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AN INNOVATIVE SHEARING PROCESS FOR AHSS EDGE STRETCHABILITY

IMPROVEMENTS
Mike Shih
United States Steel Corporation

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AHSS Edge Fracture


Cause:
Material Property
Die Condition
Poor Sheared Edge Condition

AHSS Edge Fracture


Conventional FLD fail to predict

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Outline

Introduction
Optimized Bevel Shear Hole Piercing

Hole Expansion Test

Evaluation of the Sheared Edge

Developmental Straight Edge Shearing

Adjustable Shearing Device


Sheared Edge Tension Test
Sheared Edge Dome Test
Sheared Edge Limit Strain

Conclusions

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Introduction
Shearing Processes

Hole Punching ( Hole piercing die)


Bevel Shear
Blank Holder

Blank Holder
Punch

Punch

Sheet Metal

Die

Clearance

Clearance

Straight Edge Shearing ( Blanking die , Trimming die )


Back Cut Angle
(clearance angle)

Upper Blade

Front View

Blade Rake Angle Q2

Blank Holder

Sheet Metal
Lower Blade

Q1

Shear Rake angle Q3


Clearance

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Optimized Bevel Shear Hole Piercing


Blank Holder

Punch

6 degrees

Clearance

Specimen holding fixture


Die

Die

Dd

Sheet Steel
Pd

Punch

Holder

Die spring

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Punch

Shear Load

7000

Punch Load vs. Die Clearance


(DP980 1.2 mm, Longitudinal and Transverse)

3-L
3-T

Over 50% load drop

6000

Peak Load (Lbf)

6-L

5000

6-T
9-L

4000

9-T

3000
2000
1000
0

8%

13%

17%

Die Clearance

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21%

Hole Expansion Test


DP780 1mm

Hole Expansion Ratio

60%

flat
6-T

3-L
9-L

3-T
9-T

50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
10%

15%

Die Clearance

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20%

6-L

Hole Expansion Test - DP980

Hole Expansion Ratio

50%

DP980 1.2 mm
DP980 2 mm

40%
30%
20%

Best Shearing Condition


6 degrees Bevel Shear

10%
0%
5%

7%

9%

11%

13%

15%

Die Clearance (%)

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17%

19%

Optimized Shearing Condition


- 6 Degrees, 15% DC, Longitudinal Shearing

Optimized Shearing Condition


120.0%

50XK 1.4mm
50XK-F

Hole Expansion Ratio

100.0%

50XK-6L
Dp600-2mm-F

DP600 2mm
80.0%

40%

DP780 (1mm)
Trip780 (1.6mm)

60.0%
40.0%
20.0%

DP600-2mm-6L

23%

F
F

DP980 2mm

62%

Dp780-1mm-F
DP780-1mm-6L
TRIP780-1.6mm-F
TRIP780-1.6mm-6L
Dp980-2mm-F

25%

39%

0.0%
1
Test Material

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Dp980-2mm-6L

Concept Punch
6 degrees

Concept 2 : 9C

50XK

140.0%

Hole Expansion Ratio

Concept 2 : 6C

Concept 1 : 6-6

Optimized : 6L

9 degrees

6 degrees

6 degrees

120.0%
100.0%

60.0%
40.0%
20.0%

DP600 2 mm

DP600 1.6 mm

DP600 1mm

80.0%

6-6

6L

6-6

F
F

6L

6L

6L

0.0%
50XK- 50XK- 50XK- 50XK- 600F
6L
6C
9C
1-F

600- 600- 6001-6L 1-6C 1-9C

600- 600- 6001-66 1.6-F 1.66L

6001.66C

Punch Condition

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6001.69C

6002-F

600- 6002-6L 2-6C

6002-66

Evaluation of the Sheared Edge


Rollover

Rollover

Burnish
Burnish
Initial Contact
Point

Final Contact
Point

Fracture

(1)

(2)
Section cut

(2)

Rolling

Fracture

Optimized Bevel Shear - 15%

Bevel
Shear

Rollover
(%)

Burnish
(%)

Fracture
(%)

Side 1

12

21

68

HER
(%)
53

Side 2

360

13

13

380

Typical

340

320

Optimized

Conventional
Optimized

Flat
Head

Rollover
(%)

Burnish
(%)

Fracture
(%)

Side 1

16

21

63

Side 2

16

21

63

1/2 Fracture
Typical

360

340

Optimized

Conventional
Optimized

320

HV

300

HV

(1)

280
260

300
280
260

240

240

220

220
200

200
0

100

200

300

400

500

Distance from SF[microns]

600

700

800

HER
(%)
32

74

1/2 Burnish

Flat Head Punch - 15%

(2)

(1)

100

200

300

400

500

Distance from SF[microns]

Microhardness profile of test DP780 , Chiriac, C. et al. 2011, MS&T 2011

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600

700

800

Developmental Straight Edge Shearing


Back Cut Angle
(clearance angle)

Upper Blade

Holding Pad

Upper Blade Rake Angle Q2

Sheet Metal
Lower Blade Rake Angle Q1

Lower Blade

Die Clearance
Front View

Shear Rake Angle Q3

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Adjustable Straight Edge Shearing Device

Shear Rake Angle Q3

Upper Blade
Lower Blade

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Effect of the Shear Rake Angle


DP600, 1 mm
Q3 = 5 degrees
Q3 = 4 degrees
Q3 = 3 degrees

Curve

Q3 <= 3 degrees

Q3 = 2 degrees
Q3 = 1 degree

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Shear Load Between Different Shear Rake Angles Q3

Shear Load (KN)

20

001
002
003
004

15

10

1 degree

Q3

3 degrees
78% load drop
19% energy drop

2 degrees
67% load drop
22% energy drop

4 degrees

0
4

10

12

14

16

Displacement (mm)
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18

Specimen Shearing Direction

Transverse Shearing

Longitudinal Shearing

Sheet Metal

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Sheet Metal

Comparison of the Shear Load

, , 1 : Lower Blade Rake Angle


1

Different Shearing Direction

Different Die Clearance


1400

1400
363-10%
363-15%
363-20%

1300

363-L
363-T

1350

1200

Shear Load (Lbs)

Shear Load (Lbs)

3: Shear Rake Angle

2 : Upper Blade Rake Angle

1100

15.8% energy drop


1000
900

26.5% energy drop


800

1300
1250
1200

5.2% energy drop

1150
1100

700

1050

600

1000
0

Time (Sec)

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Time (Sec)

Sheared Edge Tension (SET) Test


Milled Edge

Sheared Edge

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Total Elongation (TE) Between Different


Shearing Conditions
29
28

8% improvement

TE (%)

27
26
25
24
23
22
CV

JIS

333

363

393

633

663

693

Shearing Condition

Conventional
Shearing

JSTM
Milled

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933

963

993

Different Failure Modes in the SET test

As-sheared
edge

Localized
Necking

Fracture
initiation

Type (4)

As-sheared
edge

Tensile failure +
Localized Necking

Fracture

Type (3)

As-sheared
edge

Edge crack +
Tensile failure

Fracture

Type (2)

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As-sheared
edge

Tensile failure

Fracture

Type (1)

Effects of Die Clearance


DP600, 1mm
29

10%

15%

27

TE (%)

20%
25
23
21
19
333

363

393

633

663

693

933

Shearing Conditions

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963

993

Sheared Edge Dome Test

Half Specimen Dome


Burr Up Condition
3D Stretching

Edge Fracture

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Comparison of the Dome Height

50

Dome Height (mm)

10%

15%

45

20%
40
35
30
25
333

363

393

633

663

693

933

Shearing Condition

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963

993

Comparison of the Strain at Failure

40%

Fracture Strain

35%

10%

15%

30%

20%

25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%
333

363

393

633

663

693

933

Shearing Condition

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963

993

Sheared Edge Limit Strain (SELS)


Best Shearing Conditions: 363, (333 or 663) with 15% die clearance
(Methodology: Wang, J. et al. 2008, International Conference on New Developments in Advanced High-Strength Sheet Steels)

Criterion
The first through-thickness crack at the edge
The onset of local necking

Sheared Edge Limit Strain (%)

24

Ao A f
Ao

DP980 1.2 mm

333
363

22
20
18
16
14
12
10
10

SELS

15

Die Clearance (%)

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20

q
100
1 q

Conclusions

The experiments confirmed that the use of the optimal hole shearing condition can result in
significantly better edge stretchability for all AHSS.
A computer controlled adjustable straight edge shearing device was successfully developed
based on the findings from the beveled shear hole piercing process.
The maximum shearing force and applied energy can be significantly reduced when proper shear
variables are used during shearing.
The shearing force also depends upon the die clearance, and the larger die clearance tends to
the decrease the shear force.
The sheared edge tension test and dome test confirmed that the optimal setup of the rake
angles in the straight edge shearing process would result in a significant improvement of edge
stretchability for test AHSS.
The optimal shearing condition for AHSS is using the rake angle setup (3,6,3) with 15% die
clearance.

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