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Modern Building Materials

The construction industry consumes more natural resources than any other industry. With increasing public
awareness of the needs and demands of sustainable development and environmental conservation, no other industry
is called on as much as the country's construction and building industry to evolve their practices to satisfy the needs
of our current generation, without curtailing the resources of future generations to meet theirs. For example, concrete
is by far the most important building material, with billions of tons produced each year worldwide, and without which
the nation's infrastructure is unthinkable. Considerable progress and breakthroughs have been made in recent years
in concrete technology, which have largely gone unnoticed by the public at large.
It has been said that more progress has been made in the last 25 years than in the previous 150 years since Portland
cement was invented. Modern cement composites can now be engineered to have strengths approaching those of
steel, energy dissipation capacities of body armor, and durability properties that can make products last basically
indefinitely, and be as decorative and aesthetically pleasing as natural stone, yet with superior mechanical properties.
Fiber-reinforced composites permeated the aerospace and automotive industries decades ago and are now slowly
finding their way into civil engineering structures. Smart materials, defined as those materials that can change their
properties in response to external conditions, are also being introduced into civil infrastructure systems, and so are
new developments in metals, with new high-strength steel alloys and non-corrosive steels that are changing
engineering practice. All of these advanced materials are essential for an efficient renewal and maintenance of our
infrastructure and offer exciting prospects for vibrant research areas. Yet, all of these research efforts should be
guided by the overarching goal of reducing the construction industrys footprint on planet Earth.
One important series of research projects completed under the direction of Professor Meyer resulted in the
successful use of recycled glass as aggregate for concrete products such as floor tiles, wall panels, table counter
tops, etc. Several other projects dealing with the beneficial use of recycled materials are briefly described.


Concrete is arguably the most widely used construction material worldwide. There are a
number of reasons for it:

it can be durable structures built by the Romans have served for over 2000 years;

it is moldable it can be given almost any shape or form;

its properties can be engineered to suit almost any purpose;

it can be esthetically attractive, whether appearing like conventional concrete, emulating

natural stone, or having novel appearances, with a virtually unlimited range of
possibilities to explore;

it provides an opportunity to recycle materials, thereby contributing to the conservation

of natural resources.

Research in concrete materials has been conducted in Columbia University's Civil Engineering
Department and its Carleton Strength of Materials Laboratory since the early 1990's, to advance
the state of the art in concrete technology, specifically:

to study the basics of cement hydration and setting behavior to engineer new materials
for specific applications;

to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of concrete products and to develop
cost-effective production technologies;

to utilize recycled materials (e.g. waste glass, reprocessed carpet fibers, and dredged
material) and by identifying and exploiting their inherent properties, add value to such

to develop technologies for producing architectural concrete with unique esthetic


to cooperate with industry to assure that the technologies developed here are practical
and economically viable.

Covering the full spectrum of research activities from basic science to commercial production has
the advantage of academia/industry feedback and its synergistic effects. Moreover, it offers all
those involved, students and staff alike, fulfilling experiences.
The links to our project pages here are intended to illustrate the most important examples of our
research and development.

A core mission of the Florida Green Building Coalition is to provide education to both industry
professionals and the general public. FGBC is a strong advocate of professionalism and is

committed to providing quality education for its members. Earning a professional designation is
recognized as a huge achievement and represents advanced knowledge and skills, providing a
mark of distinction above competitors.
FGBC offered courses are as diverse as the needs of participants and enhance both technical
ability and business competency, contributing to both business and personal success, plus afford
attendees opportunities to earn continuing education units. Through partnerships, FGBC offers
these courses as in-house presentations to any organization that has a minimum of 20
Affordable Design Concepts: Creating Value by Going Green
Builders, communities and buyers are recognizing the importance and value of going green but is
the grass really greener on the other side of the fence? Cost implications, value in the
marketplace and special building requirements are among the factors that keep many builders
from the green market. Find out if its right for you, by discovering:
1. What is the environmental and economic impact of green building.
2. What is the impact on densities, construction and appearance when building green.
3. What does it take to start building green is it all or none or can you get in slowly. What
design, regulatory, production, liability and marketing issues are involved.
4. Who is attracted to green homes and communities and how do you reach them. Learn
how the marketing efforts may change.
Building Green with Sustainable Profits
CILB Course #: 0608297 CEUs: 1-General
Architect Course #: 9878175 CEUs: 1-HSW
This seminar will present the building science of integrated whole-house systems along with five
key elements that represent green building construction practices. Focus will be on fitting green
building practices into affordable housing utilizing quality construction methods along with
readily available materials. Field examples of basic as well as advanced green building strategies
will be critiqued what worked and what hasnt over the past twenty-five years. How various
building components interact with each other to effect health, building maintenance, water
conservation, and energy efficiency will also be addressed.
Building Science for Green Professionals
CILB Course #: 0608298 CEUs: 16-General
This course for building professionals discusses strategies for incorporating green-building
principles into homes without driving up the cost of construction. Youll learn the techniques
behind building green, including building system design and product selections. Also discussed

is how to convey to the prospective client the value of a green-built home with improved indoor
air quality, energy and resource efficiency, and durability.
Building Water Efficiency into Your Construction Projects
CILB Course #: 0610477 CEUS: 1.5 General
Architect Course #: 9878312 CEUs: 1.5-HSW
This course explains water conservation and efficiency strategies for both residential and
commercial construction. Discussed will be various alternative ways to supply water, including
rainwater harvesting, greywater reuse, and community provided reclaimed water. It will then
narrow down to the individual building strategies for water efficiency that address both indoor
and outdoor water use. An explanation of water-efficiency certification programs available in
Florida will be included.
Durability and Disaster Mitigation
This course will explain the importance of disaster mitigation, discuss the programs established
to address mitigation, explain the contractors role in mitigation, review construction features
that are proven to reduce property losses from natural disaster, and describe the resources
available through the Disaster Contractors Network.
Energy & Renewable Home Building Options
This course will present information on the newest energy and solar building technologies, along
with consumer preference market research and strategies for incorporating these technologies
into residential housing.
Engineered Wood Products - Basic Design Techniques & Applications
Introduce students to design specifications, application, installation details, and how to use
design tables for engineered wood products and how it can be used to comply with the Florida's
Building Code. The products discussed will include plywood, Oriented Strand Board (OSB), Ijoist and Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL). The applications discussed will cover roof, floor and
wall construction. Students will learn how to use APA's Engineered Wood Construction Guide as
a field reference.
Going Green - What It Really Means to the Builder
CILB Course #: 0608299 CEUs: 2-General
Architect Course #: 9878176 CEUs: 2-HSW
This class introduces and explains the seven key concepts of building green, including energy
efficiency, passive design, construction process, water efficiency and quality, indoor
environmental quality, site and landscape, and materials selection. In addition the class presents
the Florida Green Building Coalition Green Home Standard Certification criteria and process.

Green Building Made Simple

CILB Course #: 0608300 CEUs: 2-General
Architect Couse #: 9878177 CEUs: 2-HSW
This class will explain the construction practices of green building, including energy efficiency,
indoor air quality, resource efficiency, and material selections. Participants will learn:
1. How to build homes using green building guidelines
2. About new technologies and advanced construction materials
3. How to construct homes that use less energy and water
4. How to select materials that contribute to improved indoor air quality
Green Building Certification with FGBC
This class explains the Florida Green Building Coalition (FGBC) Green Home Designation
Standard. It provides a general introduction to green building, the FGBC, the green home
certification process and provisions, the eight categories contained in the green certification
standard, and how to become a Florida Green Home Certifying Agent.
Green Landscape Design
With water conservation being a primary issue in many areas, come hear about the latest design
trends in landscape architecture from the new wave in rain gardens and green roofs to Florida
Friendly landscape concepts and irrigation reservoirs. You'll also get the most recent information
on the Water Wise Initiative.
Guiding Principles of Energy Efficient Homes
CILB Course #: 0608301 CEUs: 1-General
Architect Course #: 9878178 CEUs: 1-HSW
This course will explain energy design considerations for very high performance homes,
including reducing whole house energy demand, heating and cooling energy demand, special
mechanical system considerations, mechanical and ventilation system options, critical envelope
details, the role of ventilation in whole house performance, solar water heating, and photovoltaic
design and prerequisites. Participants will learn the components of whole house energy use,

The key components of heating and cooling loads

Specifications for special mechanical system design criteria

They will also learn:

How to select from a flow chart an appropriate ventilation system design for their climate

How to identify key elements of solar systems

Prerequisites for viable solar applications

Health House Design & Construction

Participants will learn about the American Lung Association Health House program and the
market niche it offers. This program offers an overview of designing and constructing a Health
House, lessons on allergens and toxins, ventilation and dehumidification system design, as well
as ways to position yourself to get a share of the IAQ-conscious consumer market.
How to Market & Sell the Advantages of Green Building
People generally want to do the right thing, so the challenge and opportunity for the green
marketer is to make it easy for people to do so. Find out what niche marketing techniques are and
how to use them specifically for selling a Certified Green Home. Learn to tip the balance with
your competitors by educating the consumer about the environmental benefits of a green home
and discover tools that measure the effectiveness of your sales and marketing efforts.
How to Maximize on Minimizing Water Demand in New Home Construction
Florida Water Star and other water conservation measures are the smart builder's marketing edge.
From Florida-Friendly and cost-saving designs of irrigation systems to plumbing and appliance
performance comparisons, find out how to capitalize on the available incentives.
High Performance Housing
CILB Course #: 0608302 CEUs: 2-General
Architect Course #: 9878179 CEUs: 2-HSW
This course introduces the concept of high performance housing. Causes of poorly performing
housing are explained and systems engineered solutions are described.
Indoor Air Quality
This course teaches participants how to improve indoor air quality by recognizing IAQ problem
sources and identifying potential solutions. Special emphasis is on material selection, ventilation,
dehumidification, filtration and HVAC systems.
Integrated HVAC Design
CILB Course #: 0608303 CEUs: 1-General
Architect Course #: 9878180 CEUs: 1-HSW

This course will explain advanced technology methods for designing a compact, energy-efficient
HVAC system. It will examine building envelope specifications to reduce overall building loads
and duct layout for maximum efficiency.
Introduction to Green Washing
CILB Course #: 0608304 CEUs: 1-General
Architect Course #: 9878181 CEUs: 1-HSW
This class will explain the laws enforced by the Federal Trade Commission Act Section 5
relating to "unfair or deceptive acts or practices" as they relate to the FTC Guide for the Use of
Environmental Marketing Claims." It will examine the use of general terms such as green and
eco, explain the term "Green Washing," the six sins of greenwashing, and how to avoid green
washing. The presentation will include examples covering several construction-related industries
and products.
LEED vs. FGBC - How Green Building Programs Compare
LEED, FGBC, GBI, ENERGY STAR, oh my! Green Building abounds but do you really know
what youre getting into or which program is the best fit for your company? This session
provides overview of program similarities and differences, benefits, tax credits and other
promotional and financing availabilities. An extensive Q&A session from a panel of Green
Building program practitioners follows.
Not So Big House Principles
This course explains the building processes and materials that builders can utilize to create more
sustainable houses. It will include examining floor plans, integrated building systems, energy and
water efficiencies, and improved indoor air quality. Participants will learn how to:

Create more energy-efficient homes

Use panelization technology for housing envelopes

Reduce construction waste

Optimize square footage

Use sustainable building practices and materials in foundations, framing efficiency,

siding/exterior surfaces, roofing, insulation, windows and finishes

Partnerships for Profit - Energy & Green Pricing Trends

This course will present technical information on building technology, utilities, energy efficiency,
and green products, along with strategies for market differentiation to bridge the
builder/consumer perception gap. It will include information on how to benefit from strategic
partnerships and position a company to outsell the competition with innovative energy and green

options. Course participants will learn (1) The latest trends in energy and green products and
design (2) the marketing and profit benefits of partnering with established energy and utility
programs, (3) how to position themselves to improve community visibility, and (4) how to use
consumer research information to increase client pool and customer satisfaction.
Pocket More Profit with Energy Tax Credits
This class will walk participants through the new energy tax credit legislation, explaining how
the credits impact builders and the new-construction market, which construction techniques and
equipment are impacted by the legislation, and how builders and their homeowners can qualify
for these credits.
Prioritizing Green Building Strategies
CILB Course #: 0608305 CEUs: 1.5-General
Architect Course #: 9878182 CEUs: 1.5-HSW
This presentation will have a strong emphasis on regional and climate impact on construction
practices and material selection as they relate to the whole-house system approach and green
Resource Efficient Construction
Part one of this program is intended to introduce the concept of resource efficiency construction,
green building, showcase case studies, and identify solutions to provide healthy and efficient
structures. Part two of this program will focus on advanced concepts in resource efficiency, their
importance, techniques, and implementation.
Strategies for Improved IAQ, Sustainability & Durability
This class will demonstrate best building practices to eliminate construction defects, offer
solutions to reduce water intrusion into homes, and identify building materials that result in
better air quality and a more durable structure.
Universal Design for the Active Adult Market
With the emphasis on lifestyle, universal design for todays active adult market must be just the
right combination of aesthetic appeal and supportive design. With a special focus on kitchens
and baths, this seminar will show universal concepts and products that will help sell homes and
projects, and help clients actively age in place.
Construction is the worlds largest industry and its efficiency is of obvious importance. The
UNSW School of Civil and Environmental Engineering is a world resource centre for academic
research in this field. The Schools Construction Innovation and Research Initiative (CIRI) is
engaged in industrial research on major construction projects in the region and has research
partnerships with some of the industrys most successful organisations.

The aims of the Construction Innovation and Research Initiative are to:

train elite level professionals in the field through specially-designed

undergraduate, Masters and PhD programs in construction engineering and

work on theoretical and practical research projects that will advance the
current practice of the construction industry,

create a culture of creative curiosity in a new generation of construction


operate world-class research laboratories, including an automation

laboratory, sustainable materials laboratory and sustainable design studio,

offer independent expert consultancies to address critical issues in various

areas, such as resource management and information technology in

CIRIs research benefits from the laboratory provided by its close relationship to industry, as
well as the state-of-the-art research laboratories in the UNSW School of Civil and Environmental

Research themes
CIRI undertakes basic and applied research in four broad areas:
The Sustainable Construction Program provides research and consulting services focused on
achieving a balance between the economic, environmental and social impacts of construction.
We develop methods and tools for the assessment of sustainability in construction with a life
cycle perspective, sustainability reporting, multi-objective optimisation of construction
operations to improve sustainability, management of construction and demolition waste, and
automation in control of construction equipment and operations to reduce wastage of resources.
In addition, the Sustainable Construction Program focuses on developing design procedures and
guidelines for sustainability.

The Construction Automation Program aims at enhancing the level of project management
through developing and adopting advanced information and automation technologies. The
Program researches the development of automated machine control and guidance, real-time field
sensing and operations monitoring, construction materials tracking and proactive safety
management. Strengths include automated surveying and tunnel-boring machine (TBM)
guidance in tunnel construction.
The Sustainable Materials Program aims at improving the life cycle sustainability of buildings
and infrastructures through enhancing the performance (mechanical and durability properties) of
materials. This Program focuses on developing high-performance and ultra high-performance
materials, eco-materials and smart materials for sustainable infrastructures and buildings.
The Engineering and Construction Management Program provides teaching, research and
consulting services in a broad range of fundamental management topics in construction,
including construction business insolvency, contracts, disputes, delivery methods, financial
options, planning, and supply chain management.
CIRIs success is underpinned by a unique group of faculty within the UNSW School of Civil
and Environmental Engineering, with cross-disciplinary competencies unique in present
There were several scenes in Terminator 2: Judgement Day in which the evil T-1000 was
seemingly blown apart, only to pull together and reshape its liquid metal body. The cyborg could
even shape-shift to become whatever form it chose. Now thats a smart material. A scary
example, sure, but actually not so far off from the types of materials being developed and used
by various industries including construction today. Hopefully without the malicious intent.
Smart materials are engineered to respond to environmental stimuli such as temperature,
pressure, and the presence of oxygen. Scientists from around the world are developing products
once thought only possible using the magic of Hollywood. Below are 3 smart materials being
developed to help make buildings and structures safer and more durable.

Concrete, steel, glass, and timbers are the most common materials, being used in the field of
modern construction. In the following table, some important characteristics of the abovementioned materials are tabulated.


Modulus (GPa)



Concre 30















If we compare
these properties
with those of a
carbon nanotube,
the results are
astonishing. A
carbon nanotube
has a Youngs
modulus of 1054
GPa, a tensile
strength of 150
GPa and a density
of 1.4 g-cm-3. Thus
a carbon nanotube
has strength of 150
times that of steel

and at the same time approximately six times more lighter.

Based on the above statistics, it was thought (in UK Delphi Survey 1990), that the Construction
industry would benefit the most from Nanotechnology. However, Construction industry lags
behind other industrial sectors in terms of appealing investment from large corporate sectors.
Nano-technology is a technology that enables to develop materials with improved or totally new
properties. It is an extension of the sciences and technologies already developed for many years
to examine the nature of our world at an ever smaller scale. A nanometer is one billionth of a
meter. Nano particles is defined as a particle that has at least one dimension less than 100nm. The
size of the particle is very important because at the length scale of the nanometer, i.e. 10-9 m, the
properties of the material actually become affected.
Carbon nanotubes and nanofibers present an important classification of nano-materials. They are
made from Graphene. Graphene is defined a monolayer of carbon atoms packed into a
honeycomb lattice. It can also be defined as an atomic-scale chicken wire made of carbon atoms

and their bonds. If graphene layers are arranged as stacked cones, cups or plates, it is known as
Carbon nanofibers (CNF) and if the grapheme layers are wrapped into perfect cylinders, they are
termed as Carbon nano tubes (CNT).

Graphene layer, Carbon Nano Tubes, and Carbon Nano Fibers

Nano composites are produced by adding nano-particles to a bulk material in order to improve
the bulk material properties. Materials reduced to nano-scale can suddenly show very different
properties compared to what they exhibit on a macroscale, enabling unique applications. For
instance, opaque copper substances become transparent and inert platinium materials attain
catalytic properties.
Nano-technology is a dynamic research field that covers a large number of disciplines including
construction industry. Concrete is a material most widely used in construction industry. Concrete
is a cement composite material made up of Portland cement, sand, crush, water and sometimes
admixtures. Interest in nano-technology concept for Portland-cement composites is steadily
growing. The materials such nano-Titania (TiO2), Carbon nanotubes, nano-silica (SiO2) and
nano-alumina (Al2O3) are being combined with Portland cement. There are also a limited number
of investigations dealing with the manufacture of nano-cement. The use of finer particles (higher
surface area) has advantages in terms of filling the cement matrix, densifying the structure,
resulting in higher strength and faster chemical reactions (e.g. hydration reactions).
Nano-cement particles can accelerate cement hydration due to their high activity. Similarly, the
incorporation of nano-particles can fill pores more effectively to enhance the overall strength and

durability. Thus nano-particles can lead to the production of a new generation of cement
composites with enhanced strength, and durability.
According to researchers, following is a list of areas, where the construction industry could
benefit from the nano-technology.
1. Replacement of steel cables by much stronger carbon nanotubes in suspension bridges and
cable-stayed bridges
2. Use of nano-silica, to produce dense cement composite materials
3. Incorporation of resistive carbon nanofibers in concrete roads in snowy areas
4. Incorporation of nano-titania, to produce photocatalytic concrete
5. Use of nano-calcite particles in sealants to protect the structures from aggressive elements of
the surrounding environment
6. Use of nano-clays in concrete to enhance its plasticity and flowability.
7. Urban air quality could be improved by if the civil structures are treated with nano TiO2

Cable-Stayed and Suspension bridges

New Jubilee Church (Rome, Italy) made of nano photocatylatic concrete

Smart Concrete

Smart concrete will heal its own cracks. Image from: aconcordcarpenter.com
and TU Deft

Concrete is a core building material. But even concrete starts to crumble when it comes face-toface with water, wind, stress and pressure. The current method of dealing with structural
instability in concrete has been to replace or repair it. But what if all you had to do was add a
little water? A new type of smart concrete contains dormant bacteria spores and calcium lactate
in self-contained pods. When these pods come into contact with water they create limestone,
filling up the cracks and reinforcing the concrete. Self healing concrete is estimated to save up to
50% of concretes lifetime cost by eliminating the need for repair. Smart concrete is still being
tested to determine how long the bacteria sustains itself, but researchers are hopeful they will be
able to officially introduce smart concrete to the construction industry very soon.
Shapeshifting Metal

The Terminator example above might make you a little skittish about shapeshifting metal, but all
signs point to it having a dramatic benefit on the durability of skyscrapers, bridges and homes.
Shapeshifting metals can undergo great stress and temporarily change shape, but they are
designed to remember their original form and revert back to it if altered in some way. Used in
the construction of a bridge, for example, would help sustain the bridge against damage from a
hurricane or earthquake. Practical use of this type of metal is largely still in the development
phase, with scientists specifically studying how smart metal can be used by the construction
industry. Companies like Shape Change Technologies LLC are leading the industry, with
developments already being used by the medical community with an eye toward expanding their
discoveries for use by engineers.

Self Healing Coatings

Schematic courtesy Marc Pauchard for Adolphe Merkle Institute, Case

Western Reserve University, U.S. Army Research Laborator via

New to the market and already in use are self healing coatings, sealants and adhesives. A recent
CNN.com article discussed U.S. based company Autonomic Materials and their development of
self healing coatings being used on marine-based structures like ships and oil rigs. The coatings
are made with polymers that innately react with one another when they rupture, creating a
process of self healing. Autonomic Materials discovery is only for water-based structures, but
the company is looking into developing materials for broader use by the construction industry.
Not yet in use, but in the process of being tested by a group of scientists, is a self healing coating
that could be applied to concrete. The journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces recently wrote
on the scientific discovery of this coating, but points out that it is not yet ready for industrial use.
This material has the ability to self heal when it cracks and is exposed to sunlight, allowing UV
rays to react with particles in the concrete that expand and then fill the cracks.
o Materials used in the construction:
o - Rock materials
o - Binder materials
o - Concrete materials
o - Ceramic materials
o - Other materials
o Building construction
o Building tools
o Building machinery

o Environmental impact of buildings


There are two types:

Compact rocks: they are blocks of rocks.

Disaggregated rocks: They are fragments of rocks of variable size. In construction two
types are used: -Clay -Arids


They are materials wich are use for join other materials.

Lime: Used for paint buildings & make brik

Plaster: Used for cover walls & roofs

Cement: It is the most used. It is made up of limestone and clay.

o Concrete is a composite building material made from the combination of
aggregate and a binder such as cement. The most common form of concrete is
Portland concrete, but there are many types of concrete.It is used for make
different types of pieces.

They are materials produced with clay and introduced in a oven.

Producing ceramic materials: Mixture and molding. Introduction in ovens.


Bricks: They ate pieces of cooked clay of prismatic form pierced.

Tiles:They are pieces of cooked clay utilised in covers or roofs.

Fixtures: They are square pieces formed by two caps, the low one of clay and the superior
of vitrified enamel.

Gres: It is a mixture in which there are elaborated pieces of vitrified ceramics very
resistant to the wear.

Stoneware: It is a ceramic material covered with enamel.

8. Other materials

Steel: It is used for girders, props, etc..

Alluminium: It is used for frames of doors, windows, railings, closings, etc,..

Copper: Is used in water, gas and heating installations.

Woods: Their use is decreasing but it is very habitual in roofs, soils, windows, etc,...

Plastics: Their use is increasing in the construction.

Glass: It's in use in windows,doors,decoration,..

9. Stages of construction:
o Preparation of the area: First the area when we want to build has to be steady. We
have to carry out demolition if there is any building and we have to level the soil
with special machinery.
o Foundation: it is the placement some structures under the ground to withstand the
o Elevation of the structure: it is the construction of the pillars and the plates which
form the floors of the building, they can be of steel or of reinforced concrete.
10. Stages of construction II
o Coverage: it consists on covering the building with materials like tiles or sheets of
slate or zinc depending on the characteristics of the climate of the zone.
o Placement of the pavement: it consists on placing materials on each one of the
floors. These materials may be stoneware, wood, marble
o Construction of the walls: in this stage the walls and partitions which close the
building are built. These walls are used to isolate it from the exterior and to
distribute the space of the interior. The walls are usually built with bricks.
11. Stages of construction III:

o Placement of installations: it is necessary to place in the buildings water, gas and

electricity supply, TV reception, air-conditioning installations, internet reception,
lifts. Each one of these installations are carried out by different crew of
o Finishing works: in this stage are carried out works of painting, placing windows,
doors, wardrobes.
12. Stages of construction IV:
13. Construction equipment:
o Construction equipment consists on compound machines or vehicle machines.
These machines make up the five equipment systems: implement, traction,
structure, power train... Currently most equipment use hydraulics as a primary
source of transferring power. The use of heavy equipment has a long history.
o Examples of constructions machinery:
o Excavators:
o An excavator is an engineering vehicle consisting of an articulated arm.
o Excavators are used to dig and to move the earth which has been dug.
o Bulldozers:
o A bulldozer is a machine used to push and level large quantities of soil or sand.
14. Construction equipment II:
o Steamrollers:
o Steamrollers are a type of heavy construction machinery used for flattening
o In order to level the soil machines like bulldozers or steamrollers are used.
o Trucks:
o A truck is a large motor vehicle commonly used for carrying goods and materials.
o Cranes:

o A crane is a lifting machine equipped with a winder, wire ropes or chains and
sheaves that can be used both to lift and lower materials and to move them
o Concrete mixers:
o A concrete mixer is a machine that homogeneously combines cement, aggregate
such as sand or gravel, and water to form concrete.
15. Construction equipment III:

"Green building" and "sustainable development" are the hottest

terms in construction right now, but what do they mean, exactly? Green building is
"the practice of creating healthier and more resource-efficient models of
construction, renovation, operation, maintenance and demolition". Proponents say
that green building is not only environmentally friendly, but also healthier and more costefficient. So what is sustainable development? It is a development that ensures our use of
resources and the environment but doesn't restrict their use by future generations.


There are plenty of green innovations beyond the home. Schools, businesses and
hospitals are getting in on the green, which makes sense ecologically and economically.
By improving air quality and temperature control and designing offices to increase
natural light and open spaces, they get the bonus of happier, more productive workers.

But homeowners who'd like to go green often don't have the big bucks that businesses do.
There's a lot to consider, and the costs can make quite a difference in a home's budget.
Homeowners can save cash by installing new energy-efficient light bulbs, but how
"green" is it and how much "green" can it save? And who says
what's green and what isn't?


It is a very complex situation because during the construction of a building many factors
are involved:

A building has a very long life.

The construction of the building is carried out in the nature so that it transforms it.

Buildings are built with materials gotten from the nature.

In the construction of buildings many people take part.

2. INDEX 1- Title............................................. 2-Index............................................ 3-Building
materials........................ 4-Granulated materials.................... 5-Binder materials...........................
6-Binder materials II........................ 7-Concrete........................................ 8-Concrete
II.................................... 9-Ceramic materials......................... 10-Ceramic materials
II.................... 11-Ceramic materials III................... 12-Other materials............................ 13Building of builds........................ 14-Building of builds........................ 15- 16-The

They are ones that we use in the building industry,like: houses monuments, publics

Granu lar materials

Binder materials


Ceramic materials


o Those ones that we obtain from the rocks. Rock is a very dense material so it
gives a lot of protection
There are two types: - Compact rorcks : they are blocks of granite, marble, limestone... Desintegrated rocks : they are blocks of rocks that can have different size. We can diferenciated
two types: -Clay: their main property is that they can absorb the water easily. -Rocks made up of
the disgregation of others rocks (sand...). GRANITE
o They are materials that we use to join differents materials to make a type of
mixture called mortar.
The most important ones are : LIME: we obtain it heating limestone rocks. We use them to paint
walls or to make bricks.
6. BINDER MATERIALS II PLASTER: it is mineral dust that if we mixed with water we
can use to covert walls and roofs. There are three types: black plaster , white plaster and one
more thin. CEMENT:The most important use of cement is the production of mortar and concrete.
The most common cement is the portlant cements (made up with clay and limestone).
7. CONCRETE Concrete is a mixture of water, binder and desintegrated rocks. - Concrete is
used more than any other man-made material in the world. -There are many types of concrete

available, created by varying the proportions of the main ingredients below: Mass concrete: we
obtain it of the mixture of water, cement, sand and chippings. Cellular concrete: before the
concrete set we add it some chemical products that expel gases and form bubbles. With this we
improve the termic and acustic insolation. Mass concrete
8. CONCRETE II Reinforced concrete: -Reinforced concrete is concrete in which
reinforcement bars or fibers have been incorporated to strengthen a material. -The first
application of reinforced concrete as a material for the construction of buildings took place in
1864. -Concrete is reinforced to give it extra tensile strength; without reinforcement, many
concrete buildings would not have been possible. Cyclopean concrete -It is the mixture of
cement, water and desegregated rocks of more than 30cm of diameter. We use them in walls.
Reinforced concrete
9. CERAMIC MATERIALS The ceramic materials are pieces made up with moulded clay
boiled in kilns. The process of elaboration of ceramic materials consists in two parts: -Mixture
and moulded: some machines mix clay with water, then they give mass form and they pass them
through different types of nozzles. Finally they cut them in small pieces. -Boiling in kilns: the
cuted materials go through chambers with different temperatures.
10. CERAMIC MATERIALS II The most common ceramic materials are: -Brick: He oldest
shaped bricks found date back to 7,500 B.C. They are pieces of boiled clay with a prismatic
shape and with holes. There are two types: -Thin bricks: the aspect and the colour is attractive.
They have a good mechanic resistance and isolation properties. -Poor bricks: they have less
resistance we use them in walls and partition walls.
11. CERAMIC MATERIALS III Texas: boiled pieces of clay that we use in overcast and
roofs. Tiles:Tiles are generally used for covering roofs, floors, and walls, showers, or other
objects such as tabletops. Their properties are impermeable and brightness. Gres: it is a mixture
of clay, quartz and feldspar we use them to elaborated ceramic pieces very resistance to the wear
away. Porcelain: is a ceramic material made by heating raw materials, generally including clay in
a kiln to temperatures between 1,200 C and 1,400 C.
12. OTHER MATERIALS Metals: the most common are: -Steel: we use it in supports in
reinforced concrete, overcoast, piers... -Aluminium: we use it to make up frames of doors,
windows... -Cooper: we use it in gas, water and heating installations. -Wood: we use it less each
time but it also a common material in roofs, doors, windows... -Plastics: we use it in electrics
materials, windows... -Glass: we use it in windows, doors, decoration...
13. BUILDING OF BUILDS The building of a build is a large and complex process and it
uses a great variety of materials and the work of a lot of workers . There are different steeps:
-Prepare the land through some processes of demolish, nivelation... -Foundation: it is the
colocation of the elements that form the base of the build. -Structure elevation: in this steep it
builds the pillars and braced that form the plants of the build. The majority of these are form of
reinforced concrete.
14. BUILDING OF BUILDS II Water covering: it consists of the colocation of the overcast
in the build, it can variate depending of the clime of the zone. For example in places where it
snows the overcast it would be more inclined. Paving colocation: over the braced of each plant of
the build it puts materials such as marble, wood... Upraising of wall: in these steep it builds the
walls and partition walls that close and divided the plants of the builds with the aim of isolate of
the exterior. It is build up of bricks. Distribution of installations of water, gas, electricity,
reception of television... Finish work: in this steep the build is adequate to their functions.

15. CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY We use different machines in the buildings of builds: Digger : we use it in the excavations and movements of the land. -After the nivelation of the land
we compact the land with steamrollers . -The materials are transported with lorries .
16. CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY II -In the construction the materials are elevated with
crane that can have different elements: *Pylon: a metallic structure in vertical position. *Jib
Crane: a metallic structure in horizontal position that can turn 360 and it has different
longitudes. *Counterweight: a structure in an extreme of the jib crane. -Cement mixer: this
machine carry out the made up of mortar and concrete.

ding Materiales.


Stone Materials

Binder Materials

Ceramic Materials

-Processes of elaborating ceramics

Other materials

Construction of Buildings


Enviromental Impact of Building

Construction of better Buildings

Congragulations to...

4. Building Materials

DEFINITION: Theyre any materials used for construction purpose.


Stone materials

Bindec materials


Ceramic materials

Other materials

5. Stone materials

In construction two types of stones are used:

Compact rocks: They are blocks of stones of limestone, marble, granite, etc... They are
called ashlars, masonry, paving stones and flagstones.

6. Stone materials

Broken rocks: They are pieces of stones of different sizes. Two types are used in

Clay: Caracterised by their capacity of absorbing water.

Arids: May be thin or thick.

7. Binder materials
o They are materials that are mixed with water. Then they get pasty an when they
solidify they get hard.
o The most importants ones are:
o Lime: It is obtained by heating limestone rocks. For example to make bricks.
o Gypsum: It's a mineral powder which is mixed with water and it is used to cover
walls and ceilings.
8. Binder materials
o Cement: It is the most used in binder materials. There are different types. The
most used is the Portland cement.
o The concrete: its a mixture between arids and binders and water. There are three

o -in mass
o -ciclopean
o -celular
o -armed (pretensed or postensed)
9. Ceramic materials
o Ceramics are things such as tiles, fixtures, etc. Ceramics are mostly used as
coverings in buildings.
10. Processes of elaborating ceramics
o -Mixturing and moulding.
o -Firing in continious furnaces.
o The ceramics more used are: bricks, tiles (tejas), porcelane, gres and tiles
11. Other Materiales

METAL is used as structural framework for larger buildings such as skyscrapers, or as an

external surface covering. There are many types of metals used for building.

STEEL is a metal alloy (Aleacin) whose major component is iron, and is the usual
choice for metal structural building materials. It is strong, flexible, and lasts a long time.

The lower density and better corrosion resistance of ALUMINIUM alloys makes it

12. Other Materiales

WOOD. It is deacreasing in use. Example: doors, windows, floor...

Plastics. It is increasing in use. Example: Electric material (switches).

Glass. Its different kinds are used in windows, doors, decoration...

13. Construction Of Buildings.

The construction of buildings is the process of adding or giving structure to real property

Levels of Construction:

-Preparing the land through demoliting, take away the sand, and leveling.

-Consolidation. To make the base of the building. This part is underground.

14. Construction Of Buildings.

-Rising up the structure. Pilars and sheets are built which make the flats of the building.

Some structures are of griders (vigas) of steel and the major are of armed concrete.

-Covering of water. It consists of puting the cover or roof of the building. Its
caracteristics depend on the climate of the zone.

The materiales which are used to make roofs are tiles, flagstones of slate and sheets of

15. Construction Of Buildings.

- Layout the pavings. With materials like marbol, stoneware (Gres), wood, etc.

-Rising the walls. In this phase the walls and partitions (tabiques) are made. They close
and divide the flat to insulate it from the exterior.

They are made with normal bricks.

-Putting facilities (instalaciones). For water, gas, etc.

16. Construnction Of Buildings.

-Finishings. The building is adopted for its use like houses, offices, industries... .

17. Construction machinery






Cement mixers

18. Environmental impact of buildings

Buildings are very important constructions in owr lifes. Also buildings form a very
important part of owr culture.

The study of the constructive proceses on the environment is very complex.

The buildings damage the environment because they use machinery that comsume crude
oil and because of other reasons. Also the buildings take the space of the beaches because
people want to live near to the beach and constructors construct buildings where they
thinck that would be saled.

19. Construction of better buildings

If anybody has to build a building, he has to cosiderate several points:

The ti m e its very important, a building can live between 30 or 300 years

The resources are li m ited so we have to construct using a strategy that lets us construct
according to thrifty resources.


1. Basalt ,Granite,Marbal,Kota,Laterite,Kadappa,Dolerite,lime
stone,Shahabad,etc. Broken stone and stone chips are used in
foundation,roofsUSES OF STONE: and floors of buliding and as rod metal and
railway ballast. Stone block are mainly used in walls , foundation and
ornamental facia work. Quartzite is used for rubber masonry ,rod metalling
and also as aggregate for construction . Lime stone slabs are used for
flooring ,paving and roofing. Slates are used as roofing and flooring
material. Marble is extremely suitable for ornament and superior type of
building work .eg.Taj - Mahal

2. Types of bricks :- Bricks can be classified into two type: Types of bricks
:-Conventional Brick :- Standared Brick (2311.47.5cm) (1999cm) New
genration advanced bricks Zik Zak brick Diamond Cement bricks etc.

3. Tiles : Tile material or its products are divided into the following tree
categories :- 1) Clay products 2) Terra cotta 3) Earthenware Properties of
tiles : Tiles materials has the following propertise:- 1)Mechanical properties
Tile material tends to fracture before any plastic deformation take place
which shows poor toughness in the material . Tensile strength is less . It
deformation very slowly . 2)Electrical properties Tiles material are semi

conductors and hence employed as a gas sensors . At extremely low

temperature ,some tiles exhibit high temperature superconductivity. It also
possesses positive thermal coefficient.

4. Cement The word cement means a substance which acts as a bonding

agent for materials. It is defined as finely ground mixture of calcium
aluminate and silicates of varying composition which composition which
hydrates when mixed with water to form rigid continuous structure with a
good compressive stength It designates a fine grey powder that is used for
constructional purpose. It is manufacturing by John Smeaton in1756.

5. Classification (types) of cements Cement , generally can be classified into

the following classes Natural cement Pozzalonic cement High alumina
cement Portland cement *Ordinary portland cement Cement *Rapid
hardening portland cement *Extra-rapid hardening portland cement *White
portland cement *Coloured portland cement *Low heat portland cement
*Portland blast furnace cement *Sulphate resisting portland cement Super
sulphate cemenet Special sulphate cement

6. Glass claddings Now a days ,the glass cladding work is preferably

adopted in building construction ,since it fulfils the various functional
requirement of building such as lighting ,heat retention etc. with visual
impact creation . It is totally safe It is aesthetical and recyclable It is
energy saver and time saver as per the construction aspect is concerned.
There is no flows of plaster and paint It has attractive colours

7. Advantages of glass cladding Use of glass in construction work adds

beauty to the building Its use fulfils the architectural view for the external
decoration and beauty Glass is bad conductor of heat, hence it saves
energy in air conditioning of building. Glass cladding use appear a sense of
openness and harmonious. Disadvantage of glass cladding It is very costly
and may increase the budgeted cost of construction work. Use of glass also
enhanceds the cost of security . Its use in hilly area and desert may cause
more maintenance. It is also unsafe for earthquake proven area



JAIN B-TECH (Final yr.)

2. CONTENTS Introduction What nanotechnology is? Introduction to

Nanomaterials Application of Nanotechnology Barriers Conclusion

3. INTRODUCTION We are very familiar with the concept of getting raw

materials, bringing them together in an organized way and then putting them
together into a recognizable form. This is our role in society and we have
performed it well for hundreds or thousands of years. So we can say

construction is definitely not a new science or technology and yet it has

undergone great changes over its history. In the same vein, nanotechnology
is not a new science and it is not a new technology either. It is rather an
extension of the sciences and technologies that have already been in
development for many years

4. What is Nanotechnology ? Nanotechnology is the use of very small pieces

of material by themselves or their manipulation to create new large scale
materials. At the Nano-scale material properties are altered from that of
larger scales. The Nano-scale is the size range from approximately 1nm to
100nm. Nanotechnology is an enabling technology that allows us to develop
materials with improved or totally new properties.

5. Introduction to Nano-materials Nano-particles:- It is defined as a particle

with at least one dimension less than 200nm. Nano-particles made of
semiconducting material(Ex- Silicon) Nano-composites:- It is produced by
adding Nano- particle to bulk material in order to improve its bulk properties

6. Carbon Nano-tubes:- They are the form of carbon that was first
discovered in 1952 in Russia and then re-discovered in the 1990s in Japan.
They are cylindrical in shape with Nano-meter diameter. Production cost of
Nano-tubes is high and the price ranges from 20 to 1000 per gram
depending on quality. Types of Nano-tubes:- Single-walled carbon NanotubesMulti-walled carbon Nano-tubes

7. Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) Titanium dioxide is a widely used white pigment.

It can also oxidize oxygen or organic materials, therefore, it is added to
paints, cements, windows, tiles etc. As TiO2 is exposed to UV light, it
becomes increasingly hydrophilic (attractive to water), thus it can be used for
anti- fogging coatings or self cleaning windows.

8. Applications of Nano-technology Nanotechnology is widely used in

construction material as: In Concrete In Steel In Wood In Glass In
Coating In photovoltaic

9. Nanotechnology in concreteConcrete:- It is a mixture of cement,

sandcoarse aggregate and water, The mechanicalbehavior of concrete
material depends on thephenomenon that occurs on a micro and
Nanoscale.Nanotechnology can modify the structure ofconcrete material and
finally improves inproperties of materials as- Bulk density Mechanical
performance Volume stability Durability Sustainability of concrete

10. Nanotechnology in concrete Exploring and modifying these Nano scale

pores can result in improved concrete These addition could compensate for
its weakness in tension and result in concrete with greatly improved stressstrain behavior The addition of Nano scale silica fume operates at a Nano
scale and can improve durability of concrete structures exposed to de-icing

11. Nanotechnology in concreteCNT in CONCRETE:- The addition of small

amount (1%) of CNT improves the mechanical property of concrete Oxidized
MWNTs shows the best improvements in both compressive(+25N/mm2) and
flexural Research into hstrength(+8N/mm2).aematite (Fe2O3) nanoparticles
added to concrete has shown that they also increase strength as well as
offering the benefit of monitoring stress levels through the measurement of
section electrical resistance.

12. Nanotechnology in SteelNeed of nanotechnology in steel:- Fatigue is a

significant issue that can lead to the structural failure of steel subject to
cyclic loading, such as in bridges or towers. Stress risers are responsible for
initiating cracks from which fatigue failure results. Addition of copper
nanoparticles reduces the surface unevenness of steel which then limits the
number of stress risers

13. Nanotechnology in SteelTemperature restriction:- Above 750 F, steel

starts to loose its structural integrity, and at 1000 F, steel loses 50 % of its
strength Infusion of steel with Nano scale copper particles could maintain
structural integrity up to 1000 F New infused steel allows ultra high
strength, corrosion resistance and have good surface finish.

14. Nanotechnology in SteelHigh strength steel cables:- Current research

into refinement of cementite phase of steel to a Nano size has produced
stronger cables A stronger cable material reduce the costs and period of
construction, especially in bridges Sustainability is also enhanced by the use
of higher cable strength as this leads to a more efficient use of material High
rise structures require high strength joints and this leads to the need of high
strength bolts.

15. Nanotechnology in SteelBolted connection:- The capacity of high

strength bolts is realized generally through quenching and tempering
CONNECTIONS Vanadium and molybdenum nanoparticles delays the
problems associated with high strength bolts and also improving the steels
micro- structure BOLTEDWelding connection:- The addition of nanoparticles
of magnesium and calcium makes the HAZ(Heat Affected WELDED Zone)
grains finer in plate steel and this leads to an increase in weld toughness.

16. Nanotechnology in SteelThere are two international product:- Sandvik

Nanoflex has both the desirable qualities of a high Youngs Modulus and high
strength and it is also resistant to corrosion due to the presence of very hard
nanometer-sized particles in the steel matrix. MMFX2 steel, while having the
mechanical properties of conventional steel, has a modified Nano-structure
that makes it corrosion resistant and it is an alternative to conventional
stainless steel, but at a lower cost.

17. Nanotechnology in Wood Wood is also composed of nanotubes or Nano

fibrils; namely, lignocellulose (woody tissue) elements which are twice as
strong as steel. Researchers have developed a highly water repellent

coating based on the actions of the lotus leaf as a result of the incorporation
of silica and alumina nanoparticles and hydrophobic polymers.

18. Nanotechnology in Glass Most of the glass used on the exterior surface
of buildings to control light and heat in order to control the building
environment and contribute to sustainability. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is used
as nanoparticle form to coat glazing since it has sterilizing and anti-fouling
properties. conventional self-cleaning glass glass

19. Self cleaning of Glass

20. Nanotechnology in Glass Glass incorporating this self cleaning

technology is available on the market today. Fire-protective glass is another
application of nanotechnology. This is achieved by using a layer sandwiched
between glass panels (an interlayer) formed of fumed silica (SiO2)
nanoparticles which turns into a rigid and opaque fire shield when heated.

21. Nanotechnology in Coatings Coating is an area of significant research in

nanotechnology Nanotechnology is being applied to paints and insulating
properties, produced by the addition of Nano-sized cells, pores and particles.
The TiO2 will break down and disintegrate organic dirt through powerful
catalytic reaction. This research opens up the intriguing possibility of putting
roads to good environmental use.

22. Nanotechnology in Fire-Resistance This is achieved by the mixing of

carbon nanotubes with the cementious material to fabricate fibre composites
that can inherit some of the outstanding properties Polypropylene fibres are
also being considered as a material for increasing fire resistance and this is a
cheaper option than conventional insulation.

23. Nanotechnology in Photovoltaic Predominant photovoltaic material is

silicon, but an emerging technology involves the use of dye-sensitized nanoTiO2. Large surface area of Nano TiO2 greatly increases photovoltaic
efficiency. Also has potential for lower material and processing costs relative
to conventional solar cells.

24. Barriers Regulatory, legal, political and ethical issues. Competition with
established micro scale technologies. License of proof-of-concept Nano tools,
and delivery system. Safety and toxicity. Implementation cost of plant.

25. Barriers cont 1. FABRICATION 2. HEALTH 3. ENVIRONMENT 4. COST 1.

Current efforts in the field of nanotechnology are focussed
on the fabrication,characterization and use of these materials on a Nano
scale. 2. HEALTH Nanotechnology based construction products might be
harmful to health. example, thenanotubes might cause lung problems to the

26. Barriers cont.. 3. ENVIRONMENT The effect of various nanomaterials on

the natural environment is hotlydebated in nanotechnology and

environmental research. Moreover it will create a new category of Nanowaste which has to be extracted and treated. 4. COST The cost of most
nanotechnology materials and equipment are relativelyhigh. In comparison to
traditional method.Its a challenge for construction engineer to provide a
facility to the generalpublic at a reasonable cost.

27. Real life Examples Building made by using self-cleaning concrete

(Church Dives in Misericordia, Rome, Italy) TiO2 coating on roads for
pollution reduction

28. Real life Examples Nano house , Australia:- University of Technology

,Sydney (UTS) have developed a model house that shows how new materials,
products and processes that are emerging from nanotechnology research and
development might be applied to our living environment.

29. CONCLUSION Present day we are in great search for alternate materials
this can effectively be achieved through the emerging field of
Nanotechnology. Nanotechnology is not exactly a new technology, rather it
is an extrapolation of current ones to a new scale. The main limitation is the
high costs of nanotechnology, also concerns with the environmental and
health effects. There is wide scope of research for application of
nanotechnology in the building industry and it shall help in conserving the
material resources.

30. References Journals.iop.org Nanoarchitecture.net Nanoforum.org


31. references






3. INTRODUCTION Translucent concrete is a concrete based building

material having light-Transmissive property. Light-Transmissive property is
mainly due to uniform distribution of high numerical aperture Plastic Optical
Fibres (POF) throughout its body. Hence it is also known to be transparent
concrete, LiTraCon.


used for making transparent concrete 1. Fine concrete 2. Optical fibres Fine
concrete: Consists of cement and fine aggregate such as sand. Optical

fibres: There are 3 kinds I. Multimode graded-index fibre II. Multimode stepindex fibre III. Single-mode step-index fibres.

5. PRINCIPLE Translucent concrete works Based on Nano-Optics. These

fibres passes as much light when tiny slits are placed directly on top of each
other. Hence optical fibers in the concrete act like the slits and carry the light
across throughout the concrete.

6. MANUFACTURING PROCESS The manufacturing process of

transparent concrete is almost same as regular concrete. Small layers of the
concrete are poured into the mould and on top of each layers, a layer of
fibres is infused. Fabric and concrete are alternately inserted into moulds at
intervals of approximately 2 mm to 5mm.

7. MANUFACTURING PROCESS Light-transmitting concrete is

produced by adding 4% to 5% optical fibres by volume into the concrete
mixture. The concrete mixture is made from fine materials and does not
contain coarse aggregate. Thousands of strands of optical fibres are cast into
concrete to transmit light Smaller or thinner layers allow an increased
amount of light to pass through the concrete.


CONCRETE Form Prefabricated blocks Ingredients 96% concrete, 4% optical
fibre Density 2100-2400 Kg/m3 Block size 600mm x 300mm Thickness 25500mm Colour White, Grey or Black Fibre distribution Organic Finished
Polished Compressive strength 50 N/mm2 Bending Tensile strength 7 N/mm2
The casted material is cut into panels or blocks of the specified thickness
and the surface is then typically polished, resulting in finishes ranging from
semi-gloss to highgloss.

9. APPLICATIONS Transparent concrete blocks suitable for floors, pavements

and load-bearing walls. Facades, interior wall cladding and dividing walls
based on thin panels. Partitions wall and it can be used where the sunlight
does not reach properly.

10. APPLICATIONS In furniture for the decorative and aesthetic

purpose. Light sidewalks at night. Increasing visibility in dark subway
stations. Lighting indoor fire escapes, in the event of a power failure.
Illuminating speed bumps on roadways at night.

11. ADVANTAGES Energy saving can be done by utilization of

transparent concrete in building. It has very good architectural properties for
giving good aesthetical view to the building.

12. DISADVANTAGES The concrete is very costly because of the optical

fibres. Casting of transparent concrete block is difficult for the labour so
special skilled person is required.

13. CONCLUSION Transparent concrete can be developed by adding

optical fibre or large diameter glass fibre in the concrete mixture. It has good
light guiding property and the ratio of optical fibre volume to concrete is
proportionate to transmission of light. It doesnt loose the strength parameter
when compared to regular concrete and also it has very vital property from
the aesthetic point of view. This new kind of building material can integrate
the concept of green energy saving

14. REFERENCES Victoria Bailey, Translucent Concrete, MEEN

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Translucent_concr ete wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical_fiber
byen.wikipedia.org/wiki/LiTraCon www.litracon.hu/


alk Topic: Sustainable construction: challenges and oportunities for civil engineers and

Dr. Vanderley M. John

Dr. Eng. (Poli USP 1995), Guest Researcher (KTH 2000)
Associate Prof. III, Dep Construction Engineering, Escola Politecnica, University of So Paulo;
Vanderley M. Johns research interest is focused in ecoeficient solutions for building materials and
strategies to improve sustainability of the construction supply chain. REsearch projects includes
development of low-binder cement-based, asbestos-free cement based composites, advanced rendering
mortar technology, advanced cement-based materials (FGM, biomimetic and self-cleanning), processing
of construction and demolition waste and development of streamline LCA-based tools.

He is a member of Fapesp Engeneering Board since 2010 and CNPq Civil

Engineering board (2010-2013).
Advises various Brazilian governamental instituions, including Ministry of Cities and
Environment, UNEP SBCI and NGOs like WWF. Member of the Board of CBCS Brazilian Sustainable Construction Council, a think thank dedicated to develop and
disseminate sustainable construction, and coordinates the CBCSs Building
Materials Working Group.
He is co-author of the book The Challenge of Sustainable Construction (O Desafio
da Sustentabilidade na Construo Civil) (Blucher Editora, 2011).







Scholar Researcher


Talk Topic: PreColumbian

Constructions in the
Dr. Jos Celso da

Keynote Speaker II

Jos Celso da Cunha,

graduated from the
EE.UFMG-1975; PhD
in soil mechanics
and structures by the
cole Centrale de
Paris, France, 1985;
experience teaching
in Civil Engineering
undergraduate and
master's degree EE.UFMG,
(19782004), and CEFETMG,
with an emphasis on
concrete structures;
advisor of structural
recovery engineering
and in the history of
Palace II-A Imploso

BH, Brazil, 1988; The
Volumes I and II,

BH, Brazil, 2009; The
Volumes III and IV,
BH, Brazil, 2012

Talk Topic: Emerging

contaminants in
drinking waters: a
matter of concern
Prof. Wilson F. Jardim

Keynote Speaker III

Federal University of
So Carlos (UFSCar),
received his Ph.D.
from the University
of Liverpool (1983),
and a Post-Doctoral
position at Drexel
Philadelphia (1987).
Visiting Professor in
Program, University
of Delaware. As a
Full Professor in the
Chemistry, UNICAMP,
published more than
180 scientific papers
in the Environmental

mainly in Advanced
Oxidation Processes.
and has 6 patents.
Received numerous
prizes, including the
Mercosul Technology
in 2006. Presently is
the Director of the
Redox Environmental
Consulting Company
Researcher in the

Talk Topic:
Conservation of Built
Heritage: Guidelines
for Structural

Keynote Speaker IV

Prof. Eduardo
Nuno Brito
Santos Jlio
Eduardo Nuno Brito
Santos Jlio has a (5
years) degree in Civil
Engineering, an advanced
M.Sc. (3 years) degree in
Structures, and a Ph.D.
and a Agregao degrees
in Mechanics of Structures
and Materials by the
University of Coimbra.
Presently, he is full
professor at the
Department of Civil

Engineering, Architecture
and Georesources of the
Instituto Superior Tcnico
(IST) of the University of
Lisbon, and invited full
professor at the
Department of Civil
Engineering of the
University of Coimbra.
He promoted the creation
of several doctoral,
master, post-graduation,
graduation, undergraduation, and
professional courses at
both the University of
Lisbon and at the
University of Coimbra.

He was head of the Board of the Advanced Master Course in Civil Engineering and
Architecture 'Rehabilitation of the Built Environment' at the University of Coimbra
(2004/2008). He is (or has been) chair of several course units at different
universities and polytechnic institutes in Europe, South-America and Africa.
He promoted the creation and has been one of the founders of the Institute for
Sustainability and Innovation in Structural Engineering (ISISE), a joint research
centre of University of Coimbra and University of Minho. He has been member of
the Board and head of the Structural Concrete group of ISISE (2007/2011).
Presently, he his head of the Instituto de Engenharia de Estruturas, Territrio e
Construo (ICIST), the largest Portuguese research centre in Civil Engineering,
affiliated to IST. He is member of fib Commission 5, and fib Special Activity Group 7,
and has been member of IABSE Working Commission 3, ACI 364 Committee,
ICOMOS-P Consultant Council, ICOMOS-P 20th Century Heritage Working Group, and
member of a set of different COST Actions. He has been editor-in-chief of the
international journal Advances in Concrete Construction, published by TechnoPress, and he is editor-in-chief of the national journal Construo Magazine,
The research developed by his research group is mainly focused in concrete
structures, being organized in four different fields of expertise: (i) structural
assessment and monitoring; (ii) advanced structural modelling and risk analysis;
(iii) structural connections and localized strengthening; and (iv) eco-efficient and
ultra-high performance cementitious materials. He is the principal investigator of
several research projects funded by FCT, AdI, and IAPMEI, and by public and private

companies. He is the supervisor of several PhD dissertations (9 concluded) and MSc

theses (27 concluded). He is author of over 350 publications, including 55 papers
published in international journals (ISI Web of Knowledge: citations=219, hindex=9; Google scholar: citations=426, h-index=11, i10-index=13).

Recent years have seen enormous advances in the technology of concrete as

a material, through which its strength, compactness and ductility can reach
levels never dreamed of before. Thanks to these improved material
properties, the strength and durability of concrete structures is greatly
improved, their weight and dimensions reduced, the scope of concrete as a
structural material is widened and despite the higher material costs
overall economy is possible, with positive impacts on sustainability as well.
Similar advances are underway in reinforcing materials, notably high strength
steel and fibre-reinforced polymers, and in the way they are combined with
concrete into high performance structures. Developments in materials and
equipment, as well as new concepts, have lead to innovative construction
techniques, reducing cost and construction time and making possible the
application of concrete under extreme conditions of construction or
environment. All these advances will be highlighted in the book by the top
experts in the field of concrete structures, namely those currently active in
the fields leading and truly international scientific and technical association:
the International Federation of Structural Concrete (fib) www.fibinternational.org.

India is witnessing construction of very interesting projects in all sectors of

Infrastructure. High rise structures, under construction, include
residential/commercial blocks up to a height of 320 m and RC chimneys for thermal
power stations extending upwards up to 275m. Majority of the structures are in
structural concrete. The functional demands of such high rise structures include the
use of durable materials. High Strength Concrete, Selfcompacting Concrete are
gaining widespread acceptance. Apart from the basic structural materials, modern
projects require a variety of secondary materials for a variety of purposes such as
construction chemicals, waterproofing materials, durability aids etc. The paper
highlights some of the recent developments.

Durable Concrete
Concrete Design and Construction Practices today are strength driven. Concrete
grades up to M80 are now being used for highrise buildings in India. However, due
to escalation in the repair and replacement costs, more attention is now being paid
to durability issues. There are compelling reasons why the concrete construction

practice during the next decades should be driven by durability in addition to

A large number of flyovers and some elevated roads extending up to 20km in length
are being realized in different parts of the country and involve huge outlay of public
money. However, the concrete durability is suspect. Many of the structures built
during the period from 1970 have suffered premature deterioration. Concrete bridge
decks built during the period now require extensive repairs and renovations, costing
more than the original cost of the project. Multi-storied buildings in urban areas
require major repairs every 20 years, involving guniting, shotcreting etc.
A holistic view needs to be taken about concrete durability. In this context, there are
a large number of materials in the market which facilitate durable construction.
Apart from the materials, the construction processes have also undergone changes
with a view to improving the durability of the finished structure.

High Performance Concrete

In the United States, in response to widespread cracking of concrete bridge decks,

the construction process moved towards the use of High Performance Concrete
(HPC) mixes. Four types of HPC were developed 1:

Very High Early Strength Concrete 17.5 mPa in 6 hours

High Early Strength Concrete 42.5 mPa in 24 hours

A Very High Strength 86 mPa in 28 days

High Early Strength with Fiber Reinforcement

High Performance Concrete was introduced in India initially for the

reconstruction of the pre-stressed concrete dome of the Kaiga Atomic Power
Project, followed for parts of the Reactors at Tarapur and Rajasthan.
Subsequently, a number of bridges and flyovers have introduced HPC up to
M75 grade in different parts of India.

Selfcompacting Concrete (SCC)

SCC was developed by the Japanese initially as a Quality Assurance measure, but
now is being widely used for concrete structures worldwide. In India, one of the
earliest uses of SCC was for some components of structures at Kaiga Atomic Power
Project. Many components of the structures were very heavily reinforced and the
field engineers found it difficult to place and compact normal concrete without
honeycombs and weaker concrete. SCC was successfully used.
SCC leaving the batching plant is in a semi-fluid state and is placed into the
formwork without the use of vibrators. Due to its fluidity, SCC is able to find its way
into the formwork and in between the reinforcement and gets self-compacted in the
process. SCC is particularly useful for components of structures which are heavily
reinforced. The fluidity is realized by modifying the normal mix components. In
addition to cement, coarse and fine aggregates, water, special new generation
polymer based admixtures are used to increase the fluidity of the concrete without
increasing the water content.
Due to its high fluidity, the traditional method of measuring workability by slump
does not work. The fluidity is such that any concrete fed to the slump cone falls flat
on raising the slump cone; the diameter of the spread of concrete is measured as an
indication of workability of SCC. This is called Slump Flow and is in the range of 600
800 mm.
Apart from the use of superior grade chemical admixtures, the physical composition
of the concrete for SCC has undergone changes. The concrete is required to have
more of fine aggregates and compulsorily any of the mineral admixtures fly ash,
ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), silica fume, metakaolin, rice husk
ash etc. Fly ash is abundantly available as a waste product at all the thermal power
stations and the Government has encouraged use of fly ash by offering them
practically free at the thermal power stations. GGBFS is again a by-product of the
steel mills. During the production of steel, a molten steel is poured from blast
furnaces and travels in special channels, leaving the impurities on top of the
stream. The waste material, being lighter moves on top and easily diverted away
from the usable steel.
The diverted slag is quenched and forms small nodules. These nodules are crushed
and granulated into very fine product, with particle size smaller than that of cement.
The product is marketed in 50 kg bags and available economically in the regions
around steel mills with blast furnaces. In other regions, additional transport cost of
this bulk material is involved but its use is justified because of contribution to
durability of concrete. For the concrete components of the structure for Bandra and
Worli sewage outfalls in Mumbai, the German prime contractor insisted on
compulsory use of GGBFS for the M40 concrete in order to improve the durability of
concrete. GGBFS had to be transported from Vizag in the eastern part of India, in

spite of heavy transportation cost. Since then GGBFS is finding widespread use in
different parts of India for ensuring durable concrete.

The Use of Mineral Admixtures

After realization of the need for durable concrete structures, the composition of
concrete has undergone changes. From being a product made of three or four
materials (cement, aggregates, water), today a typical durable concrete consists of
six or more materials. The use of low water cement ratio enables a reduction in the
volume and size of capillary voids in concrete; this alone is not sufficient to reduce
the cement based content of concrete which is the source of micro-cracking from
thermal shrinkage and drying shrinkage.
To reduce the cement based content, both the water content and cement content
must be reduced as much as possible. Concrete mixes with fewer micro cracks can
be produced by blending the cement with mineral admixtures either in the batching
plant or in the cement plant. This enhances the service life of concrete structures in
a cost-effective manner.

Fly Ash
Thermal power stations are left with an undesirable by-product, fly ash, in large
quantities which is not able to effectively utilize or dispose of. Currently, (2009)
more than 120 million tonne of fly ash are generated annually and the storage and
disposal has been costing the power stations substantial unproductive expenditure.
Unfortunately, all the fly ash available at the power stations is not fit for use as
mineral admixture directly. Fly ash as a mineral admixture should conform to IS:
3812. Such a material is available in the finer streams of Electro Static Precipitators
fitted to the power generation system.
The coarser materials are required to be processed (generally with the help of
Cyclones) before being considered for use as mineral admixture for concrete. There
are only a few processing units in India, including the one as Nashik Thermal Power
Station. As per the Euro Code for Concrete, only processed fly ash can be permitted

as mineral admixture in concrete. The code limits the use of fly ash. About 35% of
cement may be replaced by fly ash; the actual percentage replacement depending
on the outcome of trial mixes.

High Volume Fly Ash Concrete (HVFA)

The high volume fly ash concrete (HVFA) represents an emerging technology for
highly durable and resource efficient concrete structures. Laboratory and field
experience have shown that fly ash from modern coal-fired thermal power plants,
when used in large volume (typically 50 - 60% by mass of the total cementitious
materials content, is able to impart excellent workability in fresh concrete at a water
content that is 15 20% less than without fly ash. To obtain adequate strength at
early age, further reductions in the mixing water content can be achieved with
better aggregate grading and use of super-plasticizers.
HVFA concrete has now been successfully used in a few sporadic projects in India.
All SCC in India use HVFA, to the extent of 50% cement replacement. Some concrete
roads being built by NHAI have also used HVFA concrete, including the Four-Laning
of Satara Kolhapur National Highway.

Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS)

The problems associated with the quality of fly ash do not exist in the case of
Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag GGBFS, as the produce is necessarily the
outcome of grinding to the required particle size. Thus the use of GGBFS as a
mineral admixture should be preferred, despite long leads for end users in certain
parts of India far from the steel plants. GGBFS sold in India is of uniform quality and
particle size gradation. For many landmark structures such as the Burj Dubai (the
tallest building in the world in 2009) GGBFS has been extensively used as a mineral
admixture, even though the material is imported from other countries, resulting in
the landed cost being more than that of cement. This was a conscious decision with
a view to obtaining a more durable concrete structure.
In India the use of GGBFS has been fairly limited, in spite of all the technical
advantages. The Indian Concrete Code permits up to 70% of cement replacement
where GGBFS is used. Technically, the use of GGBFS is more effective only at
replacement levels of 50% or more. For a number of structures in a port in Andhra
Pradesh, typically the M40 concrete mix contained 100 kg of cement and 300 kg of
Portland Slag Cement (PSC) is also available and useful for ensuring durability of
concrete structures. Due to the proximity to steel mills, PSC is generally produced in
locations close to steel plants. Here again due to the bulky nature of the product,
the transportation cost predominate. Another issue concerning quality of the PSC is
the actual percentage replacement while making PSC; this information is not
normally displayed on the bags, leaving the user at a disadvantage. In developed

countries, information regarding the percentage of slag utilized in making PSC is

generally printed on each bag of cement.

Condensed Silica Fume (CSF)

CSF is a by-product of Ferro-Silicon industry and at present an imported product,

easily available in the Indian market. The particle size is very small, about 100 times
smaller than that of cement. It can occupy the voids in between cement particles in
a concrete mix, reduce the water demand and thus contribute to a very dense
concrete of high durability. Normally, 5 - 10% of cement can be replaced by CSF in
order to produce durable concrete. The product is expensive and is used in
developed countries only for very high strength concrete (above 75 mPa).
Indiscriminate use of CSF for lower grades, barring exceptions, only increases the
project cost without corresponding technical benefits. Even when used, the
percentage replacement should be based on trial mixes in each case, which may
vary from one to 10%. CSF may also be used for High Performance Concrete of
lower grades.

Ternary Blends
Ternary blends of mineral admixtures are now recommended for improving the
durability of important concrete structures. An outstanding example is the
Reconstruction of the New I-35 W St. Anthony Falls Bridge crossing the Mississippi
River in Minneapolis, US. The new bridge has been opened to traffic in September
2008, less than 14 months after the collapse. HPC has been used for reconstruction
with a target 100 year life span. High Performance Concrete containing silica fume
and fly ash was used for low permeability.
Two gleaming white concrete sculptures tower 9 m high at each end of the bridge.
The sculptures were pre-cast using an SCC mix that included photo-catalytic cement
with self cleaning and pollution reducing characteristics. The photo-catalytic cement
is one of the new developments in the construction materials industry. The SCC
concrete resulted in a marble-like, smooth white finish to the concrete surface. With
a low water cementitious material ratio (w/cm), air entrainment and a rapid chloride
permeability test (RCPT) value of less than 1500 coulombs at 28 days, the
monument will also be a durable feature in the severe environment adjacent to the
I-35 W Roadway.2

For the drilled shaft foundations of the I-35 Bridge, SCC was used. To control
temperature during curing, fly ash and slag were incorporated as the majority of the
cementitious material. This reduced the heat of hydration by approximately 50%.
The concrete mixes for the footings and piers were proportioned for mass concrete
and durability through the use of fly ash and slag. As the components were massive
in size, concrete mixes were modified by cementitious materials, chilled water and
cooled aggregates, use of form insulation and internal cooling pipes.

Cement Silos
The use of batching plants for producing concrete is gaining increasing acceptance.
As large volumes of cement are used in a batching plant, the cement is generally
stored in vertical steel silos. When cement is received in bulkers from the factory,
the same is directly pneumatically pumped into the silos which have capacities
ranging from 50 to 500 tonne depending upon the project requirements. If only
bagged cement is available, they are emptied into the silos, usually with the help of
screw conveyors. For modern applications, more than one silo will be required
depending on the types of cement and mineral admixture used in the concrete mix.
In a recently commissioned batching plant complex in the Middle East, each of the
two plants feature nine cement silos for Portland cement, slag cement, micro silica,
fly ash and SRC cement.

Durability Enhancing Products

A full line of products are available to prevent or repair corrosion damage. A typical
corrosion inhibiting admixture prevents deleterious expansion and cracking caused
by the formation of rust during over-induced corrosion. There are also penetrating
sealants to protect new and repaired concrete from the corrosive effects of chloride.
The silane and siloxane based reacting sealers soak into the surface, creating a
barrier against water or chlorides.
A number of concrete waterproofing admixtures eliminate the need for conventional
external waterproofing membranes and saves time, money and hassle at the
construction site. It transforms concrete into a water-resistant barrier by becoming
an integral part of the concrete matrix.

Hydrophobic Concrete Waterproofing System

A typical patented product uses three materials to achieve a water-tight concrete
structure, a super-plasticizer which reduces batching water requirements, thus
limiting the volume of the capillary pour network in the concrete; a reactive
hydrophobic pour blocking concrete admixture and product specific water stop
protection at construction dams.
Other accessory products include an operation retardant, curing compound, water

stops and polypropylene fiber reinforcement. The patented product is typically

added while concrete mix is being prepared to assist waterproofing. One product is
applied at the rate of 5 liter per of concrete. Typically the manufacturer provides a
warranty period of 10 years. The performance warranty provides for repairing water
leakage through industry accepted and approved means for a period of 10 years.
The product however has some negative impact on the rate of gain of strength of
concrete. As a rough indication, the specified characteristic 28-day strength of
concrete will not be achieved at 28 days but at 56 days or more.
The cementitious content of concrete using the integral waterproofing compound
shall not be less than 325 k g / c u m with up to 50% fly ash or slag replacement.
The water cement ratio shall be adjusted to compensate for the water in the
waterproofing compound and super-plasticizer and maintain the required
workability. The water cement ratio shall not exceed 0.42. The product is of
American origin, represented by an Indian company which provides the necessary
technical expertise.


The revised BIS Code 1786 provides for four grades of reinforcement characterized
by the yield strength Fe 415, Fe 500, Fe 550 and Fe 600. Each of the first three
grades is also available with superior ductile properties and a nomenclature is Fe
415D, Fe500D and Fe550D. Primarily the ductile grades specify a higher elongation
value. Use of higher grades reduces the tonnage of steel in compression members
e.g. columns substantially, results in decongested reinforcement and facilitates easy
placement and vibration of concrete. Fe 415 and Fe 500 are easily available in the
market. Fe 550 is now being offered by some prime producersTata Steel, Sail etc.
After the revision of the Code, Fe 550 is also offered in selected diameters.
Fe 500 bars are now used for a number of highrise buildings, bridges and flyovers in
India. Lapping of bars results in congestion of steel creates difficulties in proper
placement and compaction of concrete and of course more expensive for large
diameter bars. Couplers are now preferred instead of lapping. With widespread use,
the cost of couplers has come down. The coupler design and manufacture permits
the joints in the same plane without the need for staggering as in the case of
lapping Fig. 1 shows typical use of couplers for columns of a multi-storied building in

Ternary Blended Cements

Ternary blended cements containing the combination of fly ashslag, fly ashsilica
fume or slagsilica fume are commonly used for concrete in many parts of the
world. The European Standard EN 197 for cement lists 27 different combinations for
cement. Usually mineral admixture used may present a complimentary effect on
cement hydration. Limestone filler addition produces favorable effects on cement
test. In particular, the physical effects caused by limestone filler enhance the
strength due to hydration acceleration of Portland clinker gains at very early age
and the improvement of particle packing of the cementitious system. However, the
rate of hydration is initially lower than that corresponding to Portland cement;
shows a reduction of strength at early age and similar or greater strength at later
ages. Ternary cements containing a limited proportion of limestone filler (no more
than 12%) and 20 30% GGBFS provide a good resistance to chloride ingress and
good performance in sulphate environment of low C 3A Portland cement.4

Photo-catalytic Cement
This is a patented Portland cement developed by Italcementi Group. The photocatalytic components use the energy from ultra-violet rays to oxidize most organic
and some inorganic compounds. Air pollutants that would normally result in
discoloration of exposed surfaces are removed from the atmosphere by the
components, and the residues are washed off by rain. This cement can be used to
produce concrete and plaster products that save on maintenance cost while they
ensure a cleaner environment.3
In addition to Portland cement binders, the product contains photo-catalytic
titanium dioxide particles. The cement is already being used for sound barriers,
concrete paver blocks and faade elements. Other applications include pre-cast and
architectural planners, pavements, concrete masonry units, cement tiles etc.

Insulated Concrete Form (ICF)

ICF structural elements allow maximum clear spans. The ICF elements are used for
large commercial buildings, residential buildings etc.

Exterior Selfleveling Concrete Topping

This is a Portland cement based product for fast track resurfacing and smoothing of
concrete. It produces a smooth flat hard surface and dries quickly without shrinking,
cracking or spalling. Pourable or pumpable when mixed with water, it installs 6 to 20
mm thick in one application and up to 50 mm thick with the addition of aggregate. It
is pourable or pumpable when mixed with water. It can be used on, above or below
grade and it makes spalled or damaged concrete look like new. Once sealed it
creates an excellent wearing surface.

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

As part of a future global atmospheric stabilization strategy, industrialized countries
may lead to use large amounts of carbon dioxide. CO2 may be used for curing precast concrete units. Manufacturers of concrete masonry units could use CO 2 to
reduce energy consumption. Steam curing which is conventionally used is energy
intensive. Although CO2 curing provides slower strength development than steam
curing, the performance can be improved if the blocks are properly pre-conditioned
before CO2 curing. It has also been noted that the water absorption of CO 2 cured
blocks is lower than that of steam cured blocks.

Corrosion Inhibiters for Reinforced Concrete

Calcium nitrate has been proven to inhibit reinforcement corrosion. About 34%
calcium nitrate of cement by weight is sufficient to protect the reinforcement steel
against corrosion. Typically a corrosion inhibiter should
a. raise the level of chlorides necessary to initiate corrosion or
b. decrease the rate of corrosion after it has started or

c. both. Since it does not necessarily prevent corrosion from happening

altogether, it is more appropriate to call the product as corrosion retarders.

Coarse Aggregates for Concrete

The BIS Code (IS:383) permits the use of three types of coarse aggregatesnatural
gravel (shingle), crushed stone or a blend of both. Many outstanding structures built
in India in the past had used river gravel as coarse aggregate for concrete including
dams (Bhakra), prestressed concrete aqueducts and siphons (Kunu Siphon), large
number of prestressed concrete bridges, power stations (Trombay 500 MW Unit V)
etc. The results are excellent. Use of rounded aggregates, by virtue of their
geometry, reduces the cement and water content requirements of concrete, thus
contributing to the economy. Almost 50% of all the concrete produced in the
developed world utilizes natural gravel and broken stone is used only when gravel is
not available within economic leads.

Recycled Aggregates
With continuous development activity worldwide, the availability of coarse
aggregates from natural sources or crushed rock are dwindling; at the same time,
due to demolition of old structures, roads etc., a large amount of debris is generated
annually and their disposal poses problems for the individuals and the
Governments. In many countries including the UK, any demolition agency is not
permitted to dispose of the debris except at predetermined locations which may
involve very long leads, expensive operations.
Extensive research has now established that the debris can be crushed, processed
and recycled as coarse aggregate for fresh concrete. Such recycling solves the
above mentioned problems of disposal, and also more economical. Many national
codes in the developed world permit the use of recycled aggregates in concrete,
subject to safeguards.

Lightweight Aggregates
These are manufactured products and are extensively used in all types of structures
involving longer spans where the dead-load forms a major component of the loads
involved in the design. Such lightweight aggregates are manufactured products
using expanded clay, sintered fly ash etc. Their contribution to strength depends on
the type and quality of the lightweight aggregate, the size fraction used and the
amount of aggregate used as well as the type and quality of binder in concrete.
However, the addition of lightweight aggregate in concrete reduces the modulus of

High Performance Lightweight Concrete

By using high strength/high performance lightweight concrete in prestressed

concrete bridge girders, spans of bridge girders can be extended by up to 20%. The
implications of using lightweight aggregate on prestressing losses long-term creep
and shrinkage deformation should be considered. Compressive strength of up to 75
mPa has been obtained. They also result in reduction in creep and shrinkage and
consequently lower prestressed losses. The overall costs for a given load capacity
are reduced. The reduction in the structure dead-load leads to a reduction in the
foundation size.

Selfcuring, Shrinkage-free concrete

Italian researchers have produced a concrete by the combined use of
a. a water reducing admixture based on polycarboxylate in order to reduce both
the mixing water and cement.
b. a shrinkage reducing admixture
c. an expansive agent based on a special calcium oxide.
The combined use of an expansive agent and a PC based water reducing superplasticizer results in a shrinkage-free concrete even in the absence of any wet
curing. Due to the water reduction caused by the PC based super-plasticizer at a
given w/c, there is a reduction in the volume of cement paste and a corresponding
increase in the amount of aggregates. Both are responsible for significant reduction
in the drying shrinkage.

Advanced Composite Reinforcement

In highly corrosive environments, the use of advanced composite fiber reinforced
polymers (FRP) is attractive as a replacement for conventional steel reinforcements.
While the FRP materials can be resistant to corrosion, there is lack of ductility. At the
moment FRP reinforcement in India is quite expensive. The main market for FRP in
India is for structural retrofit for increasing the load capacity, to remedy
construction defects or repair damages.

Application of Nano Technology

Reducing particle size of a material to nanoscale often imparts new properties or
enhances existing ones. This is typical of nano particles of titanium dioxide, which
maintains its photocatalytic activity even when mixed with cement. External cement
based surfaces become strongly photocatalytic, leading to a much better
appearance and a significant reduction in concentration of pollutants in the
surrounding air.
The photoactive titanium dioxide was found to be a more powerful photocatalytic
agent when its particle size decreased to non size. This makes it a ideal vehicle for
application in construction. A cement binder containing about 5% of active titanium
dioxide produces concrete with a smooth surface and also converts the pollutants,
removes them from the surrounding air. In a typical application on a building in
France completed in 2000, the quality of concrete surface have remained
unchanged till date. The structure looked as if it were freshly built (Fig 3.)

Cleaner Surfaces and Less Pollution

Mixing active titanium dioxide with cement produces a binder that maintains its
entire normal performance characteristic when used to make concrete. The
photocatalytic action makes the surfaces not only to a significant selfcleaning; it
also improves the quality of surrounding environment. Using titanium dioxide in
glass fiber reinforced concrete offers more efficient and economical way to achieve
the benefits of photocatalytics. The environmentally active e-GRC offers the most
economical way to achieve cleaner, brighter facades.
Applications for the e-GRC include

Cladding panels and facades elements

Permanent formwork and form liners

Roofing tiles

Motorway and Railway sound barriers


Goodspeed, Vanikar & Cook High Performance Concrete defined for Highway
Structures, Concrete International Vol. 18 No.2, Feb. 1996.

Alan R. Phipps, FIGG Bridge Engineers Inc HPC for 100 Year Life Span, HPC
Bridge Views, FHWA Issue 52, Nov/Dec 2008.

Concrete that cleans itself and the air, Concrete International Feb. 2009 Vol.
31 No. 2, The Magazine of the American Concrete Institute.

Irassar et al Durability of Ternary Blended Cements containing Limestone

Filler and GBFS, ACI Publication SP-234, 2006.

Peter J M Bartos, e-GRC, CONCRETE, UK April 2009

Energy Efficiency, Sustainable Design,

and XPS
by Susan Herrenbruck

Relative to a buildings environmental impact, decisions about energy efficiency can be among
the most important ones to make. The use of extruded polystyrene (XPS) foam plastic insulation
can play an effective and important role in achieving this sort of efficiency, thanks to its ability to
maintain insulating power.
Extruded polystyrene (XPS) foam plastic insulation uses highly efficient blowing agents
specifically selected for low thermal conductivity and diffusivitythis helps the insulation retain
its properties.1 The durability of extruded polystyrene foam plastic insulation is perhaps its most
important environmental consideration. The closed-cell structure and lack of voids in extruded
polystyrene foam plastic insulation not only impart the materials durability and strength, but
also help the foam resist moisture penetrationwithout the use of a facer or laminatebetter
than some other types of insulating materials.
Extruded polystyrene foam plastic insulation is dimensionally stable and products are available
in a wide range of compressive strengths (from 103 to 689.5 kPa [15 to 100 psi]) to suit a variety
of application requirements, including residential (e.g. foundations, walls, ceilings), commercial
(e.g. roofs, belowgrade, waterproofing), and beyond (e.g. soil stabilization, pipe insulation,
utility lines).2
Long-term benefits
To truly assess the environmental impact of a building or application, the effect of material
changes in foam formulations should also be analyzed in terms of the resulting thermal
performance. Used to insulate commercial buildings and residences, the energy efficiency
payback from insulation with high R-values over a long period far exceeds any marginal

contribution of ozone-depletion potential (ODP). This analysis was done for estimated emissions
until the Montreal Protocols phaseout date of 2010.3
Energy efficiency and conservation relative to global climate change (GCC) should also be
considered when assessing the environmental impact of materials. In May 1999, technical
experts working on both the Montreal and Kyoto Protocols collaborated in Petten, Netherlands,
at the Joint Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change/Technology and Economic Assessment
Panel (IPCC/TEAP) Expert Meeting on Options for the Limitation of Emissions of HFCs and
Among several conclusions, the report stated the use of foams such as extruded polystyrene foam
plastic insulation enabled high levels of energy efficiency. It also noted an average increase in
global energy efficiency of one percent in buildings equated to a net annualized reduction of
CO2 emissions by some 50,000 to 80,000 tons.
The Alliance for Responsible Atmospheric Policy (ARAP) conducted a study that included a lifecycle climate performance (LCCP) and provided an analysis of insulating sheathing for
residential wood-framed walls.5
It concluded:
These results show far more energy is saved than consumed by manufacturing the plastic foam
and that far more greenhouse gas emissions due to space condition energy consumption are
avoided than are emitted in the manufacture of the plastic foam.
For an accurate environmental assessment, the impact of material changes in plastic foam
formulation should be analyzed in terms of their resulting thermal performance.
Moisture resistance
A critical factor affecting long-term thermal performance is extruded polystyrene foam plastics
aforementioned ability to resist the intrusion of moisture. Moisture can come in contact with
insulation not only during construction, but also throughout the buildings life. To the extent
moisture is absorbed by a product, its effect is to drastically reduce thermal efficiency (i.e. Rvalue).
Extruded polystyrene foam plastic insulations ability to resist moisture absorption has been
confirmed repeatedly in laboratory tests and validated by actual application use in the field.
Extruded polystyrene foam plastic insulations manufacturing process forms a natural skin
surface not conducive to moisture absorbency. Without the need for a facer or laminate, extruded
polystyrene foam plastic insulation products only absorb 0.3 percent by weight.6 When installed
in walls, extruded polystyrene foam plastic insulation shifts damaging dewpoints, which helps

minimize the potential for condensation to occur within. This helps keep the insulating power in
the wall and prevent degradation over time due to moisture intrusionhelping keep its energyefficient properties intact.
Exterior wall sheathing
With a long-term thermal resistance ranging from R-3 (for 13-mm [0.5-in.] thick boards) to R-5
(for 25-mm [1-in.] thick boards), extruded polystyrene foam plastic insulation sheathing products
increase the energy efficiency of the entire wall. (The higher the R-value, the greater the
insulating powersuppliers can provide fact sheets on R-values.) extruded polystyrene foam
plastic insulation sheathing products provide a continuous layer of protection against water
moisture infiltration while guarding against thermal bridging. (Thermal bridging occurs due to
wood studs and other uninsulated parts of the wall, such as framing, ducts, wiring, and
When properly installed, extruded polystyrene foam plastic insulation sheathing also forms a
continuous air barrier that minimizes convection currents and air infiltration, the leading cause of
energy loss. When moisture gets into a wall assembly, it compromises components made from
traditional materials and can then reduce the overall R-value of the building envelope.
Cold storage applications
In 1997, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Cold Regions Research and Engineering
Laboratories (CRREL) conducted a survey of the moisture content in the roofing systems of
existing cold storage buildings for an extruded polystyrene foam plastic insulation manufacturer.7
As discussed in the report issued by CRREL, rooftop nighttime and indoor daytime infrared
(IR) moisture surveys were performed. Areas of wet insulation (various product types, including
both traditional and plastic materials) were noted in eight of the 10 roofs evaluated.
Core sampling of the membranes and insulation were collected for laboratory evaluation. The
specimens were evaluated for dry density, moisture content, and thermal resistance (both as
sampled and after drying). The conclusions reached by CRREL suggest the intense vapor drive,
air infiltration, and propensity of the cold storage roofs to exhibit water infiltration meant
extruded polystyrene foam plastic insulation is among the most suitable roof insulation for
freezers and coolers.
Frost-protected shallow foundations
Extruded polystyrene foam plastic insulation is a code-approved product for use in horizontal
configurations in code-compliant frost-protected shallow foundation (FPSF) applications.8 The
concept of FPSF involves the placement of rigid foam insulation in a way that raises the frost
penetration depth around a building. This permits foundation footing depths as shallow as 406
mm (16 in.), even in cold climates.

According to the Department of Housing and Urban Developments (HUDs) FPSF Design
Guide, the technology not only improves energy efficiency for completed projects, but it also
allows a reduction in material use and earth excavation during construction, cutting down on
energy consumption.
Although relatively new in the United States, FPSF has been prevalent in Scandinavia for more
than 40 years. FPSF is commonly used in monolithic slab-on-grade, independent slab and stem
wall, and permanent wood foundation applications. Moisture resistance is extremely important in
FPSF due to the insulations placement in potentially wet soil and because of the possibility of
freeze-thaw cycles.
Protected membranes
A protected membrane roof assembly (PMRA) differs from a conventional roof design in that the
membrane is placed under the insulation layer, helping to maximize membrane life by protecting
it from temperature extremes, freeze-thaw cycles, ultraviolet (UV) ray degradation, and traffic
wear. A PMRA begins with the application of the ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM)
membrane, followed by the extruded polystyrene foam plastic insulation boards, the protective
scrim, and finally, the ballast.
Extruded polystyrene foam roofing boards are the only type of insulation recommended for use
and approved by many building codes in PMRA systems. Again, this is because extruded
polystyrene foam plastic insulation resists moisture absorption and crushing from foot or
equipment traffic so thoroughly. The end result of a successful PMRA system is a great shield
against unwanted airflow, and further reduction in the heat escaping from the building, which
translates into lowered energy consumption.
The current initiative toward green building is manifesting itself throughout the built
environment, as design teams seek ways to keep their projects as energy-efficient as possible.
One method for helping achieve adequate thermal protection is the specification of insulation in
appropriate applications. At several locations within the building, extruded polystyrene foam
plastic insulation can offer these energy-efficient benefits.
Due to this gas movement, the overall thermal resistance of an insulation product may change
over time. This phenomenon is typically called aging. Foam aging is not new and has been
discussed in numerous papers over the years. Recent data on extruded polystyrene foam plastic
insulation products and long-term performance demonstrate the excellent long-term thermal
performance of extruded polystyrene foam plastic insulation products in the laboratory. See Chau
Vo and Andrew Paquets An Evaluation of the Thermal Conductivity for Extruded Polystyrene
Foam Blown with HFC 134a or HCFC 142b in the 2004 edition of Journal of Cellular Plastics.

For more on XPS applications, visit the XPSA Web site at www.xpsa.com.

See Energy and Environmental Benefits of Extruded Polystyrene Foam and Fiberglass
Insulation Products in U.S. Residential and Commercial Buildings, by Merle F. McBride, PhD,

Visit arch.rivm.nl/env/int/ipcc/docs/IPCC-TEAP99/index.html.

See A.D. Littles Global Comparative Analysis of HFC and Alternative Technologies for
Refrigeration, Air Conditioning, Foam, Solvent, Aerosol Propellant, and Fire Protection

This information takes into account the following ASTM International standards: ASTM C 57806, Standard Specification for Rigid, Cellular Polystyrene Thermal Insulation; ASTM 1289-06,
Standard Specification for Faced Rigid Cellular Polyisocyanurate Thermal Insulation Board;
and ASTM C 1029-05a, Standard Specification for Spray-applied Rigid Cellular Polyurethane
Thermal Insulation.

See Development of Experimental Data on Extruded Polystyrene Roofing Insulation under

Simulated Winter Exposure Conditions (Report #SPI-6443, Energy Materials Testing
Laboratory). See also U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratories Report:
Moisture in the Roofs of Cold Storage Buildings, by Wayne Tobiasson and Alan Greatorex.

For more on FPSF technology, see Frost-protected Shallow Foundations, by Elizabeth M.

Steiner in the November 2004 issue of Modern Materials.
Susan Herrenbruck is the executive director of the Extruded Polystyrene Foam Association
(XPSA), a trade association representing manufacturers of XPS insulation products and its raw
material suppliers.

Polyurethane in Home Construction

Polyurethane adhesives and polyurethane sealants are finding increasing uses within the housing
construction industry for various reasons. The material offers good adhesion to numerous
substrates, such as concrete, wood, plastic, and glass due to its elasticity and structural
properties. These features, along with continued technological improvement, have widened the
number of polyurethane adhesive and polyurethane sealant applications in residential projects.
Originally, polyurethanes found use in the manufactured housing market and modular homes.
The materials elasticity provided the necessary flexibility and structural integrity, allowing the
manufactured home to be moved onto the site without nail popping or joint breakage. Currently,

a two-part polyurethane adhesive is the predominant adhesive used for attaching the ceiling
gypsum wallboard to the truss rafters. In volume units, this is one of the largest applications for
two-part polyurethane adhesives in the housing construction market.
A hidden advantage of the two-part polyurethane adhesive product is its allowance for a multiple
cure system. For instance, one catalyst can work nearly instantly to build viscosity and resist
slumping on vertical surfaces, while a slower secondary curative allows for longer open time and
then final cure. Thus, the two-part urethane system can be custom-formulated to fit the desired
working environment.
Polyurethane adhesives applications and advantages
One type of project where polyurethane adhesives are employed is modular construction, which
is built on the same lines as manufactured housing, using the same bonding systems. (This
construction type represents less than three percent of all housing in the United States, with the
majority being classrooms, day care centers, and field offices.) Perhaps the largest use of any
polyurethane adhesive is the moisture curable system. Its usage joins sub-flooring to floor joists
in combination with nails. This type of adhesive bonding is also used in manufactured housing
for both floors and exterior walls.
Recent uses for moisture cure polyurethane adhesives can also be found in finish carpentry.
Finish carpenters use the material for adhering the corner joints of trim framing for doors and
windows. This application prevents the expansion and contraction caused by humidity and
temperature of the corner joints, potentially eliminating call-backs to the builder.
Finish carpenters have continued to find uses for this type of polyurethane adhesive, such as
building staircases that command stronger, non-squeeze steps and railing systems. There are also
other incidental uses for this adhesive in the installation of various cabinetries and other finish
trimming. An example would be the need to place decorative spacer boards between cabinets or
between a cabinet and wall. The polyurethane adhesive helps prevent separation cracks in the
cabinet facing due to seasonal changes in the wood as it contracts and expands.
While the focus of this article has thus far been on polyurethane adhesives, polyurethane sealants
have also become a mainstay in the construction industry. The newer silyl-terminated
polyurethanes have enhanced the properties and usefulness of one-component, moisture-cured,
paintable urethane sealants to fit the energy-efficient trends of the public.
Forecasting future functions
So what does the future hold for polyurethane adhesives and polyurethane sealants? An analysis
of todays trends in the housing construction market provides a basis for polyurethane adhesive
usage estimation. The major trends in the construction industry that may impact this usage are:

1. Continued increase in methods and materials improving energy efficiency.

2. Older generations demanding low maintenance and high quality.
3. Warranties on new homes (and the expense of costly call-backs) have made
the builder more aware of polyurethane adhesives benefits.
4. Increased use of various types of engineered lumber and joists.
5. Prefabrication of components built off-site.
6. Greater demand to build homes that can withstand natural forces, including
earthquakes. (In some coastal regions, building codes have begun to
embrace higher standards.)

While none of these trends directly promote the use of polyurethane adhesives, most are likely to
indirectly advance the use of polyurethane adhesives and polyurethane sealants within the
housing industry.
In many residential construction applications, it is expected some type of mechanical fastener
will continue to be used, but adhesives could be a new source for application. For instance,
controlled studies have demonstrated polyurethane adhesives used with mechanical fasteners in
the framing of a house can provide strong resistance to the damaging high winds of hurricanes
and tornados.1 The flexibility of the adhesive is the key to providing greater resiliency against
these exterior forces. In fact, some builders in the Pacific Northwest already use adhesives for
joining the roof sheathing to the roof rafters, so as to help stabilize the roof against high winds.
Wrapped or bent lumber that must be pulled into position requires a mechanical fastener to hold
it in shape, but engineered lumber can be more conducive to using polyurethane adhesives
because it is dimensionally stable and flat. Composite lumber used in building decks will benefit
easily from the use of structural urethane adhesives, as these materials can eliminate the need for
hole-drilling and/or special mechanical fasteners. In this case, the polyurethane adhesives can
prevent surface damage caused by the use of a screw or nail.
More stringent building codes, increased use of prefabrication, engineered lumber, energy
efficiency, and higher warranties all will play key roles in even newer applications for
polyurethane adhesives. Particularly, polyurethane adhesives are expected to benefit greatly due
to their structuralyet flexibleproperties and the potential ease of application.
Design professionals looking for more information on currentand potentialuses of
polyurethane sealants and polyurethane adhesives in both housing and non-residential
construction can seek out the Adhesive and Sealant Council (ASC). For more information, visit

For more information, see the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universitys (Virginia
Techs) Acrylic [Pressure-sensitive Adhesive] PSA Tapes in Structural Applications in Housing
Construction, by William P. Jacobs et al.

About the Author

Roger J. Lohman is vice president of the Cincinnati, Ohio-based ChemQuest Group Inc., an
international strategic management consulting firm specializing in the adhesives, sealants, and
coatings industries. He gratefully acknowledges the help of the Adhesive and Sealant Council
(ASC) in preparing this article. Lohman can be contacted via e-mail at

Biological concrete for constructing 'living'

building materials with lichens, mosses

Simulation of a vegetated faade at the Aeronautical Cultural Centre in El Prat de Llobregat.

Credit: Courtesy UPC

The Structural Technology Group has developed and patented a type of biological concrete that
supports the natural, accelerated growth of pigmented organisms. The material, which has been
designed for the faades of buildings or other constructions in Mediterranean climates, offers
environmental, thermal and aesthetic advantages over other similar construction solutions. The
material improves thermal comfort in buildings and helps to reduce atmospheric CO2 levels.
In studying this concrete, the researchers at the Structural Technology Group of the Universitat
Politcnica de Catalunya BarcelonaTech (UPC) have focused on two cement-based materials.
The first of these is conventional carbonated concrete (based on Portland cement), with which
they can obtain a material with a pH of around 8. The second material is manufactured with a
magnesium phosphate cement (MPC), a hydraulic conglomerate that does not require any
treatment to reduce its pH, since it is slightly acidic.
On account of its quick setting properties, magnesium phosphate cement has been used in the
past as a repair material. It has also been employed as a biocement in the field of medicine and
dentistry, indicating that it does not have an additional environmental impact.
The innovative feature of this new (vertical multilayer) concrete is that it acts as a natural
biological support for the growth and development of certain biological organisms, to be
specific, certain families of microalgae, fungi, lichens and mosses.
Having patented the idea, the team is investigating the best way to promote the accelerated
growth of these types of organisms on the concrete. The goal of the research is to succeed in
accelerating the natural colonisation process so that the surface acquires an attractive appearance

in less than a year. A further aim is that the appearance of the faades constructed with the new
material should evolve over time, showing changes of colour according to the time of year and
the predominant families of organisms. On these kinds of buildings, other types of vegetation are
prevented from appearing, lest their roots damage construction elements.
Three layers of material
In order to obtain the biological concrete, besides the pH, other parameters that influence the
bioreceptivity of the material have been modified, such as porosity and surface roughness. The
result obtained is a multilayer element in the form of a panel which, in addition to a structural
layer, consists of three other layers: the first of these is a waterproofing layer situated on top of
the structural layer, protecting the latter from possible damage caused by water seeping through.
The next layer is the biological layer, which supports colonisation and allows water to
accumulate inside it. It acts as an internal microstructure, aiding retention and expelling
moisture; since it has the capacity to capture and store rainwater, this layer facilitates the
development of biological organisms.
The final layer is a discontinuous coating layer with a reverse waterproofing function. This layer
permits the entry of rainwater and prevents it from escaping; in this way, the outflow of water is
redirected to where it is aimed to obtain biological growth.
CO2 reduction
The new material, which has various applications, offers environmental, thermal and aesthetic
advantages, according to the research team led by Antonio Aguado and supported by Ignacio
Segura and Sandra Manso. From an environmental perspective, the new concrete absorbs and
therefore reduces atmospheric CO2, thanks to its biological coating.
At the same time, it has the capacity to capture solar radiation, making it possible to regulate
thermal conductivity inside the buildings depending on the temperature reached. The biological
concrete acts not only as an insulating material and a thermal regulator, but also as an ornamental
alternative, since it can be used to decorate the faade of buildings or the surface of constructions
with different finishes and shades of colour; it has been designed for the colonisation of certain
areas with a variety of colours, without the need to cover an entire surface. The idea is to create a
patina in the form of a biological covering or a "living" painting.
There are also possibilities for its use in garden areas as a decorative element and as a sustainable
means of blending buildings and constructions into the landscape.
Architectural renovation

The material lends itself to a new concept of vertical garden, not only for newly built
constructions, but also for the renovation of existing buildings. Unlike the current vegetated
faade and vertical garden systems, the new material supports biological growth on its own
surface; therefore, complex supporting structures are not required, and it is possible to choose the
area of the faade to which the biological growth is to be applied.
Vegetated faades and vertical gardens depend on a plant substrate in some type of container, or
they use cultures that are totally substrate-independent, such as hydroponic cultures. However,
they require complex systems attached to the construction itself (layers of material) and even
adjacent structures made of metal or plastic. This can lead to complications associated with
additional loads, the reduction of light, or the reduction of space around the building. With the
new "green" concrete, the organisms can grow directly on the multi-layered material.
Patent and commercialisation The research has led to a doctoral thesis, which Sandra Manso is
writing. At present, the experimental campaign corresponding to the phase of biological growth
is being conducted, and this will be completed at the UPC and the University of Ghent
(Belgium). This research has received support from Antonio Gmez Bolea, a lecturer in the
Faculty of Biology at the University of Barcelona, who has made contributions in the field of
biological growth on construction materials.
At present, a patent is in the process of being obtained for this innovative product, and the
Catalan company ESCOFET 1886 S.A., a manufacturer of concrete panels for architectural and
urban furniture purposes, has already shown an interest in commercialising the material.

Story Source:
The above story is based on materials provided by Universitat Politcnica de Catalunya
(UPC). Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.