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# Budapest University of Technology and Economics

## Department of Mechanics, Materials and Structures

English courses
Reinforced Concrete Structures
Code: BMEEPSTK601

FOUNDATIONS

## Reinforced Concrete 2012

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Content:
Introduction
1. Basic design principles
2. Classification of foundations
3. Classification of soils
4. Special design problems of shellow foundations
Strip foundations
Slab foundations
5. Retaining walls
6. Deep foundations
Box foundations
Well foundations
Pile foundations
Slurry wall foundations

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Introduction

## The structure stands on soil, which is not reinforced concrete!

Improper design of the foundations may cause severe damages:
-uneven settlements
-swimming up
-sliding
-loss of stability due to tilting
Foundations transmit generally compression originated by vertical
loading, but horizontal actions (wind, earthquake) may also produce
tension in anchorage members (piles) of the foundation.

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## Possibly uniform stress distribution to avoid uneven settlements.

Foundation depth:
-on loadbearing soil layer
-under freeze depth (at about 80 cm in Hungary)

## Reinforced Concrete 2012

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2. Classification of foundations
According to foundation depth:
Shallow foundations
Strip foundations
Slab foundations
Deep foundations
Box foundation
Well foundation
Pile foundations
Slurry walls

## Reinforced Concrete 2012

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3. Classification of soils
fu,soil kN/m2
Cohesionless soils:
Sand
Gravel

200-500
500-700

Cohesive soils:
Clay, silt
soft
100-300
hard
300-500
filling
20-50
Classification of soils according to bearing capacitry:
Good soils
fsoil,d =0,07 kN/cm2
Medium soils
0,03
0,01
Reinforced Concrete 2012

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## 4. Special design problems of shallow foundations

F
f soil, d = soil, u
= 0,25 to 0,75
A
It is recommended that half of the contact area be working (That is the
eccentricity is smaller than B/4)
=

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## Stepping down to foundation level of the neighbouring building

Strips arranged in perpendicular
direction

## Periodical underpinning of the

neighbourung foundation
concreting

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## Danger of swimming up by high water table

ground water
level

insulation

provisory sinking
of the water table
during construction
Q: only selfweight

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## 5.1 Strip foundations

mass concrete

tan =

3soil, d
f ct , d

reinforced concrete

As =

soil, d a 2
2zf yd

transverse steel

longitudinal
reinforforcement
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## or: combined footing in perpendicular direction

rc. wall strip footing

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## Partially prefabricated pad foundation:

- prefabrcated sleeve
- monolithic rc pad on
- mass concrete block

## Reinforced Concrete 2012

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Reinforcement
system of eccentrically
foundation

starter bars

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## 5.1 Slab foundations

-By high ground water level
-Danger of uneven settlements
-To reduce settlement by higher load intensities
Characteristic settlements under a 10 storey building
-strip foundation: 4 to 6 cm
-pad foundation: 2 to 4 cm
-slab foundation: 1 to 2 cm
Calculation of moment distribution as elastically supported slab
Thumb rule:
foundation slab thickness = no. of floors supported x10 cm
but min. 25 cn
3 m thick slab foundation was constructed under the Hungarian
parliment
Foundation slab under Clasp
lightwight structural system (1080-ies):
Reinforced Concrete 2012

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6.Retaining walls

drenage
slip surfice

## Ep: passive earth pressure

(uncertain, better not consider)
Ea: active earth pressure
H2

Ea =
tan 2 (45o )
2
2
Reinforced Concrete 2012

clay: 20
sand: 30
gravel: 35

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H (m)
2
4
6
8
Checks for:

## Reinforced Concrete 2012

Ea (kN)
40
160
360
640
1 sliding
2 overturning (around point A)
3 bearing

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buttresses
steel tube

buttresse

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## Thumb rule of prof. Jki (1930-ies):

Cohesionless soils: B

H
3

Cohesive soils:

H
2

H8m
Soil anchores with prestressed
tendons

## Reinforced Concrete 2012

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7. Deep foundations
Box foundations
Applied in bridge construction,
for oil drilling towers

## Reinforced Concrete 2012

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Well foundations
Sinking by excavation

Cutting edge
Bearing capacity: 1000 ti 10000 kN

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Pile foundations

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## Reinforced Concrete 2012

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Prefabricated rc piles
Monolithic rc piles

dropped weight
(Franki piles)
withdrawn steel tube

concrete block
pile cap concreted
on reaching the final
depth
Reinforced Concrete 2012

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## Inclined piles to brace

the pile system against
horizontal forces

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Franki piles
Diameter 60 cm
Concrete: C8-C12
Reinforcement:
Capacity:
1000 to 3000 kN

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## Jet grouting: soil concrete pile

drilling
Reinforced Concrete 2012

injection

column

repetition
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## Reinforced Concrete 2012

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Construction of pile-wall

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## Reinforced Concrete 2012

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Phases of construction
of slurry wall foundation

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## One of the first applications:

construction of the Metro Milan

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