, even more than you do
lated,
you
now. I'm not saying this was a totally good thing, but it
had its good aspects.
What were some of the good aspects and
MR. LLOYD:
what were some of the bad?
One of the good things was that there
MR. LAWR ENCE:
was a community of artists who had a spiritual relationship, I guess you'd call it. And there were a few paternal
organizations like the Harmon Foundation that would
help the Negro artist. One of the bad aspects was that
maybe we never attained the top degree of professional
status because of the economic aspects of the situation.
There was no way for artists to make a living except for
a few people who were teaching in Negro colleges, and
artists could never get into the economic mainstream.
But aside from that, this community relationship was
very good, and it existed then more than it does now.
MR. LLOYD:
Well, I haven't heard about it. I never read
about it in school or anywhere.
think the young people today don't
MR. LAWRENCE:I
know these things because there isn't that kind of interest.
MR. LLOYD:
It's not there isn't an interest - the material's not available to them. How could one hear about
this group you're talking about? How could one learn
about it? Certainly not by coming in this museum and
buying a book.
MR. HUNT:
I've seen this material in the Schomburg
Collection [the branch of the New York Public Library
on I35th Street].
Even that collection is not that publicized.
MR. LLOYD:
MR. HUNT:
Well, I must say you sort of want everybody
to bring it and put it in your lap.

I want it to be whereI'm at.


The kind of thing JakeLawrenceis talking
about was going on in Chicagoduring the WPA days.
There was the South Side CommunityArt Center, for
instance.
It's interestingto seehow thingshavegoneoneway at
one point and anotherway at anotherpoint. After the
wara fewNegroartistsweremoreintegratedin the larger
scene,and now thingsare sort of going backward- Tom
Lloydisgettingmoreandmoreidentifiedwith theNegro
community,he's sort of going backinto it. The kind of
historythat JakeLawrenceis outlininggives you a kind
of perspective,somethingthat you can startfrom- like
maybenot makingthe mistakesof the past and helping
you developthis ideaof makingyour art relevantto the
Negro community.
I must say I think you're talkingabout two different
things.Okay, you'rea Blackartistand living in a Black
community.That's fine. Whetheryour art is Black or
not doesn'tmakeany difference.I think you needlessly
confuse the issues by insisting that there's something
aboutliving in a Blackcommunitythat makesyour art
Black.That'sjust not true.
I'm not just talkingabout me. The white
MR. LLOYD:
hasn't
acceptedBlack artistsfor years and
community
not
even readyto now, really.And so
years,and they're
I'm not just an artist. ThereforeI'm a Black artist. If
whitesocietyis not going to acceptmy work,I'm a Black
artist.I'm not a white artist.
MR.

LLOYD:

MR.

HUNT:

MR.

LAWRENCE:

I've seen a couple of your pieces and

I would put it this way: I think you are an artistwho


happensto be Black, but you'renot a Blackartist.See,
that'sthe difference.
MR. LLOYD:
No, I'm a Blackartistwho has refusedto
be conditioned...
Wait a minute.From what I've seen
MR. LAWRENCE:
of your work-although you may be a terrificartistthere'sno possibleway thatI canseeanyonein the Black
communityrelatingto your work.They may respondto
it aesthetically,they may feel that it's a terrificpiecebut I can'tsee how anyonewouldrelateto it, andI don't
see why they should.
MR. LLOYD:
They would relateto it if they knew that
I am Black.That'svery important.
That'snot importantin a workof art.
MR. LAWRENCE:
It's importantto Blackpeople,you know.
MR. LLOYD:
I'm not only concernedwith art. With me art is a secondarything.
I think you're beggingthe question
MR. LAWRENCE:
here and you're makingan excusethat you don't have

to make.You can be a very fine artistandI thinkyou'll


be contributing.There'sno reasonwhy you haveto paint
or work in a certainway, and have the imageof Blacknesswrittenon your work to be a fine artist.
MR. LLOYD:
It doesn'thave to be writtenon. But don't
tell me that Blackpeoplecan'trelateto my work.When
they seeme andthey seemy work,I knowwhatthey say.
They say, "Dig it, a Blackcat did that."And that means
somethingto them, I know it does.
MR. WILLIAMS: But what happens when you're not

there?
LLOYD:
I'm talkingabout my work being meaningful to Blackpeople,and that'svery important.
MR. BEARDEN:
Supposethe Black communitydidn't
acceptyourworkandthe whitecommunitydid. Suppose
you had been acceptedby the white community,fully
accepted.Wouldyou havegone to the Blackcommunity
to showyour work if you had that kind of acceptance?
Think aboutit.
MR. LLOYD:
I've thoughtabout that before.I've made
it - I'm makinga living off my art, a pretty good living.
I can just keep my mouth shut and go aheadand make
niceconstructionsfor peopleto buy. But I'm not talking
about me. I'm talkingabout Black artists.I'm talking
aboutBlackartistsin the past,Blackartistsin the future.
Simplybecausethey'reBlack,therearemillionsof roadblocksin front of them.
MR. GILLIAM:
I think I worrymoreabout the quality
of the experiencecomingto the Blackcommunity.And
I think there is a need to raisethe visualorientationof
the Black community.During the riotsin Washington,
whenthe whitesdidn'tcomein fromthe suburbs,gallery
attendancefellwayoff.If Washingtonhasa sixtypercent
majorityof Blackpeople,why doesmuseumattendance
fall down when somethinghappensso the whites don't
go? It's easy to see that we could easily hustle up to
Harlemor over to i4th Streetand put up a lot of structuresthatwouldbe meaningful.But instead,isn'tit that
museumsas suchhave not servedthe total community?
Why can't museumsreallyemphasizethe kind of programsthat will bringa personfromwherehe is to where
the betterfacilityis?Andwhenhe'stherewhy can'tyou
make him actuallywelcome?This is the kind of point
we shouldpursue,not dwellon "artmeaningfulto Black
people."Whatwe shouldbe talkingaboutis the quality
of aestheticexperiencesavailableto personswithin the
Black community,and raisingthe level of this quality.
But let's not forgetaboutwhathasgone before,let's not
forget about Black history.In fact, let's emphasizethis
more.
MR.

25I

I think that's very true. And I think


BEARDEN:
what Jakewas sayingabout the communityspiritof the
HarlemArtistsGuildwastrue.This is what it did forme:
I went to the firstmeeting:I wassurprisedto see fifty or
sixty peoplethere.I hadn'tknowntherewerethat many
Negro artistsin New York!
When they did the newsreleaseon Tom for his show,
it wasstatedthat the HarlemStudioMuseumis the first
museumin Harlem.That's not true! There was one on
I25th Street and LenoxAvenueall duringthe thirtiesJakeand I showedat it. It wasn'tonly a museum,but
they had teaching there, workshops,textile weaving,
lithography.
That'swhat we need now.
MR. LLOYD:
I can appreciatewhat you say, but I
MR. LAWRENCE:
thinkyou'regoing to fall into a trapif you pursuethis to
the degreeto whichyou are pursuingit. Becauseyou're
going to havepeoplefromdowntownsaying,"Well,let's
give these peopleuptowna little somethingand we can
forget about them for a coupleof years."
We aremore involvednow- it may not be to the degree that we think ideal, but we aremore involvednow
in the total communitystructurethan we've ever been.
I think all of us will agreewith that. But I think the
thing for us to pursue- and I repeatthis- is not only to
get massiveaid and help within the Negro community,
but not to tear us awayfrom the main community,not
allowingpeopledowntownto say,asI saidbefore,"Well,
let'sgive thema little somethingandwe canforgetabout
them."
I'm not interestedin what they think.No,
MR. LLOYD:
done
haven't
anythingup to this point. And you
they
I don't think we are involved.
involved.
we're
that
say
I think therearea lot of Blackartiststhat aren'tmaking
a living and that arenot communicatingwith the people
in the ghetto. I mean like nothing'shappening.So if
someformof separatismis going to makethingshappen,
I'm all for it. And I think it will.
I like the things you were sayingabout the various
programsin the thirties,Blacksbeing together.I don't
know what came of it, but I'm sure some good things
came of it. And I'm all for that again.
What cameof it was ...
MR. BEARDEN:
MR. LAWRENCE:
People were involved. It broughta
camaraderie...
It broughta greaterdegree of proMR. WOODRUFF:
fessionalism.
MR. BEARDEN:
Jakewas about the first artistwho got
out of the Harlemcommunity,who got a one-manshow
downtown.But beforethat, our mindsdidn't thinkpast

MR.

252

oth Street. This waslike a customsbarrierback then.


LLOYD:
What I'm after is havingmy little Black
to
girlexposed art.Andif shewantsto be a potterI don't
want her to be in that one-to-threeratio.Theremay be
just three Black potters here in New York. I want to
improveon that. Like a whole lot.
I

MR.

MR.

WILLIAMS:

It seems to me that you haven't really

touchedon one of the pointsMr. Gilliambroughtup the quality of that pottery or the quality of that sculpture or the quality ...
MR. LLOYD:
Whatdo you mean,"quality"!They have
to be exposed.What makesyou think that the quality
is going to be any less becausethey'reBlack?
MR.

WILLIAMS:

I don't think I'm implying that. I

think what I'm trying to say is that the nationalism


you're talkingabout is a very dangerousthing.
MR.

GILLIAM:I

would say that before I looked all over

New Yorkfor Blackpottersand couldfind only threeand beforeI kept somebodyfrommakingpots and being
turnedon by it - is that I'd findme a potter first.I don't
think I'd worryabouthis color;I think I'd worrymore
about the qualityof the experience.
LLOYD:
Look, I'm worried about the quality too,
but I am worried about the fact that there's only three
Black potters here in New York. That has a lot of implications, and I don't think you're facing up to them.
MR. HUNT:
Well, you know, you could do something
else. You could hire a white potter while you looked for
another Black potter, and then fire the white potter and
hire the Black. Then you would show your people something about you.
MR. LLOYD:
Perhaps it would, and perhaps that might
have been like an idea I had. But I'm more interested
in young Black kids having an opportunity just to be
a potter.
What you may be running into is the
MR. GILLIAM:
same difficulty they had in one of the summer programs
in Washington, looking for a Black sculptor. You can
name a number of them, but they'd already be doing
something beside practicing sculpture. I think whenever
you look for Black potters, Black painters, Black artists,
they'll already be doing something else.
At the same time there are a lot of proMR. LLOYD:
in
New York, and even if you're a profeshere
grams
sional, capable Black artist you can't even get a job in
the program. Because, number one, most of the cultural
programsaren't run by Black people. I think that's very
important. I think Black people and Black communities
should control Black programs. They're the only people
that can really, really relate to Black people.
MR.

WILLIAMS:
We're getting involved in sociology
again,aren'twe?
MR. LLOYD:
Well, so what?
I think it's pretty hard to keep the
MR. GILLIAM:
wholequestionawayfromsociology.
MR. BEARDEN:
Let me sumup. Tom feels that a lot of
the professionalproblemsof the Blackartisthave to do
with his relationto the community.And he feels that
his, and a numberof Black artists',work shouldbe directed to makingthe Black communitymore art-conscious.He feels,also,by the merefact of his beinga Black
artistworkingin the Blackcommunity,he couldreferto
his work- or workdone by anyoneof a similarmind- as
Black art. Now Mr. Williamshas challengedthat. He
feels that the Black artistshouldn'tlimit his horizonto
just one particularcommunity,but shouldtry to expose
his workto a greateraudience.I thinkwe all have come
to the conclusion,however,that therearedire economic
and professionalproblemshinderingthe Black artist in
the full expressionof his potential.Theseproblemsstem
fromsocialconditions,fromthe fact that the Blackartist
is not completelyinvolvedin the mainstream.
He doesn't
go to East Hampton,and he'snot aroundthe restof the
artists.It was broughtout that the few peoplewho buy
don't alwaysconsiderhim, and he has not been able to
get his workup to highermonetarylevels.
Unlesssomeonehasanythingto add to this discussion
of economicand professionalquestions,I think we can
go on to our thirdpoint- the aestheticproblem.I think
some of the things that you were talkingabout, Tom,
also involved questionsof craft and identity. I throw
the discussionopen.
MR. WOODRUFF: This is one of the mostimportantand
probablyone of the most difficultto solve. I think we
shouldclarifywhat we meanby aestheticproblems,and
problemsof self-imageor identity in termsof the topic
we areworkingwith - "Blackart."We'vebeentold that
a recognizablyBlackuniquenessin the art productis not
necessarilyessential.There is such a thing as a "Black
Anglo-Saxon,"and then there are those who champion
the notion of the Black heritage-who think that the
Negroes' aesthetic image should come from his Black
Africanancestry.I don't think there'sanythingwrong
with this, becausewe who are taking the traditional
formsof Westernart as a startingpoint are doing the
same thing-we are beginningwith a form from which
we may createa form.There is also the idea of substantially good art-and this is what Sam has been talking
about-coming from the soil. But the soil of the Black
communitymust not only be productiveand rich in its
MR.

resources,but those who till that soil and try to raisea


harvest- and that is the artist- mustcomein therewith
some realartisticinsights.I don't believe that the subject matter,the hot-headedart of the moment,is of any
consequence:the fact that the artistsget a kind of frustrationor angeroff their chest is fine. But the creation
of artis somethingelseagain.Andwe may be quiteprone
to acceptanythingthat is enjoyed,in any kind of sense,
regardlessof its qualities,as Blackart. But it is not. As I
see it, you startwith a concept,a thematicidea.And out
of that you've got to createa form. And I believe the
formmust embodyandconvey that ideavisually,physically.Aboveall, the sensibilityof the artist,hisbeliefsand
his convictionsand his aspirations,must come through
and control it. This is how any art is produced,be it
black,white, green,or blue. If thereis to be a Blackart
- not just somethingmadeby a Blackartist- theremust
be certainoutermanifestationsso it can be identified,as
you can identify Orientalart or pre-Columbianart or
Eskimoart. (But I don't meanin any sensea primitive
art: righthereI rejectthe term "primitive"in referring
to Africanart or any such ethnic form.)
More importantto the work of art are the energies,
the efforts,and the deep insightsthat comefromthe artist as he worksthroughwhat he has experiencedin life.
In the musicalworld there is Leontyne Price, who
sings like a bird. And this has nothing to do with her
color. There are others, like MahaliaJackson-whose
singingyou wouldcall Blacksinging.I do think thereis
a somethingfound in the worksof the Black artist that
is absentin the artof otherpeople.LangstonHughesused
to definethisas comingfromthe folkways,fromthe special quality that we as Black people have. But I think
that, in the finalanalysis,you've got to createart- art of
the highestpossibleaestheticlevel, in whichyour means
are what your goalsare. They are very highly personal.
We have a young man here, RichardHunt, who I
think is a great sculptor.This man is an artist. It has
nothingto do with race;it is that realspark,unfathomable, and unidentifiable,that is deeply felt. The power
of his sculptureis unassailable.Is this Negro art? Is it
done by a Negro?It may very well be. Who knows?It's
powerful,convincing,compellingart. And this is what
I mean. It isn't black, white, green, or blue, but it's
greatart.
I think the Black artist is facedwith the problemof
almostworkingfrom scratch.If he doesn'tresortto the
traditionalsourcesthat are available,he's got to start
fromscratch.And this is tough. If he wants to produce
a uniqueartform,he'sgot to ignoreeveryotherartform
253

that has been used as a springboardfor other art forms.


This is a tough job.
I haven't answeredany questions.My question has
never beensolvedthroughoutmy life and neverwill be.
It's a continuousandongoingsearch.But the searchmust
be qualifiedby this constantand ongoingemphasison
quality,of the highestpossiblelevel thatyou canachieve.
MR. BEARDEN:
They say that abstractexpressionismaction painting-is the first indigenousAmericanart
exported,and imitated by artistsall aroundthe world.
No critic that I have read has ever aligned this spark
with jazz music.But that's the feelingyou get from it:
involvement,personality,improvisation,rhythm,color.
What I'm trying to point out is that Black culture is
involvedfarmoreinto the wholefabricof Americanlife
thanwe realize.But it is up to us to find out the contribution that we have made to the whole culturalfabric
of Americanlife. No one else is going to do it. I look at
baseballa lot; I see a man hit a home run- he comesin
and slapsthe hand of the other fellow who'swaitingat
the plate.Thisstartedwith Negro ballplayers,andeverybody does it now.
MR.

WOO D RUF F:

I've had lots of arguments on the par-

allel aestheticsof music and of art. I asked one of my


friends,"Justwhat is so Negroid about this Black, socalledNegro music?"And he saidthat it's the little dissonant note at the end of each piece that makes the
uniquenessof Negro music. When a band winds up a
piece, they alwayswind up on a minor note, even if
they're playing in a majorkey. They leave you there.
That sustained,suspendedmomentis in the musicalstyle,
in the literarystyle, it's in the dramacertainly- their
timingin dramaticactionis just terrific.This is a quality
that is almostunexplainable,but it's alwaysidentifiable.
It's not somethingthat a critic can point out-"That's
it, right there." It's the total- the total sensationthat
you get.
MR. LLOYD:
The thing that worriesme, Mr. Woodruff,
is that you seemto singleout individuals.You talkabout
a few Black artistswho have made it and so I get the
ideathat they'resomesortof AbrahamLincolns.Perhaps
they are.But I don't think that'sanythingto point with
any great pride about. I still maintainthat Black art
shouldbe separate.I feel like this is the only way for us
to make it.
We were talkingbeforeabout institutions,and someone mentioned this institution.I feel that the Metropolitanis an institutionfor white people, not for Black
people.So therefore,if we'regoing to be equalwith the
white artist, where are we going to show?Where have
254

we shown?What kind of facilitiesare open to us? What


gallerieswill accept us? There are none that will and
none that have. Don't mentionone or two people- I'm
not interestedin one or two people.I'm interestedin the
millionsof Black peoplewho want to be artists.Therefore I maintainthat therehas to be a Black art. This is
what we need, if it wouldpull us out of this thing here.
We haven'tgot it from the white culturalpowerstructure. They haven'tgiven it to us.
MR. WOODRUFF:
Well, when I mention a man like
RichardHunt it's not to put him on a pedestal...
MR. LLOYD:
We don't want a pedestal.He's one man.
MR. WOODRUFF:
I'm a visualman,not a verbalperson,
andwhenI mentionedHunt'ssculptureI wantedto suggest a visualimage,to makemy taska little easierbecause
I cannotexplainin wordsthat which I alwayssee.
MR. LLOYD:
What I want to know is if there are two
hundredRichardHunts, whereare they going to show
theirwork?
MR.

LAWRENCE:

Well, I'll go halfway with you, Tom.

I will say that I'd like to have the opportunityfor a personwith talentto makehimselfinto an artistassuccessful
as RichardHunt. But I don't thinkyou'll ever have two
hundredRichardHuntsor two hundredThomasLloyds,
becauseeveryoneis just not that talented.
MR. LLOYD:
No, I mean to equate them with the two
hundredwhite artistswho have the opportunity.
MR. WOODRUFF:
That I'll buy.
MR. GILLIAM:
We're necessarilyspeakingof a job for
the future.We've been few in number;the injusticeof
the whole socialsituationhasmadeit so that we arefew
in number.
We need not only to develop Black craftsmen,but
alsoBlackhistorians,Blackcritics.We needmoreBlackownedart galleries:let's talkaboutmovinginto business
-art is a business.This is a thing that concernsus. If
we'relookingfor ways art-or Blackart-can be developed within a community,then let's talk about all the
things that are reallynecessaryto develop it. Why is it
that therearen'tBlackhistoriansor Blackaestheticians,
asidefrom people like Hale who have had to double to
do the job? Why aren't these professionsbeing encouragedat Blackcolleges?Why can't placeslike that make
their specialresponsibilitytakingcareof the Black heritage?They shouldinvestigateexactlywhat the factsare:
what we have accomplished,and whetheror not we're
going forwardfromwherewe are now.
MR. LLOYD:I
thinkthat sortof programwouldbe very
important.I mentionedan organizationcalledBlackVisual Environments,and part of the thing we want to do

is to bring Black art-and I mean Blackart-into the


publicschools,for theseyoung Blackkids to talk to the
Blackartists,to try to formsomesortof dialogue,to be
thereand be seen,to showthat he'sBlack.This is important to the youngBlackkids.It's neverhappenedbefore
andI thinkthat it's importantthat it doeshappen.These
Black artistsshould be paid for it. I'd also like to see
Blackart showstravelingto the South, to Blackcolleges,
to makethesepeopleawareof what'shappeningin Black
art today- okay, I'll say art today.
I'd equallylike to seesomeof thoseBlack
MR. GI LLIAM:
program.This kind
collegeshavingan artist-in-residence
of programwouldbe terrificallyimportant,becauseoften
a personsuffersbecausehis experiencesand information
arelockedinto his regionalenvironment.
We'rereallytalkingaboutan uplifting,aboutproviding uswith a baseof freedomin general.We can takecare
of business.The impactof ourtimesmakesit individually
importantthat we don't go backan inch, a centimeter,
but that we move on. Theseare the kindsof thingsthat
shouldbe part of our experiences,and that shouldindicate the pathswe should take.
MR. BEARDEN:
I understandthere'sgoing to be a big
showof Blackartistsopeningin Minneapolis.William,if
you went to this show, could you look at the paintings
and the sculptureand find somethingthat identifiedthe
artistsas Black?
I've neverseena piecethat I couldsay
MR. WILLIAMS:
that about positively. I've seen a great many pieces I
think are commendableby Black artists,but I didn't
attachthat specialtitle or specialcategoryto them, and
I don't think I ever will.
It seemsto me that it would be fine if an art form or
a thingcouldbe createdthat wasso uniquelyBlackthat
it wasn'tnecessaryto have Tom's picturein front of it.
But it hasn'tbeen done. You talk about the need for a
Black male image:what you're really talkingabout is
thissociologicalthing.The Blackmaleimageis one thing,
but I wonderwhat happensto his work- or any workten, fifteen,yearsfromnow when the Blackmaleimages
aren'tstandingin frontof it andgivinga wholerundown
about what it's about, why I'm doing it, why I'm participatingin the community.If we're going to build a
culturalbasisthat is relevantto the Black community,
it shouldbe a culturalbasisthat'srelevantwhen Tom is
gone,whenwe'reall gone, somethingthat'sso embedded
in quality that it not only standsin Harlembut stands
anyplace.That'sa goal to shoot for.
One of the thingsthat Tom's addressinghimselfto is
the necessity,in termsof the socialstrife that we're in

now, to asserta lot of Blackthings.I canagreewith that


on one level, but on anotherI must talk about quality
as Mr. Gilliamhas,and what the level of the experience
of "Blackart" will be, and what exposureto it will do
ten or fifteenyearsfrom now. If I exposefive hundred
or sixhundredkidsto Blackart now,my hopeis that the
Black art will be of such a level that I will be instilling
some type of aestheticor valueswithin those kids that
they can drawon yearsfrom now.
MR. LLOYD:
That's good, but you see it hasn't happened. If we're going to acceleratethat kind of thing
we have to do it now.
Being separateand makingBlackart might possibly
be the answer.I'm not sayingfor sureit is, but I believe
it is. All I know is that nothing has happenedin the
past. It's a changethat hasgot to happen.
MR. BEARDEN:
I can't agreewith your argumentthat
has
nothing happenedin the past, Tom. Two yearsago
I went to the Grand Central GalleriesbecauseI had
heardso much about the worksof this man Henry O.
Tanner.I lookedat his picturesand I must concludehe
is one of the threeor fourgreatpaintersof America,the
only religiouspainter who in my judgment compares
with Rouault.This museumhad two of his pictures,but
they sold them.
The reasonyou can havea placelike the Metropolitan
is that you can bringart into this countryduty free. It
was a Blackwoman,EdmoniaLewis,who went to Congresswith W. W. Story and a few other artists,to have
the lawchangedso artworkscouldcomein withoutduty.
I couldgo on and tell you the thingsthat Blackartists
have done; so don't say nothing'shappened- it's just
been obscured.
The fact about this Black womanis fine,
MR. LLOYD:
but this is still a white museum,Blackpeople still don't
come here. Don't mention individuals,like Tanner.I'd
like to know more about him, but I haven't had the
opportunityto learnabout him. I'm not alone in this.
Don't tell me progresshasbeenmadebecauseof Tanner.
Sure, therehas been someprogress,but I want to know
about twenty Tanners.We're a whole race of people,
andyou know,whenyou talk aboutone, I know there's
somethingwrong.
MR. WOODRUFF:
Tom, why don't Black people come
to this museum?
MR. LLOYD:
They haven't been exposedto art. That's
the numberone thing:they haven'tbeenexposedto art.
They don't knowaboutBlack art, and if they did know
about it, people in the streetswould know that Black
artistsareshowinghere or at any othermuseum.That's
255

our fault, and part of society'sfault.


LAWRENCE:
You know, there'ssomethingI can't
understandhere, and it keeps botheringme. It's a term
that'sbeenusedoverandoveragain,"Blackart."I don't
understandthat. I thinkwe may aswell cut out the sentimental slush. "Blackart" meansmaybe somethinglike
"Blackart of Africa"or somethingproducedin some of
the earlierdays of America,in some of the ironworks
throughoutthe Southor thingslike that,whichcameout
of the experienceof a culturalgroupof peoplewho happen to havebeenAfricans.Hereit wouldbe morecorrect
for us to say "artby Blackpeople,"but not "Blackart."
When I say "Blackart" I mean the Black
MR. LLOYD:
experienceon a total scale: being Black, our heritage,
Africa,living in the Blackcommunity.
It is a total experience. We've been talkMR. GILLIAM:
the
visual
artsbecausewe'repaintersandsculpabout
ing
tors, but we must realizethat there are other formsof
art- theaterand music- that are much more capableof
havinga definite"Black"personality.We have to recognize that it's his total experiencethat influenceswhat a
persondoes. And it may not affectonly him, but some
other personregardlessof skin color: think of the influence of Africanart on Picasso,for instance,or on
Modigliani.
We artistsshoulddiscussart, and not leave it to the
civil rightsworkersor politicians.We have a feelingfor
it, and we don't belittle it.
MR.

MR.

LLOYD:

Well, being Black...

Is great.
I can't imaginean artist-a Black artistfunctioningwithout knowinghe's Black,without being
concernedaboutwhat'shappeningto us, without being
concernedaboutour very lives.We'reBlack.No matter
what kind of workyou do, you'reinfluencedby all these
things.
MR. LAWRENCE:
Is this alwaysevident looking at the
work?
person's
MR. LLOYD:
Maybe not. I never saidit's evident lookwork. I'm just sayingit's Black art.
someone's
at
ing
I can't agreewith that.
MR. WOODRUFF:
He's calling"Blackart"anythingdone
MR. BEARDEN:
by Black artists.
I just can't see how something is
MR. LAWRENCE:
"Black art." What you find are shows that deal with
some philosophyof art-minimal art or this art or that
art-and the artistsin each of those showswill belong
to many ethnic groups,Black artistsamongthem.
MR. GILLIAM:
By giving a show a kind of sociological
title, you know, or a political theme, you can make it
MR.

GILLIAM:

MR.

LLOYD:

a communityexpression.Look at the Sixty-sixSignsof


Neon, a show broughtfrom Watts, done by people in
Watts. Even there the reigninginfluencewas someone
like Ed Kienholz, becausethis is somethingthat's part
of the Los Angelesscene. I think that in certainareas
you cansay that art cancoexistwith the socialproblems.
MR. LLOYD:
Has it? I mean, what's happenedin the
past?
MR. GILLIAM:
I think the past is perhapsmuch more
importantthan what is going on now. Number one is
the fact that every Black artist that painted has been
involvedwith my situationin America-me and what's
happeningandconcernfor the Negro.Thiswasthe overwhat the artistwasconcernedwith,
ridingconsideration:
and what I looked for as a kid, and what I dealt with
when I was paintingfiguratively.But later on, you're a
matureartist,maybea greatone, if you can personalize
yourself,move from identificationwith somethingoutside yourselfto your own thing.
MR. BEARDEN:
A lot of this experienceis knit with
isn't
it?
For instance,you were saying in the
identity,
for
prospectus your show that the artist that turnsyou
on is Agostini.Every artist that you mentionedwas a
white artist.Now if you are this concerned,why didn't
you say that JakeLawrenceturnedyou on?
MR. LLOYD:
But JakeLawrencedidn't turnme on ...
he didn't turn me off either.
MR. BEARDEN:
No, I'm not sayingthat. I wouldexpect
that when the young kid who workedwith you has an
exhibit, say four or five yearsfrom now, if you've done
your work right, he's going to say that the thing that
turnedhim on was the experiencehe had workingwith
Tom Lloyd. This is differentfrom the stand you take
now, becauseeveryoneyou studiedwith, the peoplewho
turnedyou on, are all white.
MR. LLOYD: Yes, that's just the point - that's the thing

that bothersme: that thereweren'tany BlackAgostinis


around.Part of my function is concernfor my people,
not just getting in a little cornerand painting a little
picture.
MR. BEARDEN:
That's what we are saying, but we've
moved back into the questionof identity. It all has to
do with the artist.
MR. LLOYD:
Yes, Blackidentity, Blackart. That'swhy
I say "Blackart."
MR. GILLIAM:
The FrederickDouglassArt Institutein
Washington,whichstartedout as the Museumof African
Art, puts Africansculptureside by side with German
expressionist
paintings,printsby ModiglianiandPicasso,
and thingslike that, and bringsout a senseof identity

256
Photograph: Reginald McGhee

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i:

::::

very strongly.I want to knowhow Tom feelsabout this


kind of thing.
MR. LLOYD:
That'sfine with me.
You know,so muchneedsto be done.Therehas to be
sucha tremendousefforton the part of the Blackartist,
on the part of the culturalpowerstructure.I'm not too
sure,Mr. Lawrence,that the governmentis going to get
involvedwith the Blackartist;the governmentisn't going to give you somethingwhen you're going to turn
aroundand hurt them with what we create.
think the real thing that's bugging
MR. WOODRUFF:I
Tom is very evident. We want thesedoorsopen so that
the Negro, the Black man, can move in and shareand
sharealike.But the topicwe'rediscussingis the aesthetic
problemsthat the Blackartistfaces.
I think we need a definitionof aesMR. LAWRENCE:
thetics.Are we talkingabout space,line, form,or something much more broadand abstract-"experience"or
somethinglike that?
MR. WOODRUFF:
Well, I used the term becausethe
seems to suggestsomethingthat is
"Black
art"
phrase
differentin its structureand its formalmanifestation.
in termsof economWe've beenmakingdifferentiations
ics, socialimpact,galleryfacilities,museumsbeingclosed
to Black art, and so forth, and I think this should be
consideredin termsof whetherthe art reallydoes have
someparticular,specialform.
MR.

HUNT:

Well, "the aesthetics of Black art" is a prob-

lem I reallydon't addressmyself to, in either my work


or my thinking.The problemof the Negro in termsof
the contemporarysituationin art- showingin museums
and galleriesand all those things-seems to be more or
lesstied up with the prevailingcurrentsin art itself.For
instance,an artistwho'sworkingwith kinetic, light, or
minimalthingsmight have a better chanceof breaking
into the scenethansomebodywho'spaintingfiguratively.
All these things don't really seem that much different
from the problemsthat white artistsor any other kinds
of artistshave. Therearecertainkindsof socialbiaseson
the part of some of the establishmentpeople that you
mentionedthat might influencethings, but you know,
I reallydon't think those thingsare all that important.
I don't reallylike to go into definitions,but in termsof
my feelingaboutmy relationshipto my art I sortof separateit frommy life as a Blackman in America.Given
I'm a Blackman in America,I live fromday to day and
take thingsas they come. In termsof my work,I have a
certainkind of ideal that I want to attainand I findmyself beingable to do that as a Blackman in Americaand
living in a Black community.
258

As Hale was talking about things that characterize


Blackart, and art growingout of the soil, it cameto my
mind that I'm kind of regionalist.I come from Chicago
and I like living there. Listeningto Tom's description
of life here, I feel lucky that I was bornin Chicagoand
haven't had to contend with the sort of problemsthat
exist here. I come froma ruralbackground:my father's
from the ruralSouth, my mother'sfrom the ruralMidwest. I rememberthe thing that impressedme about
visitingmy father'srelativesin Georgia,one timewhenI
wasa kid, wasthat they hadsomelandthat they cleared,
and they took the logs to the sawmilland built their
houseout of them. It's kind of nice thinkingabout how
my unclecoulddo all that stuff;I thinkaboutthingslike
that- andmaybethisis whatTom is talkingabout,being
able to identify with positivemale images.It's like the
things you read about pioneersdoing. Of course they
were living in Georgia,segregatedand all, but at the
sametime they couldexercisethisabilityto makethings.
I seemyselfasa sculptoras beinga personmakingthings.
I may not make as good a sculptureas I want to make,
but those are my limitations,nothing ever comes out
exactlythe way you want it. At the sametime I feel like
I cando anythingI want to do. That has to do with family experiencesand schoolexperiences.I had Negro art
teachers-Mr. Johnson,Mrs. Currin-who encouraged
me and urgedme to go on to the ChicagoArt Institute.
Then I had other instructorswho were white and they
encouragedme too.
It's a combinationof things.I don't see how a Negro
in America,even with segregatedsituations,can escape
having influencesthat come from his family, from his
backgroundin the ghetto or whereverhe happensto be,
fromhis formaleducation,fromhis exposureto the arts.
The thing gets pretty much mixed up, and the idea of
separatingout these experiences,good or bad, Black or
not, seemssometimesratheruselessandsometimesrather
tiresome.

Well, I don't think so. You know what I


Mr.
think,
Hunt, is that you are a conditionedBlack
man. I think you are obliviousto what'shappening.

MR.

LLOYD:

MR.

GILLIAM:

Tom, I think you're acting more for the

conditions...
MR.

LLOYD:

That may be so, but I've got to say what

I think.
MR.

HUNT:

MR.

LLOYD:

That's perfectlyall right.


To me you don't seem like a man con-

cernedwith Black people,with Black kids, with Black


culture.I don't think that entersinto yourfeelings.And
that bothersme, that bothersthe hell out of me. You

know,whenI thinkof an artist,I thinkof a Blackartist,


not a Blackwhite artistor someonewho hasgiven in to
this kind of conditioningthat the white peoplehaveput
us in. I have childrenand I want the best for them, and
if they want to be artists,I want them to have the same
kind of exposureany other kid has. They don't have it
now, so I'm going to make suremine do. I care,I care
about my people and I think this is what every Black
artisthas got to do.
It's erroneousto presupposethat a perMR. GILLIAM:
son who doesn'tfollowa certainphilosophyall the way
doesn'tcareabouthis raceor his kids.We'reall badgered
by these things...
MR. LLOYD:
But this is the time for us to jump in and
bring changesabout, make things happen. And have
someidentity with our own doggonepeople.
It's also the time to distinguishrhetMR. WILLIAMS:
oric from realfacts.
I knowwhat realfacts are, I know what's
MR. LLOYD:
in
hundredyears.
two
happened
MR. WILLIAMS:
I think that we'reall too sophisticated
to accept easilyeverythingyou're saying,but I assume
thosefaultsareyour own, your own way of goingabout
what you'redoing.
I assumethat's the way he-Mr. Hunt-should go
about it, and that it's workedvery well- he's createda
thing that is uniquelybeautiful.But in my own case,I
find it very hardindeed to think of myself in termsof
doing Blackart, becauseit becomessuchan anonymous
thing. I find that I'm morehung up in my own frustrations and my own ego than anything else. When I'm
doing my own thing, I kind of go aboutdoingwhat I'm
doing,andhopefullyI can separatemy dailyfrustrations
on the surfacelevel from what I'm doing. Obviously
you're doing it, Tom, or else you wouldn'tbe working
with lights.WhatI'm tryingto say is that thereare two
levels that any man thinkson, whetherblack,green,or
otherwise.If an artist- a sculptor,musician,orwhatever
- if an artistgets so hung up in socialconditionsand in
what's happeningto him, he winds up in somethingI
call rhetoric.
MR. LLOYD:
That'snonsense.
MR. WILLIAMS:
Rhetoric to me is a point where one
so
involved
that
he's not going forward,he's standgets
still.
I'm
not
ing
condemningwhat you're doing; I'm
that
we're
at a very dangerouspoint. It seemsto
saying
me that the work of the artistat this point is to distinguishwhat'srhetoricandwhat'sprogressandwhat'sfact.
Art by natureis an aristocraticthing ...
MR. LLOYD:
What?

MR. WILLIAMS:
Art has been historically-historically
in the Westernsense- aristocratic.
MR. LLOYD:
That's been the troublewith our culture.
MR.

WILLIAMS:

If you're talking about bringing in an

Easternkind of philosophyof art, then it does become


kindof an anonymousthing.But I don't thinkany of us
are willing to do that. We're still dealingwith art in a
Westernsense;we'renot willingto give it up andgo into
a specialthing.So I thinkyou have to keep that in mind
when you condemnsomeone.
MR.

LLO Y D:

I'm condemning a whole lot of people.

I want to sum this up. Tom, what I


think you'resayingis that you feel the entire tradition
of Westernart is kindof empty now;you thinkwe must
developa certainculturalphilosophyfor the Blackartist.
Things,as they exist now,must be attackedon different
levels- economic,social,perhapseven political.Now, in
thisstruggle,in the civil rightsmovement,very little attentionhasbeengiven to the culturalneedsof the people.
So now let's considerhow the Blackartistrelatesto the
civil rightsmovement.How doeshe, or his work,or his
philosophy,relateto thesepressingproblemsof the Black
peoplein this country?
MR. LAWRENCE:
Well, I think you can relatein any
numberof ways,and the individualartisthas to solve it
in his own way. He may participatethroughthe content
of his work, or by donatinga piece that has no specifically relevantcontent. I know that we all relate to the
civil rightsmovement,and we all make contributions.
We give becausewe want to give. It's an obviousway of
helping,not a spiritualone, but it's a way that has an
immediate,definitebenefit.
MR. WOODRUFF:
Let me say that I've alwaysfelt that
one of the thingsthat we lack in the Blackworldgenerally, not only in the visual arts, is criticalscholarship.
That could do so much for the situationTom is talking
about.ClementGreenberg,forinstance,just aboutmade
JacksonPollock,andtherearemanyothersuchinstances.
We need a writer to make us known.We have no one
who can use the written word except yourself,Romie,
and you'rea painterbasically.Scholarshipfromour college men and othershas gone into the socialmovement
and civil rights.Look at your jazz critics,they'rewhite,
and most of your dramacritics are white. Even your
writers,like Baldwinand so on, aren'tconcernedwith
us. Someyearsago theseBlackwriterswerein Parisand
the Parispresswent to them and said, "Now, we know
aboutyourwriters;whatis the Negroartistdoing?"And
thosefellowscouldn'tsay anything- "I don't knowany
Negro artists"-and they couldn'tanswerthe question.

MR.

BEARDEN:

259

I believe that we need someoneto criticallyand knowledgeablyassessour combinedartisticefforts.There are


few Negroeswho do this, but that scholarshipis what
we need.
And I do think there should be a communalfeeling
amongthe Blackartists,whetheror not we paintor think
alike,or whetherwe sit down and beef like we'redoing
today. Whetherwe meet regularlyor whetherwe just
bumpinto each other in a bar,I think this is necessary,
in order to presentwhat I would call a kind of united
front. When we try to fight this battle singlehandedly
we'relost, we'renot even up to bat.You know,you need
a team to win a ball game;you can't do it with sandlot
techniques.
This hasto do in a very obliqueway with the so-called
culturalmovement,becauseuntil the Negro in Harlem
finallygets a decent place to live and food in his belly,
maybehe'll have no time to go look at our pictures.So
thereforethe whole revolutionis intertwined.
But what I sense is the great need is to have a man
who pointsout to galleriesand museumsthat this artist
is a good one and you shouldhave his work.
MR. WILLIAMS:

After that, I don't know if there's any-

thing I can say. I totally agreewith the idea of uniting


effortswith otherartists,whichis really,reallynecessary.
I don't knowabout othercities, but in New York I feel
an enormousseparationbetweenthe writersand the poets and the painters- peoplearekind of isolatedin their
own corners.
As for the civil rightsstruggle,it's very hard to distinguishwhatyou, on a personallevel,cando. My feeling
is "differentstrokesfor differentfolks."I kind of take it
as it comesand hope that I'm doing the properthing at
the propertime.
Of course there are "different strokes for

MR. GILLIAM:

differentfolks"- someare revolutionists,someare social


changers,somearepoliticians.I wouldsay that what we
of historyanda broad
shouldhelpdevelopis an awareness
culturalexchange,andset up the kindof institutionsthat
would providethe kind of educationalexperiencesthat
would visuallyorient people and make us awareof our
total role.
MR. HUNT:

I can only second that.

MR. WILLIAMS:

Can we add, also, that there should

be some intercitycommunicationas well.

MR.

LLOYD:

I'm just a little shocked because I think

our role as Black artistsis right up there in the front


line and we haven't been there, we haven't even been
heardof.
MR. LAWRENCE:

Now, you speak for yourself, not for

me- I've been there thirty years,you know.


MR. LLOYD: I'm talkingabout unity, I'm not talking
about one artistgoing that way and doing his thing. I
thinkwe shouldbe marching,I thinkwe shoulddo anything. This is part of our life; this civil rightsthing is a
strugglethat hasa lot to do with us, andwe haven'tparticipatedin it at all. I think that'sshameful.We'renot
interestedin the politicallife in the city, the civil rights
struggle.We'rejustdeadandyou knowwe'renot moving.
MR.

LAWRENCE:

MR. LLOYD:

Maybe you're not moving.

Well, I'm glad you're moving.

MR. BEARDEN: I feel that the artist hasto serve a movement the best way he can do it. Now we have a man
here, oldest among us; I don't think anyone has done
more than he and he's done it with his work. I'm not
sayingthis is the only way you can do it, but his works
inspiredme as a kid. This was a contribution,and all of
us aroundthis tablehope we aremakinga contribution.
Maybe we can't all go out and make posters, but we
can developour talentsin the best way we can.
MR. LLOYD: I just say get out and be concerned,and
we're not concerned.If we are, we haven'tlet our concern be known.
MR. BEARDEN:
Let's sum this up. Jacob indicatedthat
in the civil rightsmovementthe artistshoulddo all he
could, in his way, to assistthe developmentand liberation of the people.Hale indicatedcriticismand scholarship, to furtherwhat the Black artistwas trying to do,
wassomethingwhichhad beenlacking.I thinkboth Sam
and Williamfelt that each artist had a commitmentto
the struggle,but this wassomethinghe had to do in the
best way he could. I think Richardagreedto that too.
Tom felt that the strugglefor Black liberationwas allembracingand that we all had to get in thereand pitch,
do whateverwas necessaryto advancethe struggle.
In the discussionwe'vehad todaywe've coveredmany
problems.We'veposedproblems.Only time andhistory
will offer a solution.I think we have made a valuable
contributionhere.It's somethingthat moreartistseverywhereneed to do.

260
Photograph: Reginald McGhee

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The
Cultural

MetropolitanMuseum
Power

in

B A R R Y N. S C H WA R T Z

Time

of
of

Art:
Crisis

Mr. Schwartzis a memberof thefaculty of the Schoolof Humanitiesand


SocialScienceat PrattInstitute,andhas servedfortwoyearsas the Director
College,
of EducationalPlanningof the CentralBrooklynNeighborhood
His essayofers some
a free schoolfor Bedford-Stuyvesant
residents.
betweentheMuseum
as oneapproachtowardnewrelationships
suggestions
andthecommunities
it serves

IT IS ESTIMATEDthat by I975, six years from now,

have the participation of the community if these needs

half of the entire populationof New York City will be


non-white.Presentlyhalf of the childrenattendingNew
York City's public schoolsare Puerto Rican or AfroAmerican.Yet only recentlyhasThe MetropolitanMuseumof Art begunto appraiseits relationship,or lack of
one, with the surroundingcommunitiesit says it hopes
to serve.
If The MetropolitanMuseumof Art is to prove relecitizensit must alter
vant to Blackand Spanish-speaking
its traditionalconceptionsof itself in responseto the culturalneedsof ghetto residents.(i) Continuingand viable
relationshipsbetweenthe Museumand Blackand Spanish communitieswill have to be established.(2) The
Museumwill have to enlargeits conceptsof how to exhibit. (3) New criteriawill have to be applied in the
judgmentof what to exhibit. (4) The Museumwill have
to expandits servicesinto many new areas.

are to be satisfied.
To this end the Museumshould set up community
advisory boardsin ghetto areas,composedof genuine
communityleaders,practicingartistsand craftsmenwho
residewithin the area,andmembersof variousneighborhood organizations.It would be their job to articulate
waysthe Museumcanservecitizenswhodo not normally
derive benefitfrom the Museum'sefforts,to work with
the Museumin creatingideasfor neededandmeaningful
programs,and to serveas a feedbackmechanismfor the
evaluationof programsconductedwithin the community. The advisoryboardsshouldbe involvedin all Museum activitiesin their communitiesfrom inceptionto
completionasplannerswho suggestthe contentandform
of Museumfunctions,and not as consultantsto help insure the successof what the Museumwants to do. The
Museum, throughits advisoryboards,could becomea
communityinstitution.

Involvement in the Community,


or Community Involvement?

To Exhibit Is a Verb

The typicalinvolvementof institutionsin the ghetto is


characterizedby an enthusiasm-frustration-hostility
syndrome,and the MetropolitanMuseumwoulddo well to
avoid the mistakesof others.One cannotwork successfully in a ghetto by implementinga preconceivedprogram whose justificationis only the best of intentions,
The responseto this approachis unvarying:one is met
with resentmentbasedon what the communityinterprets as imposition,and is ultimately driven away by
overt hostility. If the MetropolitanMuseumwishes to
extend its public impact to all the citizensof the city it
must approachcommunitiesby askingwhat they want
and by putting the Museum'sresources,enthusiasm,and
expertiseat the disposalof the community.The community best knowswhat it needs, and the Museummust

The MetropolitanMuseumof Art must begin to think


of itself as an activity, not only as a structure.Ghetto
residentstravel less than those in middle- and upperand what happensfor a ghetto resiclassneighborhoods,
dent tendsto be limited to the activitiesthat take place
within his community.Since this is the case,if the Museum believesin communityinvolvementit must travel
into the community.
An identifyingfeatureof every ghetto is the vacant
lot. They arenumerous,filthy, rat-infestedspaceswhere
childrenand garbageinteract.The communitycan do
nothing about them, as they are private property;the
city respondswith futile "no dumping"signs.
The Museumcouldturntheseneighborhoodscarsinto
micro-museums.Temporaryuse of these lots for Mu-

262

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seum exhibitionscould be arranged,and perhapsthe


Departmentof Sanitationwould cooperatein clearing
the land. Here residentswould have access to exhibitions displayingindigenousart, exhibitionsspecifically
designedfor this audience,educationalprogramsreinforcingpositiveself-images,exhibitsshowingthe accomplishmentof Black and Spanishartists,and partsof exhibitscurrentlyofferedat the Museum'smainbuilding.
The meritsof such an undertakingare many:micromuseumswould physicallyenhancethe neighborhoods,
provide culturaland educationalenrichment,dramatically informresidentsof the activitiesand servicesof
the Museum,stimulatean appreciationof art within the
community,bringartistswho residewithin the community to its attention,andmakeconcretethe discrepancy
betweenenvironmentaluglinessand beauty.
The mechanicsof such an activity need not be complex. For example,the Museumcould-as the Brooklyn
PublicLibrarySystemhasdone- utilizea fleetof mobile
units, walk-throughmuseums,that might parkin these
units
lots. Domes, Quonsethuts, or simpleprefabricated
could be used. On the other hand, not all Museuminvolvementneedsstructures.An artshowcanbe presented
on a wallsurfacethroughthe useof a slideprojector;but
to be reallyeffectivesucha showmust be conductedby
a man who knowshis subjectand can sustaindiscussion
with the audience.Mobile slide shows in the ghetto
wouldbe an especiallysimpleway of reachinglargenumbersof people.
However successfultemporaryor travelingexhibits
are,it is the permanentandcontinuingculturalactivities
in ghetto communitiesthatwill have lastingimpact.The
Museumshouldbeginthinkingin termsof annexes,and
should supportor cooperatewith culturalinstitutions
that have naturallyarisenin the communities.If the
Museumfeels that the constructionof buildingsor their
maintenanceis outside its domain becauseof financial
considerations,there are still many ways it can support
the effortsof others.
One importantway wouldbe to expandits loan service to makemoreof its storedobjectsavailableto cultural
centersthroughoutthe city. For example,in BedfordStuyvesantthereare at least two housesthat have been
convertedinto centersfor the expressionof Blackculture.
Thesehave no institutionalaffiliationyet, and they representonly the effortsof committedindividualswho reside in the community.Accessto travelingexhibits,art
objects,and partsof specialexhibitsfrom the Museum
woulddo muchto encourage,support,andmaintainculturalactivitiesarisingin the communityitself.
A point to be rememberedis that the people in a

ghetto do not experiencetheir art passively:they want


objectsthat they can touchandplaywith - an argument
forusingartreplicas(anathemato manymuseumpeople)
in exhibits,or giving or lending them to culturalinstitutionswithin the ghetto.
The Content of Exhibitions
Perhapsthe communityadvisoryboards'majorcontributionswouldbe to help the Museumperceivethe kinds
of art to which ghetto residentsrespond.If the MetropolitanMuseumcan enlargeits ideasof what constitutes
a valuableoffering,it will be able to serve many more
people.For instance,an exhibitionabout drumswould
have immediateappealfor ghetto residents.The drum
is of greathistoricalimportancein Africancultures,and
a show depictingthe variationof the drum aroundthe
worldwould be very exciting. Also pertinentwould be
an exhibitof the artsof the Caribbean;anotheron the
many gods of man, stressingthe diverse depictionsof
deity; an exhibit of costumesof variouscultures;and
perhapssomethingas specializedas the influenceof Africanarton twentieth-centuryWesternartmight be more
germaneto the interestsof the peoplein the ghetto than
many of the Museum'spresentofferings.Ideally, communicationis a two-waystreet,and the Museummight
bring into its main galleriesart created by practicing
artistsin the ghetto, for the benefitof its visitingpublic.
The culturaloriginsof the BlackandSpanish-speaking
citizensof New York City are not in the West, and this
is a fact that shouldbe appreciatedby the Museumand
all of its visitors.There is no reasonwhy the mobile
units mentionedabovecould not, when they featureart
or Puerto
pertainingparticularlyto the Afro-American
entire
the
travel
Rican,
city. Certainlyour
throughout
awareof the posimore
has
to
become
white population
of
its
non-white
tive contributions
neighbors.
To this end the Museummight alsoconductas a regular program an ethnically varying "festival of the
streets." A Spanish festival, a Caribbean carnival, an
African ceremony could be presented within ghetto areas,
and in the Museum's main building as well. Indeed, at
the time of the Chinese New Year, for example, the
Museum might mount a complementary exhibit in its
halls and equip its mobile units to present this festival to
other segments of the population. These shows would
have the value of involving all of New York in the cultural celebrations of some of our "other-cultured"
citizens. The festival would be specifically designed to
highlight ethnic diversity as a positive contribution to
the cultural enrichment of all New Yorkers.

263

New Services
One of the most important ways the Museum can prove
practically relevant to the ghetto resident is through the
expansion and increased availability of existing services.
The Museum should create the position of cultural
field worker, a person who would act as a cultural agitator.
Through discussions with residents, block associations,
local community organizations, and artisan cooperatives
he would seek to initiate ways to enhance culturally the
community in which he lives and works. He would implement ideas offered by the advisory boards, make known
to all interested parties the resources of the Museum,
initiate and carry out projects such as community block
improvement, mural painting, local art shows, the creation of community cultural centers, and coordination of
art events among the various neighborhood schools. He
would help artists' groups in their searchfor financial support. He might be able to encourage the Sanitation Department to clean up vacant lots, and the Buildings Department to remove abandoned buildings, and he might
organize "paint-ins" to render those deserted buildings
still privately owned (and therefore unremovable) more
aesthetically pleasing. The Museum might make application to VISTAfor VISTAworkers to assume the strenuous and demanding responsibilitiesof cultural field workers at no extra cost to the Museum. The cultural field
worker would represent the Museum through creative action and serve the community by assisting in its projects.
The Museum is about to create a Department of Architecture, a department that could play a vital role in
easing the plight of those who live in ghettos. The ghetto
resident is more often the victim than the beneficiary of
architectural planning because there is no one to represent the great numbers of people who are built around,
moved out, and manipulated in neighborhoods with the
worst living conditions in the city. The Department of
Architecture might function as an educational and consulting arm of the Museum by informing people of their
rights, by acting in their behalf as sponsor for community-initiated redesign of ghetto areas, by offering architectural assistance to local groups involved in renovation,
by developing plans alternative to those requiring extensive dislocation of residents, by serving as an information
center for people seeking community housing improvement, and possibly by using whatever influence it may
have to persuade city agencies to act in the community's
interests.
The Museum has an excellent Exhibition Design De-

264

partment, and its services should be extended to advising


and assisting community organizations that are trying to
create cultural centers, art shows, and exhibition techniques. Since in most cases economics determine the
nature of an exhibition, the Design Department could
prepare a manual describing the latest sophisticated techniques at the lowest price.
The Personnel Office of the Museum is a vast clearing
house for talent, although at present its only concern is
finding qualified individuals to fill positions on the Museum's staff. This department could expand its function
by directing applicants to community employment opportunities as they are made known to the Personnel
Office. Community organizations might thus be able to
find many talented people to work in the ghetto, people
whom they may otherwise have no contact with. The
Museum should also continue its apprentice training
programs of actively seeking Black and Puerto Rican
apprentices, thus opening up numerous career opportunities for many young people. The Personnel Office might
also do well to search out qualified Puerto Rican and
Black professionals to fill employment openings at the
Museum.
Exhibition space should be made available to worthy
groups who need space for specialized shows. Although
Museum space is at a premium, the Metropolitan should
have some system for assisting in finding other locations.
Surely there are many organizations in the city that
would be glad to exhibit art: think of the space available
in banks, or in office reception rooms and lobbies, or in
church parish halls. The Museum could act as a central
point for pairing requests with offers of space.
All these ideas are not meant to replace what The
Metropolitan Museum of Art has traditionally done, but
to indicate a redirection of some of its effort toward the
areas of greatest need today. The obligations of the Metropolitan Museum transcend allegiance to any particular
cultural history or artistic bias, but as one major institution in a divided community it must help promote social
equity and cohesion. The Museum operates in the area of
values, helping people to form what are considered informed and intelligent judgments about the worth of art
in their lives and ultimately about each other. The appreciation of and involvement with art has a fundamentally
moral function, standing on the side of creation in a world
fraught with conflict and tension. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, by affirming the value of all cultures and
ethnic groups in this city, could do much to create mutual respect, without which there will be only chaos.

Poor

Peoples'

PRI S CILLA

Plan

TUCK E R Freelancewriter

We are concernedwith changingthe architect'srole. We envisiona changefrom


the architectrepresentingthe richpatronto the architectrepresentingthe poor,
representingthem as individualsand as an interestgroup.This implies,we feel,
studyingcities from a differentpoint of view. Not whetheror not the architect
dislikescars,but whetheror not people actuallyuse carsand want cars;finding
out whatideaspeoplehaveaboutmoderntechnology,abouta goodkitchen,about
a good street,abouta desirableway to live, about the use of a window- whether
it's just for ventilationand light, as Le Corbusiersaid, or whetherit's in fact a
placewherepeoplemakecontactwith the street. A bridgeto the community.
So what we are trying to captureis not Brasiliabut that shantytownnext to
Brasilia;not Tema (Ghana'snew city), but Ashiaman,the shantytownnext to it.
They are shantytownsonly becausethey do not have the public servicesand facilities that Brasiliaor Tema have, but they do possessthe spirit and life of an
urbanplace that Brasiliaor Tema lack. They are in fact the people'screation,
full of the vibrancyand color that go with life.
Architects'
RenewalCommittee
in Harlem,1968

the Architects' Renewal Committee in Harlem, is working toward in


its plans for the future of Harlem is not city building but city living. Soul architecture.
And what they expect to produce is not a revolutionary master plan but a city village,
reflecting a different balance between local, neighborhood needs and metropolitan priorities. "The real issue," says Max Bond, executive director of ARCH, "is not taste or
technology. The real issue is the intent of the society. If you have the will, technology
will follow. We have good design, good architects, but we do not have good cities
because our goals are not good."
What is revolutionary about Black city planning today is its goals. First, that there
should be more important functions for preciouscity land than making money. Second,
that the ghetto architect should be a representative of the poor people, responding to
their wishes, rather than an advocate of the white middle class imposing its compartmentalizing values and gridiron street plan upon Black and Spanish-speakingpeople
who have quite other social ideals. And third, that it's worth seeing whether they
might be able to come up with a better environment for city living than traditional
city planners have been able to achieve.
WHAT

ARCH,

265

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"In consideringwhat a 'people-planned'


city would be," Bond writes,"I think we
have to relateto the currentfadamongarchitectsfor studyingGreektowns,anything
built by the people.In every casewe find not only a coherentexpression,but one full
of individualvariety,full of richness,full of life. Architectsseek this and writemonographsaboutit but neverdo it. And we'retrying to find a way to do it."
ARCH, a small,nonprofitgroup of young Black architects,city planners,and lawyers, fundedpartlyby the Officeof EconomicOpportunity,partlyby privategrants,
and partly by commissions,was founded in I964 to provide planningand urban
design servicesto low-incomecommunitiesthat otherwisewould lack them. ARCH
fosters community involvement, helps obtain federal funds for low-cost housing,
urbanrenewal
interpretsrent and housinglaws,helpsdevelopcommunity-supervised
Black
people.
plans,and triesto save land for
This last has turnedout to be crucial.For with the soaringland valuesand severe
apartmentclutch, one group that definitelyhas Harlemon its mind is New York's
realestatemen.As the centerof New Yorkmovesuptown,visionsdancethroughtheir
headsof lucrativeapartmenttowerslookingdown the length of CentralPark from
IIoth Street to their high-rentcounterpartson CentralPark South. And of I25th
Street made over into Sixth Avenue stoneland.Down with the Apollo and Daddy
officeblockbusters.
Grace;up with maximum-land-utilization
The line is being held by communitybrushfiresof resentmentand resistancein a
the piers,I ioth
numberof areas:the EastHarlemtriangle,WestHarlem/Morningside,
Street, I25th Street, the St. Nicholasarea,and that most famousbrushfireto date,
scene by Columbiastudentsover putting the university'sgym
the world-publicized
in MorningsidePark.
Agitationdoespay off. "Sincethe riots,white realestatedevelopershave beenmore
willingto negotiateand therehave beenmoregroupswithinthe communitywillingto
sponsorprotest."
Unfairas manyof the developers'projectssound,they comeinto focuswhenlooked
at from the angle of the stereotypedwhite picture of Harlem:filthy, falling-down
hallwayscompletewith tatteredchildrenand rats. Needed: white money and white
knowhowto reclaimthe hideousslum.
In fact, Black people live in some of the best real estate in the city. "Physically,
Harlemis terrific,"is the way Max Bond puts it.
While emphasizingthe need to eliminatethe rotting tenements,he points to Harlem's humanscale, to the fact that Harlemwas well and spaciouslylaid out for the
middleclass(unlikethe LowerEast Side, which was built crampedfor immigrants).
Insteadof harpingon seedy alleys that breedcrime,he talksabout Harlem'sgreat
hillsidesand slopes,about its broadboulevardsand potentiallywell-definedstreets.
Insteadof focusingon the honky-tonkfacadeof I25th Street, he notes its superior
location,quicklyaccessibleto both Kennedyand La Guardiaairports,an expressstop
on every majorsubwayline.
And while recognizingthat dilapidated,overcrowdedhousingdoes force many of
Harlem'sactivitiesto take placein the streets,he praisesthe spiritand entertainment
266

of that street life. "The elements in the Black community that we would like to maintain as good, that we feel are good, have their origins in the street organization. You
can send your children out to play and the neighborhood will take care of them, because the street is the living room. The streets are informal, they're real. They're the
place where your friends are, but where the enemy (the police) is, too. Black people
enjoy the streets; they like to go for walks. Everyone is at home outdoors. Many
cornersare symbolic places- I25th Street and Seventh Avenue where Malcolm X used
to speak, Michaud's bookshop used to be- in the struggle for equality, for liberation."
So while real estate men would like to get tall office buildings lined up shoulder to
shoulder and turn I25th Street into yet another traffic tunnel, ARCHaims at preserving

I25th Street's "main street quality." "All the other crosstown streets are anonymous.
What has happened to 8th Street is a good example of what we don't want."

Drawing:

ARCH

Their planhasa lot of charm.A tree-linedmall,sidewalkcafes,stands,two kindsof


buses- expressesfor thoseintent on theirdestination,localsfor thosewho ride the bus
for fun. And the tall officebuildingsarescatteredto the side or backof the block,and
are servicedby low, garage-likeunloadingand parkingbuildings,to keep cars and
trucksfromtakingover the street.The goalis not just charm:ARCH
wantsto demonstrate that Black people can plan for themselves,and wish to create their own environment.

Any Harlemstreet is a communityplace,a placefor meetingand chatting.By the


sametoken Blackpeopleare morepublicabout their houses.They do a lot of entertaining. One ARCH suggestion for innovative Black housing is "rooms that float between

apartmentsand couldbe usedby a womanwho wantsto takein sewing,by the family


who wantsto take in a boarder,or by the familythat has a relativecomingup from
the South."
When ARCH planners talk about parks, they don't stress a return to nature: they
talk about maximum use. Their plan for Morningside Park does not send the Columbia
playing field back to grass; it appropriatesit for Harlem's use. It does not fill in the
blasted gym site; it turns it into a natural amphitheater for Motown rock groups, the
"Last Poets," the New Heritage Repertory Theater, and local performers.And it puts
in a swimming pool/skating rink, a soul-food garden, play areas,a seating wall, meeting
steps, sand pits, a fort, an outdoor exhibition area. And, they say, why not have bars?
"People might come into the park and bring a part of their lives."
In sum, Bond says: "I imagine that the Black city would be like a very rich fabric.
It would not be a fabric with a superimposedpattern but one with multicolor threads
running through it. A great mix of housing, social facilities, and working places, rather
than a series of distinct zones, each separate, each pure, each Puritanical. A Lincoln
Center, pompous and dull and completely aloof from the surrounding blocks, simply
could not happen in a Black city. Art for art's sake is not part of the Black world.
Black art is always concerned with defining the Black experience."
What would the ideal Black city look like? It is impossible to say, because "so far
Black people have not had the chance to express their culture in built things."
What would be such a Black city's effect on the rest of America?At best the Black
man's spirit, outgoing life style, and demand for human scale and urban meeting places
could have a vital, invigorating effect on cities, much as jazz and soul and slang have
had on American music and language.
To those who are appalled by the idea of the poor having a say in an area traditionally
the province of those with extensive professionaltraining, Max Bond suggests: "There
is no great danger in seeing whether other ways of determining architecture might
work. The people cannot do a worse job than architects have done. How could the
people possibly be more parochialand less sensitive to real human needs and concerns?"

268

Salvation Art
FRANK

CONROY

WHEN I WAS S IXTEEN,

Author of "Stop Time"

going to summer school to make up for certain failed courses,

I met a kid named Duke who lived uptown. He was an easy-going boy, strong for his
age, with light brown skin and enormous dark eyes. He played jazz guitar and fooled
around on the piano - our friendship had started at the keyboard, in fact, both of us
cutting class to play illicit four-hand blues on the Washington Irving High School
grand. He lived in a housing project on upper Lexington Avenue, and I used to go up
on those hot summer nights and hang out. I met his family, of course- his father who
worked at the Post Office, elderly grandmother who talked about the old days in
North Carolina, sister who went out with a sailor and kept trying to lose weight, and
his mother who cooked, in her tiny kitchen, some of the best food I'd ever eaten - but
most of the time Duke and I were out of the apartment, on the street. There were
dances in the basement of the project, some fantastic stickball games in the dark, an
occasionalcrap game, and once in a while a little drinking of wine, but the main activity
was talk. We talked and talked the nights away, sitting up on the black iron rail of the
project fence jiving the girls and shooting the breeze with the neighborhood studs.
Duke was an utterly straightforwardkid. Very calm, gentle, and a good companion.
I didn't realize at the time how rare his situation was- the family intact, father working, mother working half a day, the whole group, including Duke, up for church on
Sunday mornings. He was well liked in the neighborhood, and the fact that I was his
pal was all the cachet I needed. We shared a delight in the spoken word, and perhaps
that was why, when the great jive artists came by, the master talkers, the magicians,
they always stopped to say hello.
At first I didn't understand them, that is to say I didn't understand many of the
words they used, nor the exact meaning of many of the idioms, but I got the drift.
It seemed not to be necessary to know all the words, so much of the message was in
the delivery itself, in the rhythms, silences, and dynamics of a language that is half
words, half music. They were beautiful cats, each with his own voice, his own instrument, grooving themselves and everyone around them. Language was a feast.
As the summer passed I learned the words and the idioms. I talked myself the way
I had always talked, but my ears missed nothing. I missed nothing Duke did not miss.
And at precisely that point I began, without knowing why, to feel uncomfortable. The
initial technical mysteries of the uptown vernacular had been cleared away only to
reveal a deeper mystery. What were they talking about? I knew the words, I knew
270

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The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin

www.jstor.org

the music,I relishedevery subtlechangeof dialectfor comicor dramaticeffect, and


yet the essentialsubjectmatterof most of the talk was beyondmy grasp.There was
somethingstrangeabout talk uptown. Rumors,hints, unspokenframesof reference,
allusionsand exaggerationsfilledevery speech,as if the speakerwereunablethrough
somepreviousbondof honorto speakdirectly.Therewasa senseof urgency,as if each
artist, in looking over his shoulder in the midst of an important phrase, expressed the
fact that the roots of conversation were elsewhere. All of Harlem seemed to be covered
by an immense oral network, a spider web of talk in which each strand trembled sympathetically to the movement at the center-a placeless, timeless center that no one
had ever actually seen, and of which I would remain, ipso facto, forever ignorant.
When it began to get cold the street life ended and Duke and I went our separate
ways. It wasn't until a year later, under entirely different circumstances,that I began
to understandsome of the mystery.
I was working at a hot-dog stand in the Union Square subway station, a three-week
stint until I got something better, with two Puerto Rican kids who spoke no English.
Not that communication would have been possible even if they had, since we worked
in the midst of a continuous blast of noise sufficiently loud to drown out everything
but a scream.The noise of the crowd, the roar of the trains,and the never-ending crash
of the turnstiles were in themselves enough to overload the ears- additional explosions
from the air hammersof two workmen tearing out an undergroundentrance to a bank
no more than ten yards away seemed comically unnecessary.(They were still at it when
I quit.) With so much noise the experience was more like silence than anything else.
Deaf-mutes, the customers pointed to what they wanted and paid without speaking.
I worked, making the simple robot moves it was my duty to perform, with only my
eyes alive. The Puerto Rican kids filled me with sadness. Eager, alert, and dedicated
in their shit jobs, they rushed back and forth on our narrow slatted runway for no
reasonat all, as if they were somehow getting points for snappiness,as if someone were
watching, when in fact had they died where they stood the crowd would not have
noticed, would not have paused, but gone on, oblivious, intent on its brute impetus.
Almost without being aware of it, I began watching the two old Negroes who ran a
shoeshinestand in a sort of cul-de-sac behind some girdersnext to us. Their movements
hypnotized me. Eventually, I spent every day watching their dance.
They had few customers. One or two an hour. Someone passing by would glimpse
them through the girders, detach himself from the crowd, and go and climb on the
stand. His shoes would be shined by a man who seemed not to notice the tools of his
own trade or even the color of the leather. Whichever of the two old Negroes administered the shine, he seemed truly not to be there while he was doing it. If the customer
broke the spell by moving his feet on the brasssaddles, speaking, or in any other way
forcing a response, old shoulders would move under the cheap gray jacket in such a
way as to express irritation- as some diplomat waiting for the imminent arrival of an
important personagemight shrug away an annoying underling.
When they were not shining shoes they were moving, drifting, wandering around
the two or three hundred square feet behind the girders. They did not rush, and yet
271

their moves were purposeful,they held the purposefulness


of people waiting for an
importantmessageor contact.The crowd,awesomein numbersand weight, unquestionablystrong,moved by - but the two old men seemedalwaysto be lookingpast
the crowd,above the crowdinto the distance.(Of coursein the subwaytherewasno
distance.Nor, sinceboth of them wereshort,couldthey have been trulylookingover
the crowd.They wereassumingthe posturesof menlookingoverandbeyondit.) Their
individualmovementsand theircollectivetwo-manmovementswerea danceexpressing the fact that they werenot simplyshoeshinemen, they werenot in any waydefined
by the circumstancesimmediatelysurroundingthem, but were men whose deepest
interestslay elsewhere,beyondthe visible.
And I believedthem.Therewasnot the slightestfraudulencein theirdance.It was
their life they danced.I believedutterly in them as two importantmen disguisedas
shoeshineboys. (To besure,I alsobelievedin myselfas an importantboy disguisedas a
hot-dogman.) They had the auraof powerfulmen, and without thinkingabout it I
acceptedthem as such. I enteredtheirdrama,findingmyselffollowingtheir eyes out
over the crowd, findingmyself waiting,anticipatingsome mysteriousoccurrence.I
existed behindthem as their powerful,moreknowledgeablespiritsradiatedoutward,
calling,contacting,exchangingmessageswith other powerfulspiritsbeyondmy ken.
And then one day I sawsomethingin the faceof one of them,a subtle,indescribable
and I knew that althoughthere
expressionof stoicismtiring, of death approaching,
had been no fraud,ratheronly a philosophyto sustainthemselves,therewasno basis
for their danceof hope, no one they werewaitingfor, no intereststhey held beyond
the visible,and no more to them than what I couldplainlysee. It was a tremendous
shock.SimultaneouslyI understoodabout the summer.The mysteriousreferences,rumors,and allusionshad been withoutfoundation.What I had heardon the streetsof
Harlem,andwhatthe two old mendancedin the roaringsubwaywasstyle- sheerstyle.
Fantasyweavesin and out throughBlack culturelike gold thread in a tapestry.
An entire people have respondedto miseryby creatingfantasiesas powerfulas the
pain they have endured.

272

An

Interview
grewup on rI5th Street in Harlem.He went to George
School
and by the time he was sixteenwas addictedto
WashingtonHigh
kick
He
able
to
the habit about five yearsago, and since then
was
drugs.
in
Air
Force
been
the
and held a variety of jobs. Now, at twentyhe has
four, he finds himselfa freshmanat Harvard.The followingexcerptsare
from an interviewheld in Cambridgeone autumnday with JaneSchwarz,
a freelancewriter.
WILSON

BURCH

How old wereyou whenyou graduated


from highschool?
Sixteenand a half.

How didyou likethe Air Force?


I didn't. But I begandoing my own thing there.

And on dope?

Whatdoyou mean?
Well, in the Air Force I learnednot to be ashamedto
knowmyself.And I got an insightinto how peoplereact
to everydaythings,to see humanreciprocity- how one
guy dependson anotherguy. This leadsto understanding the whole psychologyof crowdsand how they can
be manipulated.

Right.
Andthenyou did what?
Hustled.
Do you regretit?
No. Why shouldI? I was doing exactly what I wanted
to do.
Whendidyou decidethatway of life wasn'tso good?
I didn't exactly decide it wasn't good-I just realized
that I wantedother things.
Whatmadeyou realizethat?
EssentiallyI realizedit all the time. I lived a pretty fast
life. Since early childhoodI've been exposedto rough,
gut, Black reality.I just decidedit was time for me to
do somethingabout it.
Whatdidyou do?
I saw that the only way to get some of the things I
wanted was to give up dope. And I decided the only
way to accomplishthat was to removemyself from the
whole scene, to go awaywhereI could see other things,
become interestedin other things. So I went into the
Air Force-I used the serviceto get rid of the habit.
To get awayfromdrugs?
To get awayfrom the environment.DrugsI can handle.
But the idea of being subjected to the whole Black
ghetto scene, to the very subtle humility, to counting
yourselfasa second-bestentity, wassomethingI couldn't
tolerate.

Did you everfeel thatyou couldn'tmakeit?


Sure, at certain times I've felt that life's been insurmountable,but it's not a thing I've adheredto as a
philosophyor elseI wouldbe dead.I just wouldn'thave
been able to make it this far, becausethere have been
any numberof dead ends in my life that I've had to
cope with just in orderto live.
My earlylife wasvery muddledbecauseI didn'tknow
what I wantedto do. I was reallytrying not to identify
with myself.But now the bag'sdifferent.I'm doingmy
thing.
Whathas becomeof yourfriends?
Mostly all dope addicts.
Whydidyou cometo Harvard?
I had decided to go to school and I was influencedby
someonewho was a Harvardgraduate,who broughtme
to talk to someof the admissionspeople.
Haveyou givenany thoughtto whatyou mightmajorin?
At this point I'm undecided.For all practicalpurposes
my intendedfield of concentrationis economics.
Whataboutphilosophy?
All the directionwe have now is basedon a bunch of
273

The Metropolitan Museum of Art


is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend access to
The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin

www.jstor.org

attitudes of the young up to where they should be in


order to cope with the future.
Do you thinkpeople in Harlem will resentyour coming up
hereto Harvard?
Why should they? I don't have any problem relating to
them. When I go back I won't be a "boojie"-a bourgeois nigger-I'll still be the same guy; I'll be able to
talk to the drug addicts, to the hustlers, to the people.
You really feel this experienceat Harvard isn't going to
changeyou?
It can't. My characteristics are pretty definite at this
point. If I had come to Harvard when I was first out of
high school, I would have changed.
If you had to describeHarlem, how would you do it?
First of all, it's home to me. It's a Negro ghetto, in New
York City where all the Negroes who come from the rural areasin the South have settled. And it's a happy place.
At the same time it is a very sad place, where drugs are
very, very prevalent.
What helpedyou most duringyour childhood in Harlem?
I have to give a great deal of credit to my parents. I was
really pushed by my father and mother; I don't think
they really understood in what direction they were pushing me, but they did try to do what they could for me.
It's the same attempt all parents make. That, added to
the fact that I've always placed a lot of strength in my
own convictions and what I thought I could do.
To some extent I was lucky, because there are many
things that could have happened that didn't happen.
I've taken a lot of chances, I've been confronted with
death several times, and just the fact that I'm still here
indicates to me that I have something to do.

old, archaicprinciples-you know, Greek, Romanphilosophy,hundredsand hundredsof yearsold. It doesn't


approximatethe realitiesof right now. There'sno such
thing as a modern-dayphilosophyand it's desperately
needed.
Areyou doinganythingin the Cambridge
community?
I'd like to use the manpowerhere- the studentsfrom
Harvardand Radcliffethat want to teach- to develop
a schoolsystemthat wouldbringsomeof the benefitsof
the Harvardtype of educationto the poorkids of Cambridgeand Roxbury,both Blackand white. I think it's
a necessity.The schoolsystemsaredeplorable.I want to
directsomeof the militantenergiesof the universityand
communityinto education,to bringingthe minds and
274

Do you know what this somethingis?


Well, I sway people. When I talk with Black people it's
a very spontaneous thing - ears open, eyes open, and they
believe. I feel obligated to tell them what they need to
know, to be very definite about what I believe in, to
cause them to question my beliefs and the beliefs of others, and not to accept anything as truth without question. I feel as though it's my job to teach, it's my job to
demonstrate, it's my job to love, and eventually it will
be my job to die.
I've taken the wrong road a couple of times, but somehow I've always known that a great man lives his life
knowing that he's responsible for the plight of other
people and that he has the ability to do something.

Do you expectto go backto HarlemafterHarvard?Do


to Harlemand otherghettos?
you feel a responsibility
I feel a responsibilityto myself.I'm definitelygoingback
to Harlem;to all the otherghettos all over the world.
Youfeel thatyour life'sworklies in helpingthepeopleof
theghettos?
Wait a minute.I'm not an idealistor anything.It's just
that becauseof my past I realizethat the only way to
help myselfis throughhelpingBlackpeople.It's as simple as that. I don't care how it sounds.Every man has
in mind and everythingelse is secondself-preservation
It's
the
self identifiedwith a problem,but
always
ary.
first the self. I'm not saying that to try to play down
the fact that I sincerelywant to help peopleand Black
people. BasicallyI believe in humanbeings.To hate is
wrongbut it's a very necessarything.A manwho knows
that he has a job to do has to understandthe human
emotionsthat causepeople to act in certainways. Hate
is very useful- if you canget peopleto hate blindly,you
can get them to forget about some of the things that
reallybotherthem.So leadersresortto it. Knowingthat
somedayI'll lead people, I would hope to establisha
precedentof not havingto resortto it. AlthoughI don't
know.
Whatdo you feel thatyou yourselfcan do in Harlem?
I'd like to get rid of the existingdope problem.
How wouldyou go aboutit?
If you want to rid Harlemof dope, you need a total annihilationof the city's narcoticslaws. You see, the city
lawsdiffertremendouslyfrom the state lawsand aredesigned to keep dope containedwithin Harlem.In New
York City, for havinga certainamountof drugsyou'd
probablyget a suspendedsentence.For the sameamount
of drugsin New YorkState you wouldprobablybe confined to jail for a year.

Beyond changingthe laws, what else should be done about


the narcoticsproblem?
You're going to have to deal with the junkie himself.
It's been proven by statistics, if statistics prove anything,
that the recidivism rate-the rate of return-is about
eighty-five per cent. So you have two possibilities: either
the institutions that rehabilitate drug addicts are wrong,
or you have to accept the idea that you can't cure a drug
addict. Okay, start off with the institutions. There are a
lot of very, very bad things that are wrong with them.
They act as if they don't realize that narcotic drug addiction is about eighty-five per cent psychological, about
fifteen per cent physical. To rehabilitate a drug addict
you have to analyze the reason why this man resorted to
drugs. First of all, because they were available. Secondly,
because there is some deep psychological problem that
he's trying to run away from. In order for an institution
to be effective it has to handle this problem; it has to
reorient this man, it has to give the man a sense of values.
In other words when he's cured he has to be able to come
back into reality; cope with it as it is. They don't do
that. You have to give him a means to earn a living.
They don't do that. They give him some really bull job
that he doesn't want to do, that he feels is beneath him.
In order to rectify all this you have to set up an institution that will consider dope a psychological problem,
and attack it from that direction. You then have to accept the fact that you can't cure all dope addicts. So
what do you do for the ones you can't cure? Either the

Youhonestly
feel there'sa consciouseffortto containdrugs
withinHarlem?
It has to be conscious.First of all, no Blackman brings
dopeinto the country- he justdoesn'thavethe facilities.
It's broughtin by the white man. Now, secondly,the
marketsfor narcoticsare all in certainplaces.All right,
then if you look at the lawsthey are all designedto contain it within a certainarea.It's reasonableto sell dope
in New York City, because,numberone, the laws are
suchthat you arenot going to get the maximumamount
of time, and numbertwo, it's profitable.

Photograph: Virginia C. Myers

federalgovernmenthas to recognizedope as a sickness


and handleit as a medicalproblem,or they must make
it very unattractivefor anyoneto sell dope by giving it
away free. Or stop letting it in the country.
Is thisfeasible?
Well, dope'sgoing to get out of hand. It's going to tap
the lily-whitechildrenin Scarsdaleandall the othersuburbanareas.It's no longer a thing that's just going to
contaminatethe Black folks. It's going to take over
everybodyif they don't watchit. They realizethis now.
It's too bad they didn't realizeit long before.
Whatelsedo you wantto do in Harlem?
I'd like to teachfor a while.I'd like to see the Blackman
educated,actuallyhave him know what directionsociety's going in and why it is going that way. In other
wordshave him know somethingabout the basic psychologyof the forcesthat controlhim. Teachinga really
thorough course in Black history in school would be
good.The Blackmanshouldlearnthe simplefactsabout
things like slavery and religioussuppression.If he can
understandthat these are things he createdhimself, it
wouldrenderhimfree to do otherthingswith his energy,
to use untappedmental potential towardpreservation
of humanityand not spendall his time hating.
I'd like to see the Blackman becomemore interested
in his own identity and stop thinkingabout the white
man. But don't get me wrong, I don't hate anybody
becausethey'rewhite. It's a dreary,drab,sick thing to
hate. There'sa lot of it in Harlemnow and it is what is
needed.There'sno other way that people can begin to
manifest their own sense of pride, their own sense of
being. Hate is a tool that they're using right now. It's
only when hate is carriedto an extremethat it becomes
really harmful.In small doses it can cause people to
changeand can be a usefultool.
Wherewouldyou beginmakingthesechanges?
With the children.Simply try to reorientthe children;
give them the self-pride,the identity that they need.
That'show it worksfromgenerationto generation.You
educate the children.Give them the properimagesto
emulateand then they themselveswill rectify the existing chaoticconditions.
Whataretheseimages?
A Black man who's sufficientlystrong, who can cope
with reality;who's not going to run out and leave his
family, who's going to be there; who's a fighter,who's
not a quitter, becausequitters never win. Just a man,
period.
276

How shouldthe Blackman go about changinghis selfimage?


He must starteducatinghis own childrenin an environment that they arecomfortablein. Give them backtheir
media
identity. Use the advertisingand communications
to projectto the peoplea senseof pride,a senseof being
important.Essentially,beingimportantlies within each
individual,every humanbeing on this planet is important.
Isn'tit difficultto convinceyourselfthatyou areimportant
if you don'thavea job andyourkidsarehungry?
If we just analyze the thing from a logical standpoint
we'd find that the reasonwhy people in Harlemdon't
have jobs, and why there is poorhousing,is society.Society has really made it very hard for the Black man.
He is not allowedthe opportunityto educate himself,
and knowledgeis power.They say the whole system is
based on educationbut it's not. The system is based
on knowing,knowinghow to take the things that you
know and make them useful.The traditionalsystemhas
made it impossiblefor the Negro to get anywhere.Not
only doesn't he have the knowledgeto acquirecertain
jobs, but therehave been occasionswhereNegroeshave
had the knowledgeand beendenied the job for one reason or another.
will self-knowledge
How, specifically,
helpthe Blackman?
It will showhim that he hasno problemin society.That
he's a man. That he can compete.Take my father:he's
mademoney, but he's not a happyman. He hasn'tbeen
able to see that in this society the fact that he was able
to acquireit means that he's able to compete. All the
timehe'ssortof beensufferingfromthispsychosis,thinking that he wasn't as good as he is. He's not a quitter,
so in a sensehe's won.
Thisself-pridewill haveto comefromwithintherace?
Right. There'snothing that the powerstructurecan do
for the Blackman except just leave him alone.
So there'snothingthatoutsiderscan do for Harlem?
Well, there are a lot of whites in Harlemnow who are
doing a good job. Their intentions are sincere, but I
think their job is to handlethe white folks.
In Harlem?
Not in Harlem,justhandlethe whitefolks,period.White
society is educatedin the rudimentsbut not in the realities and that'swherethesepeoplecan help.The average
white man comesinto a ghetto like Harlem.He experiencesfor the first time in his life the gut feelingof what

prejudiceactuallyis: the personal,spontaneousemotion


that comes from within when you know the people
aroundyou don't like you. They don't know whether
you'reevil or good, they dislikeyou simplybecauseyou
representsomethingthat'sforeign.Now the white man
findshe'safraid,becausenowhe'sgot to dealwith people
he knows nothing about-people that know all about
him just by readingbooksthat reflecthis image.So how
does he handle these people?He has to do one of two
things: he has to give them somethingto cope with,
somethingto fear,somethingto not understand.But he
realizeseven now that is very difficultto do becausethe
sleepingtiger has woken up. So, if this won't work ...
in comes the UrbanLeague,the AmericanChristianin
Africa.
Well-intentioned
groups,you mean?
Well-intentioned,but here'sthe thing:someof my best
friends,peoplelike you, are in Harlem,and they have a
place.But they don't control;they don't pay the piper
so they don't call the tune. They can be used; their
effortsaremisrepresented.
How so?
Well, the Urban Leagueand groupslike that come in
and educate the Black man and give him money. But
he doesn'tmake the money. He still is placedwithin a
society that he has absolutelyno controlover. So what
good is it? You're telling people that the only way to
get ahead is to get money, "becomeeducatedso you
can get more of this, so that you can get the money
that I have."
Giving themmoneyis not the answer.Makingmoney
availableso that schoolscan be built, so that we'll have
the properrecreationfacilitiesso Blackpeoplecandivert
some of the energiesand intentionsthat they have towarduseful,meaningfulthings- that'sa good thing.But
just the money?What good is it?
This is somethingthat reallybugsme. The idea that
a certainamountof moneycando somethingis not going
to work. There are alreadyenough institutions.There
hasbeen this grossapproachto the problem.How do we
in fact help a millionpeopleat one time? You can't do
it. What has to happennow is to begin to deal with the
individualneeds of Mr. So-and-So.That doesn't apply
only to Harlembut all over the world.
The Black man has been in slaveryfor six thousand
years:he's not going to suddenlyevolve one afternoon
and be a freemanand be able to do whathe wantsto do
any placehe goes. It will take time for him to get what
he thinkshe wants,for him to get any sortof power,for

him to beginto createa destinyforhimself.It's not going


to happenall of a sudden.
Whataboutthesuburban
groupsthatrecentlycamein and
paintedhousesin Harlem?
I don't see anythingwrongwith that. Essentiallyit's not
the fact that they come in and paint, it's the fact that
they realizethat therehas been injusticeperpetratedon
the partof thosein control.These peoplethat represent
the middleclass,they'renot the ones that count. Their
position is really no differentthan the position of the
people in Harlem.The only thing they have is a little
moresecurity,but they don't have free will, they don't
controlthe government.The powerin the government
is controlledby about ten per cent of the populationof
this country. They sit back entombedin their houses
someplaceon some mountainand they own the media,
they determine.
Thesegroupswho come to HarlemfromWhite Plains
are just humanbeingsreactingto a very humansituation. They see somethingwrong and they react as any
other humanbeingswould or should.
Thereis nothingwrongwith them tryingto help.The
fact that they help will for a lot of them relieve their
consciencesabout differentbeliefsthat they have. You
don't thinkeveryonewho comesis a do-gooder,do you?
It's certainlynot the truth.They aren'tall therebecause
they arein love with Blackpeople.Some of them come
to Harlemto help Blackpeoplebecausethey hate Black
people;they come becausethey feel that somehowtheir
hatescan either be justifiedor disproven.
WhataboutthepeoplewithinHarlem,whatcan theydo?
Essentiallywhatyou'resayingis whatcan the Blackman
do for himself.What he can do is changeas the times
change. In his heart he knows that things are getting
better. But I don't think that just becauseof this he's
going to becomecomplacent.He knowsthat in orderto
changeanythinghe's going to have to actively partake.
The answerto the Black man'sproblemdoes not lie
in Harlem,it lies in the Blackman. It lies in his awareness that he's not in this world by himself,that he's in
thisworldwith millionsand millionsof otherBlackpeople who are being controlledby a very smallminority.
The answerto his problemwill come throughintensified
communication,
throughbecomingautonomous,through
economicmanipulation.The Black man must somehow
learn to use the economicpotentialfor power that he
has. He must createhis own economicsystem.
Whatsortof economicsystem?
A systembasedon me and every otherBlackman.Now
277

we have a subsistencelevel-we do in fact acquiresome


of the grossnationalproduct.But we could combineall
our individualincomesinto a force that would be very
effective in a capitalistsociety, like boycott. We comprisesucha percentageof the blue-collarlaborforcethat
if we all stoppedworkingall throughthe countryat one
time, it would have quite an effect. These are workable
mechanicsthat the powerstructureusesitself.Theseare
workablemechanicsthat the Blackman hasin his grasp.
be doingmore?Is the government
Shouldthegovernment
awareof thesituation?
Don't ask me that. You know the government'saware.
They study laborstatistics,they have economicprojections, they know what being poor is about, they create
the conditionsthat exist in this country.
createdtheproblem?
Youfeel thegovernment
Not the problem,the problems,all over the country. I
mean,do you thinkfor one minute that the government
doesn'tknow?I admit that there are people there who
have altruisticmotives, who really don't know what's
goingon andwouldreallylike to do something.But there
are a lot of people there that reallyknow. They know.
Whataboutpoliticsin Harlem?
Well, politics is the game in this economy.In a democratic society, the power is in the political structure.
Yearsago it used to be - well, at one point it was force,
then wealth. Now it's changeda bit. You don't necessarilyhave to be wealthyto be powerfulin this country,
all you have to do is havepoliticalstrength.Andpolitical
strengthis essentiallypeople- it's peoplehavingcontrol
of people. Hitler wasn'ta rich man, he just could sway
people. He was a dynamicpersonalityand that's what
the real power is. That's what television is all about:
sellingand indoctrinationand exploitation.
Whatcould someonelike me do to changeexistingconditions?
Believe and care and be sincere. If you believe that
what's going on is wrong, then let your beliefs guide
you to do whateveryou think is necessaryin order to
change the wrong.If your beliefsare strongenough to
keep you from falteringor being misled,you are going
to changethe conditionsthat you do not believein.
There'sno one thing you can do: it's a very complex
problem.You do your little thing and I'll do mine and
throughall these little changesyou're going to have a
very big change.It's possiblethat all these little things
278

will make a revolution necessary. Becoming frustrated


because you can't do your little thing because the system
won't allow it, might make it obvious to people that it's
necessary to have another system to do their thing in.
There is going to be power politics between the Black
man. There are two different mentalities existing right
now: the so-called Black mentality and the so-called Negro mentality. Both factions are going to acquire some
power and some wealth. The ideologies are not going to
be the same and you are going to have war.
Then how can you say that Harlem'sgetting better?
Out of this upheaval something will evolve, something
that is going to be good. Harlem and the Black people
have to go through a whole series of changes.
What changes?
Well, first of all, after they find their identity, after they
know who they are, then they've got to decide what to
do and how to do it. They've got to start thinking about
the Black man's position in fifty or sixty years, how he
relates to humanity.
In fifty years there will definitely be political turmoil.
You can see it happening now with the death of Malcolm X. I think that was the first cleavage in the whole
cycle; it's definitely a thing that you're going to see happening more and more. As people acquire power, along
come the necessary evils that one acquires with power.
It's not going to be a happy time. That's why I don't
like to think of it in fifty years' time; I'd rather think
of it in a hundred years' time.
What would you hope for the future of Harlem?
In the future Harlem will be a community handled by
Black men who will be a new breed of men with a new
social awareness. The Negro in this country will still be
in the minority as far as numbers go, but there will be
a different situation. Harlem will be the melting pot, or
stopping-off place, for a huge symposium of Black people
from all over the world, because of the intensified communications now going on between the African factions
and some of the factions within Harlem. So the people
who are in power in Harlem will become very significant
Black people throughout the world. You'll have internal
struggles with some sort of underground type of thing
finding its roots in Harlem. It will probably be the place
-and I'm sure everyone knows it -where the revolution
starts in this country, if one starts. The brainpower will
come from a place like Harlem and so will the money.

What steps would you take to insure a betterchildhoodfor


your own child than you had yourself?
Well, when I have a child - this is going to sound sort of
conceited-all he's got to do is just be like his dad and
he's going to make it because his dad's a winner. Never
been a quitter all his life.
I'd instill in him a sense of pride and free will. I'd also
like to give him a set of values that he can live by and
pass on.
But you are an exceptionto the rule.
Not exactly an exception because there are a lot of exceptions. There are a lot of people in Harlem that have
got what it takes to make it but they have the wrong
values. That's what had me really in bad for a while:
trying to understand what's worth having and what isn't.
This society is based on money and what money can do
for an individual, not on the abstract sort of things that
mean more than money: ideas, desires, ambition.
For a long time I was a cheat. I used the power I had
to persuade people to do what I wanted them to do for
my own benefit. I've had money, but I wasn't happy,
and that really made me begin to see that it wasn't in
money. I found out that my values were nowhere; that
they weren't going to get me what I wanted. They
weren't even going to get me what I thought I wanted.
I didn't want the same things then that I want now.
At this point I'm glad my life was the way it has been.
Primarily becauseI understand life a lot better than most
people and I'm not stymied by reality. If I had had some
of the things I wanted - what I thought Iwanted: the best
of everything - I don't think I would be the type of person that I am today and I don't think the possibilities
that I have now would be open to me. I've never been
as happy as I am right now.

Photograph: Gordon Parks,


LIFE Magazine

HARLEM

Cultural

SELECTED
JEAN

History

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BLACKWELL

HUTSON

Negroes in America
Chambers,Lucille Arcola (ed.). America's
TenthMan.... N.Y., 1957.
Davis, JohnPreston.AmericanNegroReference Book. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1966.
Hughes, Langston, and Meltzer, Milton.
PictorialHistory of the AmericanNegro.
N.Y., 1956, 1963.
Myrdal, Gunnar. An AmericanDilemma.
N.Y., I944.
Osofsky,Gilbert. TheBurdenof Race.N.Y.,
1967.
Pettigrew, ThomasF. A Profileof theNegro
American.Princeton, N.J., 1964.
Richardson, Ben Albert. Great American
Negroes.N.Y., 1945.
United Asia. TheAmericanNegro.Bombay,
1953.

Who's Who in ColoredAmerica.N.Y., irregularlypublished, 1927-1944,1950.

History of Harlem
Bercovicis, Konrad. Around the World in
New York. N.Y., 1924.

Citizens' Protective League, New York.


Story of the Riot. N.Y., 1900.

Jay, John. An Address on Behalf of the


Colored Orphan Asylum. N.Y., 1844.
Johnson, James Weldon. Black Manhattan.
N.Y., 1930.

Klein, Alexander (ed.). The Empire City.


N.Y., I955.
Lavelle, Louis A. The Political Butcher Knife,
Now Again Threatens Colored Populated
(Central) Harlem....
Again Like Unto
I916. N.Y., 1926.
Little, Arthur W. From Harlem to the Rhine:
The Story of the Colored Volunteers of
New York. N.Y., 1936.
McKay, Claude. Harlem: Negro Metropolis.
N.Y., I940.
Morand, Paul. New York. N.Y., 1930.
New York's Harlem Business Register. N.Y.,
'951.
Osofsky, Gilbert. Harlem: The Making of
a Ghetto; Negro New York, 890o-930o.
N.Y., 1965.

Ottley, Roi, and Weatherby,William. Negroes of New York. N.Y., 1967.

Pickens, William. The New Negro. N.Y.,


1916.

Pierce, Carl Horton. New Harlem, Past and


Present. N.Y., 1903.

FederalWriters'Project, New York (City).


New York City Guide: A Comprehensive
Pollard, Myrtle Evangeline. HarlemAs It
Guideto the Five Boroughsof the Metrop2 vols. N.Y., 1936-1937.
Is....
olis....

New York. N.Y., 1939.

Graham,Stephen. New YorkNights.N.Y.,


1927.

Headley, Joel Tyler. Penand PencilSketches


of the GreatRiots. Philadelphia,I877.
Hrdlicka, Ales. AnthropologicalInvestigationson One ThousandWhiteand Colored
Children.. .. With AdditionalNotes on
OneHundredColoredChildrenof the New
YorkColoredOrphanAsylum.N.Y., 1899.
Hunton, Addie W., and Johnson,Kathryn
M. Two ColoredWomenwith the Expeditionary Forces. Brooklyn, N.Y.,

1920.

Riker, James. Harlem (City of New York).


N.Y., I88I.

Riverdale Children's Association. Annual


Reports. N.Y., 1837-.
---. From CherryStreetto Green Pastures.
N.Y., 1936.
. 20othAnniversary. N.Y., 1956.
Scheiner, Seth M. Negro Mecca. N.Y., 1965.
The Survey (periodical)....
The Negro in
the Cities of the North. N.Y., 1905.
Survey Graphic (periodical). Harlem, Mecca
of the New Negro. N.Y., 1925.

The materialin this bibliography,


compiled in the summer of 1968, can
befound in the SchomburgCollection
of Negro Literatureand History,
New YorkPublic Library, 1o3 West
135 Street,N.Y. oo0030.
Biographies
are alphabetizedby subject.

BIOGRAPHIES
Washington,S.A.M. GeorgeThomasDowning. Newport, 91o0.
Aron, Birgit. The GarveyMovement.N.Y.,
1947.
Cronon, Edmund David. Black Moses.
Madison, Wis., I955.
Garvey, Amy Jacques.Garveyand Garveyism. Kingston, Jamaica,1963.
Garvey, Marcus. Philosophyand Opmions.
2 vols. N.Y., 1923-1925.

Goldman, Morris. The GarveyMovement,


1916-1927.N.Y., 1953.
Monoedi, M. Mokete. Garveyand Africa.
N.Y., 1923.

Nembhard, Lenford Sylvester. Trials and


Triumphsof Marcus Garvey.Kingston,
Jamaica,1940.
Gordon, Taylor. Bornto Be. N.Y., 1929.
Johnson, James Weldon. Along This Way.
N.Y., 1933.
Julian, Hubert Fauntleroy. Black Eagle.
London, 1964.
Kee, Salaria.A Negro Nurse in Republican
Spain. N.Y., 1938.
Lobagola,Bata Kindai.An AfricanSavage's
Own Story. N.Y.,

I929,

1930.

Nkrumah, Kwame. Ghana, The Autobiographyof KwameNkrumah.N.Y., 1957.


Hooker, James R. Black Revolutionary:
GeorgePadmore'sPathfrom Communism
to Pan-Africanism.
N.Y., I967.
Pickens, William. BurstingBonds. Boston,
1923.

. The Heir of Slaves. Boston, 1911.


Robeson, Paul. Here I Stand. N.Y., I958.
Graham, Shirley. Paul Robeson,Citizenof
the World.N.Y., 1946.
Hoyt, Edwin Palmer.Paul Robeson.Cleveland, 1967.
Robeson, Eslanda. Paul Robeson, Negro.
N.Y., 1930.

280

The Metropolitan Museum of Art


is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend access to
The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin

www.jstor.org

Seton, Marie. Paul Robeson.London, 1958.


Miller, Kelly. Roosevelt and the Negro.
Washington, D.C., 1907.

Dean, Elmer Wendell. An ElephantLives


n Harlem(CharlesChristopherSiefert).
N.Y., 1945.

BIOGRAPHIES

Lee, Hannah Farnham. Memoir of Pierre


Toussaint.Boston, I854.
Sheehan,ArthurandElizabeth.PierreToussaint, A Citizenof Old New York.N.Y.,

1953.
Rogers, Joel Augustus. World'sGreatMen
Alexis, Stephen. Black Liberator:The Life
Color.
N.Y., I946-I947.
of
of ToussaintL'Ouverture.N.Y., 1949.
Thomas,Will. The Seeking.N.Y., 1953.
CitizenToussaint.Boston,
Hawkins, Hugh (ed.). BookerT. Washing- Korngold,Ralph.
I944.
ton and His Critics.Boston, I962.
Waxmon, Percy. The BlackNapoleon: The
Marshall, Edward. Booker T. Washington,
Story of Toussaint L'Ouverture.N.Y.,
The World'sMost ExtraordinaryNegro.
I93I.

N.Y., I9Io.

Fauset, Arthur Huff. SojournerTruth....


Matthews, Basil Joseph. Booker T. WashChapel Hill, 1938.
ington.... Cambridge,Mass., 1948.
Pauli, Hertha Ernestine. Her Name Was
Scott, Emmett Jay. BookerT. Washington.
Truth.N.Y., 1962.
Garden City, N.Y., 19I6.
Earl.HarrietTubman.Washington,
Conrad,
Spencer, Samuel R. BookerT. Washington
D.C., I943.
and the Negro's Place in AmericanLife.
Walker, David. A Brief Sketchof the Life
Boston, I955.
and Characterof David Walker.N.Y.,
Washington, Booker T. Up from Slavery.
1848.
N.Y., I19I.
Ward, Samuel Ringgold. Autobiographyol
Chew, Abraham. A Biographyof Colonel
a FugitiveNegro.... London, i885.
CharlesYoung.Washington,D.C., 1923.
Who's Who in Harlem: The Biographical
Registerof a Groupof DistinguishedPerand Charitable
sonsof New York'sHarlem.Vol. I - 1949- Religious
1950. N.Y., 1950.

Institutions

De Costa, Benjamin Franklin. ThreeScore


and Ten: The Storyof St. Philip'sChurch.
N.Y., 1889.
Historical and Social
Fauset, Arthur Huff. Black Gods of the
Background
Metropolis:Negro ReligiousCults of the
UrbanNorth.Philadelphia,1944.
DuBois, William Burghardt. Black ReconGreaterNew York Federationof Churches.
structionin America.N.Y., I935.
The Negro Churchesof Manhattan.N.Y.,
. The Gift of Black Folk. Boston,
I930.

I924.

Franklin,John Hope. FromSlaveryto Freedom. N.Y., 1967.


Kennedy, Louise V., and Ross, Frank. Bibliographyof NegroMigration.N.Y., 1930.
Litwack, Leon F. North of Slavery: The
Negro in the FreeStates, 1790-I860. Chicago, 1961.

Meier, August. Negro Racial Thought in


America 1880-I9I5, Racial Ideologiesin
the Age of Booker T. Washington.Ann
Arbor, I963.

Meier, August, and Rudwick, Elliot. From


HisPlantationto Ghetto:An Interpretative
tory of AmericanNegroes.N.Y., 1966.
Moon, Bucklin. Primerfor White Folks.
N.Y., 1945.

Negro Year Book. Tuskegee, Ala., I9121947; N.Y., 1952.

Schoell, FranckLouis.... U.S.A. Du Cote


des Blancset des Noirs. Paris, 1929.
Scott, Emmett Jay. Scott'sOfficialHistory
of the AmericanNegroin the WorldWar.
Chicago,

9 I9.

Woodson,CarterG. TheNegroin OurHistory. Washington, D.C., I922-I962.

Hodges, George W. Touchstonesof Methodism.N.Y., 1947.


Huggins, Willis Nathaniel. Contributionof
the CatholicChurchto the Progressof the
Negroin the UnitedStates.N.Y., 1932.
Johnson,John Howard. The Warand Other
Addresses.N.Y., 1942.
Kenrick, Bruce. Come Out of the Wilderness: The Storyof East HarlemProtestant
Parish.N.Y., 1962.
Mays, BenjaminE., and Nicholson, Joseph
W. The Negro'sChurch.N.Y., I933.
New York Colored Mission. Annual Reports.N.Y., 1869-.

King, Martin Luther, Jr. The GreatMarch


to Freedom(Phonodisc). Detroit, I963.
. A Martin Luther King Treasury.
Yonkers, I964.
. We Shall Overcome:The Marchon
Washington,1963 (Phonodisc). Council
for Civil Rights Leadership, n.p., n.d.
. Why We Can't Wait. N.Y., I964.
Bennett, Lerone. What Manner of Man:
A Biographyof Martin LutherKing, Jr.
Chicago, 1964.
Reddick, LawrenceDunbar ... Crusader
WithoutViolence:A Biographyof Martin
LutherKing,Jr. N.Y., 1959.
Martin, CharlesDouglas. "He Is Worthy":
Sermon delivered by Rev. Charles D.
Martin at Bath-Tphillah Moravian
Church, 126 W. I36th St., N.Y N.Y.,
I9I9.
Georges, Norbert. Meet Brother Martin
(Martin de Porres).N.Y., 1935.
Jordan, John P. ... Dark Man of God:
Life of Martin de Porres.Dublin, 1952.
Tarry, Ellen. Martinde Porres:Saint of the
New World.N.Y., 1963.
The Torch (periodical).. . . Articlesfrom
The Torch: 1945-1950, 5oth Anniversary
of the BlessedMartinGuild. N.Y., 1950.
Merton, Thomas. The Seven-StoreyMountain. N.Y., 1948.
Lunn, Arnold Henry Moore. A Saint in the
Slave Trade (St. Peter Claver). N.Y.,
1935.
Powell, AdamClayton, Sr. Againstthe Tide.
N.Y., 1938.
. Palestine and Saints in Caesar's
Household.N.Y., 1939.
. Patriotismand the Negro. N.Y.,
1918.

. Riotsand Ruins.N.Y., I945.


Sketchof the Life of Rev. CharlesB. Ray.
N.Y., 1887.

Robinson, James Herman. Road Without


Turning: The Story of Rev. James H.
Robinson.N.Y., I950.
Yates, Elizabeth. Howard Thurman....
N.Y., I964.

Walters, Bishop Alexander. My Life and


Work.N.Y., I9I7.

Political and Economic


Changes

Bowens,MarxG. "The NeighborhoodCenter for Block Organization,"in Murray,


Harris,Sara (Cowen). FatherDivine. N.Y.,
Life.
Clyde E., GroupWorkinCommunity
N.Y., I954.
I953.
Brazeal, BrailsfordR. The Brotherhoodof
Hoshor, John. God in a Rolls-Royce,N.Y.,
1936.
SleepingCar Porters:Its Originand DeParker, Robert Allerton. The Incredible
velopment.N.Y., 1946.
Messiah:TheDeificationof FatherDivine. Burley, Daniel Gardner.Dan Burley'sOriginalHandbookofHarlemJive.N.Y., 1944.
Boston, 1937.
Rozier, Mary (self-namedFaithful Mary). Cayton, Horace, and Mitchell, George S.
andtheNew Unions.Chapel
"God," He's Just a Natural Man. N.Y.,
BlackWorkers
Hill, 1939.
1937.

BIOGRAPHIES

28I

Christmas,Walter.Negroesin PublicAffairs Marshall,F. Ray. The Negroand Organized


and Government.
Labor.N.Y., I965.
Yonkers, I966.
Citizens' Housing and Planning Council of Nathan, Winifred Bertram. . . . Health
New York. HarlemHousing.N.Y., I939.
Conditions in North Harlem: 1923-1927.
N.Y., 1932.
City-Wide Citizens'Committeeon Harlem,
New York. The Story of the City-Wide New York (City) Committee on Slum
Citizens' Committeeon Harlem. N.Y.,
Clearance Plans. North Harlem, Slum
ClearancePlan UnderTitleof the Housing
I943.
Act of 949. N.Y., 1951.
Cunard, Nancy. Negro Anthology: I931New York (City) Mayor's Commissionto
I933. London, 1934.
DuBois, William Edward Burghardt. In
Investigate Conditions in Harlem...
Battle for Peace. N.Y., 1952.
CompleteRiot ReportBared.N.Y., I936.
New York (City) Mayor'sCommissionon
- . The Negro Artisan. Atlanta, 1902.
. 20th Century:"The Centuryof the
Conditionsin Harlem. TheNegroin HarColorLine." Pittsburgh, I950.
lem: A Reporton Social and Economic
ConditionsResponsibleforthe Outbreakof
Dunbar, Barrington. "Factors in Cultural
MarchI9, I935. N.Y., I935.
Backgroundof the British West Indian
Negro and the AmericanSouthernNegro New York Foundation. Reporton the Harthat ConditionTheir Adjustmentto Harlem Projectby the ResearchCommittee.
lem." Unpublished Master's thesis, CoN.Y., I947, 1949.
lumbia University, N.Y., 1936.
New York Urban League. Twenty-Four
HundredNegro Familiesin Harlem....
Early, Eleanor. New YorkHoliday. N.Y.,
N.Y., 1927.
I950.
Ford, JamesWilliam. Hungerand Terrorin Ottley, Roi. "New WorldA-Coming":Inside BlackAmerica.Boston, I943.
Harlem.N.Y., 1935.
Ford, JamesWilliam,et al. SlumsandHous- Ovington, Mary White. Half a Man: The
Status of the Negro in New York.N.Y.,
ing: With SpecialReferenceto New York
1911.
City.2 vols. Cambridge,Mass., 1936.
. The Walls Came TumblingDown:
Frazier, Edward Franklin. Negro Harlem:
An EcologicalStudy.N.Y., I937.
How the N.A.A.C.P. Began.N.Y., I947.
. The Negro in the United States. Record, Wilson. The Negro and the CommunistParty.Chapel Hill, I941.
N.Y., I949, I957.
. The Negro Family in the United Reid, Ira De A. The NegroImmigrant:His
States.N.Y., 1939, 1948.
andSocialAdBackground,Characteristics
Frost, Olivia (Pleasants).Some Sociological
justment,I899-1937. N.Y., 1939.
Aspects of the Realty InvestmentMarket Simon, Kate. New YorkPlaces& Pleasures.
in New York'sHarlem.N.Y., I95 .
N.Y., I959.
Harris,AbramLincoln. The Negroas Capi- Spero, Sterling D., and Harris, Abram L.
talist. Philadelphia,1936.
The Black Worker.N.Y., I931.
Haynes, George Edmund. The Negro at Taeuber,Karl E. Negroesin Cities.Chicago,
Workin New YorkCity:A Study in EcoI965.
nomic Progress. N.Y., 1912.
U.S. Bureauof Labor Statistics. Negroesin
the UnitedStates:TheirEconomicand SoHirayama, Yonezo. A Yellow Man Looks
at a Black World.N.Y., 1936.
cial Situations.Washington,D.C., 1966.
Weaver, Robert C. Negro Ghetto. N.Y.,
Hughes, Langston.FightforFreedom.N.Y.,
I96I, 1962.
1948.
Jack, Robert L. Historyof the N.A.A.C.P. WelfareCouncilof New York City. Central
HarlemStreetClubsProject.Workingwith
Boston, I943.
Johnson,Bessie McIntyre. A Studyof Free
Teen-AgeGangs.N.Y., 1950.
Adult Education Interestsas Applied to Woodson, Carter G. A Centuryof Negro
W.P.A. Adult Education,Harlem.N.Y.,
Migration.Washington,D.C., I9I8.
I940.
Johnson, James Weldon. Negro Americans, BIOGRAPHIES
WhatNow? N.Y., I934.
Bullock, Ralph W. In Spite of Handicaps:
Kiser, Clyde V. Sea Islandto City:A Study
BriefBiographicalSketchesof Outstanding
of St. Helena Islandersin Harlem and
LivingNegroes.N.Y. 1927.
Other Urban Centers. N.Y., 1932.
Kugelmass,JosephAlvin. RalphJ. Bunche,
Lait, Jack.New YorkConfidential.Chicago,
Fighterfor Peace. N.Y., I952, I962.
Jones, Claudia.Ben Davis, FighterforFree1948.
Lewis,EdwardS. TheMobilityof theNegro:
dom, with an Introduction by Eslanda
A Study in the AmericanLabor Supply.
Goode Robeson. Brooklyn, N.Y., 1954.
N.Y., I93I.
DuBois, W.E.B. DuskofDawn. N.Y., I940.
Locke, Alain Leroy. TheNew Negro.N.Y.,
Broderick,FrancisL. W.E.B.DuBois. Stanford, Calif., I959.
1925.
Lovejoy, Owen R. The Negro Childrenof Rudwick, Francis L. W.E.B. DuBois....
New York.N.Y., I932.
Philadelphia,1960.

DuBois, W.E.B. A RecordedAutobiography


(Phonodisc).New York, n.d.
Herndon,Angelo. Let Me Live.N.Y., 1937.
Hunton, Addie D. William AlpheusHunton ...

N.Y., 1938.

Johnson, JamesWeldon. Along This Way.


N.Y., 1933.

Copeland, George Edward. James Weldon


Johnson, A Bibliography. N.Y., I951.

Phelps-Stokes Fund. EducationFor Life:


Phelps-StokesFund and Thomas Jesse
- 1913Jones. A Twenty-fifthAnniversary
1937. N.Y., I937.

Lee, Reba (pseud.). I PassedFor White....


N.Y., I955.

Hubert, JamesHenry. TheLife of Abraham


Lincoln: The Significanceto Negroesand
Jews. N.Y., 1939.

Pickens, William. AbrahamLincoln, Man


and Statesman. N.Y., 1930.

Quarles, Benjamin. Lincolnand the Negro.


N.Y., 1962.

Lotz, Philip Henry. Rising Above Color.


N.Y., 1943.

Ovington, Mary White. Portraitsin Color.


N.Y., 1927.

Powell, AdamClayton, Jr.MarchingBlacks.


N.Y., I965.

Lewis,Claude.AdamClaytonPowell.Greenwich, Conn., 1963.

Hickey, Neil. Adam ClaytonPowell ...


N.Y., 1965.

Terrell, Mrs. Mary Church. A Colored


Womanin a White World.Washington,
D.C., 1940.

White, Walter Francis. A Man Called


White. N.Y., I948.

Cannon,Poppy. A GentleKnight,My Husband, Walter White. N.Y., I956.

ESSAYS

Adams, Julius. The Challenge:A Study in


Negro Leadership. N.Y., I949.

Baldwin, James.The FireNext Time. N.Y.,


I963.

. Nobody Knows My Name. N.Y.,


I96I.

. Notesofa NativeSon. Boston, I955.


DuBois, W.E.B. Souls of BlackFolk.N.Y.,
I903,

I905,

I907,

I920,

I953,

I961.

Ellison,Ralph.ShadowandAct. N.Y., I964.


Locke, Alain. The New Negro. N.Y., I925.
Wish, Harvey. The Negro Since Emancipation. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1964.

Contemporary Harlem
Ashmore,HarryS. TheOtherSideof ordan.
N.Y., 1960.

Baldwin, James. "Fifth Avenue Uptown:


A Letter from Harlem,"and "East River
Downtown, Postscript to a Letter from
Harlem," in Gold, Herbert, FirstPerson
Singular,EssaysfortheSixties.N.Y., I963.

282

Photograph:GeorgeFrye

Behan,Brendan.BrendanBehan'sNew York.
N.Y., 1964.

Bontemps, Arna, and Conroy, Jack. Anyplace but Here. N.Y., 1966.

Botkin, B.A. New YorkCityFolklore.N.Y.,


1956.

Broderick,Francis L., and Meier, August


(eds.). NegroProtestThoughtin the Twentieth Century. Indianapolis, 1966.

Brown, Claude. Manchildin the Promised


Land. N.Y., I965.

Clark, Kenneth Bancroft. Dark Ghetto.


N.Y., I965.
. Negro Protest. Boston, I963.

Clarke,JohnHenrik (ed.). Harlem,A Community in Transition. N.Y., I964.

. Harlem, U.S.A. - The Story of a

City Within a City. Berlin, 1964.

ColumbiaUniversityBureauof AppliedSocial Research.A HarlemAlmanac.N.Y.,


I964.

Cruse, Harold. Crisisof the Negro Intellectual. N.Y., I967.

De Carava, Roy, and Hughes, Langston.


The Sweet Flypaperof Life. N.Y., 1955.
Dissent (periodical). The Radical Imagination: An Anthologyfrom Dissent Magazine. N.Y., I967.

DuBois, W.E.B. An ABC of Color....


Berlin, I963.

Garfinkel, Herbert. When Negroes March:


The March on Washington Movement in
the Organizational Policiesfor the F.E.P.C.
Glencoe, Ill., 1959.
Harlem Freedom School. Africa, Lost and
Found (Phonodisc). N.Y., I964.
Harlem Neighborhoods Association. New
York Youth Services Committee Directory
of Social Welfare and Health Services
Available to Central Harlem. N.Y., 1966.
Harlem Youth Opportunities Unlimited,
New York. Youth in the Ghetto. N.Y.,
1964.

Harrington,
N.Y.,

Oliver.

Bootsie and Others.

I958.

Harris, Richard E. Delinquency in Our


Democracy. Los Angeles, 1954.
Hentoff, Nat. Our ChildrenAre Dying (public schools). N.Y., 1966.
Hughes, Langston. The Book of Negro Folklore. N.Y., 1958.
. The Book of Negro Humor. N.Y.,
I966.

Krosney, Herbert. Beyond Welfare: Poverty


in the Supercity. N.Y., 1966.
Levitt, Helen. A Way of Seeing: Photographs of New York. N.Y., 1965.
McDarrah, Fred W. New York, N. Y.: A
Photographic Tour of Manhattan Island.
N.Y., I964.

Meeting of Harlem Community Representatives with Mayor Wagner and City Officials
at City Hall. N.Y., I959.
Klein, Woody. Let in the Sun. N.Y., 1964.
Lomax, Louis. The Negro Revolt. N.Y., 1962.
- . When the Word Is Given. Cleveland,
1963.

Millstein, Gilbert. New York: True North.


N.Y., I964.
Polner, Murray. Where Shall We Take the
Kids? Garden City, N.Y., 1961.
Powell, Adam Clayton, Jr. Keep the Faith,
Baby. N.Y., I967.
Ray, Archibald. All Shook Up. N.Y., 1958.
Rustin, Bayard. "The Harlem Riot and
in Lynd, Staughton,
Non-Violence,"
Non-Violence in America. Indianapolis,
I966.

Sexton, Patricia Cayo. Spanish Harlem.


N.Y., I965.
Shapiro, Fred C. Race Riots .... N.Y., I964.
Stringfellow, William. My People Is the Enemy: An Autobiographical Polemic. N.Y.,
1964.

Wakin, Edward. At the Edge of Harlem.


N.Y., 1965.
Zinkoff, Dave. Around the World with the
Harlem Globetrotters. Philadelphia, I953.

BIOGRAPHIES

BIOGRAPHIES

Hedgeman, Anna Arnold. The Trumpet


Sounds:A Memoir of Negro Leadership.
N.Y., 1964.
Kayira, Legson. I Will Try. Garden City,
N.Y., I965.
Modisane, Bloke. Blame Me on History.
N.Y., 1963.
Mulsac, Hugh Nathaniel. A Star to Steer
By. N.Y., 1963.
Schuyler, George Samuel. Black and Conservative.New Rochelle, 1966.
X, Malcolm. The Autobiographyof Malcolm X. N.Y., 1965.
-. MalcolmX Speaks.N.Y., I965.
Breitman, George. The Last Yearof Malcolm X. N.Y., 1967.

Eckman, Fern Marja. The FuriousPassage


of JamesBaldwin.N.Y., I966.
Hughes,Langston.The Big Sea. N.Y., London, I940.
. I Wonderas I Wander.N.Y., 1956.
Johnson,RalphGlasgow.ThePoetryof Dunbar and McKay. Pittsburgh, 1950.
Kerlin, Robert Thomas. Negro Poets and
TheirPoems.Washington,D.C., 1935.
Locke, Alain LeRoy. Four Negro Poets.
N.Y., I927.
McKay, Claude. A Long Wayfrom Home.
N.Y., I937.
. My GreenHills of amaica.Unpublished MS, 1946.
. Right Turnto Catholicism.Unpublished MS, 1946.
Marin, Ocete Antonio. El NegroJuan Latino, CusagoBiograficoy Critico.Granada,

Literature
Bone, Robert A. The Negro Novel. New
Haven, 1958, 1965.
Brawley, Benjamin Griffith. Early Negro
AmericanWriters.Chapel Hill, I935.
. The Negro Genius.N.Y., I937.
. The Negro in Literatureand Art in
the UnitedStates.N.Y., 19Io, 1918, 1929,
I937.

Brown,Sterling,Davis, ArthurP., and Lee,


Ulysses (eds.). The Negro Caravan.N.Y.,
I94I.

.The Negro in American Fiction.


Washington,D.C., I937.
. Negro Poetry and Drama. Washington, D.C., I937.
Conferenceof Negro Writers. The American Negro Writerand His Roots. N.Y.,
1960.
Daedulus(periodical).TheNegroAmerican.
Boston, 1965, 1966.
Dunbar, Paul L. The Sport of the Gods.
N.Y., 1902.
Ford, Nick Aaron. The Contemporary
Negro
Novel. Boston, 1936.
Gloster, Hugh Morris. Negro Voices in
AmericanFiction.Chapel Hill, 1948.
Green, Mrs. Elizabeth Atkinson. The NeAmericanLiterature.
gro in Contemporary
Chapel Hill, 1928.
Gross, SeymourL. (ed.). Imagesof the Negro in AmericanLiterature.Chicago,1966.
Hill, Herbert. Anger and Beyond. N.Y.,
I966.
. Soon One Morning: New Writing
by AmericanNegroes, 1940-1962. N.Y.,
1963.

Hughes, Langston. The Langston Hughes


Reader.N.Y., 1958.
Loggins, Vernon. The NegroAuthor.N.Y.,
1931.

New York Public Library.The Negro in the


UnitedStates,A List of SignificantBooks.
N.Y., I965, I968.
Books about Negro Life for Children.N.Y., 1957.

284

1925.

Spratlin, Valaurez Burwell. Juan Latino,


Slave and Humanist.N.Y., I938.
Tarry, Ellen. The ThirdDoor. N.Y., I955.
Wright, Richard. Black Boy. N.Y., I945.

Himes, Chester. All Shot Up. N.Y., 1960.


The Big, Gold Dream. N.Y.,
....
960.
. CottonComesto Harlem.N.Y., 1965.
. Couchedansle Pain. Paris, 1959.
. The CrazyKill. N.Y., I959.
. Dare-Dare.Paris, 1959.
. The Heat's On. N.Y., 1966.
. Mamie Mason. Paris, 1962.
.Pinktoes, A Novel. N.Y., I965.
.
des CoupsDurs. Paris, 1958.
- llPleut
. The Real Cool Killers.N.Y., I959.
. La Reinedes Pommes.N.Y., 1958.
. Run, Man, Run. N.Y., 1966.
- . Tout pour Plaire.Paris, 1959.
. Third Generation.Cleveland, 1964.
Horwitz, Julius.TheInhabitants.Cleveland,
1960.
. The W.A.S.P. N.Y., I967.
Hughes,Langston.TheBestof Simple.N.Y.,
1961. (Also Phonodisc,N.Y., 1961.)
. Simple Takes a Wife. N.Y., I953.
.Simple's UncleSam. N.Y., 1965.
(ed.). Best Short Stories by Negro
Writers.Boston, 1967.
- . Laughingto KeepfromCrying.N.Y.,
1952.

. Not withoutLaughter.N.Y., I930.


.SimpleSpeaksHisMind.N.Y., 1950.
- . SimpleStakesa Claim.N.Y., 1957.
-- . Tambourinesto Glory.N.Y., I958.
. "Why, You Reckon," in McCullough,EstherM. As I Pass, 0 Manhattan.
N.Y., 1956.
Johnson,JamesWeldon. The Autobiography
of an Ex-ColoredMan. N.Y., I912-I927,
1948, 1951, I960.
Joseph,Arthur.... Volcanoin Our Midst.
N.Y., 1952.
Kaufman, Bel. Up the Down Staircase.Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1964.
Klass, Sheila Solomon. ComeBackon Monday. N.Y., 1960.
Mayfield, Julian. The Hit. N.Y., 1957.
. The Long Night. N.Y., 1958.
Maurique, Manuel. Island in Harlem: A
Novel. N.Y., I966.
McKay, Claude.... CocktailNegro. Madrid, 1931.
. Hometo Harlem.N.Y., 1928, I951.
. QuartierNoir. Paris, 1932.
. Quasi Blanca. Barcelona,I938.
. Ritornoad Harlem.Milan, 1930.
Miller, Warren. The Cool World. Boston,
I959.
. The Siege of Harlem. N.Y., 1964.
Offord, Carl Ruthven. The White Face.
N.Y., I943.
Ornstein, William. Deep Currents.Dallas,
-

Fiction
Appel, Benjamin.... TheDarkStain.N.Y.,
I943.

Baldwin, James. Another Country.N.Y.,


1962.

.Go Tell It on the Mountain.N.Y.,


I953.

. Goingto Meetthe Man. N.Y., I965.


. Giovanni'sRoom. N.Y., I956.
Bontemps, Anna W. Sad-FacedBoy. Boston, 1937.
Conlay, Elizabeth G. The HarlemGo-Getters.N.Y., 1963.
Conrad, Earl. Rock Bottom. Garden City,
N.Y., 1952.
Cullen,Countee. OneWayto Heaven.N.Y.,
1932.

DuBois, W.E.B. Black Flame, A Trilogy:


The Ordealof Mansart,MansartBuildsa
School, and Worldsof Color.N.Y., I957,
I959, I96I.
. Dark Princess. N.Y., 1928.

. Questof the SilverFleece.Chicago,


1911.

Dunbar, Paul Laurence. Best Stories...


N.Y., I938.
Ellison, Ralph. InvisibleMan. N.Y., 1952.
Ellson, Hal.... I'll Fix You. N.Y., I956.
. Rock.N.Y., I955.
. This Is It. N.Y., 1956.
Fisher, Rudolph. The ConjureMan Dies: A
MysteryTaleofDark Harlem.N.Y., 1932.
- . The Walls of Jericho.N.Y., 1928.
Guy, Rosa. Bird at My Window.Philadelphia, 1966.
Hewlett, John Henry. HarlemStory.N.Y.,
I948.

1953.

Parks, Gordon. The LearningTree. N.Y.,


1963.
Petry, Ann (Lane). La Rue. Paris, 1948.
- . The Street.Boston, 1946.
Powell, Adam Clayton, Sr. PicketingHell.
N.Y., 1942.

Robinson, John Terry. White House in Harlem. N.Y., 1956.


Thomas, Piri. Down These Mean Streets.
N.Y., 1967.

Van Vechten, Carl. Nigger Heaven. N.Y.,


I926,

1927, 1951.

. II Paradiso dei Negri. Milan, I930.


Parties. N.Y., 1930.

Wallant, Edward Lewis. The Pawnbroker.


N.Y., 1961.

Wright, Richard. Native Son. N.Y., I939.

Newspapers and Periodicals


The Arts Quarterly. 2 vols. New Orleans,
I937-I939.
Brownies Book. N.Y.,

1920-1921.

The Changemakers. Vol. I, No. I. N.Y.,


I965.
The Colored American. N.Y., 1837-1842.
The Colored American Magazine. N.Y.,
I900-I909.

Crisis. N.Y.,

91I-.
Freedomways. N.Y., 196 -.
Harlem Digest. Vol. I, No. I. June I937I939.

Harlem Friendship House News (later Catholic Interracialist). Chicago, 1941-1955.

Harlem Herald, Vol. I. Published by and


for the studentsof HarlemEvening High

School, New York. N.Y., I94I-I947.


Harlem Hospital Bulletin. N.Y., I948/49I96I.

Harlem Quarterly, Vol. I, No.

I. N.Y.,

1949-I950.

The Home and Housing Journal. Vol. i.

Published by the Harlem Mortgageand


Improvement Council. N.Y., I957.
Interracial Review. N.Y., I928-I966.
The Journal of Negro Education. Washington, D.C., I932 -.
The Journal of Negro History. Washington,
D.C., I916-.
The Messenger. N.Y., I917-I928.
New York Age. N.Y., I883-I957.
New York Amsterdam News. N.Y., 1922 -.
New York Courier (sometimes called the

New York Edition of the PittsburghCou-

rier). N.Y., I957-.


Opportunity Journal of Negro Life. N.Y.,
I923-1949.

Poetry
Benet, William Rose. Harlem and Other
Poems. London, I935.

Bontemps, Arna Wendell. AmericanNegro


Poetry. N.Y., I963.

Braithwaite,William Stanley. SelectedPoems. N.Y., 1948.

Brooks, Gwendolyn. SelectedPoems.N.Y.,


1963.

Brown,SterlingAllen. SouthernRoad.N.Y.,
I932.

Clarke, John Henrik. Rebellion in Rhyme.


Prairie City, Ill., 1948.

James Baldwin,.
Photograph: Steve Schapiro,from
Black Star

Cullen, Countee. Ballad of the BrownGirl.


N.Y., 1927.
. On TheseI Stand.N.Y., 1947.
. CarolingDusk. N.Y., 1927.
Dismond, Henry Binga. We Who Would
Die. N.Y., 1943.
Dunbar, Paul Laurence. CompletePoems.
N.Y., 1895-I913.
Hayden, Robert Earl. SelectedPoems.N.Y.,
1966.
Hughes, Langston.Ask YourMama. N.Y.,
I961.
- . Dream Keeper and Other Poems.
N.Y., I932.

---.

Fieldsof Wonder.N.Y., 1947.

. Fine Clothesto theJew. N.Y., 1927.


. Montageof a DreamDeferred.N.Y.,
1951.
NegroMother.N.Y., I931.
. New Negro Poets. U.S.A. Bloomington, Ind., 1964.
---.
One-WayTicket.N.Y., I949.
--. Pantherand the Lash. N.Y., 1967.
---.
Poetry of the Negro, 1746-I949.
N.Y., 1949.
. SelectedPoems.N.Y., 1959.
---.
in Harlem.N.Y., 1942.
Shakespeare
. WearyBlues.N.Y., 1926.
Johnson,Georgia Douglas. Bronze.Boston,
1922.

Johnson,JamesWeldon. Book of American


Negro Poetry. N.Y., I922, I93I, 1958.

--

. Fifty Yearsand OtherPoems. Boston, 1917.


. God'sTrombones.
N.Y., 1927. (Also
Phonodisc, N.Y., 1942.)

. SaintPeterRelatesan Incident.N.Y.,
I930, 1935Jones,LeRoi. BlackArt.Newark,N.J., I966.
--. Dead Lecturer.N.Y., 1964.
. Prefaceto a TwentyVolumeSuicide
Note. N.Y., 1961.
PoKerlin, Robert Thomas. Contemporary
etryof the Negro.Hampton, Va., 1921.
Latimer,Lewis Howard.Poemsof Loveand
Hate. N.Y., 1925.
McKay, Claude. Harlem Shadows. N.Y.,

--

1922.

Parks, Gordon. A Poet and His Camera.


N.Y., 1968.
Tolson, Melvin Beaunorus.Rendezvouswith
America.N.Y., I944.
Tomas,Bonito Luciano.HarlemittaDreams.
N.Y., I934.
Voices, A Quarterlyof Poetry.... Negro
PoetsIssue.Brattleboro,Vt., 1950.
Walker, Margaret. For My People. New
Haven, 1942.

BIOGRAPHIES

Dinger, Helen Josephine.A Studyof Countee Cullen.N.Y., I953.


Ferguson, Blanche. CounteeCullenand the
NegroRenaissance.N.Y., 1926.
286

- . The House of Connelly ... N.Y.,


Brawley, BenjaminGriffith. Paul Laurence
Dunbar.Chapel Hill, I936.
I931.
- . LonesomeRoad. N.Y., I926.
Cunningham,Virginia.Paul LaurenceDunbar. N.Y., 1947.
Hansberry,Lorraine.A Raisin in the Sun.
N.Y., I959.
Heyward, Dorothy and DuBose. Porgy.
Theater
Garden City, N.Y., 1928.
DuBose. BrassAnkle.N.Y., 1931.
Heyward,
The ApolloTheatre. TheApolloStory.N.Y.,
Hughes, Langston. The Barrier.N.p., n.d.
I967.
Bond, Frederick Weldon. The Negro and ---194-?)..
Black Nativity (Phonodisc). N.p.,
the Drama. Washington,D.C., I940.
n.d.
Fletcher, Tom. soo Yearsof the Negro in
. Don't You Wantto Be Free?N.Y.,
Show Business.N.Y., 1954.
I938, I963.
Hughes,Langston.BlackMagic.Englewood
. Emperorof Haiti. N.Y., 1963.
Cliffs, N.J., I967.
. FivePlays.Bloomington,Ind., I963.
Isaacs,Edith Juliet. The Negroin the Amer- ---. Jubilee.N.p., n.d.
ican Theatre.N.Y., 1947.
--. TheLangstonHughesReader.N.Y.,
Mitchell, Lofton. BlackDrama.N.Y., 1967.
1958.
New World A-Coming (a series of weekly
. Mulatto.N.p., 1949.
radio programs from WMCA). N.Y.,
. 7 originaltypescriptsof plays.N.Y.,
1944-1946.
I959.
Patterson, Lindsay (ed.). Anthologyof the
. 2 originaltypescriptsof plays.N.Y.,
AmericanNegrointheTheatre.N.Y., 1967.
I963.
. SimpleTakesa Wife: A NegroFolk
Comedy(typescript). N.Y., n.d. (195-?).
Plays
. Simply Heavenly:A Comedywith
Published and Unpublished
Music. N.Y., I957.
. Soul GoneHome. N.Y., I937.
Baldwin, James. Bluesfor Mister Charlie.
. TroubledIsland.N.Y., 1949.
N.Y., I964.
Bradford, Roark.John Henry.N.Y., 1939. Hunter, Eddie. TheLady.N.p., n.d. (I94-?).
Branch, William Blackwell. "In Splendid Johnson,Georgia. Plumes.N.Y., 1927.
Jones,LeRoi. DutchmanandtheSlave.N.Y.,
Error."N.Y., I954.
I964.
. A Medal For Willie. N.Y., 1951.
Burgie,Irving,and Mitchell,Lofton. Ballad Locke, Alain LeRoy. Plays of Negro Life.
N.Y., I927.
for Bimshire(Phonodisc). London, 1963.
Connelly, MarcusCook. TheGreenPastures. Meyer, Mrs. Annie Nathan. Black Souls.
New Bedford, Mass., 1932.
N.Y., 1929, I930.
Cooper, Lew. Run Little Chillun.N.p., n.d. Mitchell, Lofton. A Land beyondthe River.
Cody, Wyo., 1963.
(I94-?).
Cotter, JosephSeamon. Caleb, The Degen- Norford, George. Joy ExceedingGlory: A
erate.N.Y., I940.
Play in Three Acts (typescript). N.Y.,
n.d. (I93-?).
Culbertson,Ernest Howard. Colorin Court.
O'Neill, Eugene Gladstone.... The EmN.Y., I933.
perorJones.N.Y., I934.
Cullen, Countee, and Bontemps, Anna. St.
Louis Woman.N.p., n.d. (1945?).
Ovington, Mary White. The Awakening.
N.Y., 1923.
Davis, Ossie. Purlie Victorious.N.Y., 1961.
Dodson, Owen. New World A-Coming. Peters, Paul. Stevedore.N.Y., 1934.
Peterson, Louis Stamford. Take a Giant
N.Y.(?), n.d. (194-?).
Step.N.Y., I954.
Duberman, Martin D. In White America.
Rapp, William Jourdan, and Thurman,
Boston, 1964.
Wallace.Jeremiahthe Magnificent(typeEdmonds, Randolph. Shadesand Shadows.
Boston, I930.
script). N.p., n.d. (1930?).
. Land of Cotton ... Washington, Richardson,Willis. Bold Lover. N.p., n.d.
. BrokenBanjo. N.p., n.d.
D.C., 1942.
. Curseof theShellRoad Witch.N.p.,
Fast, Howard.TheHill. GardenCity, N.Y.,
n.d.
I964.
. The Dark Haven.N.p., n.d.
Fisher, Rudolph. The ConjureMan Dies, A
. Imp of the Devil. N.p., n.d.
Playin ThreeActs (typescript).N.Y., n.d.
.The Man Who Marrieda Young
(I93-?).
Genet, Jean. The Blacks.... N.Y., I960.
Wife. N.p., n.d.
. The Peacock'sFeather.N.p., n.d.
Grainger, Porter. De Board Meeting....
Pillar of the Church.N.p., n.d.
N.p., n.d. (ca. 1925).
. "We'sRisin'."N.p., n.d. (ca. 1927).
. Roomsfor Rent.N.p., n.d.
Green, Paul. The Field God, and In Abra- Sheldon, Edward Brewster."The Nigger."
ham'sBosom.N.Y., 1927.
N.Y., 9Io0.

Silvera, Frank Alvin. Unto the Least. Boston, 1938.


Spence, Eulalie. Fool's Errand.N.Y., 1927.
Torrence,FredericRidgely.GrannyMaume,
The Riderof Dreams,Simonthe Cyrenian
(Plays for a Negro Theatre). N.Y., 1917.
Tutt, J. Homer. De GospelTrain.N.p., n.d.
(ca. I940).
Ward,Theodore.Big WhiteFog.N.Y., 1937.
. Our Land. N.Y., I941.
-Wexley, John. They Shall Not Die. N.Y.,
I934.
Wright, Richard.Native Son (play). N.Y.,
I94I.

Yordan,Philip. Anna Lucasta.N.Y., 1945.


BIOGRAPHIES

Davis, Sammy, Jr., and Boyar, Jane and


Burt. Yes I Can: The Story of Sammy
Davis, Jr. N.Y., 1965.
Dunham, Katherine.A Touchof Innocence.
N.Y., I959.
Durham, Frank. DuBose Heyward, The
Man Who WrotePorgy.Columbia,S.C.,
I954.
Gregory, Dick. Nigger.N.Y., I964.
Hammond,John Hays. Autobiography...
N.Y., I935.
Home, Lena, as told to Helen Arnsteinand
Carlton Moss. In Person, Lena Home.
N.Y., I950.
Home, Lena. Lena.... GardenCity, N.Y.,
I965.
Kitt, Eartha. Thursday'sChild.N.Y., 1956;
London, 1957.
Lesser, Allen. EnchantingRebel(The Secret
of Adah IsaacsMenken).N.Y., I947.
Lewis, Paul. Queenof the Plaza: A Biography of Adah IsaacsMenken.N.Y., I964.
2 vols. N.Y.,
McClendon,Rose. Scrapbooks.
I923-I934Meyer, Annie (Nathan). It's Been Fun.
N.Y., 1951.
Waters, Ethel. His Eye Is on the Sparrow.
Garden City, N.Y., 9I 1.
Rowland, Mabel. Bert Williams.... N.Y.,
1923.

Music
Assland,Benny H. (comp.). TheWax Works
of Duke Ellington. Stockholm, Sweden,
1954.
Brooks, Shelton. Five Songs. N.Y., I9101919.
Burleigh, Harry Thacker. Negro Spirituals
ArrangedforSolo Voice.N.Y., 1917-1927.
Burleigh, Harry Thacker, and Johnson,
JamesWeldon.... 0 Southland!N.Y.,
1904.
.Passionale: YourEyesSo Deep, and
Your Lips Are Wine. N.Y., I9I5.

Burlin, Natalie (Curtis). The Negro'sContributionto the Music of America.N.Y.,


1913.

. Negro Music at Birth. N.Y., I919.


Calloway, Cab. Cab Calloway's Jive Jubilee
of Songs. N.Y., 1942.

Charters,Samuel B., and Kunstadt, Leonard. Jazz: A History of the New York
Scene. N.Y., 1962.

Clark,Edgar Rogie. NegroArtSongs.N.Y.,


I940.

Courlander, Harold. Negro Folk Music,


U.S.A. N.Y., i963.
Dawson, William Levi. Negro Folk Symphony(Phonodisc). N.p., n.d.
Dennison, Tim. The AmericanNegro and
His Amazing Music. N.Y., I963.

De Toledano,Ralph.Frontiers
ofJazz. N.Y.,
1947.
Handy, WilliamChristopher.Blues,An An-

Vehanen, Kosti. Marian Anderson,A Portrait.N.Y., 1941.


Armstrong, Louis. Satchmo: My Life in
New Orleans.N.Y., 1954, 1955.
--- Swing That Music. London, 1936.
Goffin, Robert. Stormof Plenty: The Story
of Louis Armstrong.N.Y., 1947.
Bechet, Sidney. TreatIt Gentle.N.Y., 1960.
Shaw, Arnold. Belafonte:An Unauthorized
Biography.Philadelphia,i960.
Steirman, Hy (ed.). Harry Belafonte:His
CompleteLife Story.N.Y., I957.
Bradford,Perry. Bornwiththe Blues.N.Y.,
I965.
Gammond, Peter. Duke Ellington. N.Y.,
1958.

IrvingMills PresentsDuke Ellingtonand His


FamousOrchestra.New York, 1933.
thology. N.Y., 1926.
. NegroAuthorsandComposers.
N.Y.,
Lambert,George Edmund. Duke Ellington.
N.Y., 1959, I961.
I938.
. Negro Spiritualsfor Mixed Voices. Ulanov, Barry.Duke Ellington.N.Y., 1946.
N.Y., 1925-1937.
Trazegnies, Jean de. . . . Duke Ellington
. A Treasuryof theBlues.N.Y., 1949.
(Harlem Aristocrat of Jazz). Brussels,
. Unsung Americans Sung. N.Y., 1944.
1946.
. Works,Selections(Phonodisc).N.Y.,
Armitage,Merle.... GeorgeGershwin...
n.d. (194-?), i953, I954.
N.Y., 1958.
Jazz....
N.Y., 1959.
Ewen, David.... A Journeyinto Greatness.
Hentoff, Nat....
N.Y., 1956.
Johnson, James Weldon, and Johnson, J.
Rosamond.Booksof AmericanNegroSpir- Goldberg,Isaac.GeorgeGershwin.... N.Y.,
ituals. N.Y., 1940.
I958.
. Lift Every Voice and Sing. N.Y.,
Jablonski, Edward. The Gershwin Years.
N.Y., 1958.
I921,
I943.
I929,
1932,
. Second Book of Negro Spirituals. James Michael. Dizzy Gillespie. London,
N.Y., 1926.
I959.
Goodman, Benny. The Kingdomof Swing.
Jones,LeRoi. BlackMusic. N.Y., 1967.
. Blues People....
-N.Y., 1963.
N.Y., 1939.
Keil, Charles. UrbanBlues. Chicago, I966. Handy, William Christopher.Fatherof the
to FolkMusic
Blues. N.Y., I941.
Nettl, Bruno.An Introduction
in the United States. Detroit, 1960, 1962.
Harris,CharlesJacob.Reminiscences
of My
Oliver, Paul. BluesFell This Morning:The
Days with Roland Hayes. Orangeburg,
S.C., I944.
Meaning of the Blues. London, 1960.
- . Conversation with the Blues. N.Y.,
Holiday, Billie .... Lady Sings the Blues.
GardenCity, N.Y., 1956.
I965.
Panassie, Hugues. Guide to Jazz. Boston, Jones, Max (ed.).... A Tributeto Huddie
Ledbetter.London, 1946.
I956.
. Hot Jazz. N.Y., 1936.
Lovingood,Penman.A Sentimental
Journey.
Patterson,Lindsay(ed.). TheNegroin MuCompton, Calif., 1964.
sic and Art. N.Y., 1967.
Mezzrow, Milton. . . . Really the Blues.
N.Y., 1946.
Ramsey, Frederic. Been Here and Gone.
New Brunswick,N.J., 1960.
Lomax, Alan. MisterJelly Roll: Fortunesof
Jelly Roll Morton.N.Y., I950.
Shapiro,Nat (ed.). TheJazz Makers.N.Y.,
Williams,MerlinT. JellyRoll Morton.N.Y.,
I957.
Shelton, Robert. Josh White Song Book.
1962, 1963.
Allen, WalterC. KingJoe Oliver.Belleville,
Chicago, I963.
N.J., 1955.
Shirley, Kay (ed.). The Book of the Blues.
Williams,MartinT. KingOliver.N.Y., 1961.
N.Y., 1963.
Harrison,Max. CharlieParker.N.Y., I960,
Spellman, A. B. Four Lives in the Bebop
Business. N.Y., I966.
1961.
Still, William Grant. Fifty Years of Progress Reisner, Robert George. Bird: The Legend
in Music. Pittsburgh, 1950.
of Charlie Parker. N.Y., 1962.
Terkel, Louis.... Giants ofJazz. N.Y., 1957.
Schuyler, Phillippa Duke. Adventuresm
Blackand White.N.Y., I960.
Williams,Martin T. (ed.). The Art of Jazz.
Oliver, Paul. BessieSmith.N.Y., 1959.
N.Y., I959.
Smith, William. Music on My Mind: The
BIOGRAPHIES
Memoirs of an AmericanPianist. Foreword by Duke Ellington. Garden City,
Anderson, Marian. My Lord, What a MornN.Y., I964.
ing: An Autobiography. N.Y., 1956.
287

Fox, Charles.... Fats Waller.N.Y., 1960,

Porter, James Amos. Modern Negro Art.


N.Y., I943.
- . Progress of the Negro in Art during
the Past Fifty Years. Pittsburgh, 1950.

1961.

Kirkeby, W.T. (ed.). Ain't Misbehavin':


The Story of Fats Waller. N.Y., 1966.

Art and Artists


Albany Institute of History and Art. The
NegroArtistComesof Age. Albany, N.Y.,
1945.

State University of New York, The Art


Gallery. RomareBearden.Albany, 1968.
White, Charles. . . . Six Drawings.N.Y.,

Negro Art. Baltimore, 1939.

N.Y., 1964.

Henderson,Edwin Bancroft. The Negro in


Sports.Washington,D.C., 1939, 1949.
Sport Magazine. The Negro in American
Sport (specialissue, March I960). N.Y.,
1960.

1952.

Whiting, Helen. Negro Art, Music and


Rhyme....

Baltimore Museum of Art. Contemporary


Bowdoin College Museum of Fine Arts.
Portrayalof the Negro in AmericanPaint-

Bontemps, Arna. Famous Negro Athletes.

Washington, D.C., 1938.

BIOGRAPHIES

Armstrong,Henry. Gloves,Gloryand God.


BIOGRAPHIES

Westwood, N.J., 1956.

Miller, Henry. The Amazingand Invariable Aaron, Henry, as told to Furman Bisher.
Aaron, rf. N.Y., 1968.
Brunswick,
Me.,
ing.
1964.
BeaufordDeLaney.Yonkers, 1945.
Butcher, Margaret. The Negroin American AmericanFederationof Artists.JacobLaw- Shapiro, Milton J. The Hank Aaron Story.
Culture. N.Y., 1956.

rence. N.Y., 1960.

ChicagoAmericanNegro Exposition. Exhibition of the Art of the AmericanNegro.


...

1966.

Chicago, 191 .

Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project.


. . . SubjectIndexto Literatureon Negro
Art....

Chicago, 1941.

The City University of New York. Evolution of the Afro-AmericanArtist. N.Y.,


1967.

Covarrubias,Miguel.NegroDrawings.N.Y.,
1927.

Cultural Exchange Center. Printsby American NegroArtists.Los Angeles, 1965.


Douglas, Aaron. "The Negro in American
Culture," in AmericanArtists'Congress,
First American Artists' Congress.N.Y.,
I936.

Dover, Cedric. AmericanNegroArt. Greenwich, Conn., 1960.

Graphic Workshop.... Negro: U.S.A., A


GraphicHistory of the Negro People in
America....

N.Y., 1949.

Harmon Foundation Inc. Exhibit of Fine


Arts by American Negro Artists. N.Y.,
1928,

1929,

1930,

1931, 1933. (These

ex-

hibitions were held in New York and


Atlanta, Ga.).
. Negro Artists. N.Y., 1935.

Hirschfeld,Albert.Harlemas SeenbyHirschfeld (drawings). N.Y., I941.

Locke, Alain LeRoy....


Negro Art, Past
and Present.Washington,D.C., 1963.
- . The Negro in Art. Washington,
D.C., 1940.
. The New Negro. N.Y., 1925.

The Minneapolis Institute of Arts. 30


Black Artists.Minneapolis,
Contemporary
I968.

National Conferenceof Artists.... A Print


Portfolioby Negro Artists.... Chicago,
1963.

Negro LibraryAssociation.ExhibitionCatatlog: First Annual Exhibitionof Books,


Manuscripts,Paintings,Engravings,Sculpture, etc....

N.Y., 1916.

New York Public Library- I35th Street


Branch. Annual Exhibition of Negro
Artists. N.Y., 1924.

Patterson,Lindsay (ed.). The Negroin Music and Art. N.Y., 1967.

288

Parks,Gordon. A Choiceof Weapons.N.Y.,

Science and Invention


Baker,Henry Edwin. The ColoredInventor.
N.p., 1913.

Cobb, William Montague. Fifty Years of


Progress in Health. Pittsburgh, 1950.

.... Integrationof theNegroin American Society.Washington,D.C., I95I.


Corwin, Edward Henry Livingstone. Opportunitiesfor the Medical Educationof

--

Negroes. N.Y., 1936.

Hastie, William H. On ClippedWings:The


Storyof Jim Crowin the ArmyAir Corps.
N.Y., I943.

Hurston, ZoraNeale. Mulesand Men. Philadelphia, 1935.

Johnson, Edward Austin. Negro Almanac


and Statistics. Raleigh, N.C., 1903.

ElecLatimer, Lewis Howard. Incandescent


tric Lighting. N.Y., 1890.

MorganState College, Baltimore,Md. The


Negro in Science. Baltimore, I955.

Morais, Herbert Moutfort. The Historyof


the Negroin Medicine.N.Y., 1967.
Reitzes, Dietrich C. Negroesand Medicine.
Cambridge, Mass., 1958.

N.Y., 1961.

Brown, Jimmy, with Myron Cope. Off My


Chest. N.Y., I964.

Campanella, Roy. It's Good to Be Alive.


Boston, 1959.

Schoor, Gene. Roy Campanella,Man of


Courage. N.Y., I959.

N.Y.,
Sullivan,GeorgeE. WiltChamberlain.
1966.

Olsen, Jack. Black Is Best: The Riddle of


Cassius Clay. N.Y., 1967.

Lewis,Claude.CassiusClay.... N.Y., 1965.


Sullivan,George Edward. The CassiusClay
Story. N.Y., 1964.

Gibson, Althea. I Always Wantedto Be


Somebody. N.Y., 1958.

Johnson,Jack.JackJohnsonin the Ring and


Out. Chicago, 1927.

Batchelor, Denzil. Jack Johnson and His


Times. London, 1956.

Farr, Finis. Black Champion:The Life and


Times of Jack Johnson. N.Y., 1964.

Van den Berg, Tony. The ]ack Johnson


Story. London, 1956.
Louis, Joe. My Life Story. N.Y., 1947.

Mays, Willie. My Life in andout of Baseball.


N.Y., I966.

Moore, Archie. The Archie Moore Story.


N.Y., 1960.

Paige, Leroy Satchel. MaybeI'll PitchForSpencer,GeraldArthur.MedicalSymphony,


ever. Garden City, N.Y., I962.
A Studyof the Contributions
of the Negro Newcombe, Jack. Floyd Patterson,Heavyto Medical Progressin New York. N.Y.,
weight King. N.Y., I96I.
1947.
Patterson,Floyd. VictoryoverMyself.N.Y.,
1962.

BIOGRAPHIES

Hardwick,Richland. CharlesRichardDrew:
Pioneerin Blood Research.N.Y., 1967.
Miller, Floyd. Ahdoolo! The Biographyof
MatthewA. Henson.N.Y., 1963.
Robinson,Bradley.Dark Companion(Henson). N.Y., I947.

Hurston, Zora Neale. Dust Tracks on a


Road. Philadelphia,London, 1942.
Peyton, Thomas Roy. Questfor Dignity.
Los Angeles, 1950.

Sports
Baltimore Museum of Art. Man in Sport.
Baltimore, 1968.

Robinson,John Roosevelt.JackieRobinson:
My Own Story. N.Y., 1948.

Robinson, John Roosevelt, and Duckett,


Alfred. Breakthroughto the Big League.
N.Y., 1965.

Robinson,Frank (with Al Silverman). My


Life Is Baseball. N.Y., 1968.

Hirshberg, Al. Bill Russell of the Boston


Celtics. N.Y., 1963.

Russell,Bill, as told to WilliamMcSweeny.


Go Up for Glory. N.Y., 1966.

Tunnell, Emlen (with Bill Gleason). Footsteps of a Giant. N.Y., I966.

Wills, Maury, as told to Steve Gardner.


It Pays to Steal. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.,
1963.

MUSEUM

THE METROPOLITAN

OF ART

BOARD OF TRUSTEES
Arthur A. Houghton, Jr., President
Robert Lehman, Chairman
C. Douglas Dillon, Vice-President
J. RichardsonDilworth, Vice-President
Walter C. Baker, l'ice-President

Elective
Richard M. Paget
Mrs. CharlesS. Payson
Robert M. Pennoyer
Richard S. Perkins
Francis T. P. Plimpton
Roland L. Redmond

Peter H. B. Frelinghulysen
Roswell L. Gilpatric
JamesM. Hester
Devereux C. Josephs
Andre Meyer
Henry S. Morgan

Malcolm P. Aldrich
Mrs. Vincent Astor
John R. H. Blum
R. Manning Brown, Jr.
Mrs. McGeorge Bundy
Daniel P. Davison
Mrs. JamesW. Fosburgh

Francis Day Rogers


Arthur O. Sulzberger
Irwin Untermyer
Arthur K. Watson
Mrs. Sheldon Whitehouse
Arnold Whitridge
Charles B. Wrightsman

Ex Officio

August Heckscher, AdministratorforParks,Recreation,


and CulturalAffairs
Alfred Easton Poor, Presidentof the National Academyof Design

John V. Lindsay, Mayor of the Cityof New York


Mario A. Procaccino, Comptrollerof the Cityof New York

Emeritus
Mrs. Ogden Reid

Cleo Frank Craig

Henry C. Alexander

Honorary
Dwight D. Eisenhower
C. Michael Paul

Mrs. Harold L. Bache


Roy R. Neuberger

AlastairBradley Martin
Craig Hugh Smyth

Henry Ittleson, Jr.


Nelson A. Rockefeller

Millard Meiss
R. Thornton Wilson

STAFF
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Daniel K. Herrick, Vice-Directorfor
Theodore Rousseau, Vice-Director,
Joseph V. Noble, Vice-Directorfor
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Curator in Chief
Administration
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Ashton IHawkins, Assistant Secretary
Arthur Roscnblatt, Administratorfor
Dudley T. Easby, Jr., Secretary
Administrator
Architecture and Planning
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Arthur Klein, Supervisor of Plans and Construction

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Sally Mason, Administrative Assistant


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Carolyn L. Richardson, Administrative Assistant

AMERICAN PAINTINGS AND SCULPTURE: Jolhn

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Stuart Silver, Manager,ExhibitionDesign
Theodore Ward, PurchasingAgent
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Eloise Bruce, RestaurantManager
Betsy Mason, Managerof QfficeService

George M. Benda, Auditor


Ann Marie Bustillo, Administratite Assistant
Alfred B. Cartier, Jr., Manager of Personnel
Jessie L. Morrow, Placement iManager

K. Howat, Associate

Curator

in

FAR EASTERN ART:

Fong Chow, Associate Curator in Charge. Jean K. Schmitt,

Assistant Curator

Charge
AMERICAN WING:

Berry B. Tracy, Curator. Mary C. Glaze, Associate Curator

Vauglln E. Crawford, Curator. Prudence Oliver


Harper, Associate Curator. Oscar White Muscarella, Assistant Curator
ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN ART:

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CONTEMPORARY ARTS:

ISLAMIC ART:

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MEDIEVAL ART AND THE

Florens Deuchler, Chairman. William H.


CLOISTERS:

Forsyth, Curatorof MedievalArt.VeraK. Ostoia and CarmenG6mez-Moreno,

Heniry Gcldzahler, Curator

Polaire Weissman, Executive Director. Stella Blum


and Mavis Dalton, Assistant Curators

THE COST'UME INSTITUTE:

DRAWINGS:

Dietrich von Bothmer, Curator. Brian F. Cook,


Associate Curator. Andrew Oliver, Jr., Assistant Curator

GREEK AND ROMAN ART:

Jacob Bean, Curator. Merritt Safford, Conservator of Drawings

and Prints

Associate Curators. Thomas Pelham Miller, Executive Assistant at The Cloisters.


Bonnie Young, Senior Lecturer, The Cloisters
MLUSICALINSTRUMENTS:
PRINTS:

Emanuel Winternitz, Curator

John J. McKendry,

Curator. Janet S. Byrne,

Associate Curator.

EGYPTIAN ART:

Caroline Karpinskiand Mary L. Myers, AssistantCurators

Claus Virch, Curator. Margaretta M. Salinger, Elizabeth E. Gardner, and Guy-Philippe de Montebello, Associate Curators.
Hubert F. von Sonnenburg, Conservator of Paintings

WES'IERN EUROPEAN ARTS: John Goldsmith Phillips, Chairnian. Carl Christian


Dautcrman, James Parker, and Olga Raggio, Curators. Edith A. Standen and
ReJean Mailcy, Associate Curators, Textiles. Yvonne Hackenbroch, Senior
search Fellow. Jessie McNab Dennis and Clare Vincent, Assistant Curators

Henry G. Fischer, Curator. Nora Scott and Eric Young,


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