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Combines the style of


Aikido, Shotokan
karatedo and Jujutsu.

Aikido which means "The


Way of Harmony of spirit"
was originated and
founded by 0 Sensei
Morehei Ueshiba in
Japan. While Shotokanis regarded as the most popularform of karate.
Jujutsu is a form martial arts that employs ground defense
techniques. Combining the three art forms brings the art of a
comprehensive and effective defensive combat through
discipline of mind and body.

Aikiso-Jutsu martial arts was founded by Sensei Rodel Machuha, 5th


Dan Blackbelt in Aikido and 6th Dan Blackbelt in karatedo, in the year
1993. Saudi Arabia.

Aikisho Jutsu January 2006


North West Armed Forces Hospitals Program
P.O Box 100 Tabuk Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
COMMONLY USED JAPANESE TERMS FOR TRAINING TRAININGANDREGULATIONS

BOWING
& GREETINGS COMMONLY
USED
AIKIDOTERMS .' 1. Newmemberswill haveto undergoa brieforientationabouttheclub,its rulesandregulationsto beconductedby
anassignedscreeningoffice~s)onthefirstdayof theirtraining.
Oss -Courtesygreting Ikkyo -Armpin
ShomeniRei -Preparetobow Nikkyo -WristInwardTum 2. Probationaryandregularmembers oftheclubwhoattendthetraining
sessionshouldbecomewithcomplete
Rei -Bow Sankyo -Wrist(Inward)Twist formalwhitetraining
(Gi)uniform,
whichincludes
thestandardtypeofpants,coatandappropriate
bell
heikoDachi -Informal
Stance KoteGaeshi -Wristoutward throw
heisoku
Dachi -FormalAsttention lrimiNage -Entering NeckThrow 3. Probationary
memebersareallowedto temporarilywearjoggingpantsanda whiteshirtuntilhe/shecould
MusubiDachi -Formalattention
priorto KokyuNage -Breath Throw procurea completesetof uniformat a giventime.
kataorKumite ShinoNage -FourComerThrow
OtuKaine -Faceyourpartner KaitenNage < -Rotary Throw 4. Onlyhigherbelts(Blueto Blackbelt)areallowedtowearpantsor hakamaduringthetrainingsession.
KoshiNage -HipThrow'
STANCES 5. Anymembers
JujiNage -Armentwining ThrowlFigure whocomeslateforregular
training
sessions,
fifteen(15)minutes
afterit hasbegunshallbe
Dachi -Stance lrimiI Omote -StraightI Lateral
entry requiredtoperform
push-upsorotherformofexercisesforaperiodtonedetermined
alsobytheinstructor
Kibadachi -Horse/Straddle
stance Tenkan I Ura -Circularmovement I Sidetum beforethelatercomercanproceedtojointhetraining.
Zenkutsudachi -Forwardstance Randori -Multipleattack
Kokutsudachi -Backstance Tantadori -Knifeattack 6. Wearingofwatch,ring,bracelet,or protectivedeviceonfoot,leg,handarmandheadarenot allowedduring
Nekoashidachi -Catstance trainingsessionsin casesa membershouldwaera headband,sweatbandor mustwearbandageor supportfor
Hangezudachi -Half-moonstance anyinjuryorfunctionalwaekness,themembershouldinformtheinstructoror ChiefInstructor.
OTHERUSEDTERMS
PUNCHES Yoi -Ready
7. No membershallbeallowedto joinanyactivityin whichwearingor Gi is requiredunless;in thejudgejudgement
Hajimi -Start of the instructoror ChiefInstructor,hisfingeror toenails,hairwhereapplicable,havebeensufficientlytrimmed.
Zuki -Punch
Ribuki -Breathe
Jodanzuki -Upperpunch No member shall be allowed to leave hislher Gi or any personal things in the dojo or gym after the training hours.
Yame -Cease,stop,asyouwere
Chudanzuki -Middlepunch Tsuzukete -Continue
8.
Gedanzuki -Downwardpunch No membershallbeallowedtowearanyGithathasbeenborrowedin the dojofromanothermember.
Sensei -Teacher,Instructor
Gyakuzuki -Reversepunch
Shihan -Teacher,Master 9. Forhygiene
Oizuki -Lungepunch reasons,
member
shouldtocheckhimselflherself
tobephysicallt
cleanandfreeoffoulordistracting
Kizamezuki Maegi -Rightside odorssincetrainingsessions
mostoftenrequirephysical
contact.
-Jabpunch Hidari -Leftside
Ulaken . -Backfist 10.
Nage,Tori -Allaker,beingthrown No memberparticipatingin a trainingsessionshallbeallowedto breakor leavethetrainingareafor anyreason
BLOCKINGS Uke -Defender,executetechniques withoutthe permissionof the instructor.
Ukemi -Properfallingtechniques 11.
Uke -Block Kumite -Sparring Members shouldobserve
properdiscipline
andcorrectbowing
before&afterentering
thedojo,during&afterthe
Ageuke -Upperblock Kata -Form,style,fixedmovementto master practice
withanother
member,
orwhenrequried duringformation.
Gedanbarai -Downward block 12.
Arigatugozaimazu -Thankyou,(alsousedaftera match)
Sotouke -Insideblock
No memebrwithinthetraininghallshallmakenoiseor actsthatcanmentallydistractor physicallydistruba
Uchiuke -Outsideblock memberor memebrsengagedin training.
Shutouke - Knife-hand
block COUNTING 13.
Moroteuke -Bothhandsblock Ichi (1)one Nomemberotherthanchiefinstructor
orhisdesignated
instructor
shallbeallowed
togivetraining
instruction
Ni (2)two whatsoever
toanypersonatanytimeinthedojo.
KICKING San 14.
(3)three
Gaeri -Kick Shi (4)four No memebershallbeallowedto practiceanytechniquebyhimslef/herself in thedojoat anytimeduringthe
Meagi
Maegaeri
Jokogaeri
-Snapkick
- Frontkick
-Sidekick
Go
Ro(ku)
Shich(i)
(5)five
(6)six
(7)seven
. 15.
durationof theentireregularsessions,exceptthe informalsessionssuchasthe'WindandReactiontime'period.

No membershallbeallowedto free-sparor undertakejiyu kumitewithanymemberor non-memberat anytime


Ushirogaeri -Backkick Hatch(i) (8)eight in thedojowiththe permissionand/orsupervisionof theinstructoror ChiefInstructor.
Mawashigaeri -Roundhouse kick Kyu (9)Nine "
Ju 16.
Ushiromawashigaeri -Turiningbackkick (10)Ten
"
17. Anymemberwhowilfullycommitsinsubordination to aninstructor,leaderor superior,whois dulyauthorizedby PROJECTIONS
(LEADSORTHROWS)
theAikiso-JutsuMartialArtsandperforminghisfunctionaccordingto theorganization's regulations,shallbe 1. KOKYU NAGE 2. IRIMINAGE 3. KAITENNAGE 4. KOSHI NAGE
subjectto expulsion

t
('-- ..0--.
~
~)
18. Anymemberwho,in theopinionof thetraininginstructior,grosslyand/orrepeatedlyviolatesthe provisions I:.(/.~
.. .~~..
embodiedin theAikiso-JutsuMartialArtsDojoRulesshallbeappropriately

saidmembers

19. Nomember
penalizedor sentoutof the dojoat
the discretionof the instructor,or ifthe latterconsidersthe degreeof the violationbeascessive,hemayreferthe
violationto theChiefInstructor& cluboffices,whoshalldecideontoheproperdiciplinarymeasure
to betaken,if necessary,againstthesaidmember.

shallremove
fromthetraining
hallordojoanysetorpartofthetraining
equipment
~
(-'
.t.r

5.AIKIOTOSHI
."
-~

6.
1r
.(~r1~
8~
20. Membersshallobservecleanliness,
orderandproperuseof facilities
inthedressing
room,restroom
and
bathroom
ofthetraining
hall.
~;.
-" 7 7J\\~~
21. Nomemberorgroupof members,andno memberwithanymemberor non-members
practicethe club'ssetof trainingtechniqueswithoutproperauthorization,
shallbeallowedto trainor
exceptthecaseof memberswholive 9.AIKIOTOSHI 10.SliMIOTO~HI 12

J~~
togetherunderoneroofandmayconducthomepracticetogether,in private,or thosememberswhomaywantto '~A'J
exerciseprivatelyin theirhomeswithmembersof theirownfamily. ~, %R

1t ~
~1l'
22. Anymember ofrankwhointhopinion
levelAikisho-Jutsu
recovering,
andKaratedo
itshallbesubject
oftheCouncilor
skillcommensurate
todemotion
Officers
oftheclub,hasfailedtomaintain
satisfactory
withhisrankandstatureandfailstogivegenuine
ordeprivation
oftherank.
the
effortat
i1 ,

13i)14ii 16~~ ~
AEr~' .

21. LeadingThrow
19~ ~.1i
~_.~'.)
(ifftJ
(tS;4
25. Leadandthrow
-,
26. LeadandThrow
~. ~
27.DoubleWhril
24~

7f~~ ~
~~
.~

~ ~ .

~I
28.~
G
\.

NEUTRALIZATIONTECHNIQUES BELT GRADING AND TRAINING PROGRAM

1) IKKYO(ArmPin) 2) NIKYO(WristInwardTum) 3) SANKYO (Wrist Inward Twist) KARATEDO


.' AIKIDO
...
KIHON/BASICS KATA I KUMITE

~
\.. .: 'BasicAikidoExercises 'Punching(Tsuki) .Kihon(Taikyuko)
'Basic Falling& Rolling(Ukemi) .Blocking(Uke) 'Heian ShoDan
.Samuraiwalk(Shikko) .Stances(Dachi)
.25 whitebasictechniques 'Kickings(Gaeri)
. oJ 'Basic multipleattack(Randori)

'BasicAikidoExercises 'Punching(Tsuki) .Kihon(Taikyuko)


.BasicFalling& Rolling(Ukemi) 'Blocking(Uke) 'Heian ShoDan
'Samuraiwalk(Shikko) 'Stances(DaChi 'Heian Ni Dan
.25 whitebasictechniques 'Kickings(Gaeri
'Basic multipleattack(Randori)

'BasicAikidoExercises 'Punching(Tsuki) .Kihon(Taikyuko)


.BasicFalling& Rolling(Ukemi) .Blocking(Uke) 'Heian ShoDan
.Samuraiwalk(Shikko) 'Stances(Dachi) 'Heian Ni Dan
.30 Yellowbasictechniques 'Kickings(Gaeri) .HeianSanDan
.Randoriwithweapon

'BasicAikidoExercises 'Punching(Tsuki) 'Kihon (Taikyuko)I.BasicKumite


.BasicFalling& Rolling(Ukemi) 'Blocking(Uke) .HeianShoDan
.Somersault . 'Stances(Dachi) 'Heian Ni Dan
.Samurai-walk(Shikko) 'Kickings(Gaeri) .HeianYouDan
'Review80 BasicTechniques 'HeianGo Dan
4) YONKYO(WristPin) 5) GOKYO (Similar to ikyo) 6) SHINONAGE 7) KOTEGAESHI 'Randoriwithweapons
(FourComerThrow) (WristTum-out)
.BasicAikidoExercises 'Punching(Tsuki) .Kihon(Taikyuko) 'Basic IpponKumite
.BasicFalling& Rolling(Ukemi) 'Blocking(Uke) .HeianShoDan 'Basic NihonKumite
'Somersault .Stances(Dachi) 'HeianNi Dan .Basi SanbonKumitE
.Samurai-walk(Shikko) 'Kickings(Gaeri) .HeianYouDan .. .
.Review80 BasicTechniques 'Karatetypes of first 'HeianGoDan 'aslc JIY Kumlte
'AikijutsuLockings 'JIYuKumlte
.Basic/Advance Aikijutsu
.Randoriwithweapons

'Basic,AikidoExercises,
Falling 'Punc~ing (Tsuki) .Allbasi~from .BaSiC IpponKumite
&Roiling, Samersault, 'Blocking(Uke) fromWhitetoBlu .BasicNihonKumite
Sa~urai-walk. 'S!a~ces(Dach!) .BasaiDai .BasiSanbon KumitE
.Baslc80Techniques 'Klckings(Gaen) .Jihon ...
~aslcJIY~
Kumlte
'Aikijuts~L~kings&Techniques
'Randonwithweapons
'Karatetypesoffirst 'Kankudai . j
.JIYuKumlte
.Grapping Techniques 'Han~etsu
.JoKata 'Empl

.- 'BasicAikido
&Rolling,
Samurai-walk
Exercises,

'Basic80Techniques
Falling 'Punching
Samersault,. 'Blocking
(Tsuki) .AIIbasicsfrom I.JiyuKumite
(Uke) fromWhitetoBlu
'Stances(Dachi) .BasaiSho
'Kickings(Gaeri) 'Kankusho
'Aikijuts~L~ckings
&Techniques 'Karatetypesoffirst. TekkiShodan
Jr,. 'Randonwithweapons . .
'Grapping
Techniques
'BasicMeditation/Developing
KI ..Tekk~
Nldan
TekklSandan

. - :aAMJlI~' - II
6TH KYU: WHITE BELT AIKIDO TECHNIQUES I
,. BASIC HOLDS Frontal - -
BASIC HOLDS Dorsal

Japanese English Guide


.,
NAGE
1.Katatetori
(opposite)
UKE
Shihonage
Omote
ATTACK
Onewristhold
DEFENSE
Fourcornerthrow(straight)
I One-handHold
(sameside) 1 6 I
Two-wrists
Hold
(Frombehind)

Onewristhold KATATE TORI USHIRO


2.Katatetori
(opposite)
3.Katatetori
(sameside)
Shihonage
Ura
KaitenNage Onewristhold
Fourcorner
throw
(straight)
I
Fourcornerthrow(straight)
1 1Aft \I TEKUBITORI

4.Katatetori
(sameside) KokyuNage Onewristhold Fourcornerthrow(straight)
5.Shomenuchi IkkyoIrimi Downward
strike Armpin(straight) One-hand
Hold I Ii \ /dl,\ I Elbow
holdfrombehind
6.Shomenuchi NikkyoIrimi Downward
strike Wrist
inward
turn(straight) (opposite
side)
7.Shomenuchi USHIRO
8. Shomenuchi
lrimiNage
Sankyo
Downward
Downward
strike
strike
Entering
neckthrow
Wristinwardtwist KATATE
TORI I AU l7t.[\I HIJITORI
9.Yokomenuchi Shihonage Sideward
strike Fourcornerthrow
10.Yokomenuchi
11.Yokomenuchi
Gokkyo
Kokyunage
Sideward
strike
Sidewardstrike
Armpressure
Backward
armthrow Two-hand
Hold Shoulder
grabfrom
'3

!ft
12.Yokomenuchi ononehand behind
IriminageOmote Sideward
strike Entering
neckthrow
13.UshiroTekubitori IkkyoOmote Wristsholdfrombehind Armpin(straight) USHIRO
MOROTETORI
14.UshiroTekubitori KoteGaeshi Wristsholdfrombehind Wristoutwardthrow KATA TORI
15.UshiroTekubitori Sankyo Wristsholdfrombehind Wristinwardturn(straight)
16.UshiroTekubitori Shihonage Wristsholdfrombehind Fourcomerthrow
17.UshiroTekubitori Jujinage Wristsholdfrombehind Armcrosshold Two-handHold I {.V \ I Strangulationfrombehind
18.Kalatori ontwohands
IkkyoOmote One-lapel
grab Armpin(straight)
I I "f...?l I USHIROKUBISHIME
19.Katatori IkkyoUra One-lapel
grab Armpin(sideturn) RYOTE
TORI
20.Katatori NikkyoOmote One-lapel
grab Wristinwardturn(straight)
21.Katatori NikkyoUra One-lapel
grab Wristinwardturn(sideturn)
22.Ushirokubishime IkkyoOmote Strangulation
frombehindArmpin(straight)
23.Ushirokubishime IkkyoUra Strangulation
frombehindArmpin(sideturn) Lapel/Shoulder Grab

24.Ushirokubishime Sankyo
(A) Strangulation
frombehind
Wrist
inward
twist(A)
I I (One-side) 1
(
_1 I hugfrombehind
Higharmholdor bear

25.Ushirokubishime Sankyo
(B) Strangulation
frombehind
Wrist
inward
twist(B) I I KATA
TORI I ...: A \ I USHIROTORI

AIKIDOTRAINING KARATEDO
BASICS KATA
-BasicAikidoExercises -Punching(Tsuki) -Kihon(Taikyuko)
-BasicFalling& Rolling(Ukemi) -Blocking(Uke) -HeianShoDan Lapel/Shoulder Grab Lowarmholdorbear
-Samurai-walk(Shikko) -Stances(Dachi) I ';, I (Both-shoulders) 1 rEi I hugfrombehind

-25 WhiteBasictechniques -Kickings(Gaeri) I I RYOKATA


TORI I L.J I USHIROTORI
-BasicMultipleAttack(Randori) I eI
BASIC BLOWS & COMBINATIONS
I
"
5TH KYU: ORANGE BELT AIKIDO TECHNIQUES
Straightblowto thehead, (~'\.- -~
I J\. I ' .. Japanese English Guide
punch,jab,etc. (' \ .- "-
i'
, , " \.
.
,
" \ NAGE UKE ATTACK DEFENSE
SHOMEN UCHI !Z:\:V 1. Shomenuchi IkkyoUra Downward
strike Armpin(side
turn)

\~~\~
~,;-
2. Shomenuchi
3. Shomenuchi
NikkyoUra
IrimiNageUra
Downward
strike
Downward
strike
Wristinwardturn(sideturn)
Entering
neckthrow
4. Shomenuchi Kotegaeshi Downward
strike Wristoutwardthrow
Circularblowtothehead,hook, 5. Yokomenuchi KokyuNageUra-A Sideward
strike Breaththrow(circular)
A
etc.
6. Yokomenuchi KokyuNageUra-B Sideward
strike Breaththrow(circular)
B
7. Yokomenuchi Iriminage
Ura Sideward
strike Enteringneckthrow
YOKOMENUCHI
8. Katatetori (same side) IkkyoOmote Onewristhold(sameside) Armpin(straight)
9. Katatetori(sameside) NikkyoUra Onewristhold(sameside) Armpin(sidethrow)
Blowtheabdomen
-. 10.Katatetori(sameside) NikkyoOmote Onewristhold(sameside) Wristinwardturn(straight)
11.Katatetori(sameside) NikkyoUra Onewristhold(sameside) Wristinwardturn(sideturn)
MUNETSUKI 12.UshiroTori Sokumen Iriminage Bearhugfrombehind Straight
sidethrow
KnifeAttack 13.UshiroTori ShihoNage Bearhugfrombehind Fourcornerthrow
TANTADORI 14.Ushirohijitori SokumenIriminage Elbowgrabfrombehind Straight
sidethrow
15.Ushirohijitori KoteGaeshi Elbowgrabfrombehind Fourcornerthrow
16.Ushirokatatori Sankyo Shoulder
grabfrombehind Wristinwardturn
17.Ushirokatatori KoteGaeshi Shoulder
grabfrombehind Wristoutwardthrow
Combination
holdwithhold Frontal 18.Ushirokatatori Jujinage Shoulder
grabfrombehind Armclosehold
19.Morotetori Sokumen Iriminage TwohandgrabononehandStraight
sidethrow
20.Morotetori KokyuNageUra TwohandgrabononehandBreaththrowsideturn
21.Morotetori KoteGaeshi TwohandgrabononehandWristoutwardthrow
22.Tsuki IrimiNage Punch Enteringneckthrow
23.Tsuki KoteGaeshi Punch Wristoutwardthrow
Combination
holdwithblow Frontal 24.Tsuki Sankyo Punch Wristinwardthrow
25.Tsuki ShihoNage Punch Fourcornerthrow

AIKIDOTRAINING KARATEDO
BASICS KATA
-BasicAikidoExercises .Punching(Tsuki) -Kihon(Taikyuko)
-BasicFalling& Rolling(Ukemi) -Blocking(Uke) -HeianShoDan
Combination
blowwithblow -Samurai-walk (Shikko) -Stances(Dachi) -HeianNiDan
-25 OrangeBasicTechniques -Kickings(Gaeri)
-BasicMultipleAttack(Randori)
4TH KYU: YELLOW BELT AIKIDO TECHNIQUES AIKIDO EXERCISES
Japanese English Guide WRIST
EXERCISE TEKUBIUNDO
NAGE UKE ATTACK DEFENSE 1.Upward Ikkyo
1.Shomenuchi Shiho nage Downward strike Fourcornerthrow(front) 2.Inward Nikkyo
2.Shomenuchi Kokyu nage Downward strike Breaththrow 3.Downward KoteGaeshi
3.Ushirokatatori lriminage Shoulder grabfrombehind Entering neckthrow 4.Sideward Sankyo
4.Ushirokatatori Sokumen iriminage Shoulder grabfrombehind Straightsidethrow
5.Ushirotekubitori Kotegaeshi Wristholdfrombehind HIPSEXERCISE GOSHIUNDO
(policehold) Wristoutward throw 1. Rowing FunekogiUndo
6. Ushirotekubitori Iriminage BothelbowholdfrombehindEntering neckthrow
7. Ushiroudetori IkkyoTenkan Downward strike Armpin(circular) OVERHEADEXERCISE SHOMENUCHI
UNDO
8. Ushirohijitori Kotegaeshi Elbowgrabfrombehind Elbowgrabfrombehind 1. Forward ShomenUchiUndo
9. Ushirotori Kokyunage Ushirotori Breaththrow
10.Morotetori 2. Upward& Backward ZengoUndo
Nikkyo(A) Twohandholdononehand Wristinwardthrow(A)
11.Morotetori Nikkyo(B) Twohandholdononehand Wristinwardthrow(B)
12.Ryotetori RMSWINGING EXERCISE UDEFURlUNDO
Sokumen Iriminage Twohandhold Straighsidethrow
13.Ryotetori Tenchinage 1.Downward UdeFuriUndo
Twohandhold (Similar
toiriminage)
14.Ryotetori Kotegaeshi Twohandhold Wristoutward throw 2.Upward
15.Ryotetori Shihonage Twohandhold Fourcornerthrow SUKUIUNDO
16.Katateri(opposite) Nkkyo Onewristhold(opposite) Wristinwardturn SCOPINGEXERCISE KokyuHuUndo
17.Katatetori Kokyunage(A) Onewristhold Backward armthrow 1.Turninghandthrow KatateToriKokyuNage
18.Katatetori Kokyunage(B) Onewristhold Forward neckthrow 2. Sidewardthrow
19.Katatetori(opposite) Iriminage
Ura Onewristhold(opposite) Entering neckthrowsideturn TEKOBIKOSAUNDO
20.Katatetori(opposite) Kotegaeshi Onewristhold(opposite) Wristoutward throw CROSSWRISTEXERCISE TekobiKosaUndo
21.KatateriTsuki Gokkyo Lapelgrabwithpunch Armpressure
22.KatateriTsuki 1. Upward TekobiJohoKosaUndo
Jujinage(A) Lapelgrabwithpunch Armcrosshold(A) 2. Downward
23.KatateriTsuki Jujinage(B) Lapelgrabwithpunch Armcrosshold(B)
24.Tsuki ROTATIONAL
EXERCISE KAITENNAGE
Kaitennage Punch Rotarythrow
25.MuneTsukilTandori Ikkyohanten 1. InwardRotation KaitenNage
nage StraightblowlKnifeattack Crossblackarmpin
26.MuneTsukilTandori Ikkyogaeshi StraightblowlKnifeattack Wristoutward throw 2. OutwardRotation GiyakuKaitenNage
27. MuneTsukilTandori Kotegaeshitenkan Straightblow/Knifeattack Wristoutward throw(circular
28. MuneTsukilTandori Kaitennage StraightblowlKnifeattack Rotarythrow SIDETHROWEXERCISE SAYUUNDO
29.MuneTsukilTandori HijidoriSokumen IriminageStraightblowlKnifeattack Elbowlock 1.WithPivoting . SayuUndo
30.MuneTsukilTandori Sankaju Straightblow/Knifeattack Armlock 2. WithStepping
ZENDONAGEUNDO
AIKIDOTRAINING KARATEDO BASICS KATA UP & DOWNEXERCISE UshiroTekubitoriKotaiUndo
-BasicAikidoExercises -Punching(Tsuki) -Kihon(Taikyuko) UshiroTekubitoriUndo
-BasicFalling& Rolling(Ukemi) -Blocking(Uke) -HeianShoDan SAMURAIWALK
t UshiroToriUndo
-Samurai-walk (Shikko) -Stances(Dachi) -HeianNiDan
1.Handson Hips
-30YellowBasicTechniques -Kickings(Gaeri) -HeianSanDan 2. HandsonGuard KOHOTENTOUNDO
-BasicMultipleAttack(Randori)
4) 3. Handson Guardwithturning
SHIKKU