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# Validating Transmission Line

## Ariana Amberg, Alex Rangel,

and Greg Smelich
Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc.

## Why Are Line Impedances Important?

Used in distance element operation
Z0L Z1L
k0 =
3 Z1L

Z APP =

I + k0 ( 3 I0 )

Z0L =

k0 =

ZAPP

## Traditional Method Is Prone to Errors

zabc

zaa
= zab

zac

zac
zbc / mile

zcc

zab
zbb
zbc

zaa=

(ra + rd ) + jk ln D e / mile

zbb=

(rb + rd ) +

zcc=

(rc + rd ) + jk ln D e / mile

Can be complex
and tedious

sa

zab = rd +

D
jk ln D e
sb

/ mile

sc

De
jk ln D
ab

/ mile

zbc = rd + jk ln D e / mile
D

bc

zca = rd + jk ln D e / mile
D

ca

Z012 = A 1Zabc A
where:

1 1

A = 1 2
1

= 1120

## Number and type of phase

and ground conductors
(databases included)
Distances

Ground resistivity

Bundling

## Test Equipment Measures Impedances

Test Set

Test Set

2
V

Single-Phase-to-Ground Test
Test Set

1
2

Phase-to-Phase Test

7 tests
(no mutual coupling)

21 tests
(mutual coupling)
Three-Phase-to-Ground Test

## Ground Resistivity () Depends on

Soil Moisture and Temperature

10 to 200 -m
Various methods

## Measure areas of system and use generalized

values across those areas

everywhere

V

x
Probes

Ground

## Outer probes generate known current

Voltage is measured between inner probes
is calculated from resistance as well as
spacing and depth of probes

How Important Is ?
1 100
No change in Z1L

+
Each modeled with:
Continuous ground wire
Segmented ground wire
No ground wire

Resistance 148%

Reactance 144%

## More effect on lines

with segmented or
no ground wires

## Validate Impedances Using Event Data

Data Needed After Line-to-Ground Fault
Voltages and currents from both ends
Known fault location
Bus S

Bus R
m

## Solve for Z2L and Z0L

V 2S I2S m Z2L =
V 2F

N1
E1S
Z1S

E1R
m Z1L

(1 m) Z1L

Z1R

V 2R I2R (1 m ) Z2L =
V 2F
N2
I2S

V2S
Z2S +

m Z2L

V2F
(1 m) Z2L

V2R
+ Z2R I2R

3Rf

V 2S V 2R

Z2L =
I2S m I2R (1 m )

N0
I0S

V0S
Z0S +

m Z0L

V0F
(1 m) Z0L

V0R
+ Z0R I0R

V 0S V 0R

Z0L =
I0S m I0R (1 m )

S

Relay
Location

Line A
m
Z0M
Line B

Relay
Location
mZ0L

S
Z0S

F0
I0
(1 m)Z0L

I0A
mZ0M
Z0L
I0B
N0

(1 m)Z0M

Z0R

Relay
Location
mZ0L

S
Z0S

F0
I0
(1 m)Z0L

R
Z0R

I0A
mZ0M
Z0L

(1 m)Z0M

I0B
N0

## Relay only sees I0A, not I0B

Voltage measurement includes mutual coupling
Method does not account for mutual coupling
errors expected

## Verify Method Through Simulation

Create model with known data

Fault location

## Use negative- and zero-sequence voltages,

currents, and fault location (m) to calculate
Z2L and Z0L
Compare results to impedances in model

jX
7.832
7.757

Actual = 7.884
Calculated = 7.982

% Error =

form and degrees

Actual Calculated
Actual

100

Calculated
1 2
100% Error

35% Error
0.815 1.099

Actual

## Calculating Error Best Choice

Polar form is more accurate

Degree error = 2

0.8

Z2L Error
Mag.
Angle
()
(%)
0.13
0.84

Z0L Error
Mag.
Angle
()
(%)
0.01
0.46

12.12

0.8

0.00

0.81

16.30

3.84

Yes

69

100

0.3

3.07

1.87

5.58

5.41

No

345

34

0.7

0.05

0.06

60.50

2.09

Yes

345

51.49

0.75

0.02

0.44

1.94

0.02

Yes

138

2.73

0.5

0.10

2.93

4.10

0.15

Yes

138

4.96

0.2

0.06

1.41

0.15

0.61

Yes

Line

Line
Voltage
(kV)

Line
Length
(miles)

Fault
Location,
m (pu)

69

9.8

138

Mutual
Coupling
No

## Low errors in Z2L

Low errors in Z0L with no mutual coupling
High errors in Z0L in most cases of mutual
coupling (expected)

Three Outliers
Z2L Error

Z0L Error

Line

Line
Voltage
(kV)

Line
Length
(miles)

Fault
Location,
m (pu)

Mag.
(%)

Angle
()

Mag.
(%)

Angle
()

345

51.49

0.75

0.02

0.44

1.94

0.02

Yes

138

2.73

0.5

0.10

2.93

4.10

0.15

Yes

138

4.96

0.2

0.06

1.41

0.15

0.61

Yes

Mutual
Coupling

Line length
Number, areas, and percentage of
lines coupled

## New Fault Locations

Line
Line
Fault
Line Voltage Length Location,
(kV)
(miles)
m (pu)

Z0L Error
Mag.
(%)

Mutual
Angle Coupling
()

345

51.49

0.25

24.59

1.9

Yes

138

2.73

0.25

8.74

1.48

Yes

138

4.96

0.9

169.24

10.5

Yes

## Z0L error increases

Interplay between currents may lead to
good results despite mutual coupling

## Conclusions From Simulations

Reliable Z2L
Reliable Z0L with no mutual coupling
Not Reliable X Z0L with mutual coupling

## Using Event Data

Event 1
Accurate Z2L
Error in Z0L
(due to mutual
coupling)

Z2L Error

Z0L Error

Line
Voltage
(kV)

Line
Length
(miles)

Fault
Location
(pu)

Mag.
(%)

Angle
()

Mag.
(%)

Angle
()

161

82

0.78

3.10

5.24

29.76

1.19

Mutual
Coupling

FaultClearing
Time
(cycles)

Yes

Event 2
Accurate Z2L
Accurate Z0L
(no mutual
coupling)

Z2L Error

Z0L Error

Line
Voltage
(kV)

Line
Length
(miles)

Fault
Location
(pu)

Mag.
(%)

Angle
()

Mag.
(%)

Angle
()

345

17.6

0.745

5.37

3.38

1.29

0.61

Mutual
Coupling

FaultClearing
Time
(cycles)

No

Event 3
Fast breaker
clearing results in
Z2L and Z0L errors

Z2L Error

Z0L Error

Line
Voltage
(kV)

Line
Length
(miles)

Fault
Location
(pu)

Mag.
(%)

Angle
()

Mag.
(%)

Angle
()

500

45.1

0.71

17.32

7.17

3.98

11.36

Mutual
Coupling

FaultClearing
Time
(cycles)

Yes

## Phenomena That Can Affect Results

Nontransposed Lines
Transposition assumed in symmetrical
component domain
Errors can occur when line is
not transposed
Nontransposed lines have coupling
between sequence networks

Nontransposed Lines
Three-phase fault on nontransposed
line generates negative- and zerosequence currents
Faults make transposed lines
nonhomogeneous

## Problems Obtaining Stable Data

Fast breakers
CT saturation
CVT transients
Evolving faults
Changing fault resistance
CVTs + fast breakers

Fast Breakers
Stable voltage and current difficult to find
Time alignment and high sampling rate important

Future Considerations

VS

IR

IS

VR

V=
V S IS ZL
R

ZL

=
ZL

V S VR

## Trigger events on Zone 2 forward or

Zone 3 reverse
Do not need fault location
Immune to nonhomogeneity

IS

## Unstable Data With Low Sampling Rates

How to Align Data Points
Use synchrophasor measurements
Align prefault data, calculate time shift,
and resample at higher resolution

## Improve Mutual Coupling Results

Error in Z0L when lines are coupled
Incorporation of coupled-line current
Complications from

## Terminations of coupled lines at different

locations than original line

Conclusions
Incorrect Z2L and Z0L can cause
misoperations
Event reports after a line-to-ground
fault help to validate impedances
Investigate any error in Z2L
Investigate any error in Z0L for lines
without coupling

Questions?

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