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Refresher / Re-training is the process of learning a new or the same old skill or trade for the same group of personnel.
Refresher/Re-training is required to be provided on regular basis to avoid personnel obsolescence due to technological
changes & the tendency to forget. This short term instruction course shall serve to re-acquaint personnel with skills
previously learnt (recall to retain the potentials) or to bring one's knowledge or skills up-to-date (latest) so that skills stay
sharp. This kind of training could be provided annually or more frequently as maybe required, based on the importance
of consistency of the task of which the skill is involved. Examples of refresher/re-training are cGMP, GDP, HSE trainings.
Re-training (repetition of a training conducted earlier) shall also be conducted for an employee, when the employee is
rated as not qualified for a skill or knowledge, as determined based on the assessment of answers in the training
questionnaire of the employee.

Affected people[edit]
These Syrian refugees and local Lebanese women are being retrained to make fishing nets.

The need to retrain workers is often thought to apply to older members of the workforce, many of whom saw their
occupations disappear and their skills lose value as technology, outsourcing and a weak economy combined to erode
their ability to make a living. While older Americans do not face as high a rate of unemployment as the countrys
teenagers and young adults, when they do find themselves unemployed, they remain unemployed for more than twice
as long as teenagers.[1]
While the stereotype for retraining needs is the older worker, youth in the United States and across the European
Community (OECD) and Africa suffer from the same problem. The gap between the skills they possess and those that
employers are actively seeking is significant and stagnating to their employment prospects. Currently in the United
States, psychology, history and the performing arts make up 22% of college degrees earned. Demand for skilled
employees, however, is in the areas of technology and engineering, currently at 5% of conferred degrees. [2] In both
Britain and the United States, many people with expensive liberal arts degrees are finding it impossible to get decent
jobs, reports the Economist in its April 27, 2013 issue,[3] adding that in northern Africa, job applicants with degrees face
an unemployment level twice that of non-degreed candidates.
While technology anxiety and a nervousness about learning new processes and acquiring new skill sets has impacted
older workers,[4] younger job seekers are also facing a deficit of applied soft skills such as work ethic, social skills,
communication and leadership.[5]

Policy issues[edit]
The need for greater partnership and transfer of information between institutions of higher education is essential in
reducing the skills gap for old and young people alike.[3] Expanded internships and post-hiring training can help from the
employers perspective [5] and upgraded and more authentic technical training will help close the gap on the side of
There is some controversy surrounding the use of retraining to offset economic changes caused by free
trade and automation. For example, most studies show that displaced factory workers in the United States on the
average have lower wages after retraining to other positions when a factory is closed due to offshoring. A similar issue
surrounds movement from technical jobs to liaison jobs due to offshore outsourcing. Such changes may also favor
certain personality types over others, due to the changing tasks and skills required.[citation needed] Other research estimates
that one academic year of such retraining at a community college increases the long-term earnings by about 8 percent
for older males and by about 10 percent for older females.[6]
Government policy may make a difference in employability and motivation for retraining and re-entry into the workforce
for older workers. In economies with greater regulations surrounding the hiring, termination and wages, reductions in

unemployment were difficult to achieve. The very groups harmed with continued higher unemployment were those that
the regulations sought to protect.[7]
Retraining is sometimes offered as part of workfare programs, which may include support for transportation, childcare, or
an internship.[8]

Health effects of unemployment[edit]

As difficult and controversial as it may seem, retraining older and younger workers alike to prepare them to be part of a
changing workforce will have a lasting impact on workers across the globe. Unemployed workers are at significantly
greater risk for poor physical health, greater stress, alcoholism, marital problems and even suicide. [9] Among young
workers, beginning their careers with extended bouts of joblessness results in lower overall earnings and more
unemployment throughout their careers.[3]