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Proper and Common Nouns

Introduction to Nouns
A Noun is a name. This name can be that of a living being, a place, a thing
or an idea.
For example:
Vinod is a friendly boy.
(Vinod and boy are both names of living beings.)
I am standing on the road near India Gate.
(Road and India Gate are both names of places.)
The only soft drink that he drinks is Pepsi.
(Soft drink and Pepsi are both names of things.)
He will come in the month of June.
(Month and June are both names of ideas.)
Proper and Common Nouns
Now, the next thing to know is that a noun can be the particular name of a
living being, place, thing or idea. In the above examples, Vinod, India
Gate, Pepsi and June are all particular names. Such particular names are
known as Proper Nouns.
So, then what are boy, road, soft drink and month? These nouns are the
general names of a living being, place, thing and idea. Such general names
are known as Common Nouns.
Hence, proper nouns are the unique names of living beings, places, things
and ideas; while common nouns are the names of living beings, places,
things and ideas of the same kind or class.
For example:

Naina is a good girl.


(Naina is a proper noun and girl is a common noun.)
This rhinoceros is called Pintoo.
(Pintoo is a proper noun and rhinoceros is a common noun.)
January is the first month of the year.
(January is a proper noun; month and year are common nouns.)
Last week, she was absent on Monday.
(Monday is a proper noun and week is a common noun.)
Chennai is a city in Tamil Nadu.
(Chennai and Tamil Nadu are proper nouns; city is a common noun.)
English is a funny language.
(English is a proper noun and language is a common noun.)
Shakespeare was a great writer.
(Shakespeare is a proper noun and writer is a common noun.)
Which newspaper do you read?
I read The Indian Express.
(The Indian Express is a proper noun and newspaper is a common noun.)
Which book were you reading?
I was reading The Great Expectations.
(The Great Expectations is a proper noun and book is a common noun.)
Can I have some water?
You can have Limca.
(Limca is a proper noun and water is a common noun.)

Collective, Abstract and Compound Nouns


When nouns point to a group or collection of living beings or things, they are
called Collective Nouns.
For example:
The police are searching for the clues.
The army has won the battle.
Joseph was taking care of his uncles herd of sheep.
The crowd greeted the team with loud cheers.
(Police, army, herd, crowd and team are all collective nouns.)
When a noun points to something about which you can only think or feel, it is
called an Abstract Noun.
For example:
Honesty is a good policy.
Truth always triumphs.
Justice will be done.
(Honesty, policy, truth and justice are all abstract nouns.)
A Compound Nounis a name which consists of two or more words that are
used together.
A compound noun can be a single word.
For example:
The headmaster was writing something on the blackboard.
It can be a hyphenated word.
For example:
My mother-in-law and my father-in-law treat me just like their son-inlaw.
It can be two words.

For example:
The police officer was waiting at the post office.

Collective, Abstract and Compound Nouns


When nouns point to a group or collection of living beings or things, they are
called Collective Nouns.
For example:
The police are searching for the clues.
The army has won the battle.
Joseph was taking care of his uncles herd of sheep.
The crowd greeted the team with loud cheers.
(Police, army, herd, crowd and team are all collective nouns.)
When a noun points to something about which you can only think or feel, it is
called an Abstract Noun.
For example:
Honesty is a good policy.
Truth always triumphs.
Justice will be done.
(Honesty, policy, truth and justice are all abstract nouns.)
A Compound Nounis a name which consists of two or more words that are
used together.
A compound noun can be a single word.
For example:
The headmaster was writing something on the blackboard.
It can be a hyphenated word.
For example:
My mother-in-law and my father-in-law treat me just like their son-in-

law.
It can be two words.
For example:
The police officer was waiting at the post office.

Singular and Plural Nouns


Singular means one, and Plural means more than one. A noun that has a
singular and as well as a plural form is known as a Countable Noun; while a
noun that has only a singular form is known as an Uncountable Noun.
Words like blood, freedom, intelligence, rice, sugar, money, ice,
water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, air, grass, luggage, information do not
have a plural form. Hence, they are all examples of uncountable nouns.
Now, the plural forms of countable nouns are formed in different ways. Some
ways and their examples are listed below.

By adding s

By adding es

Snake Snakes

Box Boxes

Cat Cats

Gas Gases

Goat Goats

Bus Buses

Dog Dogs

Hero Heroes

Team Teams

Potato Potatoes

Daughter-in-law Daughters-in-law
Passer-by Passers-by
Spoonful Spoonfuls

By adding ves

By adding ies

Knife Knives

Family Families

Leaf Leaves

Baby Babies

Loaf Loaves

Country Countries

Shelf Shelves
Self Selves
Irregular
Sheep Sheep
Deer Deer
Child Children
Man Men
Woman Women
Foot Feet
Mouse Mice
Tooth Teeth

Possessive Nouns
Nouns can show possession or ownership. The possessive is formed by using
the apostrophe () mark. Let us look at some examples of nouns showing
possession.
Haris book is torn.
(Here, Haris book refers to a book belonging to a person named Hari. Note
that there is an s after the apostrophe mark.)
The postmans speech was encouraging.
(Here, postmans speech refers to a speech delivered by a particular
postman. Note that there is an s after the apostrophe mark.)

The boys dad is a pilot.


(Here, the boys dad refers to the father of a particular boy. Note that there
is an s after the apostrophe mark.)
The boys project was a big success.
(Here, the boys project refers to a project made by more than one boy.
Note that there is no s after the apostrophe mark.)
The girls name is Geeta.
(Here, the girls name refers to the name of a particular girl. Note that there
is an s after the apostrophe mark.)
I study in a girls school.
(Here, a girls school refers to a school where girls study. Note that there is
no s after the apostrophe mark.)
Please call the childs mother.
(Here, the childs mother refers to the mother of a particular child. Note that
there is an s after the apostrophe mark.)
I got a gift from my teacher on childrens day.
(Here, childrens day refers to a day for children. Note that there is an s
after the apostrophe mark.)
Sudhir and Rajbirs shop is located in a mall.
(Here, Sudhir and Rajbirs shop indicates that the shop is jointly owned by
the persons named Sudhir and Rajbir. Note that there is an s after the
apostrophe mark.)
Rachnas and Nareshs presentations were liked by all.
(Here, Rachnas and Nareshs presentations indicates that the persons
named Rachna and Naresh made separate presentations that were liked by
all. Note that there is an s after the apostrophe mark.)

The Indefinite Article and Nouns

Introduction to Articles
An article shows whether the noun that comes after it is specific or nonspecific.
There are two types of articlesthe indefinite article a or an, and the
definite article the.
The first type points out non-specific nouns and the second type points out
specific nouns.
For example:
A boy
(Here, the presence of a shows that some non-specific boy is being talked
about.)
An elephant
(Here, the presence of an shows that some non-specific elephant is being
talked about.)
The red car
(Here, the presence of the shows that some specific red car is being talked
about.)
The Indefinite Article
A or an is termed as the indefinite article because it does not specify the
noun it talks about. In other words, it leaves the noun indefinite.
For example:

A girl is singing.
(Here, the noun girl is left indefinite because of the use of the indefinite
article. It is not specified as to which girl is singing.)
An umbrella is missing.
(Here, the noun umbrella is left indefinite because of the use of the
indefinite article. It is not specified as to which umbrella is missing.)
A student should be regular about his studies.
(Here, student means all students in general. In this case, a student
represents the entire category of students.)
I am looking for an honest person to do this job.
(Here, honest person means all honest persons in general. In this case, an
honest person represents any one honest person from the entire category of
honest persons.)
A Ms. Bindu is on the phone.
(Here, a is used before Ms. Bindu so as to show that the person is not
known to the speaker.)
The indefinite article is used for indicating a singular countable noun.
In the previous examples, the indefinite article before each noun shows that
exactly one girl is singing and that exactly one umbrella is missing.
The indefinite article an is used when the word that follows it
begins with a vowel sound.
For example:
He threw an egg at the player.
(Here, an is used because the word that followsegg begins with a vowel
sound.)
The mail arrived an hour ago.
(Here, an is used because the word that followshourbegins with a
vowel sound.)
He is an intelligent man.
(Here, an is used because the word that followsintelligentbegins with a

vowel sound.)

The indefinite article a is used when the word that follows it begins
with a consonant sound.
For example:
There is a mouse in the room.
(Here, a is used because the word that followsmousebegins with a
consonant sound.)
His father has a university degree.
(Here, a is used because the word that followsuniversitybegins with a
consonant sound.)
I saw a beautiful umbrella.
(Here, a is used because the word that followsbeautifulbegins with a
consonant sound.)

The Definite Article and Nouns


The is termed as the definite article because it specifies the noun it talks
about. In other words, it makes the noun definite.
For example:
The postman is waiting at the door.
(Here, the noun postman refers to a particular or specific postman.)
The children are making a lot of noise.
(Here, the noun children refers to a particular group of children.)
I have two petsa dog and a cat. The cat is lazier than the dog.
(Here, the indefinite article a is used before the nouns dog and cat, when
they are introduced for the first time. However, the definite article the is
used when these nouns are mentioned again.)
The definite article is used for indicating a singular countable noun.

For example:
The car has been stolen.
(Here, the is used before the singular form of the noun car.)
The definite article is used for indicating a plural countable noun.
For example:
The apples were very sweet.
(Here, the is used before the plural form of the noun apple.)
The definite article is used for indicating an uncountable noun.
For example:
The police asked the thief where the gold was hidden.
(Here, the is used before the uncountable noun gold.)
The definite article is used before nouns that are considered unique,
and also before names of certain places, organisations, certain
books, newspapers, famous buildings and certain abbreviations.
For example:
The sun, The earth, The moon, The sky, The equator,
The North Pole, The South Pole, The Indian Ocean, The Arabian Sea, The
Brahmaputra River, The Thar Desert, The Andaman and Nicobar Islands,
The Himalayas,
The United States of America, The Indian Republic, The United Nations, The
Congress,
The Mahabharata, The Ramayana, The Indian Express, The Times of India,
The Rashtrapati Bhavan, The Parliament House of India, The Red Fort, The
Taj Mahal,
The UK, The US, The BJP, The CPI (M)

Personal Pronouns
Introduction to Pronouns
A pronoun is any word that can be used in place of a noun.
For example:
Johnny runs fast. He has won an Olympic gold.
(Here. Johnny is a noun and he is a pronoun. This pronoun is used in place
of the noun Johnny.)
There are different categories of pronouns. Let us begin with one of them
the personal pronoun.
Personal Pronouns
These pronouns refer to one of the three persons of English. The
persons in English language are classified as first person, second person and
third person. The first person refers to the person or persons speaking. The
second person refers to the person or persons being spoken to. The third
person refers to the person or persons being spoken of.
Each of these personal pronouns functions as the subject of a sentence.
I am working right now.
(Here, the first person singular pronoun is used.)
You are invited to the party.
(Here, the second person singular pronoun is used.)
He is a naughty boy.
(Here, the third person singular masculine pronoun is used.)
She is a funny girl.
(Here, the third person singular feminine pronoun is used.)
It is my book.
(Here, the third person singular neuter pronoun is used.)
We are listening to some old songs.

(Here, the first person plural pronoun is used.)


You all must come for dinner sometime.
(Here, the second person plural pronoun is used.)
They are dancing in the rain.
(Here, the third person plural pronoun is used.)
We saw how personal pronouns can be the subjects of sentences. Personal
pronouns can also be the objects of sentences. The following table lists the
different forms of the personal pronouns when they are the objects of
sentences:
First Person Second Person Third Person
Singular

Me

You

Him, Her, It

Plural

Us

You

Them

Reflexive and Emphatic Pronouns


Reflexive Pronouns
A reflexive pronoun is used when the action performed by a subject is to
be reflected on the subject itself. The following table shows the different
forms of reflexive pronouns:
First Person

Second Person

Third Person

Singular

Myself

Yourself

Himself, Herself, Itself

Plural

Ourselves

Yourselves

Themselves

I was talking to myself.


(Here, the first person singular pronoun is used.)
You always think of yourself.
(Here, the second person singular pronoun is used.)
Dharam has hurt himself.
(Here, the third person singular masculine pronoun is used.)
Ritu is looking at herself in the mirror.
(Here, the third person singular feminine pronoun is used.)
The dog hid itself under the bed.
(Here, the third person singular neuter pronoun is used.)
We blamed ourselves for the loss.
(Here, the first person plural pronoun is used.)
You have put yourselves in a difficult situation.
(Here, the second person plural pronoun is used.)
They kept themselves busy all day.
(Here, the third person plural pronoun is used.)
Emphatic Pronouns
When a reflexive pronoun is used for emphasis, it is termed as an
emphatic pronoun.

I myself saw her throw it out of the window.


(Here, the first person singular pronoun is used.)
You yourself are responsible for the shameful defeat.
(Here, the second person singular pronoun is used.)
He came and took the boy himself.
(Here, the third person singular masculine pronoun is used.)
She received the guests herself.
(Here, the third person singular feminine pronoun is used.)
The city itself is quite polluted.
(Here, the third person singular neuter pronoun is used.)
We cooked the dinner ourselves.
(Here, the first person plural pronoun is used.)
You yourselves said so.
(Here, the second person plural pronoun is used.)
They surrendered their loot themselves.
(Here, the third person plural pronoun is used.)

Verbs (English)
Action and Linking Verbs
Introduction to Verbs
These are the words which describe an action, event or state of being
in a sentence. You can form a sentence without any of the other parts of
speech, but you cannot make a sentence without a verb.
For example:

Run! Jump! Fight! Eat! Drink! Sing!


All these can be treated as sentences as they contain the most important
part of a sentenceverb. However, the following dont:
This not a sentence.
Why this not a sentence?
Action Verbs
An action verb describes some action on the part of its subject, (i.e.,
the doer of the action). In other words, what the subject of a sentence does
is described by an action verb. For example, words such as take, bring,
cry, laugh, think, imagine and worry are all action verbs. Among these
words such as take, bring, cry and laugh are verbs that describe
physical actions, while words such as think, imagine and worry describe
mental actions.
Linking Verbs
A linking verb describes the condition or the state of being of its
subject (i.e., the person, place, thing or idea described). It does not
describe any action (either physical or mental). It serves as the equal to
(=) sign in a sentence. The different forms of the verbs be (e.g., am,
is, are, was, were) and become are used as linking verbs.

[I] = [the greatest fool]

I am the greatest fool.


(Here, am links the subject I with the condition the greatest fool.)
[Yuvika] = [a brave girl]

Yuvika is a brave girl.


(Here, is links the subject Yuvika with the condition a brave girl.)
[They] = [angry with him]

They are angry with him.


(Here, are links the subject they with the condition angry with him.)
[The teacher] = [extremely intelligent]

The teacher was extremely intelligent.


(Here, was links the subject the teacher with the condition extremely
intelligent.)
[The batsmen] = [unhappy with the sightscreen]

The batsmen were unhappy with the sightscreen.


(Here, were links the subject the batsmen with the condition unhappy with
the sightscreen.)
[He] = [famous after that song]


He became famous after that song.
(Here, became links the subject he with the condition famous after that
song.)

Action Verbs as Linking Verbs


Sometimes action verbs can also perform the role of linking verbs.
For example, words like look, feel, taste and smell are all classified as
action verbs. However, in the following sentences, they act as linking verbs.
[The joker] = [crazy]

The joker looked crazy.


(Here, looked links the subject the joker with the condition crazy.)

As opposed to, say:


The thief looked through the window.
(Here, looked is the specific action performed by the subject the thief.)

[I] = [really happy]

I feel really happy.


(Here, feel links the subject I with the condition really happy.)
As opposed to, say:
The doctor felt my pulse.
(Here, felt is the specific action performed by the subject the doctor.)
[The food] = [good]

The food tastes good.


(Here, tastes links the subject the food with the condition good.)
As opposed to, say:
The chef tasted the soup made by the new recruit.
(Here, tasted is the specific action performed by the subject the chef.)
[The house] = [like a bakery]

The house smells like a bakery.


(Here, smells links the subject the house with the condition like a bakery.)

As opposed to, say:


Omkar smelt the kitchen to see if the gas was leaking.
(Here, smelt is the specific action performed by the subject Omkar.)

Note: When an action verb acts as a linking verb in a sentence it does not
describe an action anymore. It does what a linking verb would do in its place,
i.e., describe a state or condition.
Rajat is talking to me.
(Here, the first person singular pronoun is used.)
Shefali is calling you.
(Here, the second person singular pronoun is used.)
Pintu is screaming at him.
(Here, the third person singular masculine pronoun is used.)
Rita is watching her.
(Here, the third person singular feminine pronoun is used.)
Take it from the shelf.
(Here, the third person singular neuter pronoun is used.)
The company has called us for the interview.
(Here, the first person plural pronoun is used.)
The principal has suspended both of you.

(Here, the second person plural pronoun is used.)


The car left them far behind.
(Here, the third person plural pronoun is used.)

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs


Transitive Verbs
The word transitive means passing over to something else or affecting
something else, while the word intransitive means not passing over to
something else.
When a verb is used transitively (i.e., in the transitive manner), the verb
requires a direct object, (i.e., the noun or pronoun that receives the
action, and answers the questions what? or whom?). In this case, the
action is passed on from the doer or subject to the receiver of the
action or the direct object.

Intransitive Verbs
When a verb is used intransitively (i.e., in the intransitive manner), the
verb is not followed by an object. The action stays with the subject. It is
not passed on to any object.
For example:

Phrasal Verbs
Phrasal verbs are an important part of the everyday English language both
spoken and written. They are also known as multi-word verbs. These are
the verbs that contain a verb and another word(s). Very often, the meanings
of these verbs are different from the meanings of the verbs with which they
are made.
For example:

After long discussions, we finally arrived at a solution that pleased all.


(Here, the phrasal verb arrived at is made up of the verb arrive and the
word at. The phrasal verb means to reach an agreement.)
My boss asked me to do away with my glasses as she said I look better
without them.
(Here, the phrasal verb do away with is made up of the verb do and the
words away and with. The phrasal verb means to get rid of something.)
He brought about a great many changes during his tenure as the prime
minister.
(Here, the phrasal verb brought about is made up of the verb bring and the
word about. The phrasal verb means to make something happen.)
I counted on you and you did not disappoint me.
(Here, the phrasal verb counted on is made up of the verb count and the
word on. The phrasal verb means to rely on someone for help or support.)

Introduction to Tenses
Tense indicates the time of the occurrence of an action or an event. In
any sentence, an action or a state of being is denoted by the verb. Hence,
tenses are directly related to verbs.
The different states of time are: Past, Present and Future. Very simply
speaking, past is what happened yesterday; present is what happens today;
and future is what will happen tomorrow.

Note how at different moments the same event (the test on English tenses)
can be situated in the future (when the teacher informs the students about
the test), the present (when the test is being conducted) and the past (when
the students are discussing the test).

The Simple Tense


Simple Present

First Person

Singular

Plural

I do it everyday

We do it everyday

Second Person

You do it everyday

You do it everyday

Third Person

He does it everyday

They do it everyday

Simple Past
Singular

Plural

First Person

I did that yesterday

We did that yesterday

Second Person

You did that yesterday

You did that yesterday

Third Person

He did that yesterday

They did that yesterday

Simple Future
Singular

Plural

First Person

I will do that tomorrow

We will do that tomorrow

Second Person

You will do that tomorrow

You will do that tomorrow

Third Person

He will do that tomorrow

They will do that tomorrow

In simple words:
The simple present tense indicates an action or event that takes place
regularly, without fail.
The simple past tense indicates an action or event that took place at
some moment in the past.
The simple future tense indicates an action or event that will take place
at some moment in the future.

In the simple present and simple future tenses, the root form of a
verb is used.
What is the root form of a verb?
The Root Form or Base Form is the simplest form of a verb.
For example:

Sing, Dance, Play, Break, Kick, Sleep, Eat


They sing on the roof every afternoon. (Simple Present)
I will sleep early today. (Simple Future)
In the simple past tense, the past form of a verb is used.
What is the past form of a verb?
The Past Form is the form of a verb in the simple past tense.
For example:
Sang, Danced, Played, Broke, Kicked, Slept, Ate
They ate lots of gulab jamuns yesterday. (Simple Past)

The Continuous Tense


Present Continuous
Singular

Plural

First Person

I am doing it right now

We are doing it right now

Second Person

You are doing it right now

You are doing it right now

Third Person

He is doing it right now

They are doing it right now

Past Continuous
Singular

Plural

First Person

I was doing it at that time

We were doing it at that


time

Second
Person

You were doing it at that


time

You were doing it at that


time

Third Person

He was doing it at that


time

They were doing it at that


time

Future Continuous
Singular

Plural

First Person

I will be doing it at that


time

We will be doingit at that


time

Second
Person

You will be doingit at that


time

You will be doingit at that


time

Third Person

He will be doing it at that


time

They will be doingit at that


time

So what happens in the continuous form? You can say that:


The present continuous tense indicates an action or event that is taking
place at the moment.
The past continuous tense indicates an action or event that was taking
place at some moment in the past.
The future continuous tense indicates an action or event that will be
taking place at some moment in the future.

In the present continuous, past continuous and future continuous


tenses, the present participle form of a verb is used.
What is the present participle form of a verb?
The Present Participle Form is the base form of a verb joined with ing.
For example:
Singing, Dancing, Playing, Breaking, Kicking, Sleeping, Eating
They are singing on the roof. (Present Continuous)
He was dancing in his room. (Past Continuous)
You will be breaking the rules by doing this. (Future Continuous)

Using the Continuous Tense


To describe everyday actions or events/habits
Present
Continuous

The tiger is always growling at the tigress.


I am always trying to escape the real issue.

The boys are always getting into one problem or the


other.
To describe actions or events going on in the present
He is reading the autobiography of his grandfather.
Present Continuous

I am trying to open the lock.


Shhh! Keep quiet! They are sleeping.

To describe certain future actions or events


It is going to rain in the evening.
(Going to + Base form of
verb)

I am going to eat ice-cream after lunch.


Raj and Tina are going to be absent from the
meeting.

To describe actions or events going on in the past


The girls were laughing all the way back home.
Past Continuous
I was talking to him about the robbery.
To describe actions or events going on in the future
The maid will be coming tomorrow to collect her wages.
Future
Continuous

They will be meeting each other after a gap of ten long


years.

Present and Past Perfect Tenses, and Their Uses


Present Perfect Simple
Singular

Plural

First Person

I have done this recently

We have done this recently

Second
Person

You have done this


recently

You have done this recently

Third Person

He has done this recently

They have done this


recently

Past Perfect Simple

Singular

Plural

First
Person

I had done this before that


happened

We had done this before that


happened

Second
Person

You had done this before


that happened

You had done this before


that happened

Third
Person

He had done this before that


happened

They had done this before


that happened

The perfect simple form can be summarised as follows:


The present perfect simple tense indicates an action or event that has
taken place in an indefinite or recent past.
The past perfect simple tense indicates an action or event that had taken
place at some moment in the past, before another action or event.

In the present and past perfect tenses, the past participle form of a
verb is used.
What is the past participle form of a verb?
The Past Participle Form usually ends in ed, d, t, en or n. It is
the form of a verb in the perfect tense.
For example:
Sung, Danced, Played, Broken, Kicked, Slept, Eaten
They have eaten their lunch. (Present Perfect)
She had slept before she went out to play. (Past Perfect)
Using the Perfect Simple Tense
To describe actions or events completed in the recent past
I have finished the portrait.
Present Perfect
Simple

He has made sure that no one would suffer in his


absence.
They have been friends since high school.
We have gained a moral victory.

To describe an action or an event completed in the past before


another action or event in the past
They had met last on the 2nd of October, 1987.
Past Perfect
Simple

The boys had left by the time I reached the


playground.

Active and Passive Voices


The voice of a verb represents the relationship between the action
being described by it on the one hand and the subject and the object on
the other.
Active Voice
Subject (doer of the action) + Verb (action) + Object (receiver of the
action)
If the subject is the doer of the action (i.e., the subject is active), then the
verb is in the active voice. This voice is used when the doer of the action is to
be emphasised.
For example:
Pankaj found the treasure.
Here, Pankaj is the subject, while the treasure is the object. The doer of
the action (to find) is the subject. Hence, the verb is used in the active
voice.
Passive Voice
Subject (receiver of the action) + Verb (action) + Object (doer of the
action)
If the subject is the receiver of the action (i.e., the subject is passive),
then the verb is in the passive voice. In other words, the object in the
active voice becomes the subject in the passive voice. This voice is
used when the receiver of the action is to be emphasised.
For example:
The treasure was found by Pankaj.
Here, the treasure is the subject, while Pankaj is the object. The receiver
of the action (to find) is the subject. Hence, the verb is used in the passive
voice.

If the subject in the active voice is unknown or indefinite (for example:


anyone, anybody, someone, somebody, people), then the passive voice is
favoured.
For example:
Anyone can do this work.
(Here, the subject anyone is indefinite.)
This work can be done.
(Here, the emphasis is on the work)
Changes in the verb form from the active voice to the passive voice
When the verb is in the simple present tense
Gagan throws the stone.
The stone is thrown by Gagan.
When the verb is in the present continuous tense
Gagan is throwing the stone.
The stone is being thrown by Gagan.
When the verb is in the present perfect tense
Gagan has thrown the stone.
The stone has been thrown by Gagan.
When the verb is in the simple past tense
Gagan threw the stone.
The stone was thrown by Gagan.
When the verb is in the past continuous tense
Gagan was throwing the stone.
The stone was being thrown by Gagan.
When the verb is in the past perfect tense

Gagan had thrown the stone.


The stone had been thrown by Gagan.

When the verb is in the simple future tense


Gagan will throw the stone.
The stone will be thrown by Gagan.

Adjectives of Quality, Quantity and Number


Introduction to Adjectives
An adjective is a word that describes a noun or a pronoun.
For example:
The quick cat caught the mouse.
(The word quick is an adjective. It is describing the noun cat. It is telling us
of what kind the noun is.)
She is intelligent.
(The word intelligent is an adjective. It is describing the pronoun she. It is
telling us of what kind the pronoun is.)
Adjectives of Quality
These adjectives answer the question of what kind?

Geeta is a good girl.


(Ask the question what kind of girl? and you get the answer good.)
Rishabh is hard working.
(Ask the question Rishabh is of what kind? and you get the answer hard
working.)
Indian tea is famous all over the world.
(Ask the question what kind of tea? and you get the answer Indian.)
He is a gifted cricketer.
(Ask the question what kind of cricketer? and you get the answer gifted.)
Adjectives of Quantity
These adjectives answer the question how much?
Our neighbour is asking for some sugar.
(Ask the question how much sugar? and you get the answer some.)
I dont have much time to answer that last question.
(Ask the question how much time? and you get the answer [not] much.)
You have given a sufficient explanation.
(Ask the question how much explanation? and you get the answer
sufficient.)
She has little sense of what is going on.
(Ask the question how much sense? and you get the answer little.)
You can take all the jewellery.
(Ask the question how much jewellery? and you get the answer all.)
Note: The nouns described by these adjectives are usually uncountable
nouns.
Adjectives of Number

These adjectives answer the question how many? or in what order?


I have eleven fingers.
(Ask the question how many fingers? and you get the answer eleven.)
All the students passed the exam.
(Ask the question how many students? and you get the answer all.)
Each student has to sign the form.
(Ask the question how many students? and you get the answer each.)
Every person in the auditorium was standing.
(Ask the question how many persons? and you get the answer Every.)
Tarun was the first to complete the test.
(Ask the question in what order was Tarun? and you get the answer the
first.)
Note: The nouns described by these adjectives are usually countable nouns.

Possessive Adjectives
These are the possessive forms of the personal pronouns I, you, he,
she, it, we and they. They are immediately followed by a noun.
My book is lying on the table.
Your phone is with the teacher.
His house is painted yellow.
Her parents are out of town.
Do you know the childs name? Yes, I do know its name.
Our country is making great progress.
Your passports are lying with the judge.
Their performance was liked by all.
These possessive forms are different from possessive pronouns.

The book lying on the table is mine.


That phone is yours.
That yellow painted house is his.
That idea was hers.
All that land beyond the lake is ours.
These passports are yours.
At the end of the day, the award-winning performance was theirs.

The Positive, Comparative and Superlative Forms of


Adjectives
Adjectives have three formsthe positive, the comparative and the
superlative.
Let us look at some adjectives and their different forms.
Where the comparative and superlative are formed by adding er
and est
Positive Form

Comparative Form

Superlative Form

Clever

Cleverer

Cleverest

Utsav is a clever boy.


The lawyer is cleverer than the judge.
That is the cleverest politician I have ever seen.
Heavy

Heavier

Heaviest

I am carrying heavy luggage.


The weight I am carrying is heavier than the one you are carrying.
That blue bag is the heaviest.
Hot

Hotter
Today is a hot day.

Hottest

It was hotter yesterday than it is today.


This has been the hottest month of the year.
Where the comparative and superlative are formed by adding
more/less and most/least
Positive Form

Comparative Form

Superlative Form

Beautiful

More beautiful

Most beautiful

This picture is beautiful.


That picture is more beautiful than this one.
These pictures are the most beautiful I have ever seen.
Difficult

More difficult

Most difficult

The first question is difficult.


The fifth question is more difficult than the first.
This is the most difficult exam that I have ever sat for.
Fluent

More fluent

Most fluent

Himesh is very fluent.


Gyanesh is more fluent than Himesh.
Jignesh is the most fluent of the three.
Irregular Adjectives
Positive Form

Comparative Form

Superlative Form

Good

Better

Best

I am good.
He is better.
They are the best.
Bad

Worse

Worst

His handwriting is bad.


His teachers handwriting is worse.
The principals handwriting is the worst.
Little

Less

Least

Dimagi has little intelligence.


Khopadi has less intelligence than Dimagi.
Bheja has the least intelligence of them all.
Much

More

Most

Lambu has much wealth.


Tingu has more wealth than Lambu.
Motu has the most wealth of the three.
Old

Older

Oldest

I am quite old.
This book is older than that one.
We are the oldest members of this club.
Old

Elder

Eldest

He is very old.
I am elder to him.
She is the eldest in the family.

Adverbs (English)
Introduction to Adverbs
An adverb is a word that describes a verb, an adjective or another
adverb.
For example:

Gini drives carefully.


(The word carefully is an adverb. It is describing the verb drives. It is
telling us how Gini drives.)
It is a very beautiful painting.
(The word very is an adverb. It is describing the adjective beautiful. It is
telling us how beautiful the painting is.)
The team won the match quite easily.
(The word easily is an adverb. It is telling us how the team won the match.
The word quite is also an adverb. It is describing easily. It is telling us how
easily the team won the match.)
Adverbs Expressing Manner
These adverbs answer the question how?
Nina read the article carefully.
(Ask the question read how? and you get the answer carefully.)
Gauri has answered the question correctly.
(Ask the question has answered how? and you get the answer correctly.)
The children waited eagerly.
(Ask the question waited how? and you get the answer eagerly.)
I can solve this problem easily.
(Ask the question can solve how? and you get the answer easily.)
Rishabh works hard.
(Ask the question works how? and you get the answer hard.)
The new bowler bowls fast.
(Ask the question bowls how? and you get the answer fast.)
The new recruit went about his work quietly.

(Ask the question went about how? and you get the answer quietly.)
Pick up the phone quickly.
(Ask the question pick up how? and you get the answer quickly.)
Note: An adverb of manner is usually placed after the verb or after the
object of the verb.
Adverbs Expressing Degree
These adverbs answer the question how much?
Raju is a very naughty boy.
(Ask the question how much naughty? and you get the answer very.)
Your last movie was pretty nice.
(Ask the question how much nice? and you get the answer pretty.)
The teacher was quite angry with me.
(Ask the question how much angry? and you get the answer quite.)
That song is so good.
(Ask the question how much good? and you get the answer so.)
My work is almost done.
(Ask the question how much done? and you get the answer almost.)
The Indian team is fully prepared for the next match.
(Ask the question how much prepared? and you get the answer fully.)
I will be rather busy tomorrow morning.
(Ask the question how much busy? and you get the answer rather.)
Your solution is partly correct.
(Ask the question how much correct? and you get the answer partly.)
It was too hot yesterday.

(Ask the question how much hot? and you get the answer too.)

Note: An adverb of place is usually placed after the verb or after the object
of the verb.

Adverbs of Time and Frequency


Adverbs Expressing Time
These adverbs answer the question when?

He wants to see the report now.


(Ask the question see when? and you get the answer now.)
I will meet your principal tomorrow.
(Ask the question meet when? and you get the answer tomorrow.)
The two teams play each other tonight.
(Ask the question play when? and you get the answer tonight.)
She came to the party yesterday.
(Ask the question came when? and you get the answer yesterday.)
His exam is today.
(Ask the question is when? and you get the answer today.)
Rajesh left early.
(Ask the question left when? and you get the answer early.)
Vinod comes late.
(Ask the question comes when? and you get the answer late.)
He goes to the temple daily.
(Ask the question goes when? and you get the answer daily.)
Note: An adverb of time is usually placed after the verb or after the object of
the verb.
Adverbs Expressing Frequency
These adverbs answer the question how often?
The batsman never fails.
(Ask the question how often fails? and you get the answer never.)
They usually go for a walk after dinner.
(Ask the question how often go? and you get the answer usually.)

Note: An adverb of frequency is usually placed between the subject and the
verb when the verb has only one word.
She has never seen him before.
(Ask the question has seen how often? and you get the answer never.)
My teacher has often told me to improve my handwriting.
(Ask the question has told how often? and you get the answer often.)
Note: When the verb has more than one word, an adverb of frequency is
usually placed after the first word of the verb.
She is never at home between 10 and 11.
(Ask the question how often at home between 10 and 11? and you get the
answer never.)
They are always talking.
(Ask the question how often talking? and you get the answer always.)

Adverbs of Place
These adverbs answer the question where?

Hearing the noise, the boy looked up.


(Ask the question looked where? and you get the answer up.)
After fighting the mouse for five hours, the tired cat fell down.
(Ask the question fell where? and you get the answer down.)
Naina was standing here.
(Ask the question was standing where? and you get the answer here.)
Why dont you go there?
(Ask the question go where? and you get the answer there.)
My friends are calling me outside.
(Ask the question are calling where? and you get the answer outside.)
Let us go inside.
(Ask the question go where? and you get the answer inside.)
Please come in.
(Ask the question come where? and you get the answer in.)
My parents have gone out.
(Ask the question have gone where? and you get the answer out.)
Let us go on foot. They live near.
(Ask the question live where? and you get the answer near.)
Note: An adverb of place is usually placed after the verb or after the object
of the verb.

Difference between a Sentence and a Phrase


What do you understand by the words SENTENCE and PHRASE?
Sentence
A Sentence is a group of words that makes complete sense. It does not
depend upon anything else to make its meaning clear.

For example:
Raju hit the ball.
Here, the individual words Raju hit the ball combine to form a group that
has a particular meaningsomeone named Raju has hit the ball.
A sentence consists of two partssubject and predicate. The subject of a
sentence is the person, place, thing or idea being talked about. The
predicate consists of a word or words which show what is being talked
about the person, place, thing or idea.
Let us take the previous example:
[Raju] [hit the ball.]

Here, Raju is the subject. He is the topic of the sentence. The remaining
part of the sentence forms the predicate as it contains all the information
regarding the topic (i.e., Raju).
Phrase

The Subject and Predicate of a Sentence


The Subject of a Sentence
The subject of a sentence is a noun, pronoun or a group of words
that acts as a noun.
A noun, as you know, is a person, place, thing or idea.
For example:
Geeta moved the table.
(Geeta is the name of a person and table is a thing.)
Paris is in France.
(Paris and France are names of places.)
Freedom is good.
(Freedom is an idea.)
A pronoun is used in place of a noun.

For example:
She moved the table.
It is in France.
It is good.
(She and it are examples of pronouns.)
Sometimes a group of words can also act as the noun.
For example:
To play professional tennis is my ambition.
(Here, to play professional tennis is a group of words that acts as a noun. It
is the subject of the sentence.)
The Predicate of a Sentence
The predicate of a sentence is composed of a verb, and either an
object or a complement.
A verb, as you know, describes the action performed by its subject or the
state of being of its subject.
For example:
Balram kicked the football.
(Here, kicked is the verb that shows the action performed by the subject
Balram.)
Prachi seems happy.
(Here, seems is the verb that shows the state of being of the subject
Prachi.)
In the last two examples, the predicate is composed of different elements.
In the first case, the predicate is composed of the verb and the object. What
is this object? The object is the person or thing upon which the action is
performed by the subject.
So,

Balram = Subject
Kicked the football = Predicate
Another way to express this is,
Balram = Subject
Kicked = Verb
The football = Object
Note: Like the subject, the object can be a noun, a pronoun or a group of
words acting as a noun.
In the second case, the predicate is composed of the verb and the
complement. What is this complement? The complement gives more
information about the subject.
So,
Prachi = Subject
Seems happy = Predicate
Another way of writing this would be,
Prachi = Subject
Seems = Verb
Happy = Complement
Note: The complement can be a noun, an adjective or a group of words
acting as a noun or an adjective.

Subject-Verb Agreement Rules


A verb describes an action or a state of being. This action is performed by a
subject (A Noun or a Pronoun) or the state of being is that of a subject.
Hence, a verb must always agree with its subject, in person (First,
Second and Third) and in number (Singular and Plural).
The following tables show the subject-verb agreement according to person
and number:

For the singular first person


personal pronoun

For the plural first person


personal pronoun

Subject

Verb

Subject

Verb

Am

We

Are

Was

We

Were

Do

We

Do

Did

We

Did

Have

We

Have

Had

We

Had

Play

We

Play

Played

We

Played

For the singular second person


personal pronoun

For the plural second person


personal pronoun

Subject

Verb

Subject

Verb

You

Are

You

Are

You

Were

You

Were

You

Do

You

Do

You

Did

You

Did

You

Have

You

Have

You

Had

You

Had

You

Play

You

Play

You

Played

You

Played

For the singular third person personal


pronouns

For the plural third person


personal pronoun

Subject

Verb

Subject

Verb

He/She/It

Is

They

Are

He/She/It

Was

They

Were

He/She/It

Does

They

Do

He/She/It

Did

They

Did

He/She/It

Has

They

Have

He/She/It

Had

They

Had

He/She/It

Plays

They

Play

He/She/It

Played

They

Played

Use the same rules for uncountable


nouns and singular countable nouns

Use the same rules for


plural countable nouns

Reported speech or indirect speech is the second-hand account of what has


been spoken by someone else (direct speech). In the above example,
Amits friend reports what their teacher had said in the classroom.
Inverted commas () are used for indicating direct speech, i.e., for
showing the exact words spoken by the speaker.
For example:
Teacher: I will take a test on reported speech tomorrow.
There are two ways of reporting this direct speech.
I. Direct reported speech: By using the exact words of the speaker.
The teacher said, I will take a test on reported speech tomorrow.
As you would have noticed, there is not much difference between direct
speech and direct reported speech. Both make use of the inverted commas,
thereby indicating that the exact words of the speaker have been used.
However, the use of the reporting verb (said in this case) in the latter
differentiates it from the former.
II. Indirect reported speech: By using ones own words to replace the
exact words of the speaker.
The teacher said she would take a test on reported speech today.

Notice that inverted commas have not been used.

[Remember: Basically, speech is either direct or indirect. Direct speech


makes use of inverted commas, whereas indirect speech does not.]

Yesterday changes to The day before


The following example will make this clear.
Here are two more cases in which the expression of time changes in the
reported speech.
Tomorrow changes to The day after
Julie: We will work on the History project tomorrow.
Julie said that they would work on the History project the day after.
Today changes to That day
Ananya: I have to visit my grandfather today.
Ananya said that she had to visit her grandfather that day.

In the above example, an affirmative command (Go, play) is reported.


Notice that in the reported speech, the commanding verb is preceded by told
me to.
However, in cases of negative commands, the commanding verb in the
reported speech is preceded by told me not to, as in the following example.
In the above example, an affirmative command (Go, play) is reported.
Notice that in the reported speech, the commanding verb is preceded by told
me to.
However, in cases of negative commands, the commanding verb in the
reported speech is preceded by told me not to, as in the following example.

WH- Questions
WH- question words are used for obtaining certain kinds of information. They
are called so because they contain the letters W and H. The following table
lists some questions using WH- words, and their answers.

Question

Answer

WHat is Gagan doing?

Playing with his friends

WHat kind of shirt are you


wearing?

Silk

WHen will you leave for the


airport?

By six

WHere is everybody?

In the meeting room

WHy is there so much noise?

Because India has won the match and


everyone is celebrating

WHo is responsible for this?

Monica

WHom do you wish to see?

Mr. Bachchan

WHose number are you trying?

Preetis

WHich Mughal emperor


succeeded Humayun?

Jalaluddin Mohammed Akbar

HoW are you going home?

By bus

HoW much money did you spend


on these books?

Five hundred rupees

HoW many centimetres are there


in one metre?

One hundred

HoW long have you known her?

About five years

HoW far is Delhi from Mumbai?

Around one thousand four hundred


kilometres

Yes-No Questions
Yes-No question words are used for obtaining an answer in the negative or
positive. When questions are made using the Yes-No question words, the
answer can be made in a yes or a no. The following table lists some
questions using the Yes-No question words.
Question Word
Am

Question
Am I speaking too loud?

Is

Is the boss talking about me?

Are

Are you listening to what he is saying?

Was

Was the door open when you came home?

Were

Were the birds making a lot of noise?

Have

Have the clothes been ironed?

Has

Has the train left?

Had

Had they eaten before they went out to play?

Do
Does

Do you recognise me?


Does my name sound familiar to you?

Did

Did the police solve the case?

Will

Will you come for the party?

Would

Can

Would you look after the baby while I am away?

Can you better what she has done?

Could

Could you pass on this message to him?

Shall

Shall I carry the bags for you?

Should

May

Should he be allowed to enter the classroom?

May I drink some water?

Introduction to Prepositions
Prepositions are words that join a noun, a pronoun or a group of words
acting as a noun with another part of a sentence. A preposition should
always have at least one object (noun, pronoun or a group of words

acting as a noun). This is the object that it joins with the rest of the
sentence.
For example:
Reemas house is located near the temple.
(Here, near is a preposition that connects the noun the temple with the
rest of the sentence. The temple is the object of the preposition, i.e., the
prepositional object.)
Remember: A preposition will always have an object.
What does a preposition do?
A preposition shows the relation between its object and the part of a
sentence with which it joins the object. Consider the following examples
to understand the different relations shown by a preposition.
Nalini will return on Monday.
Here, on is the preposition that connects Monday with the rest of the
sentence. Monday is the prepositional object.
Without the preposition, the sentence would look as follows:
Nalini will return _______ Monday.
Very clearly, Monday has to be linked in some manner with Nalini will
return. When on is added to the empty space, one gets to know WHEN
Nalini will return. She will return ON Monday. Hence, in this sentence, the
preposition indicates TIME.
Kapil is waiting in the park.
Here, in is the preposition that connects the park with the rest of the
sentence. The park is the prepositional object.
Without the preposition, the sentence would look as follows:
Kapil is waiting _______ the park.
Very clearly, the park has to be linked in some manner with Kapil is
waiting. When in is added in the empty space, one gets to know WHERE
Kapil is waiting. He is waiting IN the park. Hence, in this sentence, the
preposition indicates PLACE.

Unni is going toward Rajus house.


Here, toward is the preposition that connects Rajus house with the rest of
the sentence. Rajus house is the prepositional object.
Without the preposition, the sentence would look as follows:
Unni is going _______ Rajus house.
Very clearly, Rajus house has to be linked in some manner with Unni is
going. When toward is added to the empty space, one gets to know
WHERE Unni is going. He is going TOWARD Rajus house. Hence, in this
sentence, the preposition indicates MOVEMENT.
He comes to office by bus.
Here, by is the preposition that connects bus with the rest of the sentence.
Bus is the prepositional object.
Without the preposition, the sentence would look as follows:
He comes to office ______ bus.
Very clearly, bus has to be linked in some manner with he comes to office.
When by is added to the empty space, one gets to know HOW he comes
to office. He comes BY bus. Hence, in this sentence, the preposition
indicates MANNER.
Yudhishtir went to Darjeeling for a vacation.
Here, for is the preposition that connects a vacation with the rest of the
sentence. A vacation is the prepositional object.
Without the preposition, the sentence would look as follows:
Yudhishtir went to Darjeeling _____ a vacation.
Very clearly, a vacation has to be linked in some manner with Yudhishtir
went to Darjeeling. When for is added to the empty space, one gets to
know WHY Yudhishtir went to Darjeeling. He went there FOR a
vacation. Hence, in this sentence, the preposition indicates PURPOSE.

A leg of the round table is broken.


Here, of is the preposition that connects a leg with the round table. The
round table is the prepositional object.
Without the preposition, the sentence would look as follows:
A leg _____ the round table is broken.
Very clearly, a leg has to be linked in some manner with the round table.
When of is added to the empty space, it becomes clear that one of the
legs OF the round table is broken. Hence, in this sentence, the
preposition indicates POSSESSION.
Manju looks just like her grandmother.
Here, like is the preposition that connects Manju looks just with her
grandmother. her grandmother is the prepositional object.
Without the preposition, the sentence would look as follows:
Manju looks just ______ her grandmother.
Very clearly, her grandmother has to be linked in some manner with Manju
looks just. When like is added to the empty space, it becomes clear that
Manju looks just LIKE her grandmother. Hence, in this sentence, the
preposition indicates SIMILARITY/COMPARISON.
The toy was given to the little boy by his parents.
Here, by is the preposition that connects the toy given to the little boy with
his parents. His parents is the prepositional object.
Without the preposition, the sentence would look as follows:
The toy was given to the little boy _____ his parents.
Very clearly, the toy given to the little boy has to be linked in some manner
with his parents. When by is added to the empty space, it becomes clear
as to WHO gave the toy to the little boy. It was given to him BY his
parents. Hence, in this sentence, the preposition indicates
SOURCE/AGENCY.

Prepositions of Time
Pulkit has told me to tell you that he will be home after ten.

The priest ate his food some time after his cat had drunk its milk.

Dharam woke up at 3:00 A.M. to go to the airport.


The postman brings the daily mail at two in the afternoon.
Zeeshan and Anil like studying at night.
Rohan got up at sunrise and jogged from his house to the National Stadium.
Mr. Subramaniam is busy at the moment. Please call after half an hour.
The boss ordered Ramlal to finish the work before five oclock.
Girish always comes to the office half an hour before his colleagues.
The thieves escaped through the window well before the alarm was raised.
During Vikramadityas reign, there was justice and peace all over.
Someone was laughing during my piano recital.
The schools are closed during the really hot summer months.
Ramamurthy has been exercising for one hour.
Remember: Use for when the noun refers to time duration.
Hari was playing football from six to seven.
I will see Harsh at this same place in five minutes.
Roshans cousins will be coming to Delhi in July.
Zafars last movie had released in the year 2000.
The young and educated of India were leaving for foreign countries in the
1990s.
Gini has won several awards in the past.
India was a colonised state in the nineteenth century.
Patel decided that he will trim the bushes in the morning.

I forgot to thank Deepa at the party on Friday.


I found this magic wand beside the lake of truth on a Wednesday evening.
I had great fun on my birthday.
We will be in Goa on the first day of the coming New Year.
I will miss the flag hoisting ceremony on the Republic Day.
Yuvraj has been playing hockey since he was twelve.
Rini has been working non-stop since ten in the morning.
Remember: Use since when the noun refers to a point of time.
We have till tomorrow to come up with a solution to the problem.
I will be in the examination hall from morning till noon.
They had until Tuesday to finish the project.
I will be working in the garden from two until three.
Pulkit has been asked to complete the project within a week.

Prepositions of Place, Position or Location


The painting was hanging above the fireplace when I last saw it.
On the roll number list, my name comes after Mayanks.
Yashika is talking on her phone, leaning against the window of her bedroom.
The children sat around the strange man and waited for him to speak.

You will find the marriage party at the end of this road.
Dinesh is usually found at the Hanuman temple on Tuesdays.
Mr. Jones will be staying at the Travellers Paradise hotel for the next three
days.
Joginder was an all-rounder at school and college.
Regular study is at the top of my New Year resolution list.
If you want any movies, then you can call Rubina. She works at the video
store.
You can find me at the Sahitya Academy Library.
The sun is at the centre of the solar system.
I saw Disha at Jinis birthday party.
Only one issue of importance was discussed at the meeting yesterday.
Remember: Use at with the name of a place when you think of it as a
point.
I couldnt see a single thing as you sat before me.
Murali was standing behind the door, waiting for Raghu to come in.
They are below the mountain. We can easily see them from here.
To tell the truth was beneath his idea of morality.
Chandran was standing beneath Rupas window when the bee stung him.
The car was parked beside the coconut tree.
The flower pot containing the stolen jewels is kept between the two guards.

Jonathan will meet me in the afternoon at the Tarana restaurant.


Yash has been in the publishing industry for the last five years.
The star was shining brightly in the sky.
The children have been playing in the field all day long.
The lawyer was sitting in the chair, waiting for his client.
The A4-sized sheets are in the lower drawer.
Johnny lives in a three room apartment all by himself.
Meena has been living in this building for years.
I was in the lift when the power went off.
Gayatri has been living in China for three years.
Ramesh was born in Thrissur.
Rosies name is mentioned in the latest issue of Business Everyday.
I read an article in yesterdays paper about how to perfect your English.
Remember: Use in with the name of a place when you think of it as an
area.
All Chintamani wants to do is sit in a boat and fish all day long.
The suspect is hiding in the red Mercedes.
Remember: Use in when you mean a specific/particular car, taxi, lorry, van
or ambulance.
Everybody laughed when Ranbir fell on the floor.
The umbrella is lying on the table.
The address was written on a piece of red-coloured paper.
There are absolutely no fruits on this tree.
Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall.
Siddhant told me that he lives on the fourth floor of this building.

My grandparents live on a poultry farm.


Jack saw some pirates hiding on the ship.

Remember: Use on with the name of a place when you think of it as a


surface.
The police were searching for an escaped convict on the bus.
I was sitting on a bicycle, while she was sitting in a car.
Remember: Use on when you mean a specific/particular bicycle, bus, train,
ship or plane.
The gold coins of Jahangir lie hidden under the great banyan tree.
Donna is waiting for you under the park bridge.
Trishas doll is lying underneath her bed.
The dog is hiding underneath the table.
I will remain within the house until the weather outside becomes bearable

Prepositions of Direction or Movement


The wizard jumped across the wide river with the help of his magic shoes.
There is a little problem with the bridge across the river.
The gardener broke his slippers running after the children.
In the torchlight, I saw my grandfather coming along the muddy path.
The children ran along the road to greet their cousins.
Ghosh was shouting at Mithun for throwing away his wicket after getting a
start.
The journalist threw the shoe at the minister.
All these pilgrims are heading for Sabarimala.

The puppy ran into the kitchen in pursuit of a rat.


Champu jumped into the river on seeing Sheru.
The detective threw his gloves onto the table.
The monkey climbed onto the branch on seeing the crocodile.
Billu and Pinky are going to their Mamajis house tomorrow.
Latika is moving toward a bright future.

Other Relations Shown by Prepositions


Source or Agent
That song was sung by Sonu Nigam.
A parcel has come from your uncle.
A message has arrived from heaven.
Comparison or Contrast
The monkey looks more human beside you.
This place was like heaven on earth before the war.
I am like a dog chasing cats.
This movie is unlike any that you have seen before.
Unlike Karan, Ravi is a hard working boy.
It is so unlike Mohit to be at the office after five.
Manner or Method

Shashi was running at top speed to escape the ghost in the white dress.
The children attracted attention onto themselves by shouting loudly.
Ratna will come by Rajhdhani Express.
He travels by bus regularly.
They went to the temple on foot.
In my native place, everyone eats food with their hands.
Purpose or Reason
Dev was punished by his dad for throwing a stone at the bird.
My mom tells me to eat spinach for good health.
This movie is meant for intelligent viewers.
Jeetu has two extra tickets for the fourth India-Australia ODI.
He is a great player who stands for team spirit and sportsmanship.
Possession
The actor Samar Khan is an old friend of mine.
The greatest work of Shakespeare is Hamlet.
Gajar ka halwa is a speciality of my mom.
Big boss told me to get out of his room.
He has confessed that he does not have the gold with him.

Introduction to Conjunctions
Conjunctions are the words that join sentences, phrases or other
words. They act as connectors, linkers or bridges.

Common Conjunctions 1
FOR

Sethu must have been sick, for he was looking very pale.
Here, for joins Sethu must have been sick with he was looking very pale.
This conjunction shows the reason why Sethu must have been sick.
AND
The jewel thief was hiding in the basement, and the police was looking for
him on the ground floor.
Here, and joins the jewel thief was hiding in the basement with the police
was looking for him on the ground floor.
This conjunction shows addition. It adds one sentence (the police
was looking for him on the ground floor) to another (the jewel thief
was hiding in the basement).
At the circus, I saw a lion, a python, a hippopotamus, a giraffe and a
chimpanzee.
Here, and joins all the items in the series (lion, python, hippopotamus,
giraffe, chimpanzee).
Once again, the conjunction expresses addition. It adds together all
the animals seen at the circus.
NOR
Honey does not want to go to school, nor does he wish to study at home.
Here, nor joins Honey does not want to go to school with does he wish to
study at home.
This conjunction joins two negative choicesdoes not want to go to
school and does not wish to study at home.
BUT

The bowlers managed to beat the batsmen many times, but they could not
take a wicket.
Here, but joins the bowlers managed to beat the batsmen many times with
they could not take a wicket.
In this case, the idea that comes after the conjunction (failing to take
a wicket) shows its contrast to the idea that comes before the
conjunction (beating the batsmen).
He is experienced but out of form.
Here, but joins experienced with out of form.
Once again, this conjunction joins two opposite ideasexperience
and lack of form.

OR
I could do this work by myself, or we could do it together.
Here, or joins I could do this work by myself with we could do it together.
This conjunction shows a choice between doing the work alone and
doing the work together.
Use a fork or a spoon, but do not use your hands.
Here, or joins a fork with a spoon.
Once again, the conjunction shows a choice between the fork and the
spoon.
YET
The two actors are fierce rivals, yet they respect each others work.
Here, yet joins the two actors are fierce rivals with they respect each
others work. Both the joined parts have the same importance.
In this case, the idea that follows the conjunction (respect for each
others work) contrasts with the idea that comes before the
conjunction (fierce rivalry).

Note:
Yet is similar to but. In sentences where the part coming after the
conjunction is of an unexpected or a surprising nature, any one of them can
be used.
However, when the part following the conjunction is not of a surprising
nature, it is always safe to use but.
For example:
I would like to go for the wedding, but I have important work to complete.
They would like to play the game, but they have to sit on the bench today.
Let us replace but with yet in these sentences.
I would like to go for the wedding, yet I have important work to complete.
They would like to play the game, yet they have to sit on the bench today.
These sentences do not make the same sense as the previous two sentences.
Therefore, whenever in doubt, use but instead of yet.
SO
The boys were making a lot of noise, so the teacher had to punish them.
Here, so joins the boys were making a lot of noise with the teacher had to
punish them.
In this case, the idea that comes after the conjunction (punishment)
shows that it is the result of the idea that comes before the
conjunction (making a lot of noise).

Showing the Relation of Time

The crowd went mad after the fall of Sachins wicket.


Priti had seen the movie before it was seen by Raji.
He has told me to wait till he comes back.
I cannot predict the outcome of the game until the first fifteen overs have
ended.
While they were discussing the movie, their teacher entered the class.
Some children danced while others sat and watched.
The guard opened the door when the thieves were opening the safe.
When I hit the ball, the ball stays hit.
Showing the Relation of Reason or Cause or Purpose
Jagjit did not laugh at the joke because he failed to understand it.
As Manu does not eat green vegetables, his haemoglobin count is very less.
Since your cousins are coming only for a day, you may take a leave from
school.
The princes are fighting so that one of them can win the competition.
Showing the Relation of Condition
The children will not go to school if you dont get new schoolbags for them.
You cannot hope to win the gold medal unless you practise regularly.
Showing the Relation of Contrast
Although I am not a big cricket fan, I rarely left my seat during the final
yesterday.
Though he is studying for the English exam, his focus is on the Math paper
that follows.
I would like to try again even though I have failed five times before.
Rishi plays the guitar whereas Ranbir plays the piano.
Showing the Relation of Uncertainty or Doubt

I cannot say if it has stopped raining.


I dont know whether this is the right way to approach the problem.

Introduction to Punctuations
Imagine yourself driving a racing car. What do you do in a car race? You
drive as fast as you can, and try to beat your opponents to the finish line. If
the racing track is an absolutely straight path, then there would not be much
of a problem. But what if the racing track is full of twists and turns? Do you
think that only driving fast will do? No. You will have to learn the art of
guiding your car through the twists and turns without crashing.
Now imagine that your car is the fastest. However, its brakes are faulty and
the steering wheel doesnt work. Do you think you will be able to win the
race? Forget winning the race, will you be able to complete the race with
your bones and senses intact? The answer seems easy enoughno.
Consider the following sentence:
He is dumb.

This seems easy enough as it makes its meaning clear. What if this sentence
is part of a larger group of sentences?
What was the difference between the two versions? The difference was the
presence of certain marks or signs in the second passage. These marks and
signs are called punctuation marks.
Punctuation marks are used for punctuating sentences, in order to make
them readable and understandable. Punctuating is the act of interrupting
and punctuation marks are the interruptions.
We had begun with the example of a fast racing car, with faulty brakes and
steering wheel. The brakes and the steering wheel give the driver of the car
a certain amount of control over the vehicle he drives. If these are faulty,
then you can well imagine what will happen. It is the same case with a
passage without punctuation marks. They give the reader of the passage a
certain amount of control over its meaning. It is no good having the fastest
car when the brakes and the steering wheel are faulty. Similarly, a brilliantly
written, but unpunctuated, passage doesnt have much of an effect upon the
reader.

Punctuation Marks 1

Full stop
For ending a sentence
For example:
Close the door properly.

Question Mark
For asking questions
For example:
Where are you going?

Exclamation Mark
For ending sentences, phrases and words which show some strong feeling or
emotion.
For example:
Oh! I have a terrible headache.
My god! What have you done now?
What a beautiful weather!

Punctuation Marks 2
Comma
For separating 3 or more items in a series
For example:
My favourite players are Sachin Tendulkar, V. V. S. Laxman, Virendra
Sehwag and Rahul Dravid.
For separating 2 or more adjectives
For example:
She is a smart, witty and highly talented woman.

For breaking up dates and addresses


For example:
You can find him at 67/3A, Rajouri Garden, New Delhi-27.
He was born on Friday, February 29, 2008.
Inverted Commas
For showing a direct speech
For example:
Gini said, Dont step in the house!
Or
Gini said, Dont step in the house!
For showing a quotation
For example:
In his autobiography, Gandhi makes it clear that he wished to tell the story
of his numerous experiments with truth.
Or
In his autobiography, Gandhi makes it clear that he wished to tell the story
of his numerous experiments with truth.
For marking a special word or phrase
For example:
I am reading Shakespeares Hamlet.
Or
I am reading Shakespeares Hamlet.

Punctuation Marks 3
Apostrophe
For contracting words

For example:
I do not want to see that movie.
Becomes
I dont want to see that movie.
Here are some contractions for you!
Words

Contraction

Do Not

Dont

Did Not

Didnt

Does Not

Doesnt

Is Not

Isnt

Are Not

Arent

Was Not

Wasnt

Were Not

Werent

Cannot

Cant

Have Not

Havent

Has Not

Hasnt

Had Not

Hadnt

Will Not

Wont

Words

Contraction

I Am

Im

You Are

Youre

We Are

Were

They Are

Theyre

He Is

Hes

She Is

Shes

It Is

Its

That Is

Thats

Who Is

Whos

Words

Contraction

I Will

Ill

You Will

Youll

He Will

Hell

She Will

Shell

It Will

Itll

We Will

Well

They Will

Theyll

Who Will

Wholl

Words

Contraction

I Have

Ive

You Have

Youve

We Have

Weve

They Have

Theyve

I Had/Would

Id

You Had/Would

Youd

He Had/Would

Hed

She Had/Would

Shed

We Had/Would

Wed

They Had/Would

Theyd

Who Has

Whos

For showing the possessive case of nouns

For example:
Jeetus dog barks loudly.
(Singular noun)
Congress victory in the general elections was unexpected.
(Singular noun ending with the letter s)
Mom! Take me to the childrens park.
(Plural noun)
Sara is going to live in a girls hostel.
(Plural noun ending with the letter s)