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Independent Study EN495

Next Generation Network (NGN)

Name

: T.A.T. Tilakaratne

Index No : 040388

Field

: ENTC

Table of contents

Introduction

2

Next Generation Network (NGN)

3

1.1 Introduction to NGN

3

1.2 Overview

3

1.3 Edge Access Layer

4

1.4 Core Switching Layer

5

1.5

Network Control Layer

6

Inter networking

6

1.6 Service Management Layer

7

1.7 UMG 8900

8

Service switching module(SSM):

8

User access module(UAM):

9

Card structure of the UMG8900

9

1.7.1

Operation and maintenance subsystem

11

1.7.2

Gateway control subsystem

11

1.7.3

TDM access and switching subsystem

11

1.7.4

Packet processing subsystem

11

1.7.5

Service Resource Processing Subsystem

12

1.7.8

Signaling forwarding subsystem

13

1.7.9

Clock subsystem

14

1.7.10 Cascading subsystem

14

1.7.11 The UA5000

15

1.8

SoftX3000

16

1.8.1 The Structure of the SoftX3000

17

1.8.2 The layered message structures

18

1.8.3 Data extracted from records on the NGN system

19

T.A.T Tilakaratne

1

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering

Introduction

NGN the Next Generation Network will be the future of all telecommunication engineers. These switches which are categorized as Networks can integrate and handle networks of different technologies. For example it can handle a land line network, a data network, a VOIP network and even a CDMA network at once. Even though this sounds out of our reach the systems have already worked their way to our country. We as engineers about to pass out will have to work with these technologies. Since this area is not covered by our course and since the knowledge is going to be vital I chose this topic to do my independent study for the semester.

Even though there wasn’t a way to physically reach an NGN I was able to find some resource personal to clear my doubts. My own batch mates who were on training at Huawei had the chance since its one of the major NGN manufacturers and they happen to be supplying to Sri Lanka.

This report is written with the knowledge I gathered through an instruction manual on how an NGN works and with the help of my friends.

The report first gives an over view of the general systems, then the sub parts are recognized. After that some areas have been looked into with more technical information.

T.A.T Tilakaratne

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Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering

Next Generation Network (NGN)

1.1 Introduction to NGN

NGN is the next step in telecommunication technology. The telephone system started up with direct connections to all users. With the expansion new switching techniques were required. In theory normally we learn as “Switching developed in 4 stages.

1. Manual switching

2. Mechanical switching

3. Semi Electronic Switching

4. Electronic Switching- Stored Program Control”

But the future is here today. Sri Lanka Telecom has taken the giant leap to bring the newest technology in to their system in parallel with the developed and powerful nations in the world. With this we can say there are five systems.

5. Packet switching using Routers

The new system can be called as an information transfer system rather than telephone system. That is because it can function as a circuit switch, or a video interworking gateway.

1.2 Overview

NGN is a service oriented network. It provides an independent service system by splitting the service module from the call control, and the call control from the bearer. That is the services provided to each subscriber are handled from a database at central control where as in a normal system the services are defined from where it is connected. Control is merely a place where some information in processed and send back some instructions. The access point to the user equipment is merely a packet creation point. In this way, it frees the service from the original network model.

T.A.T Tilakaratne

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Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering

NGN employs open and integrated network structure. With abundant service models, NGN is able to provide a variety of services, such as voice, data and multimedia services, or integrated services.

Like in the normal telephone system the entire system can be divided in to four areas.

Edge access Core switching Network control Service management

1.3 Edge Access Layer

The edge access layer connects subscribers and terminals to the network through a number of styles, and converts the format of information so that it can be sent over the network. Here are the components of the edge access layer.

Integrated Access Device (IAD): It is a device used to access subscribers in the NGN. It converts the format of the subscriber data such as audio, and video so that it can be sent over the IP network. An IAD provides as many as 48 subscriber ports.

Access Media Gateway (AMG): It provides subscribers with a diversity of service

access, such as analog subscriber access, Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) and

x Digital Subscriber Line (xDSL) access.

Universal Media Gateway (UMG): It converts the media stream and signaling between different formats. It can be used as an SG or AMG. It can connect many types of devices, including PSTN exchange, private branch exchange (PBX), Network Access Server (NAS), and base station controller (BSC). It does the protocol conversion in to a type that can be handled by the softswitch and another gateway.

T.A.T Tilakaratne

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Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering

Signaling Gateway (SG): It connects the Signaling System No. 7 (SS7) network with the IP network. It converts the signaling between the PSTN (SS7) and the IP network (packet signaling). The conversion is from SS7 to Sigtran.

Trunk Media Gateway (TMG): It resides between the circuit switched (CS) network and the IP network. It converts format between pulse code modulation (PCM) signal flow and IP media flow.

SIP Phone: It is a multimedia device working in the Session Initiation Protocol. H.323 Phone: It is a multimedia device working in the H.323 protocol.

1.4 Core Switching Layer

In a normal traditional network that we have been talking about up to now switching is the purpose of its sole existence. It switches the calls in to correct trunk groups using the information gathered during call setup and keeps a rigid control over the time slots and trunk groups. That is since the data itself carries no identification. To get to its destination it depends entirely upon the information exchanged at call setup and the stick to that order. But the NGN takes a very different approach. The data itself has a mind of its own. It knows where it is going where it came from and what it is. This allows the system to step out of the main switching function and let a network of Routers and Switches get the data where it has to go. The core switching layer works in the packet switching technology, and is composed of devices distributed in the backbone network and the MAN, such as routers and layer 3 switches. It provides subscribers with a common and integrated platform of data transport. The switch only works to let the packets know where they should be going. By removing the switch and giving the responsibility to a packet based network it ensures a higher reliability, Quality of Service (QoS) and a large capacity since multiple paths can be provided without a limitation.

T.A.T Tilakaratne

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Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering

1.5 Network Control Layer

This is where entire high level control is done. The other equipments function under the instructions of the Core control layer. The instrument that is responsible for this is the Softswitch. Under the Huawei system the instrument is SoftX3000.

It provides the following functions and features:

Call control Media gateway access control Resource allocation Protocol processing Routing Authentication Charging Application Programming Interfaces (API)

The softswitch provides basic voice services, mobile services, and multimedia services. It’s mainly targeted to achieve primary real-time call control and connection control functions.

Inter networking

Using AMG, TMG, and SG, the NGN can inter work with the following types of networks:

PSTN

Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN)

3rd Generation (3G)

IN

Internet

The interworking enables NGN to inherit all services from the original networks.

The switch itself does not handle traffic. It is just a signal processing devise connected with a database which gives the information necessary for the decision making.

T.A.T Tilakaratne

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Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering

1.6 Service Management Layer

The service management layer provides value added services and operation support. Here are the components of the service management layer.

iOSS (integrated operation support system): It includes two parts: a network management system (NMS) which manages the NGN components centrally, and an integrated charging system.

Policy Server: It manages the policies of the subscribers, such as access control list (ACL), bandwidth, traffic, and QoS. This is achieved through grouping the users according to their facilities.

Application Server: It produces and manages logics of value added services and

intelligent network (IN) services. The application server is the result of the separation of

service from call control. It helps develop supplementary services.

Location Server: It manages the routes between softswitches; indicates the reach ability of the destinations of calls. Manages the routing table. It ensures the efficiency and simplifies the routing.

Media Resource Server (MRS): It provides service tone playing, conference

service, interactive voice response (IVR), recorded announcement and advanced tone

service.

Service Control Point (SCP): It is used to store subscriber data and service logics.

The switch based on the call event queries the service database and the subscriber database. It then sends proper call control instructions to the SSP on the next action.

T.A.T Tilakaratne

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Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering

1.7 UMG 8900

The Universal Media Gateway is one of the main equipment in the Access subsystem of the NGN. In the current implementation of the system in the country this is the main

access system that is being used since it has multiple functions. It is the most economical solution when the telecom network is part PSTN and part NGN. Some of the main features of the UMG

is the most economical solution when the telecom network is part PSTN and part NGN. Some

It supports interworking between different networks It provides conversion function between different formats of traffic Function as a Trunk gateway (TG) and as an Access gateway (AG) Has an embedded signaling gateway (SG).

formats of traffic Function as a Trunk gateway (TG) and as an Access gateway (AG) Has
formats of traffic Function as a Trunk gateway (TG) and as an Access gateway (AG) Has

UMG8900 can be divided into two parts according to its functionality. This helps to understand the system better.

Service switching module(SSM):

It processes the formats of various types of traffic flow. It functions as a TG connecting the PSTN system with the NGN. This is what gives a subscriber in the NGN the chance to call one in PSTN or any other network even though they work in different ways. In the absence of a connection with the switch it can act as a switch in NGN. This gives it the stand alone capability and intern more reliability. Service switching module (SSM) consists of 4 parts

This gives it the stand alone capability and intern more reliability. Service switching module (SSM) consists

Main control frame – Management and maintenance functions of the device and supports service access and process simultaneously. Service frame – Process services requested by user Central switching frame – Handles Multi-frame cascading function Extended control frame - When the device is at maximum capacity. The extended frame does not support access and process functions of user services, but provides connection management and control function.

does not support access and process functions of user services, but provides connection management and control
does not support access and process functions of user services, but provides connection management and control

T.A.T Tilakaratne

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Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering

User access module(UAM):

This is the access point currently provided by Huawie for the users that are in the NGN. The instrument can be at the UMG itself or function as a RSU from a distant place. It provides integrated access function for both narrowband and broadband users. It can even function as an AG if an IP connection is provided.

Card structure of the UMG8900

an IP connection is provided. Card structure of the UMG8900 1. System Management Boards OMU -

1.

System Management Boards

OMU - Operation Maintenance unit

MPU - Main control unit

 

CMF - Connection management unit front

NET - Packet switch Net board

 

CLK - Clock board

CMB - Connection management unit back

PPB - Protocol processing unit

 

4.

IP Interface Process Board

 

E8T - 8×FE E1G - 1×GE

HRB – High Speed Routing Board

2.

Signaling Gateway Board

SPF - Signaling process board

3.

TDM Interface Process

 

TNU - TDM switch Net Unit

TCLU - TDM Convergence & link unit

E32 - 32×E1

 

S2L - 2×STM-1 optical

5.

Voice Process Board

 

VPU - Voice Process Unit SRU---- Signal Resource

 

unit Cascading Board

FLU - Front Link Unit

 

BLU – Back Link Unit

T.A.T Tilakaratne

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Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering

UMG8900 hardware system can be divided into the following subsystems according to their function.

1. Operation and maintenance subsystem

2. Gateway control subsystem

3. TDM access and switching subsystem

4. Packet processing subsystem

5. Service resource processing subsystem

6. Subscriber access subsystem

7. Signaling forwarding subsystem

8. Clock subsystem

9. Cascading subsystem.

subsystem 8. Clock subsystem 9. Cascading subsystem. T.A.T Tilakaratne Department of Electronic and

T.A.T Tilakaratne

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering

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1.7.1

Operation and maintenance subsystem

Control of the UMG is handled by the OMU and MPU it also does maintenance functions. The instructions to each card originate from here. If the link to the SoftSwitch fails internal switching is also handled from this section. The terminal access is through here for maintenance tasks.

1.7.2 Gateway control subsystem

The messages received from the SoftSwitch that concern control of the gateway are received through this section. The Protocol processing unit handles H.248 and MGCP standard protocols. In a layered architecture higher level connections have to be managed. This is achieved from the CMU which is after the PPU.

1.7.3 TDM access and switching subsystem

The access point for PSTN users is through this section. They can connect through the S2L connection that can connect two STM 1 lines or through the E’1 interface. The voice coming from the TDM system goes in to a switching network which is controlled by the OMU or MPU. The signals are split in to signaling and voice. The access of the RSU equipment that is of the MA5000 is also through the E32 card.

1.7.4 Packet processing subsystem

Picketing of data that goes in to the IP network and vise versa is done in this section. The types of packets handled are

Voice, video, data Signaling

Since there are no other UMG in the country only signaling going to the SoftSwitch is going through this path. Processing of the packets, packet creation, and switching them to their path is done from the NET Packet switch Net board under the control of the OMU.

T.A.T Tilakaratne

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering

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1.7.5 Service Resource Processing Subsystem

This subsystem performs media stream format conversion and adaptation adapts according to the user. The user can be using SS7, R2 or an internal protocol for signaling. The system has to adapt accordingly and send the replies in the same format. Format conversion is required since systems work in different ways. They have to be brought to a common format and also the reverse conversion has to be done.

Main functions handled are

1)

Voice transcoding

2)

Echo cancellation

3)

Announcement play

4)

Digit collection

5)

Multi-party conference

Voice transcoding is done to reduce the amount of data transfer in the IP side. It also

helps in error handling. VPU is responsible for voice transcoding. There are many transcoding methods that can be used a chart is given in the Appendix.

SRU is engaged in announcement playing, DTMF generation and detection, digit collection, audio mixing (conference) and FSK. It handles the Register Signaling part of R2 signaling. The DTMF generation and digit collection is done in handling R2.

T.A.T Tilakaratne

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering

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1.7.8 Signaling forwarding subsystem

This subsystem includes some of the components that were included in other subsystems but also work in signal processing.

in other subsystems but also work in signal processing. According to the present implementation three kinds

According to the present implementation three kinds of signaling enter the UMG from the E32 interface

R2

SS7

V5.2 (an internal protocol used for signaling with the MA5000)

R2

The Line signaling is directly received from the CMU and sent to the PPU. Register signaling after being recognized at the TNU is sent to the SRU. The information collected is sent in a data packet form to the CMU and then to the PPU. Here the signals are converted in to H.248 and sent to the SoftSwitch. The return path is also the same.

SS7 & V5.2 The signaling is separated at the TNU and forwarded to the SPF. Protocol conversion from SS7 to Sigtran occurs here. After that the Sigtran messages are sent along the IP

T.A.T Tilakaratne

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering

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network to the soft switch. The replies come through the same path and commands to the UMG come through the PPU.

1.7.9 Clock subsystem

Provides the clock signal to the system. For accuracy this can be taken from a satellite.

1.7.10 Cascading subsystem

This connects the central switching frame with the other frames. The connection management is its main function.

Subscriber Access paths to the UMG

The UMG provides the subscribers with a diversity of service access. The UAM handles the access of directly connected subscribers. There are two methods of connection.

The unit can be on site and connected by a network cable through the network It can be at a remote location and connected using a number of E’1 links depending on the traffic.

T.A.T Tilakaratne

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering

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1.7.11 The UA5000 which is the distant unit does not have a stand alone function.

is the distant unit does not have a stand alone function. Figure 7-3: UA5000 PWX- Power

Figure 7-3: UA5000

PWX- Power TSS – Test (operates the test relay) PV8 – Transmission control card This supports 8 E’1 each with the UMG. The time slots for communication and the V5.2 protocol are handled from this card. RSP – Bus network control card A32 – sub card that handle 32 subscribers. ASL – Coin box connection card has line reversal and meter pulsing capability. DSL – ISDN connection card APMA – Broad band service connection card ADMA – Subscriber interface card for broadband.

An IP network connection is needed to give the broadband service. Then it will be directly controlled by the SoftSwitch without going through the UMG. The second frame is an expansion frame which connects with the PV8 using the RSP. From the 31 time slots in the E’1, one is used to send control messages using the V5.2 protocol. The identity of the subscriber that is initiating a call, ring signal from the UMG to the UA5000 and also the commands to the test card are sent through this.

T.A.T Tilakaratne

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering

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1.8 SoftX3000

The SoftX3000 is a softswitch of large capacity and high performance. It is used in the central equipment room and has no subscriber cable interface. It performs call control and connection management of voice, data and multimedia services based on the IP network.

.

The SoftX3000 take many roles. On the way of the development and integration of the traditional PSTN to NGN, it can be used as an

End office (C5 office) Tandem exchange (C4 office) Gateway office Gate Keeper

End office (C5 office) performs all PSTN services and provides more than thirty new services. Since it can handle many signaling and protocols the conversion can be done without any changes to other exchanges.

It can be used as a Tandem Exchange (C4 office) when combined with a TG and a SG. In

this way the trunks can be sent over the IP network allowing flexible network planning.

A Gateway office is a modern concept where high level controlling of calls can be

performed. With the development of the communication systems in order to keep a tight control over the system without letting it be miss used functions like black and white listing of callers, call authentication, call interception, mass storage of bills are necessary.

The Gate Keeper performs authentication of SIP and H.323 phones which are, multimedia devices connecting directly to the IP network.

T.A.T Tilakaratne

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering

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1.8.1 The Structure of the SoftX3000

1.8.1 The Structure of the SoftX3000 The SoftSwitch is a protocol processing unit the components of

The SoftSwitch is a protocol processing unit the components of the SoftSwitch are performing subsection of this over role function. The back frame comprises of interfaces to connect with the IP network and with the

internal service units. The connections that physically connect to the interface boards logically connect to the service boards. The service boards process the protocols of the messages received and send back the replies. SMUI - Is the main control board of a frame. SIUI - SIUI board is the back board of SMUI. It provides the Ethernet interface. IFMI - The IFMI is used to receive and transmit IP packets. BFII – It is the Back interface board of the IFMI. HSCI - provides board hot swap. FCCU - FCCU implements call control, processes protocols, generate and stores bills in its bill pool. CDBI - database of the equipment, stores call location, gateway resources management, outgoing trunk circuit selection. BSGI - Process the IP packets after the IFMI level-1 dispatch. It implements the

following

MSGI - MSGI processes the following protocols: UDP, TCP, H.323, and SIP. MRCA - Processes the audio signals in real time. It collects and generates DTMF signals, plays and records audio clips and provides multi-party conference function. MRIA - MRIA is the back board of the MRCA. ALUI - It indicates the system status and reports the alarm information UPWR - The power boards, including front and back boards.

protocols: UDP, SCTP, M2UA, M3UAV5UA, IUA, MGCP, and H.248.

T.A.T Tilakaratne

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering

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The message is processed layer by layer as it travels through the cards. Error handling, connection management, rearranging the mixed up messages in their logical order and finally handing over the data part to the FCCU is done.

and finally handing over the data part to the FCCU is done. 1.8.2 The layered message

1.8.2 The layered message structures

to the FCCU is done. 1.8.2 The layered message structures Layer two is handled by BFII

Layer two is handled by BFII Layer three is handled by IFMI From layer four up to five is handled by BSGI & MSGI. Layer six and seven is handled by FCCU.

T.A.T Tilakaratne

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering

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1.8.3 Data extracted from records on the NGN system

The capabilities of the SoftX3000

For each service processing module (FCCU):

A maximum busy hour call attempt (BHCA) of 400 k

9,000 time division multiplexing (TDM) trunks or equivalent 50,000 subscribers

At the full configuration, the SoftX3000 supports:

40 service processing modules

BHCA of 16,000k

360,000 TDM trunks or equivalent 2,000,000 subscribers

The SoftX3000 also has achieved high integration. At the full configuration, only 5

cabinets are needed install all the components.

Transcoding systems used by the Voice Processing unit of the UMG8900

CODEC TYPE

RATEkbit/s

PACKAGE

TIMEms

G.711

64

5102030

G.723.1

5.3/3

30

G.729/ G.729A

8

10

G.726

16/24/32/40

 

G.728

16

 

T.A.T Tilakaratne

Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering

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