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Finding Equations of Lines

DESCRIPTION Students will learn how to find the equation of a line. They will be given two points, a point and the slope, or the slope and the y- intercept.

PREREQUISITES Students will already have learned how to plot points, how to graph lines, and what the slope, y-intercept, and x-intercept is.

ESTIMATED TIME 45 minutes

PURPOSE:

Classroom Instruction

8 – 9

CONTENT AREAS:

Math

COMMON CORE:

Functions Define, evaluate, and compare functions.

Mathematics

CCSS.Math.Content.8.F.A.3 (grade 8): Interpret the equation y = mx + b as defining a linear function, whose graph is a straight line; give examples of functions that are not linear. For example, the function A = s 2 giving the area of a square as a function of its side length is not linear because its graph contains the points (1,1), (2,4) and (3,9), which are not on a straight line.

Use functions to model relationships between quantities.

CCSS.Math.Content.8.F.B.4 (grade 8): Construct a function to model a linear relationship between two quantities. Determine the rate of change and initial value of the function from a description of a relationship or from two (x, y) values, including reading these from a table or from a graph. Interpret the rate of change and initial value of a linear function in terms of the situation it models, and in terms of its graph or a table of values.

Functions: Interpreting Functions Understand the concept of a function and use function notation. CCSS.Math.Content.HSF-IF.A.1 (grade 9 - 12):

Understand that a function from one set (called the domain) to another set (called the range) assigns to each element of the domain exactly one element of the range. If f is a function and x is an element of its domain, then f(x) denotes the output of f corresponding to the input x. The graph of f is the graph of the equation y = f(x).

Interpret functions that arise in applications in terms of the

context.

For a function that models a relationship between two quantities, interpret key features of graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and sketch graphs showing key features given a verbal description of the relationship. Key features include: intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior; and periodicity. (Modeling)

Calculate and interpret the average rate of change of a function (presented symbolically or as a table)

over a specified interval. Estimate the rate of change from a graph. (Modeling)

Functions: Linear, Quadratic, and Exponential Models Construct and compare linear, quadratic, and exponential models and solve problems.

Construct linear and exponential functions, including arithmetic and geometric sequences, given a graph, a description of a relationship, or two input-output pairs (include reading these from a table).

Goals INSTRUCTIONAL GOALS

Students will be able to find the equations of lines from two points, a point and the slope, or the slope and the y-intercept. They will also be able to write the equation of a line from a graph of that line.

OBJECTIVES

• Students will be able to find the slope from two points

• Students will be able to find the y-intercept when given a point and the slope

• Students will be able to recognize that the y-intercept is (0,y) and the x-intercept is (x,0)

VARIABILITY

This lesson can be differentiated for all students. Visual learners will see me working out the problems on the whiteboard. Auditory learners will hear me explain how to create the linear equations. Kinesthetic learners can use the computer or the iPad. Students with poor motor skills may benefit from using the computer, an iPad, a pencil grip, or a bigger writing utensil. Students with intellectual disabilities and students with poor note-taking skills will be given detailed notes. Students with intellectual disabilities will have shorter assignments. I will walk around during independent work time to

check for understanding for all of the students. Assessments FORMATIVE ASSESSMENTS

Handout: Students will get a handout with questions about linear equations. They will be asked questions about slope, x-intercepts, and y-intercepts. I will walk around the classroom as students are completing the handout to see if there are any questions or difficulties. Exit Slips: I will ask students additional questions on an exit slip and I will collect it to gauge how much they learned.

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENTS

Homework: Students will get a homework assignment and will be expected to complete it. The students will be creating equations from the information given. The next day, I will assign students a number and they will put their solutions up on the board. Then I will go over them and correct any mistakes. Students will get to see the right answers so they can evaluate their own work. Then they will hand in their homework for extra feedback.

Quiz: Students will have a short quiz each week to gauge how much they have learned.

Test: Students will have a test at the end of each chapter to gauge how much they have learned. Students will be able to choose a certain number of questions to answer from each section in order to show what they know. If they answer additional questions correctly, they will get extra credit. Students will get to choose the methods of solving the questions. Instructional Methods OPENING As a class, we will be playing an online math basketball game about linear equations. All of the students will be answering the questions and then I will ask for a volunteer for each question to come up to shoot the basketball. The website for this game is http://www.math-

play.com/slope-intercept-game.html.

DURING

Introduce New Knowledge

In order for students to be able to create an equation for a line, they need the slope and the y-intercept. I will give students the formula for slope--> ! ! ! ! ! . In order to find the slope from 2 points, students will

!

! ! ! !

need to plug the x and y-values in the slope formula. Once they know the slope (m), they can plug one of the points in for x and y to find b.

Model New Skills and Knowledge

I will show students examples of different questions regarding how to

create an equation. I will show an example of being given 2 points, the slope and a point, the slope and the y-intercept, and a point and the x or y-intercept. I will also model how to find an equation of a line parallel or perpendicular to a given line.

Independent Practice Students will get a handout (see below). They will have questions about slope, y-intercepts, and x-intercepts. The students with different abilities may use the computer or iPad, if necessary. Ideally the students will work independently, however if they need help they may ask the student next to them.

CLOSING

I will remind students that in order to create an equation of a line, they

need the slope and the y-intercept. I will give students their homework assignment and they will fill out an exit slip. I will tell them what they will be learning the next day.

MATERIALS AND SUPPLIES

Pencils

Smartboard/whiteboard

Handout

Handout

1)

What is the equation of the line in this graph? 2) What is the formula for slope?

3)

Find the slope of the line that passes through (10,7) and (6, 2).

4) What is the ordered pair for a y-intercept?

5) What is the ordered pair for an x-intercept?

Homework

1) What is the equation of a line that has slope of 4 and y-intercept of -5?

2) A line includes the points (1, 5) and (0, 3). What is its equation in slope-intercept form?

3) Line p has equation = 5 9 . Line q is perpendicular to line p. What is an equation for line q?