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Validating Transmission Line

Impedances Using Known Event Data

Ariana Amberg, Alex Rangel,


and Greg Smelich
Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc.

Copyright SEL 2012

Why Are Line Impedances Important?


Used in distance element operation
Z0L Z1L
k0 =
3 Z1L

Z APP =

I + k0 ( 3 I0 )

Z0L =

k0 =

ZAPP

Can cause overreach or underreach

Solving for Line Impedances

Traditional Method Is Prone to Errors


zabc

zaa
= zab

zac

zac
zbc / mile

zcc

zab
zbb
zbc

zaa=

(ra + rd ) + jk ln D e / mile

zbb=

(rb + rd ) +

zcc=

(rc + rd ) + jk ln D e / mile

Can be complex
and tedious

sa

zab = rd +

D
jk ln D e
sb

/ mile

sc

De
jk ln D
ab

/ mile

zbc = rd + jk ln D e / mile
D

bc

zca = rd + jk ln D e / mile
D

ca

Z012 = A 1Zabc A
where:

1 1

A = 1 2
1

= 1120

Software Tools Improve Analysis

Number and type of phase


and ground conductors
(databases included)
Distances

Ground resistivity

Bundling

Line segment models

Test Equipment Measures Impedances


Test Set

Test Set

2
V

Single-Phase-to-Ground Test
Test Set

1
2

Phase-to-Phase Test

7 tests
(no mutual coupling)

21 tests
(mutual coupling)
Three-Phase-to-Ground Test

Ground Resistivity () Depends on


Soil Moisture and Temperature

Courtesy of the FCC Encyclopedia

Utility Survey Results


10 to 200 -m
Various methods

Use single value everywhere

Measure areas of system and use generalized


values across those areas

Measure average across system and use


everywhere

Measure at new stations or along right of way

Measure : Wenner Four-Point Method


V

x
Probes

Ground

Outer probes generate known current


Voltage is measured between inner probes
is calculated from resistance as well as
spacing and depth of probes

How Important Is ?
1 100
No change in Z1L

+
Each modeled with:
Continuous ground wire
Segmented ground wire
No ground wire

Big change in Z0L

Resistance 148%

Reactance 144%

More effect on lines


with segmented or
no ground wires

Validate Impedances Using Event Data


Data Needed After Line-to-Ground Fault
Voltages and currents from both ends
Known fault location
Bus S

Bus R
m

Solve for Z2L and Z0L

V 2S I2S m Z2L =
V 2F

N1
E1S
Z1S

E1R
m Z1L

(1 m) Z1L

Z1R

V 2R I2R (1 m ) Z2L =
V 2F
N2
I2S

V2S
Z2S +

m Z2L

V2F
(1 m) Z2L

V2R
+ Z2R I2R

3Rf

V 2S V 2R

Z2L =
I2S m I2R (1 m )

N0
I0S

V0S
Z0S +

m Z0L

V0F
(1 m) Z0L

V0R
+ Z0R I0R

V 0S V 0R

Z0L =
I0S m I0R (1 m )

Zero-Sequence Mutual Coupling Error


S

Relay
Location

Line A
m
Z0M
Line B

Relay
Location
mZ0L

S
Z0S

F0
I0
(1 m)Z0L

I0A
mZ0M
Z0L
I0B
N0

(1 m)Z0M

Z0R

Zero-Sequence Mutual Coupling Error


Relay
Location
mZ0L

S
Z0S

F0
I0
(1 m)Z0L

R
Z0R

I0A
mZ0M
Z0L

(1 m)Z0M

I0B
N0

Relay only sees I0A, not I0B


Voltage measurement includes mutual coupling
Method does not account for mutual coupling
errors expected

Verify Method Through Simulation


Create model with known data

Transmission line impedances

Fault location

Use negative- and zero-sequence voltages,


currents, and fault location (m) to calculate
Z2L and Z0L
Compare results to impedances in model

Calculating Error Traditional Method


jX
7.832
7.757

Actual = 7.884
Calculated = 7.982

% Error =

Misleading in rectangular
form and degrees

Actual Calculated
Actual

100

Calculated
1 2
100% Error

35% Error
0.815 1.099

Actual

Calculating Error Best Choice


Polar form is more accurate

Percent error for magnitude

Degree difference for angle

Previous example shows

Magnitude error = 1.28%

Degree error = 2

Simulation Results (Partial)

0.8

Z2L Error
Mag.
Angle
()
(%)
0.13
0.84

Z0L Error
Mag.
Angle
()
(%)
0.01
0.46

12.12

0.8

0.00

0.81

16.30

3.84

Yes

69

100

0.3

3.07

1.87

5.58

5.41

No

345

34

0.7

0.05

0.06

60.50

2.09

Yes

345

51.49

0.75

0.02

0.44

1.94

0.02

Yes

138

2.73

0.5

0.10

2.93

4.10

0.15

Yes

138

4.96

0.2

0.06

1.41

0.15

0.61

Yes

Line

Line
Voltage
(kV)

Line
Length
(miles)

Fault
Location,
m (pu)

69

9.8

138

Mutual
Coupling
No

Low errors in Z2L


Low errors in Z0L with no mutual coupling
High errors in Z0L in most cases of mutual
coupling (expected)

Three Outliers
Z2L Error

Z0L Error

Line

Line
Voltage
(kV)

Line
Length
(miles)

Fault
Location,
m (pu)

Mag.
(%)

Angle
()

Mag.
(%)

Angle
()

345

51.49

0.75

0.02

0.44

1.94

0.02

Yes

138

2.73

0.5

0.10

2.93

4.10

0.15

Yes

138

4.96

0.2

0.06

1.41

0.15

0.61

Yes

Mutual
Coupling

Line length
Number, areas, and percentage of
lines coupled

New Fault Locations


Line
Line
Fault
Line Voltage Length Location,
(kV)
(miles)
m (pu)

Z0L Error
Mag.
(%)

Mutual
Angle Coupling
()

345

51.49

0.25

24.59

1.9

Yes

138

2.73

0.25

8.74

1.48

Yes

138

4.96

0.9

169.24

10.5

Yes

Z0L error increases


Interplay between currents may lead to
good results despite mutual coupling

Conclusions From Simulations


Reliable Z2L
Reliable Z0L with no mutual coupling
Not Reliable X Z0L with mutual coupling

Using Event Data

Event 1
Accurate Z2L
Error in Z0L
(due to mutual
coupling)

Z2L Error

Z0L Error

Line
Voltage
(kV)

Line
Length
(miles)

Fault
Location
(pu)

Mag.
(%)

Angle
()

Mag.
(%)

Angle
()

161

82

0.78

3.10

5.24

29.76

1.19

Mutual
Coupling

FaultClearing
Time
(cycles)

Yes

Event 2
Accurate Z2L
Accurate Z0L
(no mutual
coupling)

Z2L Error

Z0L Error

Line
Voltage
(kV)

Line
Length
(miles)

Fault
Location
(pu)

Mag.
(%)

Angle
()

Mag.
(%)

Angle
()

345

17.6

0.745

5.37

3.38

1.29

0.61

Mutual
Coupling

FaultClearing
Time
(cycles)

No

Event 3
Fast breaker
clearing results in
Z2L and Z0L errors

Z2L Error

Z0L Error

Line
Voltage
(kV)

Line
Length
(miles)

Fault
Location
(pu)

Mag.
(%)

Angle
()

Mag.
(%)

Angle
()

500

45.1

0.71

17.32

7.17

3.98

11.36

Mutual
Coupling

FaultClearing
Time
(cycles)

Yes

Line Impedance Calculator

Phenomena That Can Affect Results

Nontransposed Lines
Transposition assumed in symmetrical
component domain
Errors can occur when line is
not transposed
Nontransposed lines have coupling
between sequence networks

Nontransposed Lines
Three-phase fault on nontransposed
line generates negative- and zerosequence currents
Faults make transposed lines
nonhomogeneous

Problems Obtaining Stable Data


Fast breakers
CT saturation
CVT transients
Evolving faults
Changing fault resistance
CVTs + fast breakers

Fast Breakers
Stable voltage and current difficult to find
Time alignment and high sampling rate important

Future Considerations

Use External Fault Data


VS

IR

IS

VR


V=
V S IS ZL
R

ZL

=
ZL

V S VR

Trigger events on Zone 2 forward or


Zone 3 reverse
Do not need fault location
Immune to nonhomogeneity

IS

Unstable Data With Low Sampling Rates


How to Align Data Points
Use synchrophasor measurements
Align prefault data, calculate time shift,
and resample at higher resolution

Improve Mutual Coupling Results


Error in Z0L when lines are coupled
Incorporation of coupled-line current
Complications from

Multiple coupled lines

Coupling for a fraction of line length

Terminations of coupled lines at different


locations than original line

Conclusions
Incorrect Z2L and Z0L can cause
misoperations
Event reports after a line-to-ground
fault help to validate impedances
Investigate any error in Z2L
Investigate any error in Z0L for lines
without coupling

Questions?

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