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Budapest University of Technology and Economics

Department of Mechanics, Materials and Structures


English courses
Reinforced Concrete Structures
Code: BMEEPSTK601

Lecture no. 17:

FOUNDATIONS

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Content:
Introduction
1. Basic design principles
2. Classification of foundations
3. Classification of soils
4. Special design problems of shellow foundations
Strip foundations
Pad foundations
Slab foundations
5. Retaining walls
6. Deep foundations
Box foundations
Well foundations
Pile foundations
Slurry wall foundations

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Introduction

The structure stands on soil, which is not reinforced concrete!


Improper design of the foundations may cause severe damages:
-uneven settlements
-swimming up
-sliding
-loss of stability due to tilting
Foundations transmit generally compression originated by vertical
loading, but horizontal actions (wind, earthquake) may also produce
tension in anchorage members (piles) of the foundation.

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1. Basic design principles

Possibly uniform stress distribution to avoid uneven settlements.


Foundation depth:
-on loadbearing soil layer
-under freeze depth (at about 80 cm in Hungary)

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2. Classification of foundations
According to foundation depth:
Shallow foundations
Strip foundations
Pad foundations
Slab foundations
Deep foundations
Box foundation
Well foundation
Pile foundations
Slurry walls

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3. Classification of soils
fu,soil kN/m2
Cohesionless soils:
Sand
Gravel

200-500
500-700

Cohesive soils:
Clay, silt
soft
100-300
hard
300-500
filling
20-50
Classification of soils according to bearing capacitry:
Good soils
fsoil,d =0,07 kN/cm2
Medium soils
0,03
Bad soils
0,01
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4. Special design problems of shallow foundations

F
f soil, d = soil, u
= 0,25 to 0,75
A
It is recommended that half of the contact area be working (That is the
eccentricity is smaller than B/4)
=

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Stepping down to foundation level of the neighbouring building


Strips arranged in perpendicular
direction

Periodical underpinning of the


neighbourung foundation
concreting

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Danger of swimming up by high water table

ground water
level

insulation

provisory sinking
of the water table
during construction
Q: only selfweight

Q 1,3 water mA building

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1,3: safety factor

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5.1 Strip foundations


mass concrete

tan =

3soil, d
f ct , d

reinforced concrete

As =

soil, d a 2
2zf yd

transverse steel

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longitudinal
reinforforcement
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Strip foundation along neighbouring building

or: combined footing in perpendicular direction


rc. wall strip footing

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5.2 Pad foundations

starter bars of the column

Calculation of xc by succesive approximations

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Partially prefabricated pad foundation:


- prefabrcated sleeve
- monolithic rc pad on
- mass concrete block

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Reinforcement
system of eccentrically
loaded pad
foundation

starter bars

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5.1 Slab foundations


-By high ground water level
-Danger of uneven settlements
-To reduce settlement by higher load intensities
Characteristic settlements under a 10 storey building
-strip foundation: 4 to 6 cm
-pad foundation: 2 to 4 cm
-slab foundation: 1 to 2 cm
Calculation of moment distribution as elastically supported slab
Thumb rule:
foundation slab thickness = no. of floors supported x10 cm
but min. 25 cn
3 m thick slab foundation was constructed under the Hungarian
parliment
Foundation slab under Clasp
lightwight structural system (1080-ies):
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6.Retaining walls

drenage
slip surfice

Ep: passive earth pressure


(uncertain, better not consider)
Ea: active earth pressure
H2

Ea =
tan 2 (45o )
2
2
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angle of internal friction


clay: 20
sand: 30
gravel: 35

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Examples for active earth pressure


H (m)
2
4
6
8
Checks for:

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Ea (kN)
40
160
360
640
1 sliding
2 overturning (around point A)
3 bearing

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buttresses
steel tube

buttresse

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Thumb rule of prof. Jki (1930-ies):


Cohesionless soils: B

H
3

Cohesive soils:

H
2

H8m
Soil anchores with prestressed
tendons

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7. Deep foundations
Box foundations
Applied in bridge construction,
for oil drilling towers

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Well foundations
Sinking by excavation

Cutting edge
Bearing capacity: 1000 ti 10000 kN

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Pile foundations

Ways of force transfer between piles and the soil

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Floating piles and end-bearing piles

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Prefabricated rc piles
Monolithic rc piles

dropped weight
(Franki piles)
withdrawn steel tube

concrete block
pile cap concreted
on reaching the final
depth
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Pile cap (rc. beam) on top of piles

Inclined piles to brace


the pile system against
horizontal forces

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Franki piles
Diameter 60 cm
Concrete: C8-C12
Reinforcement:
16, 8 links
Capacity:
1000 to 3000 kN

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Use of spirel drill for mon. piles

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Jet grouting: soil concrete pile

drilling
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injection

ready jet
column

repetition
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Jet grouting under existing foundation

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Construction of pile-wall

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7.4 Slurry wall foundations

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Phases of construction
of slurry wall foundation

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One of the first applications:


construction of the Metro Milan

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