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2013-79060

SOCIO 11-TAKE HOME EXAM


QUESTIONS:
( a ) and ( b ) The Philippine State recognizes the right to equality of its citizens as
well as equality between men and women. How would the different perspectives
explain social stratification and gender inequality as contemporary issues in
Philippine society?

As stated in the 1987 Philippine Constitution of Article III- Bill of Rights, Section 1, that
No person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law, nor shall
any person be denied the equal protection of the laws. However, contemporary issues in
the Philippines like gender inequality penetrate society up to present times. The Philippines
is predominantly Roman Catholic. As such, the values that are espoused by the members
of society are informed by the teachings of the Church. These values point out to a macho
character where men are considered dominant and women subordinate.
On a broader perspective of history, Roman Catholicism was institutionalized by the
Spanish to expedite their rule over the people and to set up the family upon Catholic edicts
that go hand in hand with property ownership. Subordinating women to men made them
property ownership of their fathers and husbands. This neutralized independent and
dissident women at the time, as the notion of the meek, diffident and virginal woman was
the prescribed form of femininity by the Church.
Despite gains achieved by womens groups, trade unions, international organizations,
government agencies and non-government organizations in the last three decades, most
women in the Philippines still remain marginalized and disadvantaged in mostly working
arena (International Labor Organization, 2014).

Women, especially in the informal

economy, continuously face discrimination.


Women continue to be repressed by these same social institutions that endorse them as
servile and allow men to be in control. The consequences of this macho culture are sexual
violence and abuse to which women are left prone. As mentioned earlier, the long history of
colonialism has embedded a patriarchal culture among Filipinos. The gender situation in the

Philippines is characterized by sharp contradictions. It graphically showcases samples of


womens advancements in the arena of politics, academic and professional excellence, and
even legislation. In spite of these, such images of women are contrasted by clear imagery of
prostituted women, battered wives, economically disadvantaged women and exploited
migrant workers as well (Anonuevo, 2000).
Gender equality issues situate at the forefront of national discourse and rule out further
downslide of women status in the modern Philippine society. Having said that, legal and
policy gains resulted from collective voices of women across country that started even
during the anti-dictatorship struggle that resulted with the ascension of Corazon Aquino as
the first women president of the Philippines.
Constitutional provisions and subsequent efforts strengthen women empowerment in
the Philippines. The 1987 Constitution states two prominent provisions. The first in the
Declaration of Principles Article II Section 14 which asserted that "The State recognizes the
role of women in nation-building and shall ensure the fundamental equality before the law of
women and men." Additionally, the Article XIII-Labor: Section 14 provided that "The state
shall protect working women by providing safe and healthful working conditions taking into
account their maternal functions, and such facilities and opportunities that will enhance their
welfare and enable them to realize their full potential in the service of the nation"
(Anonuevo, 2000).
Gender inequality remains persistent throughout generations. As social stratification
blatantly exposes groups in many societies, people rank and evaluate each other as
superior and on the basis of such evaluations, inequality rewarded one another with wealth
authority, power and prestige. Thus creates a number of levels in society.
According to Nassau Community College- State University of New York, there is no
country in the world in which women and men have equal status, which gender inequality
varies across cultures in extent, degree and form.
Gender inequality can be defined as the existence of disparities among individuals
based solely on their gender rather than objective differences in skills, abilities, or other
characteristics.

Structural-Functionalist Perspective
Structural functionalists posit that gender roles arise from the need to establish a
division of labor that will help maintain the smooth running of the family and concomitantly
contribute to the stability of society. Pre-industrial society required a division of labor based
on gender (NCC, n.d.). Women, out of biological necessity, remained at home performing
such functions as bearing, nursing, and caring for children. On the other hand, men, who
were physically stronger and could be away from home for long periods of time, were
responsible for providing food, clothing, and shelter. This division of labor was functional
and came to be defined as normal and natural.
Alongside with this view, men and women are taught different approaches to life.
Men are taught instrumentalitythat is, to be goal oriented, to focus on tasks, and to be
concerned for the relationship of the family to outside societal structures. Women, on the
other hand, are taught to be expressivethat is, to express their emotions and to look for
and react to the emotions of others. In many ways, the functionalist perspective of gender
equality is a product of its times, describing the realities of gender roles and inequalities of
the 1950s but not explaining them.
Conflict Perspective
In this perspective, as accorded by Nassau Community College, male dominance
and female subordination are shaped by the relationship men and women have to
production process. This illustrates hunter and gathering societies: men and women are
economic equals. Karl Marx Conflict theory suggests that men, as the dominant gender,
subordinate women in order to maintain power and privilege in society. Moreover, continued
domination by males requires a belief system that supports gender inequality. Two such
beliefs are that women are inferior outside the home and more valuable in the home. The
subordinate position of women in society is a consequence of social inducement rather than
biological differences that led to the traditional division of labor (Boundless Sociology,
2015).
There are two beliefs in the conflict perspective: women are inferior outside the
home. Women are more valuable in the home (NCC, n.d.). This enunciates that women are

bounded on home regulations and more functional or lets say operational in the corners of
home.
Interactionist Perspective
From a symbolic interactionist perspective, gender is produced and reinforced
through daily interactions and the use of symbols. According to interactionists, gender
stratification exists because people act toward each other on the basis of the meanings they
have for each other, and that these meanings are derived from social interaction. Gender
roles are taught by media, family, school and peer groups. NCC states that through the
lifelong socialization process, females and males are taught meanings associated with
being feminine and masculine.
Feminist Perspective
According to Feminist perspective, gender stratification is analyzed through the
intersection of gender, race, and class. Meaning to say, gender stratification only occurs
when men are given greater privileges and power over women, transgender and gendernon-conforming people (Boundless Sociology, 2015). There is a greater instance wherein
women tend to be underestimated and discriminated with the capability they have. Feminist
theory uses the conflict approach to examine the reinforcement of gender roles and
inequalities, highlighting the role of patriarchy in maintaining the oppression of women
(Boundless Sociology, 2015). The assertion of male supremacy is tackled through the
feminist perspective and is inclined to examine delineation between men and womens
roles.

( c ) Is it possible to utilize the educational system and the ( d ) political institution in


order to achieve the goal of equality?
History tells us that educational system during Spanish colonization is selective. Few
were given the opportunity to learn. It is then the product of long history of struggle. Its
metamorphosis was a gradual process which was a product of generations of colonialism
and imperialism (Catalan & Durban, 2012). The belief of the majority is that education is an
antidote to poverty and a vehicle to achieve social equality. The resounding question now

is, is it really possible to achieve excellence in education while at the same time attaining
equality?
The concept of equality draws us back to Americans who covertly and overtly pacify
many Filipinos in terms of education. The statement that all men are created equal has
been fraught with adversity, misinterpretation, and denial. The role of education in
promoting social justice is very crucial. Allied with many branching issues, reality is that,
formal education has not achieved what it was supposed to achieve. Our schools right now
are in a quandary on how to keep children in school, with the increasing rate of dropouts.
The functional literacy of the Filipinos is at its minimum reflecting the sad state of education
(Catalan & Durban, 2012).
Another essential issue confronting educational system is the curriculum that is not
responsive to the basic needs of the country. With the constant change in the basic
education curriculum, teachers need to upgrade themselves in order that they can properly
implement these changes. Upgrading requires attendance to trainings, seminars,
conferences and even enrollment in graduate education. Given such issues, I would say
utilizing education system is not enough to achieve the goal of equality.
Also, politics in education is an issue that presently pervades educational system in
the country. The legislators in our country are inept in formulation policies pertaining to
education system in our country. There are even no concrete guidelines as to how to
formulate policies if there are.
On the other hand, as many people would say, government (as a primary institution)
is the champion of justice, equality, freedom and integrity. Institutions influence government
policies, which in turn influence growth and distributional outcomes, which then affect the
pace of all aspects of society like poverty and social equality.
This paper adopts a somewhat broad definition of institutions as the humanlydevised constraints that structure political, economic and social interactions (North 1991,
97 as cited in Deolakikar, et al, 2002). Institutions include social networks, gender roles,
legal system, and the state more generallyall of which interact with each other. State
institutions cover many aspects, such as the public provision of basic education and health
services, public order and safety, and infrastructure. The nature of governance will

determine the availability and quality of these public services and, hence, the extent to
which the poor have access to them.

( d ) Is the Filipino family in crisis?


The 1973 Constitution, for example, mentions that the State shall strengthen the
family as a basic social institution. The statement sounds almost anemic when compared
to the 1987 charter, which has an entire section declaring: The State recognizes the
sanctity of family life and shall protect and strengthen the family as a basic social institution.
It shall equally protect the life of the mother and the life of the unborn from conception. The
natural and primary right and duty of parents in the rearing of the youth for civic efficiency
and the development of moral character shall receive the support of the government.
Absolutely there are problems arise inside a Filipino home due to many factors.
Filipino families today are more exposed to a growing number of diverse life threatening
problems than any other generation has ever been. Such problems and threats are can
undermine the safety, health and well-being and future of Filipino families.
I came from a big family. And upon observations, a problem from time to time
continuously to arise but the good thing about problems is that, we are/were able to resolve
those through communication and understanding.
Last January 15 to 19, Pope Francis visited the Philippines. He met Filipino families
and heard their testimonies experiencing most pressing challenges. For Tagle and Villegas,
there are four challenges a Filipino family is facing throughout time. First, Filipino families
are forced to separate due to migration (Lozada, 2015). He said this is alarming since not all
Filipinos who leave the country are impoverished. This peculiarity of the national social
psyche is threatening for it can only mean that not even the family is powerful enough a
factor to keep Filipinos home, Villegas said.
Secondly, poverty affects families the most (Lozada, 2015). The economic factors
impact the Filipinos more than anything else. There is a worsening income inequity in the
country (Tan, 2006). Dr. Michael Tan added The signs of boom are there with all the
glowing headline statistics rolled out by government, from the growth of the gross national

product (albeit at a much slower rate than our neighbors) to the strengthening peso (or, as
some pundits would more accurately put it, the weakening U.S. dollar). No doubt, we are
seeing unprecedented prosperity for some Filipinos. Yet amid new shops offering brandname products, there are families living in the streets, and even those who have (rented)
roofs over their heads are skipping meals. There are more impoverished families out there.
Next, there is an irregular relationship among marriage couples (Lozada, 2015).
This means that fragility of marriage is increasing. Tagle said the issue was one of the main
discussions during the synod, with Pope Francis publicly launching a review of the churchs
laws on divorce and separation (Lozada, 2015). Lastly, among the many factors which
contribute to the fragility of urban Filipino families is the loosening control of the young.
Nowadays, youth have more freedom. Parents find it difficult to monitor them.
The real meaning of families has been distorted. Family is equated with material
possessions. Many parents leave their children so as to work abroad and to seek better
economic opportunities. Absence of parents destroys the solidarity in the family.
Some families lack having family goals and deteriorating values. The absence of
values and goals to guide family decisions and activities can cause members to lose sight
of what is truly worthwhile. It leads to materialism and instant gratification. It is indeed very
important to take hold of the traditional values we have since then. It is through these values
we can achieve harmonious relationship among members of the family and thus leads to
greater understanding and compassion among members. To bond with your family is of
greater importance than having it done through virtual means. The presence of the parents
really contributes a lot to a family that is well-bonded and joyful.
Given all those crises, a family can overcome any problems or threats. There should
be an open and honest communication between spouses and children. Economic activities
that contribute to family welfare should be ensured. Through that, any member can enjoy
life that compensates their time and effort in working. Also, relationship of family members
must be strengthened. You can do outings and get-together regularly. Violence and any
form of abuse inside and outside your house should never ever be tolerated. Respect and
love should always reign among family members. Through this we can gain respect as well.
I think, media exposures of children should also be closely monitored. Media can greatly

affect the thinking and behavior of a child through images he/she sees in the tv, etc. The
most vital way to lessen family crisis is that, spirituality of the members of the family should
be nurtured. Going to church together, praying before eating, and reading bible to your kids
are some ways to nurture your relationship to God and to your family as well. You can get
closer to each other and be spiritually bonded. Truly enough nothing can break the bond
that God has made for your family.

( f ) Discuss the issues raised by different perspectives regarding work and division
of labor in society.

Feminist Perspectives
A good place to situate the start of theoretical debates about women, class and work
is in the intersection with Marxism and feminism. The relation of women as a social group to
the analysis of economic class has spurred political debates within both Marxist and
feminist circles as to whether women's movements challenging male domination can
assume a common set of women's interests across race, ethnicity, and class (Stanford
Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2004).

Functionalist Perspective
From a functionalist point of view, inequality plays a role in holding society together
and encouraging efficiency (Boundless Sociology, 2015). According to a functionalist
perspective, differences in power, wealth, and other rewards within the social structure are
justified, because they motivate the most qualified people to exercise their talents in the
most important jobs.
For example, nurses are an example of people who are not highly compensated and
do not have notably high prestige, but who work long hours and are essential to the
functioning of healthcare systems. The high stress of their job, and low incentives to do it,
seem to contradict the theory of functionalism (Boundless Sociology, 2015).

Conflict Perspective
Conflict theory of stratification holds that inequality is harmful to society because it
creates a fixed system of winners and losers. According to conflict theory, capitalist
economic competition unfairly privileges the rich, who have the power to perpetrate an
unfair system that works to their advantage (Boundless Sociology, 2015).
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