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Easements:creation
Resourcetype:PracticeNote

Status:Maintained

Jurisdictions:England,Wales

Apracticenoteexplaininghoweasementsarecreated.
PracticalLawProperty

Contents
Abbreviations
Practicenotesoneasements
Howeasementsarecreated
Legaleasements
Expressgrantbydeed
Section65oftheLPA1925

Statute
Will
Impliedgrant
Byreasonofnecessity
Commonintentionoftheparties
TheruleinWheeldonvBurrows
Section62oftheLPA1925
Avoidingimpliedgrants

Prescription
Commonlawprescription
Doctrineoflostmoderngrant
PrescriptionAct1832
Barstoaclaimforaprescriptiveeasement
PrescriptionandLandRegistration

Equitableeasements
Contract
Proprietaryestoppel

Easementsandperpetuities
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Thecurrentperpetuityrules
Theoldperpetuityrules

Abbreviations
Thefollowingabbreviationsareusedinthisnote:
CROWA2000:CountrysideandRightsofWayAct2000.
LG(MP)A1976:LocalGovernment(MiscellaneousProvisions)Act1976.
LPA1925:LawofPropertyAct1925.
LP(MP)A1989:LawofProperty(MiscellaneousProvisions)Act1989.
LRA1967:LeaseholdReformAct1967.
LRA2002:LandRegistrationAct2002.
LTA1954:LandlordandTenantAct1954.
PA1832:PrescriptionAct1832.
PAA1964:PerpetuitiesandAccumulationsAct1964.
PAA2009:PerpetuitiesandAccumulationsAct2009.
RLA1959:RightsofLightAct1959.
RTA1988:RoadtrafficAct1988.

Practicenotesoneasements
Thispracticenoteformspartofaseriesofconcisepracticenotesconsideringthevariousaspectsof
thelawgoverningeasements.
Theotherpracticenotesintheseriesare:
Easements:characteristics.
Easements:scopeandextent.
Easements:interferenceandremedies.
Easements:termination.
Easements:Landregistrationprotection.
Easements:rightsoflight.
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Inaddition,thePracticenote,OverridinginterestsandtheLandRegistrationAct2002coversthe
rulesgoverningoverridingeasements.

Howeasementsarecreated
Easementscanbecreatedbyaconfusingvarietyofmethods,allofwhichareconsideredinthis
practicenote:
Expressgrantbydeed.
Statute.
Will.
Impliedgrant.
Prescription.
Contract.
Proprietaryestoppel.
Dependinguponthemanneroftheircreationandthecompletionofanynecessaryformalities,they
areclassifiedaseither:
Legaleasementsor
Equitableeasements.

Legaleasements
Aneasementfallswithinthedefinitionof"land"(section205(1)(ix)LPA1925).Itiscapableofexisting
atlawonlyifgrantedforanestateinfeesimpleorforatermofyearsabsolute(section1(2),LPA
1925).
Legaleasementsmaybeexpresslycreatedbydeed,bystatuteorbywill.
Easementsarisingbyimpliedgrantinitiallytakeeffectasequitableeasements(pendingthe
completionoftherelevantleaseorconveyance)butthereaftertakeeffectasalegaleasements(see
Impliedgrant).
Theacquisitionofaneasementbyprescriptionassumesagrantbydeedandtakeseffectasalegal
easementforafeesimpleabsoluteinpossession(seePrescription).

Expressgrantbydeed
Anexpressgrantintervivosofalegaleasementmustbebydeed.Subjecttosection65oftheLPA

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1925,itmustbeexecutedbythegrantor(seeSection65oftheLPA1925).
Easementsaremostcommonlygrantedinatransferofalegalestateoruponthegrantofalease
wherethenewownerisgoingtoenjoyarightoverlandretainedbythetransferororlandlord.
However,theycanalsobecreatedindependentlyofanyotherdispositionbetweentwolandowners.
Foranexample,seeStandarddocument,Deedofeasement(rightofway).
Theexpressgrantofaneasementoverregisteredservientlandmustbecompletedbyregistration
(section27(2)(d),LRA2002)becauseitisaregistrabledisposition.Itwillnotoperateatlawuntilthe
registrationrequirementshavebeenmet(section27(1),LRA2002).
However,wheretheservientlandisunregistered,thegrantofaneasementisnotaregistrable
disposition,soitiseffectiveatlawwhenitismade.
Formoreontheregistrationofeasements,seePracticenote,Easements:Landregistration
protection.

Section65oftheLPA1925
Aneasementmaybecreatedonasaleofpartwherethesellerreservesarightoverthepartsold.
Thisisoftenexpressedasareservationbut,technically,itisagrantbythebuyertotheseller.The
buyeracquiresthelandandthenimmediatelygrantstheeasementbacktotheseller.
Inthissituation,section65oftheLPA1925providesthatitisnotnecessaryforthebuyertoexecute
thedeed(usuallythetransfer)eventhoughitisthebuyerthatismakingthegrant.
Thisratherlabouredmethodofgrantinganeasement,expressedtobeareservationanddraftedby
theseller,hasleadtoanuneasyapplicationofthecontraproferentemrule.Inthecaseof
ambiguityinthegrantitself,itisconstruedagainstthebuyer,eventhoughitistheseller's
responsibilitytomakethetermsofthetransactionclear(StEdmunsburyandIpswichDiocesan
BoardofFinancevClark(no2)[1975]1WLR468).
Theapplicationofthecontraproferentemruleinthesecircumstanceshasbeencriticisedandthe
LawCommissionhasrecommendedthatitshouldnolongerapply(seeLegalupdate,TheLaw
Commissionconsultsonthereformofeasements,covenantsandprofitsprendre).

Statute
Manystatutesconfereasementsonthirdpartygrantees.Forexample,easementscanbeacquired
undertheenfranchisementprovisionsoftheLRA1967.Easementscanalsobeacquiredbythe
exerciseofcompulsorypurchasepowers(section13,LG(MP)A1976).
Aneasementacquiredbystatuteisnotusuallyanexpressgrant(unlesstherelevantstatute
providesforexpressgrant),soitdoesnothavetobecompletedbyregistrationtobealegal
easement.Itwillbeenforceableagainstthirdpartiesinaccordancewiththegeneralrulesgoverning
easements,subjecttoanyparticularprovisionsoftherelevantstatute.

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Variousstatutesalsogivespecialpowerstoutilitycompanies(forexample,gas,waterandelectricity
companies)toenterontoprivatelandtoinstallpipesandcablesfortheirpublicsupply.Insuchcases
theneedfordominantlandisoftenabrogatedbystatutoryprovisions.
Whereaneasementisenjoyedaspartofaleaseofthedominantland,inrespectofwhichthereisa
rightofrenewalundertheLTA1954,thentheeasementisavailableforrenewalalongwiththerest
oftheholding(section32(3)LTA1954).

Will
Easementscanbecreatedbywillwherethetestatorleavesdominantandservientlandtodifferent
persons.Untilthepersonalrepresentativemakesthewrittenassent,theeasementtakeseffectonly
inequity.Iftheeasementarisesbyimplication(seeByimpliedgrant)itshouldbeexpresslyreferred
toinboththeassentofthedominantlandandtheservientland.
Althoughrareinpractice,atestatorisalsoabletosubjectthelandbeingleftbythewilltoan
easementinfavouroflandownedbyathirdparty.

Impliedgrant
Thegrantofaneasementmaybeimpliedwherethegrantor,theowneroftheservientland,
disposesofpartofitsland.
Aneasementmaybecreatedbyanimpliedgrant:
Byreasonofnecessity.
ByCommonintentionoftheparties.
UnderTheruleinWheeldonvBurrows).
UnderSection62oftheLPA1925(although,strictlyspeaking,thisisaformofexpressgrant).
Thesemethodsofacquiringeasementsbyimpliedgrantcanoverlapandareoftenclaimedinthe
alternative.Thisisbecausetheyareallbasedontheprincipleofnonderogationfromgrantwhereby
aperson,havinggivensomething,cannotthentakeawaythemeansofenjoyingit.
However,theprincipleofnonderogationfromgrantisessentiallypassiveincharacterandagrantor
doesnothavetotakeadditionalpositivestepstoperfectorimprovethegrant.
Forexample,inWilliamOldInternationalLimitedvArya[2009]EWHC599(Ch)althoughthe
developerhadanimpliedeasementtolayservicemediaacrossneighbouringland,thatdidnot
obligetheownersoftheneighbouringlandtoenterintoadeedofgrantwithastatutoryundertaker
asthiswasoutsidethepresumedcontemplationoftheparties.Formoreinformation,seeLegal
update,Easementsandnonderogationfromgrant.
Insomecasesaneasementmaybeimpliedlyreservedbutthisismuchlesscommonthan

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easementsimpliedbygrantandmorerestrictedinpractice.Foranexampleofasituationwhere,
unusually,aneasementwasimpliedlyreservedseeLegalupdate,Effectofsection65(1),Lawof
PropertyAct1925onimpliedreservation(HighCourt).

Byreasonofnecessity
Aneasementofnecessity,usuallyarightofway,mayarisewherethereisadisposalofpartand
thereisnootherlegallyenforceablemeansofaccesstothelandsoldorretained.
Theimplicationarisesfromapresumedintentionoftheparties.Itmayoperatebywayofgrant,ifthe
landdisposedofislandlocked,orbywayofreservation,iftheretainedlandislandlocked(Clarkv
Cogge(1607)CroJac170andPackervWellstead(1658)2Sid39,111).
Arightofwayarisingbynecessityisusuallyonewherethereisnoexistingroadorpath.Ifthereis
anexistingroadorpath,overwhichaquasieasementexists,thentheeasementwouldgenerally
ariseundersection62oftheLPA1925(seeSection62oftheLPA1925)ortheruleinWheeldonv
Burrows(seeTheruleinWheeldonvBurrows).
Thetestofnecessitycanbeadifficultonetosatisfy.Forexample,accessbywatercanbeenoughto
preventarightofwayoverlandarisingbynecessity(ManjangvDrammeh(1991)61P&CR194).
However,inSweetvSommer,[2005]EWCACiv227,theCourtofAppealheldthataneasementof
necessitywasimpliedeventhoughthelandowner,atthetimeoftheimpliedgrant,couldhave
obtainedanothermeansofaccessbydemolishingabuildingonitsownland.Formoreinformation,
seeLegalupdate,Easementofnecessitypropertylandlockedonlyduetopresenceofabuilding
(CourtofAppeal).
Easementsforsupportand,occasionally,othereasementsmayalsobegrantedbynecessity.In
WongvBeaumontPropertyTrustLimited[1965]1QB173,aneasementofnecessityforventilation
wasimplied.Thetenanthadcovenantedtokeepthepropertyopenasarestaurant,tocomplywith
healthregulationsandtoeliminateallsmellsandodours.Thetenantcouldnotcomplywiththese
covenantswithoutaneasementforventilation.
Itismoredifficultforasellerofparttoestablishanimpliedreservationofaneasementforareason
ofnecessity.ThiswasillustratedbyAdealonInternationalProprietaryLimitedvMertonLondon
BoroughCouncil[2007]EWCACIV362(seeLegalupdate,Impliedreservationofeasementof
necessityclaimrejected).

Commonintentionoftheparties
ImpliedeasementsofcommonintentionweredefinedinthecaseofPwllbachCollieryCoLtdv
Woodman[1915]AC634aseasementsnecessarytogiveeffecttothemannerinwhichtheland
soldorretainedwasintendedtobeused.
Theyareverysimilartoeasementsimpliedbynecessity.However,thescopeandextentofan
easementimpliedbycommonintentionmaybewiderthananeasementbeingimpliedbynecessity.
Aneasementofnecessityisonlyimpliedtotheextentitisneededtoenablethelandtobeused.

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However,ifitcanbeshownthattherewasacommonintentionoftheparties,theextentofthe
resultingeasementmaybegreater.
Aneasementofcommonintentioncanthereforearisebyimpliedgrantwhere:
Thepartieshaveacommonintentionrelatingtotheuseofthedominantorservientlandand
Aneasementisnecessarytocarryoutthatsharedintention.
Thepartiesmustbeabletoshowthattheyintendedtheservientlandtobeusedinthemanner
claimedasaneasement.
Wherethereisacommonintentiontograntaparticularagreedeasement,itmaybepossibleto
makeaclaimforrectification.
Althoughaneasementmaybereservedbyshowingcommonintention,thereisaheavierburdenof
proofforanimpliedreservationthanforanimpliedgrant.
InDonovan&AnorvRana&Anor[2014]EWCACiv99,theCourtofAppealheldthatatransferee
wasentitledtoaneasementimpliedbycommonintentionoverthetransferor'sretainedlandto
connecttomainsservicesinthepublichighwayinspiteofthetransfercontainingwordingpurporting
toexcludethegrantofadditionaleasements(seeLegalupdate,Easementimpliedbycommon
intentionoftheparties(CourtofAppeal)).

TheruleinWheeldonvBurrows
TheruleinWheeldonvBurrows(1879)12Ch31appliesonadispositionofpart,eitherwhereone
partisdisposedoforwhereeachpartissimultaneouslydisposedof(RussellvWatts(1884)25ChD
559).FortheruleinWheeldonvBurrowstooperatethereisnoneedforthedominantandservient
landstohavebeenindifferentoccupationsbeforethedisposition.Easementsimpliedundertherule
areusuallybywayofgrant.
Theruleoperatestoimply,infavourofabuyer,allquasieasementsovertheretainedlandthat
satisfyeachofthefollowing:
Arenecessaryforthereasonableenjoymentofthepartthathasbeendisposedof(the
dominantland).
Havebeenused,andisusedatthetimeofthedisposition,bythesellerforthebenefitofthe
dominantland.
Arecontinuousandapparent.
Continuous:Acontinuouseasementisonewhichisenjoyedpassivelyandwhichisofa
constantnature.Themostobviousexampleisarighttolight.Arightofwayusedintermittently
isthereforenotacontinuouseasement.
Apparent:Whereaneasementisapparentitseemsthattheneedforittobecontinuousis
relaxed.Aquasieasementisapparentifthereisapermanentfeatureontheservientlandthat
signalstheexistenceofaneasement(WardvKirkland[1967]Ch194).Thismightincludea
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roadwaydenotingarightofway,windowsdenotingrightsoflight,orachanneldenotingthe
righttotakewater.
(WheeldonvBurrows(1879)12ChD31,restatedinSovmotsInvestmentsvSecretaryofState
[1979]AC144.)
ItisnotgenerallypossibleforaneasementtobereservedundertheruleinWheeldonvBurrows
andthesellershouldexpresslyreserveanyeasementsneeded(WheeldonvBurrows(1879)12Ch
D31andReWebb'sLease[1951]Ch808).Exceptionstothisgeneralpositionareeffectively
easementsofnecessityonadispositionofpartseeByreasonofnecessity.
TheruleinWheeldonvBurrowsisfoundedonthedoctrineofnonderogationfromgrant(seeBy
impliedgrant),whichisitselfbasedinpartontheintention(orpresumedintention)oftheparties.Ifit
canbeshownthatthepartiesdidnotintendaparticulareasementtobegranted,itwillnotbe
createdundertheruleinWheeldonvBurrows.
Theextentoftheimpliedeasementwillreflecttheextentofthequasieasementasitwasexercised
beforethedisposition.TheruleinWheeldonvBurrowsdoesnotallowanyextensionofthescopeof
thepreexistingquasieasement.However,theruleinWheeldonvBurrowscanbeusedtoimplya
widereasementiftherehasbeenanexpressgrantofmorelimitedscopethanthepreexisting
quasieasement.Itisstillnecessarytoshowtherequisitepresumedintention.
FormoreinformationontheruleinWheeldonvBurrows,seeLegalupdate,Impliedeasementsand
theruleinWheeldonvBurrows.

Section62oftheLPA1925
Inanattempttoshortenthelengthofconveyances,section62oftheLPA1925introduceda
deemingprovision.Thismadeitunnecessarytosetoutalonglistofwhatistobeconveyedalong
withtheland,suchasbuildings,rights,privilegesandeasements.
Section62appliestobothregisteredandunregisteredland.Itappliesprovidedtheconveyancedoes
notexpressacontraryintention.Althoughusuallyconsideredalongsideimpliedeasements,because
section62deemsthatthenecessarywordsareintheconveyance,theacquisitionofeasementsby
virtueofsection62istechnicallyaformofexpressgrantratherthanofimpliedgrant.

Thegeneralwordsimpliedbysection62
Section62providesthataconveyanceoflandshallbedeemedtoincludeandshalloperateto
convey,withtheland,allways,watercourses,privileges,easements,rightsandadvantages
whatsoeverandwhich:
Appertainorarereputedtoappertaintothelandoranypartofitor
Are,atthetimeoftheconveyance,occupiedorenjoyedwiththelandoranypartofit.
Aconveyanceisdefinedverybroadlybysection205(1)(ii)oftheLPA1925.Itincorporatesmost

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instrumentsthattransferorcreatealegalestateinland.Itwillalsoincludealeasebywritten
contract(notdeed)butonlyifitsatisfiesallthecriteriainsection52andsection54oftheLPA1925:
Theleasetakeseffectinpossession.Possessionincludesphysicaloccupationandreceiptof
rentsandprofits(section205(1)(xix),LPA1925).
Theleaseisgrantedforatermnotexceedingthreeyearsfromthedateofgrant.
Theleaseisgrantedatthebestrentreasonablyobtainablewithouttakingafine(thatis,a
premium).
Itisgenerallyassumedthatsection62willnotapplytoanoralleasepursuanttosection52and
section54oftheLPA1925asthatcannotbeconsideredtobean"instrument".
Section62alsodoesnotapplytoanagreementcreatingaleaseexceedingatermofthreeyears,
becausesuchanagreementcreatesanequitableinterestandnotalegalestate.

Effectofsection62
Theeffectofsection62isthatonaconveyanceofpart,quasieasementsexercisedbytheowner
overitsretainedland,aregrantedaseasementstothepersonacquiringthatpartofthelandbeing
conveyed.
Merepermissionsmaybeupgradedintoeasements.Forexample,wherealicenseeoflandhas
usedarightofwayoverotherlandbelongingtothelicensorwiththeirpermission,thenthat
permissionwillbeelevatedintoaneasementbysection62ifaleaseissubsequentlygrantedtothe
licensee(WrightvMacadam(1949)2KB744andHairvGillman[2000]3EGLR74).

Excludingsection62bycontraryintention
Section62appliesonlysofarasacontraryintentionisnotexpressedintheconveyanceandhas
effectsubjecttothetermsoftheconveyance(section62(4),LPA1925).
Ifthereisacontractandaconveyance,thenastatementlimitingtheapplicationofsection62should
bemadeintheconveyanceitself.Clearwordsshouldbeusedbecausesection62technically
operatesasanexpressgrant.Inparticular,thegrantofasimilar,butlimitedrightwillnotonitsown
amounttoanintentiontoexcludesection62inrelationtoabroaderright(GreggvRichards[1926]
Ch521).
Acontractpriortotheconveyanceisstillrelevantforthepurposesofsection62andthebuyer
cannotrequirethesellertoconveymorethanthesellerhascontractedtoconvey.So,forexample:
Ifastatementthatsection62doesnotapplyisincludedinthecontractbutisleftoutofthe
conveyance,thentheremaybeaclaimforrectification.
Ifthecontractdoesnotstatethattheapplicationofsection62islimitedbecauseofacommon
mistake,thenthecontractandtheconveyancemayberectifiedtolimitsection62asintended.
Thewordingofthecontractand,onoccasion,thecircumstancessurroundingthecontractand

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theconveyance,mayberelevantindecidingwhetheracontraryintentionhasbeenexpressed.
Note:Evenifthereareclearwordstoexcludeaneasementarisingbyvirtueofsection62,the
easementsoughtmaystillariseunderanothercategoryofimpliedgrant,dependingonthe
circumstances(seeImpliedgrant).
Formoreinformationontheapplicationofcontraryintention,seeLegalupdate,Section62
easementsandestablishingcontraryintention(CourtofAppeal).
Formoreinformationontheremedyofrectification,seePracticenote,Remedies:equitable
remedies:Rectification.

Limitsonsection62
Theapplicationofsection62islimitedinthefollowingways:
Thegrantormusthavethepowertogranttheeasement.Section62cannotconferabettertitle
onthegranteethanthegrantorpossessed(nemodatquodnonhabet).
Ifthequasieasementwasenjoyedbylandotherthanthelandconveyed,eveniftheeasement
wouldbenefitthelandconveyed,aneasementwillnotbegrantedbytheconveyance.
Therightmustbebeingexercisedatthetimeoftheconveyance.However,arightmaystill
appertaintolandeventhoughitisnotbeingusedatthetimeoftheconveyance,aslongasit
wasbeingusedshortlybefore.Forexample,arighttousetheconcourseofashoppingcentre
thathadbeenusedupuntilsixmonthsbeforetheconveyancestillfellwithinsection62
(CastagliolavEnglish(1969)210EG1425).
Ifthereisdiversityofoccupationatthetimeofthegrant,thenallquasieasementswillpass.
Ifthereisnodiversityofoccupation,thenthereissomeauthoritythatonlyquasieasementsthat
arecontinuousandapparentwillpass.However,thereisconflictingauthoritythatsection62
passesallrightsthatare"enjoyedwith"thelandeventhoughtheyarenotcontinuousand
apparent(BroomfieldvWilliams[1897]1Ch602,LongvGowlett[1923]2Ch177andSovmots
InvestmentsvSecretaryofState[1979]AC144).
InWoodvWaddington[2014]EWHC1358(Ch),theHighCourtlookedattheconflicting
authoritiesonwhethertherewasanabsoluterulethatrightsofwaycouldnotpassunder
section62iftherewasnopriordiversityofownership.Thecourtconcludedthattherewasno
suchabsoluterulebutitwasnecessarytoshowthat,beforetheconveyance,therightofway
wasbeingenjoyedwiththelandbeingconveyed,ratherthanaspartoftherightsofownership
ofallthelandthenincommonownership.Formoreinformation,seeLegalupdate,"Continuous
andapparent"rightsofwayanddiversityofoccupation(HighCourt).
InWoodandanothervWaddington[2015]EWCACiv538,theCourtofAppealagreedwiththe
HighCourtthattherewasnoabsoluterulethatrightsofwaycouldnotpassundersection62if
therewasnopriordiversityofoccupation.Formoreinformation,seeLegalupdate,"Continuous
andapparent"rightsofwayanddiversityofoccupation(CourtofAppeal).
AswiththeruleinWheeldonvBurrows,section62operatesinrespectoflandretainedbythe
grantoranddoesnotapplytoeasementsoverlandownedbyathirdparty.Wheretheseare
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alreadyinexistence,theypassautomatically(GodwinvSchweppes[1902]1Ch926,section
187,LPA1925andsections11and12,LRA2002).

Avoidingimpliedgrants
Ifaneasementcanbeestablishedbyimpliedgrantthiswilloftenunexpectedlylimittheuseofthe
servientlandandleadtodisputebetweentheownersofthedominantandservientland.
Toavoidimpliedgrantsarising,thepartiesshouldexpresslysetouttheagreedeasementsinthe
contractandintheleaseortransfer.Iftheexactscopeorrouteofaneasementcannotbe
determinedatthedateofthecontract(forexample,inthecaseoflandthatistobedeveloped)then
amoregeneralobligationtogranttherelevanteasementmaybeincludedinthecontracttogether
withamechanismfordeterminingitsexactscopeandrouteandadisputeresolutionprocedure.For
moreinformationontheimpactoftherulesagainstperpetuitiesoneasements,seeEasementsand
perpetuities.
Thetransferorleaseshouldalsoexpresslystatetheextenttowhichsection62willnotapplyand
thatthepartiesdonotintendanyeasementstobegrantedorreserved,otherthanthosewhichare
expresslysetout.Ifthereisacontractforthetransferorlease,thecontractshouldrequirethatthe
transferorleasecontainsthisstatement.Foranexampleofthewordingused:
Inacontract,seeContractforthesaleoffreeholdlandwithvacantpossession:10.Transfer.
Inalease,seeStandarddocument,Leaseofwhole:3.Ancillaryrights.

Prescription
Acquiringrightsbyprescription(orlonguser)iscomplicatedandconfusing.Prescriptionderivesfrom
anunderlyingtenetofEnglishlawthatexercisingarightforalongperiodoftime,without
interference,shouldbecapableoflegitimisation.Itiscombinedwithanassumption,insomecasesa
fallacy,thattherightoriginallyderivedinagrant.
Itshouldbenotedthatitisnotpossibletoacquireaneasementbyprescriptionforthebenefitofan
interestforatermofyears(orlesserinterest).Althoughtheuseoftherightmaybeonbehalfofthe
ownerofthefeesimple,forexamplebyitstenant,ifestablished,itisforthebenefitofthedominant
feesimpleagainstaservientfeesimple.Formoreinformation,seePrescriptionwheretheservient
ordominantlandislet.
Broadly,aneasementmaybeacquiredbyprescriptionwhere:
Theowneroroccupierofthedominantlandhasusedtheservientlandinamannerthatis
capableofexistingasaneasement.
Theusehasbeen"asofright",thatis,withoutforce,withoutsecrecyandwithoutpermission
(necvi,necclam,necprecario).
Atthetimeofthepresumedgrant,therewasacompetentgrantorandacompetentgrantee.
Iftherehadbeenanexpressgrant,thatgrantwouldhavebeenlawful.
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Thereisnoobviousexplanationfortheuseotherthanapresumedgrant.
Therearethreemethodsofacquiringeasementsbyprescription:
Commonlawprescription.
Doctrineoflostmoderngrant.
UnderthePrescriptionAct1832.

Commonlawprescription
Thisistheoldestmethodofacquiringprescriptiverightsand,forallpracticalpurposes,hasbeen
supersededbythePA1832(seePrescriptionAct1832)andthedoctrineoflostmoderngrant(see
Doctrineoflostmoderngrant).
Commonlawprescriptionbeganasanassumptionthatanyusethatcouldbetracedbacktobefore
1189couldbeproperlyacquiredbyprescription.
Later,itwaspresumedthataright,whichcouldbeshowntohavebeenexercisedforatleast20
years,hadcommencedbefore1189.Thispresumptioncouldberebuttedbyshowingeitherofthe
following:
Therighthadnotinfactbeenexercisedatalltimessincebefore1189or
Atsomepointthedominantandservientlandhadbeenownedbythesameparty.

Doctrineoflostmoderngrant
Underthedoctrineoflostmoderngrant,ifaneasementhasbeenenjoyedforatleast20years
withoutanyotherlawfulexplanation,itispresumed:
Tohavehaditsorigininadeedofgrantmadeafter1189(seeCommonlawprescription).
Thatthedeedofgranthasbeenlost(AngusvDalton(1881)6AppCas740).
Aclaimoflostmoderngrantbasedon20yearsofuseisnotrebuttedevenwhentheuseis
interruptedaftertherequired20years.Foranexampleofthisprincipleapplyinginpracticesee,
Legalupdate,Whetherrightofwayhasbeenacquiredbyprescriptionovercommonland.
Thereisnoneedtoprovetheexistenceofthedeedofgrantnorthepartiestoit.Infact,even
demonstratingthatnograntwasinfactevermade,maybeinsufficienttorebutthepresumption
(AngusvDalton(1881)6AppCas740).
However,thedoctrineoflostmoderngrantwillfailifitcanbeshownthattherewasagrantandthat
thegrantorwasinsomewayincompetent,throughcapacityorownership,togranttheeasement.
Simplyprovingcontinuoususeforaperiodof20yearsisnowusuallysufficienttoacquirean
easementunderthedoctrineoflostmoderngrant.Continuityofuseisaquestionoffactineach
case.

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InLondonTaraHotelLtdvKensingtonCloseHotelLtd[2011]EWCACiv1356,aneasementwas
establishedbylostmoderngrant.Thecaseconsideredwhethertherewasuse"asofright",and
highlightedthat:
Ifanownerhasgrantedapersonalrighttoalicenseetopassovertheowner'sland,heshould
checkevery18yearsthatownershipofthedominantlandhasnotchanged.Otherwiseanew
user,withoutpermission,canacquireaprescriptiveright.
Thepartyclaimingtherightcanrelyonusebyathirdpartytoclaimaprescriptiveright,where
thethirdparty'susebenefitsthedominantland.
Formoreinformation,seeLegalupdate,Acquiringarightofwaybyprescription(CourtofAppeal).
InOrmevLyons[2012]EWHC3308(Ch),theHighCourtheldthatapropertyhadthebenefitofa
vehicularrightofwayoveratrackbasedonthedoctrineoflostmoderngrantdespitetheclaimants
drivingoverthetrackinfrequentlyduringtheirperiodofownership(seeLegalupdate,Continuityof
useforaprescriptiverightofway(HighCourt)).

PrescriptionAct1832
ThePA1832isgenerallyacknowledgedtobepoorlyconceivedandbadlydrafted.Itsprovisionsdo
notsupersedeeithercommonlawprescriptionnorthedoctrineoflostmoderngrantbutintroduce
twonewformsofprescriptionbasedon20and40yearsofuse(forprofitsprendretheperiodsare
longer,basedon30or60yearsofuse,seePracticenote,Profitsprendre:Prescription).
ThePA1832alsocreatedaseparateregimeforrightsoflight.Foranoverviewofrightsoflightsee
Practicenote,Easements:rightsoflight.

20yearsofuseunderthePA1832
After20yearsofuse,aprescriptiverightcanariseunderthePA1832asadefencetoaclaimthat
therightdidnotexistin1189(seeCommonlawprescription).However,therightwillonlycrystallise
wheresomelegalsuitoractioncallstheuseintoissue(section4,PA1832).ThecaseofWilkin&
SonsLtdvAgriculturalFacilitiesLtd(Easementsandprofitsaprendre)[2012]EWLandRA
2011_0420considerswhatismeantbya"legalsuitoraction"atparagraphs106to113.Itconcluded
thatanapplicationtotheLandRegistryconstitutesasuitoraction.Theactioncanbebroughtby
thedominantorservientownerorathirdparty.
UnderthePA1832,the20years'usemustbethe20yearsimmediatelybeforetheactionthat
crystallisestheeasement(althoughaninterruptionofuptooneyearisdisregarded(section4,PA
1832)).
Note:"Interruption"hereisatechnicaltermreferringtosomeobstruction,bytheservientownerora
thirdparty,whichpreventstheuseoftheright.Itdoesnotreferto,forexample,ameredecreasein
theregularityoftheactualuse.
ThepositionunderthePA1832regarding20yearsofuseisdifferenttothepositionwherean

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easementisclaimedunderlostmoderngrant.Underlostmoderngranttheuseoftheeasement
musthavecontinuedfor20years,butnotnecessarilythe20yearsimmediatelybeforetherightis
challengedincourt.Infact,thismeansthatclaimantsoftenprefertoclaimaneasementbylost
moderngrant.
InMilsumandanothervGormanandanother(Easements)[2011]EWLandRA2010_0360(15
February2011)theLandsTribunalheldthatalthoughafiledplanhad(wrongly)includedtheservient
landwithinthedominantland,theservientlandhadremainedatalltimesinthelegalownershipofa
thirdparty.Assuch,20yearsuninterrupteduserasofrightoverthislandcouldgiverisetoan
easementbyprescription.Forfurtherinformation,seeLegalupdate,Canaprescriptiverightbe
acquiredifservientlandiswithinthedominantland'sfiledplan?
Ineffect,thePA1832addsverylittletothedoctrineoflostmoderngrantorcommonlaw
prescription.Theonlyadvantageseemstobethataperiodof20yearsiscategoricallyspecifiedand
thatprovingitdidnotexistbefore1189willnotdefeataclaim.

40yearsofuseunderthePA1832
Theacquisitionofaprescriptiveeasementafter40years'useunderthePA1832israrely
encounteredinpractice.Asisthecasefor20years'statutoryprescription,therightwillonlybe
acquiredoncelegalactionisbroughtandtheuserperiodmustextendupuntilthataction.
Therelevantprovisionallowsaneasement(otherthanlight)tobeestablishedas"absoluteand
indefeasible"after40years'use"unlessitshallappearthatthesamewasenjoyedbysomeconsent
oragreementexpresslygivenormadeforthatpurposebydeedorwriting"(section2,PA1832).

Oralpermissionand40years'use
However,oneproblemwiththisdraftingisthatitcanbeinterpretedtomeanthatanoralconsent
maynotdefeataclaimbasedon40years'use.Althoughthisseemsperverse,attemptshavebeen
madeincaselawtoreconcilethiswordingwiththerulethatenjoymentmustbe"asofright"(thatis
withoutforce,withoutsecrecyandwithoutpermission).
ThepositionissummarisedinMegarry&Wade,TheLawofRealProperty(Sweet&Maxwell,8thed,
2012),paragraph28076:
Anyconsents,whetheroralorwritten,whichhavebeengivenfromtimetotimeduringthe
period,defeataclaimbasedoneither20or40years'use.
Awrittenconsentgivenatthebeginningoftheuse(andextendingthroughout)defeatsaclaim
basedoneither20or40years'use.
Anoralconsentgivenatthebeginningoftheuse(andextendingthroughout)defeatsaclaim
basedon20butnot40years'use.
Thissuggeststhataclaimtoaprescriptiveeasementbasedon40years'usewillnotbedefeatedif
theuseinquestionstartedwithoralpermission,andpermissionwasnotlaterrenewed.However,in
JonesvPrice(1992)64P&CR404itwasheldthatusewhichcontinuesonacommon

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understandingthattheuseis,andcontinuestobe,permissivewilldefeataclaimbasedon40years'
use.InJonesvPrice,theuseinquestionstartedwithoralpermission,andalthoughthatpermission
wasnotspecificallyrenewedorallyorinwriting,therewasa"tacitunderstanding"betweenthe
neighboursthatthepermissionwasstillinforce.

Competentgrantorand40years'use
Itwasinitiallyquestionedwhethersection2ofthePA1832meantapresumedgrantdidnothaveto
bebyacompetentgrantortoestablisharightbasedon40years'enjoyment.
ThiswasclarifiedbytheHouseofLordsinStaffordshireandWorcestershireCanalNavigation
(Proprietors)vBirminghamCanalNavigation(Proprietors)(1866)LR1HL254.Aclaimwasmade
undersection2toarighttowateronthebasisof40years'enjoyment.Theservientlandwasowned
byacompanythatdidnothavethepowertogranttheeasement.
TheHouseofLordsruledthatifthePA1832appliedtotheclaim,itwasnecessarytoshowthatthe
easementcouldhavebeengranted.Astheservientownershadnopowertogranttheright,any
grantwouldhavebeenultraviresandvoid.
StaffordshireCanalwasfollowedbytheCourtofAppealinHousdenandanothervConservatorsof
WimbledonandPutneyCommons[2008]EWCACiv200.TheCourtofAppealalsoconfirmed,obiter
dicta,thatthiswasthecorrectconstructionofsection2ofthePA1832.Fordetails,seeLegal
update,Noeasementbyprescriptionafter40yearsifservientownerincapableoflawfulgrant(Court
ofAppeal).

RightstolightunderthePA1832
EasementsoflightwereverydifficulttoestablishpriortothePA1832.ThePA1832:
Allowsarightoflighttobeacquiredbyprescriptionafter20years'enjoymentintheabsenceof
anywrittenconsent.
Doesnotrequiretheusertohavebeenasofrightthefactoftheenjoymentissufficient.
Doesnotassumethattherightliesingrantandthatitispossibletoacquirerightsoflighteven
whentheowneroftheservientlandwasnotcompetenttograntthem.
InCGISCityPlazaShares1LtdandanothervBritelFundTrusteesLtd[2012]EWHC1594(Ch)The
HighCourtconsideredatypicalclause,oftenfoundintransfersofpart,grantingthetransfereethe
righttobuildonthetransferredland,evenifthatinterferedwiththeaccessoflighttotheland
retainedbythetransferor(retainedland)ortoanyotherlanditownednearby(otherland).
Thecourtheldthattheclauseoperatedasawrittenconsentforthepurposesofsection3ofthe
PrescriptionAct1832andtherefore:
accessoflighttotheretained(andother)landwaspermissiveand
asaresult,noprescriptiverightoflightcouldbeacquiredoverthelandtransferredafterthe
dateofthetransfer.
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Itis,however,possibletopreventarightoflightfrombeingacquiredbyinterruptingtheflowoflight
foratleastoneyear(section4,PA1832).Theobstructionmustlastforatleastonefullyearbefore
theexpiryofthe20yearperiod.Ineffect,thismeansthattheinterruptionmustbeginbeforetheend
ofthe19thyear,andlastforafullyear.
Section2oftheRLA1959allowsanownerofservientlandtoregisteralightobstructionnotice
whichprovidesawayofinterruptingtheenjoymentoflightwithouttheneedforaphysical
obstruction.Alightobstructionnoticeiseffectiveforoneyearandpreventstimerunninginrelationto
theacquisitionofarightoflightbyprescription.Itoperatesbynotionallyerectingaphysical
obstructionandisregisteredasalocallandcharge.Formoreinformationonlocallandchargessee
Practicenote,Searches:Locallandcharges.
Oncethelightobstructionnoticehasbeenserved,theneighboursaffectedbyithaveoneyearto
asserttheirrighttolight.Ifthenoticeremainsunchallengedafteroneyear,therighttolightis
deemedtohavebeeninterruptedandtheprescriptiveclockisturnedbacktozero.Formore
informationonrightsoflightseeEasements:rightsoflight.

Barstoaclaimforaprescriptiveeasement
Illegalityofthepresumedgrant
Itisageneralrulethatyoucannotacquirearighttodosomethingthatisprohibitedbypublicstatute.
Forexample,drivingoverlandthatisnotaroad,includinglandthatiscommonland,isanoffence
unlessitisdonewithlawfulauthority(section34(1),RTA1988andsection193,LPA1925).For
manyyearsownersofpropertieswhoneededtousetracksandaccessways,overcommonlandin
particular,didsobelievingthattheyhadthebenefitofaneasementwhichtheyhadacquiredby
prescription.
TheninHanningvTopDeckTravelGroupLtd(1993)68P&CR14,theCourtofAppealheldthatan
easementcouldnotbeacquiredbyprescriptionwheretheusewasillegal.
Thefactthatanyrelevantstatuteprovidedfortheillegalitytobecurediflawfulconsenttothe
conducthadbeengivendidnotmatter,easementscouldnolongerbeacquiredbylonguseunder
thePA1832,orthedoctrineoflostmoderngrant,wheretheusewas,forsomereason,unlawful.
TheHanningdecisioncausedproblemsforaconsiderablenumberoflandownerswhohadassumed
theyhadthebenefitofprescriptiverights,particularlyofaccesstotheirproperties.Parliament
intervenedtoaddresstheproblemsandsection68ofCROWA2000(nowrepealed)providedfora
statutoryeasementincertaincircumstanceswhereaprescriptiveonefailedongroundsofillegality.
However,subsequently,theHouseofLordsoverturnedtheHanningdecisioninBakewell
ManagementLimitedvBrandwood[2004]UKHL.Thisdecisionmadesection68ofCROWA2000
redundant,andledtoitsrepeal.
InBakewell,theHouseofLordsheldthat:

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Generally,aprescriptiverightcannotbeacquiredtodosomethingwhichisprohibitedbypublic
statute.However,wheretheprohibitionisbecauseofalackoflawfulauthorityandlawful
authoritycouldhavebeengivenbutwasnot,thenaneasementcanbeacquiredby
prescription.
Inrelation,forexample,tosection34(1)oftheRTA1988,iftheownerofthecommonland,
moorlandorotherlandcouldlawfullyhavegivenauthoritytodriveoveratrackonthatlandbut
didnot,thenaprescriptiveeasementmaybeclaimedundereitherlostmoderngrantorthePA
1832,assumingalltheotherconditionsaresatisfied.
Whereastatutereferstolawfulauthoritybeinggiven,thisdoesnotmeanthattheownerofthe
accesswaycangivelawfulauthorityinallcircumstances.Therearestillcaseswhereitcannotand
therewillbeabartoaclaimforprescriptiverights.
InBakewell,theHouseofLordsidentifiedthefollowingcircumstanceswhereanownercouldnot
lawfullygiveauthority:
Whereanotherstatutoryprovisionmakesitunlawfulforauthoritytobegiven.Forexample,itis
anuisancetointerferewiththerightsthatcommonershaveovercommonlandandanowner
couldnotlawfullyauthorisesuchaninterference.
Wherethestatutoryprohibitionisabsoluteanddoesnotallowfortheillegalitytobe"cured"by
authoritybeinggiven.
Wherethegrantorlackscapacitytomakethepresumedgrant.
FormoreinformationontheBakewelldecision,seeLegalupdate,Illegalityofvehicularaccessover
commonland(HouseofLords).

Prescriptionwheretheservientordominantlandislet
Theprinciplethatprescriptiverightsareacquiredby(oronbehalfof)afeesimpleowneragainsta
feesimpleownerunderpinsthefollowinggeneralpropositionsthatapplywhenthedominantor
servientlandislet(seePrescription).
Iftheservientlandislet,theuseofarightovertheservientlandwillnotgenerallygiverisetoan
easementbyprescriptionunlesstheusebeganbeforethelandwaslet(PughvSavage[1970]2QB
373).(Seealso,Legalupdate,Acquisitionofaneasementwhereservientlandislet.)
Ifthedominantlandislet,theuseoftheeasementbythetenantisdeemedtobeonbehalfofthe
freeholder.Theoutrightacquisitionofaneasementbyatenant'slongusewillbeforthebenefitof
thefreeholdestateinthedominantland.Itisnotpossibleforaneasement(otherthanlight)tobe
acquiredbyprescriptionbyatenantoverotherlandownedbyitslandlord.Itwasheldinthe
followingcasesthat:
Aprescriptiverightofwaycannotbeobtainedforalimitedtimeandmustbeclaimedas
appurtenanttothefreeholdestateofthedominantland(WheatonvMaple&Co[1893]3Ch
48).

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Althoughenjoymentofarightofwaybyatenantcanfoundaclaimforaneasement,thiswillbe
forthebenefitofthefreeholdestateofthedominantland(GayfordvMoffat(1868)4ChApp
133).
Arightofwaycanonlybeacquiredbyprescriptionwherethefreeholdestateofthedominant
andservientlandbelongtodifferentowners(KilgourvGaddes[1904]1KB457).
Section7andsection8ofthePA1832containcomplicatedprovisionsregardingtherunningofthe
20yearand40yearperiodswhenthelandislet.However,thesearerarelyencounteredinpractice
andarenotconsideredinthispracticenote.Formoreinformation,seeGaleonEasements(19th
Edition),paragraphs460to466.

Prescriptionandunityofownershiporoccupation
Whereeitherofthefollowingoccurs,aclaimtoaneasementbyprescription(subjecttosomerare
exceptionsnotconsideredinthispracticenote)willgenerallybedefeated:
Unityofownershipofthefreeholdsofthedominantandservientlands(onthebasisthatyou
cannotacquireaneasementoveryourownland).
Unityofoccupationofthedominantandservientlandsduringtheperiodofprescription,for
example,wherethesamepersonownsthefreeholdofoneandaleaseoftheother.
Prescriptionandaccretion
Thedoctrineofaccretionrecognisesthatwherelandisboundedbywater,overtimetheboundary
betweenthelandandthewaterchanges.ThecaseofLoosevLynnShellfishLtd&Ors[2013]
EWHC901(Ch)(18April2013)heldthat,wherelandisaddedbyaccretion,privaterights(inthat
caseaprivatefishery)acquiredbyprescriptionarecapableofbeingextendedtocovertheadditional
land.SeeLegalupdate,Doctrineofaccretionappliedtoforeshoreandfishingrights(HighCourt).

PrescriptionandLandRegistration
TheLandRegistrationRules2003(SI2003/1417)allowagreementsthatpreventtheacquisitionof
rightsoflightorairtobenotedonthepropertyregister(rules36and76,LRR2003).Sucha
registrationmayhelptodefeataclaimtotheserightsbyprescription.
Forinformationontheregistrationofeasementsthatareacquiredbyprescription,seePracticenote,
Easements:Landregistrationprotection.

Equitableeasements
Easementsthatareonlycapableofbeingequitablerightsariseprincipally:
Underacontracttograntalegaleasement,whichisnevercompleted(seenote,Contract).
Byproprietaryestoppel(seeProprietaryestoppel).
Byreasonofagrantofalesserinterestthanafeesimpleabsoluteinpossessionoratermof
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yearsabsolute.Forexample,alifeinterestinaneasement.

Contract
Acontracttograntalegaleasementisacontractforthesaleorotherdispositionofaninterestin
landwithinsection2ofLP(MP)A1989.
Untilthedispositionenvisagedbythecontractisproperlycompletedtheeasementwilltakeeffect
onlyinequity.
Inadditiontothegeneralrequirementsforacontract(offerandacceptance,considerationandintent
tocreatelegalrelations)thecontractmust:
Beinwriting.
Incorporatealltheexpressterms.
Besignedbybothparties(grantorandgrantee).
Formoreinformationontheeffectsofsection2oftheLP(MP)A1989,seePracticenote,The
requirementforwrittenlandcontractsandsection2oftheLP(MP)A1989.

Proprietaryestoppel
Anequitableeasementmayarisebywayofproprietaryestoppelwhere:
Theservientownerallowsthedominantownertobelievethatithasorwillenjoysomebenefit
overtheservientland.
Thedominantowneractstoitsdetrimentinrelianceonthisbeliefandtotheknowledgeofthe
servientowner.
Theservientownerthenseekstotakeanunconscionableadvantageofthedominantownerby
denyingtherightorbenefitthathadbeenexpected.
Acourthasawidediscretionastohowtogiveeffecttotheequity.Thereliefmaybethegrantofa
proprietaryrighttotheownerofthedominantland.
Therehasbeenuncertaintyoverwhetherthereisaproprietaryrightthatiscapableofbinding
successorsintitlebeforethecourtgiveseffecttotheequity.Inrelationtoregisteredland,theLRA
2002declaresthatwherethereisanequitybyestoppel,ithaseffectasaninterestcapableof
bindingsuccessorsintitlefromthetimetheequityariseswhetherornotithasbeenrecognisedby
thecourt(section116,LRA2002).
Forinformationonprotectionofequitableeasementsacquiredbyestoppelbyregistration,see
Practicenote,Easements:Landregistrationprotection.

Easementsandperpetuities

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Thissectionlooksat:
Thecurrentrulesonperpetuitieswhichcameintoforcefrom6April2010underthePerpetuities
andAccumulationsAct2009.(SeeAbolitionoftheperpetuityrulesforpropertytransactions.)
Theoldrulesonperpetuitiesaffectingeasementsandwhentheywillcontinuetoapply(seeThe
oldperpetuityrules).
Formoreinformationonhowperpetuitieswillaffectotherpropertytransactions,seePracticenote,
Perpetuities:RulesforPropertyTransactions.
Formoreinformationonperpetuitiesgenerally,seePracticenotes:
PerpetuitiesandAccumulationsAct2009:howthelawwillchange.
Perpetuities:trusts:overview.

Thecurrentperpetuityrules
Propertydocumentswhichcomeintoeffecton,orafter,6April2010willnotbesubjecttoany
perpetuityrules.Thismeansthatanyeasementscontainedinthosepropertydocumentsarenot
subjecttoanyperpetuityrules.
Thepartiestoapropertytransactioncan(iftheywish)grantorreserveeasementsintendedtotake
effectalongtimeinthefuture.However,partiesshouldconsiderexpresslystatingtheperiodwithin
whichtheeasementmaybeexercised,toavoidanyinferencethattherightwilllastindefinitely
(unlessofcoursethatiswhatthepartiesintend).
Therearesomecomplexissuesabouthowtheruleswillapplytoaninstrumentwhichwilltakeeffect
after6April2010butwhichwasagreedpursuanttoacontractenteredintobefore6April2010.For
moredetailonthese,see:
Practicenote,Perpetuities:Rulesforpropertytransactions:rulesapplicabletoaninstrument
madepursuanttoapreexistingcontract.
Asktheteam:Perpetuityrulesfora"straddling"deedofeasement.

Theoldperpetuityrules
TherulessetoutinthePAA1964remainrelevantforinstrumentsenteredintoon,orafter,16July
1964butbefore6April2010inthefollowingsituations:
Investigatingtitle.
Assessingtheeffectofdocumentscompletedduringtheperiod16July1964upto6April2010.
Whereaneasementwasgrantedtotakeeffectinthefuture,whetherexpresslyorbecausethe
subjectmatterofthegrant(suchasservicemedia)wasnotinexistenceatthedateofthegrant,
thenthegrantwasvoidunlessittookeffectduringtheperpetuityperiod(section3,PAA1964).

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Theapplicableperpetuityperiodmaybestatedinthedocumentgrantingtheright,uptoamaximum
ofeightyyears(section1,PAA1964).Ifitisnot,adefaultperiodof21yearsoperates(wherenolife
inbeingisstipulated)(section3(4)and(5),PAA1964).
If,atthedateofthegrant,itwasnotcertainwhethertherightwouldtakeeffectwithintheperpetuity
period,thenthe"waitandsee"ruleapplies.Thegrantwillbevalidifitdoesinfacttakeeffectwithin
theperpetuityperiod(section3,PAA1964).
Theoldrulesastheyrelatetoeasementsareconsideredinmoredetail,withexamples,inPractice
note,Perpetuities:Rulesforpropertytransactions:Howtheoldperpetuityrulesapplytospecific
propertytransactions:easements.
Anexceptiontotheoldruleswasfoundinsection162(1)(d)oftheLPA1925,whichisrepealedby
PerpetuitiesandAccumulationsAct2009.

Section162(1)(d)oftheLPA1925:Ancillaryeasements
Section162(1)(d)oftheLPA1925statedthattheperpetuityrulesdidnotapplytoarightofentry
ontoland,ortoothereasementstodoanyofthefollowing:
Exerciseminingrights.
Fellandremovetimber.
Carryoutrepairs,alterationsoradditionstoadjoininglandorbuildings.
Construct,alterrepairandmaintainservicemedia.
However,section162(1)(d)oftheLPA1925hasbeengivenaveryrestrictivemeaningincaselaw,in
particularDunnvBlackdownPropertiesLtd1961Ch433.Itonlyallowedancillaryeasementstobe
exercisedoutsidetheperpetuityperiodandonlyiftheseancillaryeasementswereancillarytoa
substantiverightorinterest,whichitselfsatisfiedtheoldperpetuityrules.

Relatedcontent
PracticeNotes
Easements:rightsoflight
Profitsprendre
Property:intragroupreorganisations
StandardDocuments
Acknowledgementtopreventacquisitionofrightofwaybyprescription
Licencetousearouteoverland
LegalUpdate:CaseReport
Acquiringarightofwaybyprescription(HighCourt)

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