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1.

Fundamentals .................................................................................................................................... 2

1.1. Types of Rigs ............................................................................................................................ 2

2. Hoisting System................................................................................................................................ 3

2.1. Hoisting Design Considerations ............................................................................................... 5

2.2. Power Requirements of the Drawworks................................................................................... 7

3. Drilling Line Design Considerations .............................................................................................. 12

3.1. Ton-Miles (Mega joules) Of A Drilling Line ......................................................................... 12

3.2. Evaluation Of Total Service And Cut-Off Practice................................................................ 15

4. ROTATING EQUIPMENT............................................................................................................ 16

5. Circulating System.......................................................................................................................... 17

5.1. Volumetric Efficiency ............................................................................................................ 18

5.2. HORSEPOWER ..................................................................................................................... 18

5.3. Pump Output ........................................................................................................................... 19

5.4. Pump Factors .......................................................................................................................... 19

5.5. Centrifugal Pumps .................................................................................................................. 20

5.6. Mud Handling Equipment ...................................................................................................... 20

6. Pressure Cont rol Equipment ........................................................................................................... 21

7. Derrick Capacity and Substructure ................................................................................................. 23

8. Total Power Requirements ............................................................................................................. 27

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Rig Sizing

1.

FUNDAMENTALS

A drilling rig is a device used to drill, case and cement water, oil and gas wells.

The correct procedure for selecting and sizing a drilling rig is as follows:

1. Design the well

2. Establish the various loads to be expected during drilling and testing and use the highest. This

point establishes the DEPTH RATING OF THE RIG.

3. Compare the rating of existing rigs with the design load

4. Select the appropriate rig and its components.

1.1.

Types of Rigs

Land rigs

Offshore rigs

There are two types of offshore rigs:

1. Floating rigs:

Semisubmersible

Drillships

2. Bottom-supported rigs: There are three types:

Jack-ups

Platform

Barge

The major components that need to be selected and sized for the purpose of rig sizing are:

1. Hoisting

2. Rotating Equipment

3. Circulating System

4. Tubular Goods

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5. Pressure Control

6. Derrick Capacity And Substructure

7. Power Requirements

2.

Drawwork: this is an assembly of a rotating drum, a series of shafts, clutches, chains and gears for

changing speed and for reversing, figure 2. It also contains the main brake for stopping the drilling

line. The drilling line is wound a number of times around the drum, the end of the line then passes

on the crown and travelling blocks.

Crown Block: A block located at the top of the derrick. It contains a number of sheaves on which

is wound the drilling line. The crown block provides a means of taking the drilling line from the

hoisting drum to the travelling block. The crown block is stationary and is firmly fastened to the

top of the derrick. Each sheave inside the crown block acts as an individual pulley.

The drilling line is reeved round the crown block and travelling block sheaves with the end line going

to an anchoring clamp called DEAD LINE ANCHOR. The static line is called the deadline. The

line section connecting the drum with the crown block is called the fastline.

Figure 1 Schematic Of The Hoisting System

Crown Block

Fixed sheaves

W/4

W/4

W/4

W/4

W/4

W/4

Fastline

Deadline

Travelling Block

Hook

Drawworks

Drilling

Lines

Deadline

Anchor

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Hence during hoisting operations, if there are 10 lines between the crown and travelling block, the

fastline line travels 10 times faster than the travelling block in order to spool or unspool drilling line

from the hoisting drum.

The DEAD LINE ANCHOR anchors the last line coming from the crown block and also stores

drilling line on a reel. This allows new lengths of line to be fed into the system to replace the worn

parts of the line that have been moving on the pulleys of the crown block or the travelling block. The

worn parts are regularly cut and removed, Slip and Cut Practice. Slipping the line, then cutting it off

helps to increase the lifetime of the drilling line.

Travelling Block: a diamond-shaped block containing a number of sheaves which is always less

than those in the crown block. The drilling line is wound continuously on the crown and Travelling

blocks, with the two outside ends being wound on the hoisting drum and attached to the deadline

anchor respectively, figure 3.

The Hook: connects the Kelly or topdrive with the travelling block. The hook carries the entire

drilling load, figure 3.

Drilling Line

The drilling is basically a wire rope made up of strands wound around a steel core. Each strand

contains a number of small wires wound around a central core.

The drilling line is of the round strand type with Langs lay. The drilling line has a 6x19 construction

with Independent Wire Rope Core (IWRC). This construction implies that there are 6 strands and each

strand containing 19 filler wires.

The size of the drilling line varies from to 2 .

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2.1.

The procedure for carrying out hoisting design calculations are as follows:

1. Determine the deepest hole to be drilled

2. Determine the worst drilling loads or casing loads

3. Use these values the select the drilling line, the derrick capacity and in turn the derrick

1.

Static derrick loading (SDL)= fast-line load + hook load + dead-line load

Referring to figure 1 and for a system consisting of four lines supporting the hook load, then under static

conditions:

Fast- line load (FL) = Hook load /4

Dead-line load (DL) = Hook load /4

Hl

HL 3

+ HL +

= HL

4

4

2

Equation 1

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SDL =

=

( N + 2)

HL

N

Equation 2

where

N = number of lines strung to travelling block

HL = hook load

2.

a.

EF =

K (1 K n )

N (1 K )

FL =

HL

NxEF

Equation 3

Equation 4

where

K = sheave and line efficiency per sheave

Deadline- load is given by:

HL x KN

DL =

N x EF

Equation 5

If the breaking strength of the drilling line is known, then a design factor, DF, may be

calculated as follows:

nominal strength of wire rope (lb)

DF =

fast-line load (lb)

B.

Equation 6

Lowering Operations

During lowering of pipe, the efficiency factor and fast- line load are given by

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N x KN x (1 - K)

(EF) LOWERING =

(1-KN)

Equation 7

W x KN x (1 - K)

(FL) LOWERING =

(1-KN)

Equation 8

(Note all design calculations require this number)

Calculate the efficiency factor for a hoisting system employing 8 string lines. Assume

the value of K to be 0.9615.

Solution

K x (1 - KN)

EF =

N x (1 - K)

0.9615 (1 - 0.9615 8 )

=

8 (1 - 0.9615)

= 0.842

Table 1 can be constructed for different numbers of lines strung between the crown

and travelling blocks.

TABLE 1 Block And Tackle Efficiency Factors For K = 0.9615

Number of lines strung

6

8

10

12

2.2.

Efficiency factor

0.874

0.842

0.811

0.782

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Hence for a 20,000 ft well, the drawwork should have 2000 HP. A more rigorous way of calculating the

horse power requirements is as follows:

a)

Vf = N x VL

Equation 9

where

VL = velocity of travelling block

N = number of lines strung

b)

(HL) x VL

P = --------EF

Equation 10

In the Imperial system, power is quoted in horse-power and the above equation becomes:

HL x VL

Drum output = ------------ horsepower

EF x 33,000

Equation 11

The following data refer to a 1.5 in block line with 10 lines of extra improved plough

steel wire rope strung to the travelling block.

hole depth

= 10,000 ft

drillpipe

= 5 in OD/4.276 in ID, 19.5 lb/ft

drill collars

= 500 ft, 8 in/2,825 in, 150 lb/ft

mud weight = 10 ppg

line and sheave efficiency coefficient = 0.9615

Calculate:

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

hook load, assuming weight of travelling block and hook to be 23,500 lb;

deadline and fast-line loads, assuming an efficiency factor of 0.81;

dynamic crown load;

wireline design factor during drilling if breaking strength of wire is 228,000 lb

design factor when running 7 in casing of 29 lb/ft.

Solution

(1)

Weight of string in air

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260,250 lb

=

= 0.847 x 260,250

=

(2)

220,432 lb

Hook load

= weight of string in mud

+ weight of travelling block, etc

= 220,432 + 23,500

= 243,932 lb

(3)

Deadline load

HL K10

243,932 x 0.961510

= - =

N EF

10 x 0.81

= 20,336 lb

HL

243,932

Fast-line load = =

N x EF

10 x 0.81

= 30,115 lb

(4)

Dynamic crown load

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= DL + FL + HL

= 20,336 + 30,115 + 243,932

= 294,383 lb

(5)

breaking strength

=

fast-line load

Design factor

228,000

=

30,115

(6)

= 7.6

= 10,000 x 29 x BF

= 245,630 lb

HL

+ weight of travelling block, etc

= 245,630 + 23,500

= 269,130 lb

FL

DF

HL

269,130

= = = 33,226 lb

N x EF

10 x 0.81

228,000

= = 6.9

33,226

The following data refer to an oilwell block-and-tackle system:

Number of lines = 10 with EF = 0.81

Maximum expected hook load

= 500,000 lbf

hook load speed

= 120 ft/min

Hoisting drum diameter

= 32"

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Calculate

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

The motor power required

The fastline

Motor to drum gear ratio when pulling out of hole the maximum allowable

load.

Solution

Vw

=

HLxVw

1

x(

)

EF

33,000

= 500,000 x 120 x 1

0.81 x 33000

= 2245 HP

Power at drum

2245

= Motor Power x 0.88

Fastline

(Vf = N x Vw_)

= 10 x 120 = 1200 ft/min

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Gear ratio

Motor speed

Drum speed

1200 (ft/min)

Drum speed

= 143 rpm

Gear ratio

1200

=

477.5

= 2.5

Assuming the motor speed is 1200 rpm, which is a reasonable speed for a motor rated to 3000 HP.

3.

3.1.

The drilling line, like any other drilling equipment, does work at any time it is

involved in moving equipment in or out of the hole. The amount of work done varies

depending the operation involved. This work causes the wireline to wear and if the line

is not replaced it will eventually break.

The amount of work done need to be calculated to determine when to change the

drilling line. The following gives equations for calculating the work done on the

drilling line:

a)

D (LS+D) We

D (M+C/2)

Tr = + ton-miles

10,560,000

2,640,000

Equation 12

where

M

Ls

D

We

C

= length of each stand (ft)

= hole depth (ft)

= effective weight per foot (or master) of drill pipe in mud

= (L x Wdc - L x Wdp ) x BF

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Wdc

Wdp

L

b)

= weight of drill pipe in air

= length of drill collars

Td = 3(T2 - T1 )

c)

Equation 13

Equation 14

Tc = (T2 - T1 )

where

T2 = WD for 1 round trip at d2 where coring stopped before coming out of the hole.

T1 = WD for 1 round trip at depth d1 , where coring started

d)

1

Ts =

2

D (Ls+D) x Wcs

MD

[ + ]

10,560,000

2,640,000

Equation 15

where

Wcs

Ls

M

D

= length of casing joint

= mass of travelling assembly (lb)

= hole depth (ft)

Using the data given in Example 3, determine; (a) round trip ton-miles at 10,000 ft; (b) casing ton- miles if

one joint of casing = 40 ft; (c) design factor of the drilling line when the 7 inch casing is run to 10,000 ft;

(d) the ton- miles when coring from 10,000 ft to 10.180 ft and (e) the ton- miles when drilling from 10,000

to 10,180 ft.

Solution

(a)

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D (LS+D) We

D (M+C/2)

Tr = + ton-miles

10,560,000

2,640,000

M

C

= 23.500 lb

= (L x Wdc - L x Wdp) BF

= (500 x 150 - 500 x 19.5) x 0.847

= 55,267

D

Ls

We

= 10,000 ft

= 93 ft

=19.5 x BF = 167.52 lb/ft

Therefore,

Tr

=

10,560,000

10,000 x (23,500 + 55,267/2)

+

2,640,000

= 157.9 + 193.7

= 351.6 ton-miles

(b)

Ts

1

=

2

D x (Ls + D) x Wcs

DxM

[ + ]

10,560,000

2,640,000

Wcs

= 29 x 0.847 = 24.56 lb/ft

Ls

= 40 ft

Ts

1

10,000 x (40 +10,000)

= [

+

2

10,560,000

10,000 x 23,500

]

2,640,000

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(233.5 + 89.0)

= 161.3 ton-miles

(c)

DF

(d)

Tc

= 2 (T2 - T1 )

where T2 = round trip time at 10,180 ft, where coring stopped, and T1 = round trip time at 10,000

ft, where coring started. Therefore,

T2

=

10,560,000

10,180 x (23,500 + 55,267/2)

+

2,640,000

= 163.6 + 197.2

= 360.8 ton-miles

T1

Therefore,

Tc

= 2 x (360.8 - 351.6)

= 18.4 ton-miles

(e)

Td

= 3 x (T2 - T1 )

= 3 x (360.8 - 351.6)

= 27.6 ton-miles

3.2.

Portions of the drilling line on the crown and travelling blocks sheaves and on the hoisting drum carry the

greatest amount of work and is subjected to a great deal of wear and tear. These parts must be cut and

removed at regular times other wise the drilling line will fail by fatigue. The process is called slip and

cut practice.

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Length of drum laps = number of laps x drum circumference

= number of laps x x D

4.

Equation 16

Kelly (Figure 5)

Top Drive (this is equivalent to the Kelly and rotary table, i.e. either top drive or Kelly/rotary table

Swivel

Rotary hose

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Courtesy of National Oilwell

5.

The heart of the circulating system is the mud pumps. There are two types of pumps used in the oil

industry: Duplex and Triplex.

A basic pump consists of a piston (the liner) reciprocating inside a cylinder. A pump is described as

single acting if it pumps fluid on the forward stroke (Triplex pumps) and double acting if it pumps fluid

on both the forward and backward stokes (Duplex). Figure 7 shows a triplex mud pump.

Figure 7 Triplex Mud Pump, Courtesy of National Oilwell

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Pump Liners: Pump liners fit inside the pump cavity. These affect the pressure rating and flow rate from

the pump. For a given pump, a liner has the same OD but with different Ids. The smaller liner (small

ID) is used in the deeper part of the well where low flow rate is required but at much higher operating

pressure.

The horse power requirements of the pump depends on the flow rate and the pressure. The operating

pressure depends on flow rate, depth and size of hole, size of drillpipe and drillcollars, mud properties

and size of nozzles used. A full hydraulics program needs to be calculated to determine the pressure

requirement of the pump.

The size of the pump is determined by the length of its stroke and the size of the liner.

5.1.

Volumetric Efficiency

Drilling mud usually contain little air and is slightly compressible. Hence the piston moves through a

shorter stroke than theoretically possible before reaching discharge pressure. As a result the volumetric

efficiency is always less than one; typically 95% for triplex and 90% for duplex.

In addition due to power losses in drives, the mechanical efficiency of most pumps is about 85%.

5.2.

HORSEPOWER

The following equations can be used to calculate the power output of a mud pump:

1713.6

(psi)

Equation 17

Equation 18

Hydraulic horsepower = brake horsepower x efficiency of power

train to pump x pump efficiency

[Power in kW

Equation 19

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5.3.

Pump Output

gal/min = 0.00679 x L x (2D2 - d2 ) x spm x volumetric efficiency

Equation 20

Equation 21

5.4.

Equation 22

Equation 23

Pump Factors

In practice, it convenient to express the pump output in terms of how many gallons or

barrels for every stroke of the pump. The equations for the two types of pumps are:

For duplex

Nc x 1s x (2 x dl2 - dr2 ) x Ev

Fp =

42 x 294

Equation 24

For triplex

Fp =

1s x dl2 x Ev

42 x 98.03

Equation 25

where

Nc = number of cylinders

1s = length of stroke, inch

dl = liner diameter, inch

dr = rod diameter, inch=

Ev = volumetric efficiency, fraction

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Calculate the power requirement for the following pump:

Flow rate

Pressure

= 1200 gpm

= 2000 psi

Solution

Hydraulic horsepower = flow rate (gal/min) x pressure (psi)

1713.6

Hydraulic horsepower = 1200 x 2000

1713.6

= 1400.6 HP

Power required from motor = 1400.6 / 0.85

= 1648 HP

5.5.

Centrifugal Pumps

This type uses an impeller for the movement of fluid rather than a piston reciprocating inside

a cylinder. Centrifugal pumps are used to supercharge mud pumps and providing fluid to

solids control equipment and mud mixing equipment.

5.6.

Rig sizing must incorporate mud handling equipment as these equipment form the heart of the circulation

system and determine the speed of drilling and the quality of hole drilled.

The equipment includes:

1. Shale Shakers: size, number of type

The type of mud (i.e. oil-based or water-based) determines the type of the shaker required and the motion

of the shaker. Deep holes require more than the customary three shakers.

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2. Mud Pits

The number and size of pits is determined by the size and depth of hole. Other factors include: size of rig

and space available, especially on offshore rigs. The size of a mud pit is usually 8-12 ft wide, 20-40 ft

long and 6-12 ft high.

Volumes Of Tanks

bbl/in in round tank = (diameter in feet) 2 /85.7

bbl/in in square tank = 0.143 (length, ft) x (width, ft)

cu.ft/in in square tank = 0.0833 (length, ft ) x (width, ft)

m3/cm in round tank

3. Mud degasser

4. Centrifuges and mud cleaners

5. Desanders and desilters

The selection of the above equipment determines the loading on the derrick.

6.

BOPs equipment are selected base on the maximum expected wellbore pressures. The pressure rating,

size and number of BOP components must be determined by the Drilling engineer prior to drilling the

well. This is the sizing exercise.

Select:

1. Diverter if required, usually for offshore operations during the drilling of top or surface hole.

Make sure the diverter discharge line is 12 or above.

2. Annular preventer

3. Ram preventers (determine minimum size of rams required to suit the drillstring)

4. Blind or Shear rams

5. Choke manifold

6. HCR valves

7. Choke and Kill lines

8. Accumulator and BOP Control System (Koomey Unit)

9. Drilling spools: used as an element between rams to provide mud exit lines such as choke and kill

lines. Drilling spools can be flanged, studded or clamp-on type.

10. For air drilling, rotating heads are used to allow well control while the pipe is rotating.

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Kelly cock

Drop in valve (check valve)

Float valve (either flapper or spring- loaded ball valve)

Full opening safety valves

BOPs are rated by API as 3M (3000 psi), 5M, 10 M and 15 M. For HPHT, BOPS are either 15 M

or 20 M.

All the above equipment must be rated to the highest pressure to be expected at the well during a kick

or during controlled testing and production.

In subsea operations, the BOP stack is installed at seabed. The stack has several back up units in case

of failure, for example two annulars are used so that if one failed the other can be used. This back-up

system principle is applied to all the BOP components. The subsea stack for HPHT operation may not

be part of the rig contract and may have to be rented out separately, egg a 20K stack.

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7.

The derrick provides the necessary height and support to lift loads in and out of the well. The derrick

must be strong enough to support the hook load, deadline and fastline loads, pipe setback load and

wind loads.

There are two types of derricks:

1. Standard Derrick: is a bolted structure that must be assembled part by part, usually used on

offshore platforms.

Derricks installed on floating structures such as ships and semisubmersibles are designed to withstand

extra dynamic stresses due to rolling, pitching and heaving of the support and due to stresses from

winds. The space available between the rig floor and the crown block must be higher to handle the

wave- induced vertical movements of the floating support.

2. Mast or Portable derrick: This type is pivoted at its base and is lowered to the horizontal by the

use of drawers after completing the well and the rig is ready to move to another location. the

mast dismantles into a number of pin-jointed sections, each of which is usually a truck load.

The mast is usually used on land operations where the complete rig must be moved between well

locations. at the new location, the sections are quickly pined together and the mast is raised to the

vertical by the drawworks.

The derrick consists of four legs connected by horizontal structural members described as girts. the

derrick is further strengthened by bracing members connecting the girts.

The derrick sits on a substructure on which drilling equipment is mounted. The substructure is

composed of derrick supports and rotary supports.

The derrick supports consist of four posts and exterior bracing between the supports. the rotary

supports consist of beams and braces to support the rotary table and pipeset back load.

The height of the substructure above the ground varies according to the size of the substructure and

the size and rating of the wellhead and BOPs. For a base size of 30 ft , the height is 10- 14 ft.

= fast-line load + hook load + dead-line load

=

Hl

HL 3

+ HL +

= HL

4

4

2

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( N + 2)

HL

N

where

N = number of lines strung to travelling block

HL = hook load

The wind load is given by : 0.004 V2 (units lb/ft2 )

where V is wind speed in miles/hour

The above result must be multiplied by the WIND LOAD AREA which is given in API 4A for different

derrick sizes in order to obtain the load in lb..

The following data refer to a 1.5 in block line with 10 lines of extra improved plough

steel wire rope strung to the travelling block.

hole depth

= 10,000 ft

drillpipe

= 5 in OD/4.276 in ID, 19.5 lb/ft

drill collars

= 500 ft, 8 in/2,825 in, 150 lb/ft

mud weight = 10 ppg

line and sheave efficiency coefficient = 0.9615

Calculate

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

hook load, assuming weight of travelling block and hook to be 23,500 lb;

deadline and fast-line loads, assuming an efficiency factor of 0.81;

dynamic crown load;

wireline design factor during drilling if breaking strength of wire is 228,000 lb (1,010 kN);

design factor when running 9 5/8 in casing of 53.5 lb/ft .

dynamic derrick load when running the 9 5/8 casing

Solution

(1)

=

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260,250 lb

Weight of string in mud

(2)

0.847 x 260,250

220,432 lb

Hook load

= weight of string in mud

+ weight of travelling block, etc

= 220,432 + 23,500

HL

= 243,932 lb

(3)

Deadline load

HL K10

= x

N

EF

243,932 x 0.961510

10 x 0.81

= 20,336 lb

Fast-line load

HL

=

N x EF

243,932

10 x 0.81

= 30,115 lb

(4)

= DL + FL + HL

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= 294,383 lb

(5)

Design factor =

breaking strength

fast-line load

228,000

= - = 7.6

30,115

(6)

= 10,000 x 53.5 x BF

= 453,145 lb

HL

= 453,145 + 23,500

= 476,645 lb

FL

HL

=

N x EF

476.645

10 x 0.81

= 58,845 lb

228,000

DF

=

------= 3.9

58,845

(7) Dynamic derrick loading during running casing = FLL + HL + DLL

Deadline load

HL K10

= N

EF

476,645 x 0.9615 10

=

10 x 0.81

= 39,738

= 575,228 lb

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Hence the derrick capacity must be approximately 750,000 lb to allow fo r extra loading such as wind ,

pipe setback load etc.

8.

The total power requirement of a rig is the sum of the power requirement of:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Drawworks

mud pumps

Rotary system

Auxiliary power requirements for lighting etc.

life support system

The above total power may not be required in a continuous but in an intermittent mode.

The actual power required will depend on the drilling job being carried out. The maximum power used

is during hoisting and circulation. The least power use d is during wireline operations.

The majority of rigs in current use require between 1000 3000 horsepower.

The power on modern rigs is most commonly generated by diesel-electric power units. The power

produced is AC current which is then converted to DC current by the use of SCR (Silicon Controlled

Rectifier) . The current is delivered by cables to electric motors attached directly to the equipment

involved such as mud pumps, rotary table, Drawworks etc.

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