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TITLE

2.0

INTRODUCTION

students to the heat transfer process through natural and forced convection.

Convection is heat transfer by mass motion of fluid such as air or water when

the heated fluid is caused to move away from the source of heat, carrying

energy with it.

3.0

GENERAL DESCRIPTION

introducing students to the principle of natural and forced convection heat

transfer process. The trainer consists of heating element with different

shapes. The air blew from the fan via ducting will extract the heat from the

heater elements and will bring it to exhaust of the system.

The trainer contains three different heating elements. These heaters

have the shape of round, fin and flat plate. The axial fan is located at one

end of the ducting. The temperatures are measured by suing k-type

thermocouple at four different locations to stimulate the heat transfer

process. Air velocity meter is fixed at the ducting to measure the velocity of

air passing through the ducting. The temperature readings can be observed

using the i3 DAQ software provided together with the trainer.

3.1

Experimental Capabilities

To study the temperature distribution along the length of a

To calculate Nu and Pr numbers in natural and forced convection

To determine the surface heat transfer coefficient for a vertical

tube losing heat by natural and forced convection

3.2

Unit Construction

Figure

1: The

Heat

1. Control panel

2. Power meter

3. Thermocouple

(4pcs)

4. Ducting-Exhaust

section

4.0

4.1

5. interchangeable Heater

section

6. Axial fan

7. Ducting-intake section

8. Air intake control valve

SUMMARY OF THEORY

Introduction to Convection Heat transfer

The term convection refers to heat transfer that will occur between a

surface and a moving or stationary fluid when they are at different

temperatures as shown in Figure 2. This mode of heat transfer comprises of

two mechanisms. In addition to energy transfer due to random molecular

motion (conduction), energy is also transferred by the bulk, or macroscopic

motion of the fluid. This fluid motion is associated with the fact that, at any

instant,

large

numbers

of

molecules

are

moving

collectively

or

as

contributes to heat transfer. Because the molecules in the aggregate retain

their random motion, the total heat transfer is then due to the superposition

of the energy transport by the random motion of the molecules and by the

bulk motion of the fluid. It is customary to use the term convection when

referring to this cumulative transport, and the term advection when referring

to transport due to bulk fluid motion.

We have learned in the fluids course that, with fluid flow over a

surface, viscous effects are important in the hydrodynamic (velocity)

boundary layer and for a Newtonian fluid, the frictional shear stresses are

proportional to the velocity gradient. In the treatment of convection in the

heat transfer course, you have been exposed to the concept of thermal

boundary layer, the region that experiences a temperature distribution from

that of the free stream

to the surface

Ts

convection heat transfer

Appreciation

of

boundary

layer

phenomena

is

essential

to

discipline of fluid mechanics plays a vital role in our analysis of convection

mechanism.

It is important to emphasize that convection heat transfer may be

classified according to the nature of the flow. We speak of forced convection

when the flow is caused by external means, such as fan, a pump, or

atmospheric winds. In contrast, for free (or natural) convection, the flow is

induced by buoyancy forces, which arise from the density differences caused

by the temperature variance in the fluid. We speak also of external and

internal flow. As we learned in the fluid mechanics course, external flow is

associated with immersed bodies for situations such as flow over plates,

cylinders and foils. In internal flow, the flow is constrained by the tube or

duct surface. We saw that corresponding hydrodynamic boundary layer

phenomena are quite different, so it is reasonable to expect that the

convection process for the two types of flow are distinctive.

Regardless of the particular nature of the convection heat transfer

process, the appropriate rate equation, known as the Newtons law of

cooling, is of the form,

q = {q} over {{A} rsub {s}} =h left ({T} rsub {s} - {T} rsub {} right )

where q is the convective heat flux (W/m2), is proportional to the difference

between surface and fluid temperatures,

and

T s , respectively and

transfer coefficient. When using the equation above, the convection heat flux

T s ) and negative if the heat transfer is to the surface ( T

However, if in situation ( T

>

<

>

T s ).

q = h left ({T} rsub {s} - {T} rsub {} right )

In this case heat transfer is positive to the surface. The choice of

Equation is normally made in the context of a particular problem as

appropriate. It is important to note that the convection coefficient depends

on conditions in the boundary layer, which is influenced by surface

geometry, the nature of

thermodynamics

and

fluid motion,

transport

properties.

Any

study

of

convection

One of the means to estimate the value of h under turbulent flow conditions

will be carried out in the present experiment.

5.0

5.1

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES

Experimental procedures

1. The convection heat transfer rig was connected to a 240 V AC

single phase power source and the main switch was switched on

from the control panel. The digital meter display was allowed to

start up for a few seconds before performing the experiment.

2. The anemometer prop was made sure to properly fitted into the

ducting.

3. The fan was switched on and the air was let to run in the ducting

for a few minutes.

4. The ducting was inserted with flat plate heater and the

temperature was observed without any heat.

5. The temperature values were recorded observed in i3 DAQ

software as well as the reading from anemometer.

6. The power used by the heater was observed using the power

meter provided.

7. The heater switched on using the heater switch in control panel

and we waited until the steady state condition is established. The

temperature and the velocity was recorded in the tables

provided.

8. When the experiment was completed the heater was switched off

first and the apparatus was allowed to cool for 2 to 3 minutes

before the fan was switched off.

9. The steps 4-8 was repeated with other heaters.

5.2

Shut-down procedure

1. The system was switched off using the button in control panel.

2. The heater plug was taken off from the panel and it was arranged

in the space provided at the bottom of the rig

6.0

6.1

Result

Flow case

Heater

surface area

Free stream

velocity

T1

T2

Tm

Density,

(kg/m3) at Tm

Specific heat

capacity, Cp

(j/kg.C) at Tm

Kinematic

viscosity, v at

Tm

Rod Heater

Low

High

0.09048

Fin Heater

Low

High

0.09

Low

High

0.018

1.016

2.032

1.016

2.032

1.016

2.052

26.52

30.06

28.29

28.83

30.19

29.51

26.38

29.60

27.99

32.21

33.66

32.94

29.12

38.87

34.00

25.85

35.85

30.85

1.1708

1.1660

1.1720

1.1528

1.148

1.1608

1007

1007

1007

1007

1007

1007

1.5923*

10-5

1.6035*

10-5

1.5895*

10-5

1.6356*

10-5

1.6456*

10-5

1.6160*

10-5

Thermal

conductivity,

k (W/m. K) at

Tm

Mass flow

rate,

Heat

absorbed, Q

(watts)

Heat transfer

coefficient, h

Hydraulic

diameter, DH

Nusselt

number from

experiment,

(Nuexp)

Prandtl

Number from

experiment,

Prexp

Nusselt

Number from

correlation,

Nucor

Nu/Pr (1/3)

6.2

0.02575

0.02587

0.02573

0.02610

0.02618

0.02594

0.01713

0.03412

0.01715

0.03373

0.01680

0.03397

136.0

136.5

136.8

136.5

136.5

135.5

424.6

1109.3

472.05

1045.98

777.78

725.78

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.12

1978.72

5151.55

2201.55

4809.10

3565.07

3357.50

0.7287

0.7283

0.7288

0.7274

0.7271

0.7280

43.18

66.65

52.33

72.91

51.40

73.37

7656.85

15206.7

7670.34

47.93

74.08

58.15

14908.2

9

81.07

7411.55

57.16

15089.1

1

81.56

Discussion

When each particle of the fluid follows the flow of a fluid in a smooth

path which never interfere with one another it is called as laminar flow. In

laminar flow, the velocity of the fluid remains constant throughout the path,

at any point in the fluid. On the other hand, irregular flows that creates tiny

whirlpool regions are called the turbulent flow where the velocity of the fluid

in this type of flow are not constant at any point of the fluid. The increase in

viscosity of the fluid that is caused by the intense mixing of air in turbulent

flow caused increase in friction force which in turn increases the heat

transfer coefficient. Hence, turbulent flow has higher convection heat

transfer coefficient compared to laminar flow.

The

difference

between

the

Nusselt

number

obtained

through

experiment and the one that we got through the correlation is considered to

be too high. This is the result of the constant that were assumed in the

correlation which is not possible to be kept constant in the experiment. One

of it is the velocity of air flow. In correlation we assumed that the air flows

are constant but in experiment it changes as it travels through the funnel as

there is presence of surface friction between the air and the funnel surface

and the fin surfaces. Another factor would have been the supply of the air

through forced convection, we could see the fluctuation in the power supply

to the blower which means the mass of air entering the funnel is not the

constant.

The Reynolds number in considered to be the most significant in the

determination of the properly of convection heat transfer as it resembles the

characteristics of the fluid that causes convection heat transfer. Higher

Reynolds number indicates turbulent flows (Re < 2000) where the heat

transfer coefficient in high while lower Reynolds number indicates laminar

flow (Re > 2000) where the heat transfer coefficient is much lower.

Empirical correlation based on geometries exist between Nusselt

number, Reynolds number, Prandtl number and Rayleigh number. It depends

on the way the fluid is initiated. An average Nusselt number is the function of

Rayleigh number and Prandtl number for a natural convection, while for

forced convection, Nusselt number is the function of Reynold and Prandtl

number. The average Nusselt number is significant as it represents the heat

transfer coefficient across the boundary.

7.0

CONCLUSION

The temperature distribution along the length of the vertical pipe was

studied in natural and forced convection by varying the velocity of the air

and the geometry of the funnel; where the Nusselt number and Prandtl

number was calculated using the data obtained. Even though the Nusselt

number obtained through experimental values and correlation differs, with

the increase in the Nusselt number in both the value when the convection is

switched from natural convection (laminar flows) to forced convection

(turbulent flow) it can be proved that the surface heat transfer coefficient of

a vertical tube is higher in forced convection.

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