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S A T U R D A Y, 1 1 J U N E 2 0 1 1

MBA HR PROJECT EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION


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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Employee satisfaction has been defined as a function of perceived performance and expectations. It is a persons feeling of
pleasure or disappointment resulting from comparing a products outcome to his/her expectations.
If the performance falls short of expectations, the employee is dissatisfied and if it matches the expectations, the employee is
satisfied. A high satisfaction implies improvement in efficiency and performance doing work or service. The process is however,
more complicated then it appears. It is more important for any organization to offer high satisfaction, as it reflects high loyalty
and it will not lead to switching over once a better offer comes in.
1.1

AIM OF STUDY:

To carry out the study of the employee satisfaction at company and assess the employee satisfaction level in present
competitive environment of Industry to help knowing and reading of the minds of the current generation professionals
regarding their Company Culture, Compensation, Work atmosphere, Management support, Job satisfaction, performance
appraisal and Career growth opportunities.

1.2

RATIONALE BEHIND THE STUDY:

Employees are the basis of every organization. Recruiting and retaining knowledgeable people for the job is essential for an
employer. But it works only if employee satisfaction is considered more important because of it employees attracted and not
leave the company. It is require studying the various factors to assess employee satisfaction level.
1.3

OBJECTIVES OF STUDY:

i.

To Measure the satisfaction levels of employees on various factors and give suggestions for improving the same.

ii.

To study the relationship between the personal factors of the employee (Gender, Designation, Qualification, Age, and Years

of Service in a company) with satisfaction level.


iii.

To derive and analyze the current satisfaction level of the employees in the company

iv.

To study the various factors which influencing employee satisfaction.

1.3a

HYPOTHESIS:

1.

There is no significant relationship between gender and level of satisfaction.

2.

There is no significant relationship between designation and level of satisfaction.

3.

There is no significant relationship between educational qualification and level of satisfaction.

4.

There is no significant relationship between age and level of satisfaction.

5.

There is no significant relationship between experience (no. of years of service) in a company and level of satisfaction.

1.4

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:

The methodology followed for conducting the study includes the specification of research design, sample design, questionnaire

design, data collection and statistical tools used for analyzing the collected data.
1.4a RESEARCH DESIGN: The research design used for this study is of the descriptive type. Descriptive research studies are
those studies which are concerned with describing the characteristics of a particular individual or a group.
1.4b POPULATION: The total element of the universe from which sample is selected for the purpose of study is known as
population. The population of my research is the employees of company.
1.4c SAMPLE SIZE: All the items consideration in any field of inquiry constitutes a universe of population. In this research only
a few items can be selected form the population for our study purpose. The items selected constitute what is technically called a
sample. Here out sample size is 50 employees from the total population to conduct the study.
1.4d DATA COLLECTION:
The data source: Primary and Secondary
The research approach: Survey Method
The research instrument: Questionnaire Method
The respondents: Executives, Sr. Executives, Assistant Managers, Managers and Top Management of various departments.
1.4e QUESTIONNAIRE SCHEDULE: Questions are framed in such a way that the answers reflect the ideas and thoughts of the
respondents with regard to level of satisfaction of various factors of employee satisfaction. The questionnaire has total 50
questions and Likert scaling techniques has been used for each question.
5. Strongly agree
4. Agree
3. Neutral
2. Disagree
1. Strongly disagree
1.4f

TOOLS OF ANALYSIS:

1.4f1 Simple Percentage Analysis: Here the simple percentage analysis is used for calculating the percentage of satisfaction
level in the total respondents.
1.4f2 Two-Way Analysis: The score secured by the respondents who falls between the score as up to 13 indicates less
satisfaction of the respondents, from 14 20 are got average satisfaction and above 21 respondents got highly satisfaction level.
1.4f3 Chi-Square Test: Chi-square test is applied to test the goodness of fit, to verify the distribution of observed data with
assumed theoretical distribution. Therefore it is a measure to study the divergence of actual and expected frequencies; Karl
Pearsons has developed a method to test the difference between the theoretical (hypothesis) & the observed value.
Chi square test (X2) = (O E) 2 / E
Degrees Of Freedom = V = (R 1) (C -1)
Where,
O = Observed Frequency
E = Expected Frequency
R = Number of Rows
C = Number of Columns
For all the chi-square test the table value has taken @ 5% level of significance.
1.4f4 Employee Satisfaction comparison using MEAN and Combined Mean: Mean for each factor was calculated to measure the
satisfaction level of the employee in the organization on an average. Standard Deviation was also calculated to see the variation
in data. Combined mean was calculated to find out level of satisfaction of employees for each factor described related to Gender,
Designation, Qualification, Employee Age and Years of Service in a company.
Mean =

Combined Mean =

Where , are means and nx , ny are respondent


Standard Deviation =

1.5

AREAS OF STUDY:

The area of the study is Panasonic Energy India Co. Limited, Vadodara.
1.6

SIGNIFICANCE AND NEED FOR STUDY:

The employee satisfaction is the orientation of the industry towards his work role, which he is presently playing. The
organization will only thrive and survive when its employees are satisfied.
This makes person says completely that he is fully satisfied with the job. This study conducted so that the employees give their
full, honest and frank opinion by remaining anonymous about how they feel about their jobs.
The survey is also useful way to assess the training needs and also a tangible expression of the managements interest in the
employee welfare, which would give the employee a cause to have and feel better towards the management.
1.7

LIMITATIONS OF STUDY:

Each and every task has certain limitations and hurdles in the course of its performance. But this does not mean that the task
should stick up whenever certain limitations come up. The need is to try ones level best to solve incoming limitations. Few
limitations of the project are enumerated below:

This study is only limited to this company.

The method of random sampling is suitable for small populations only.

To create good image, respondents may give responses vary from the facts.

Some respondents hesitated to give the actual situation; they feared that management would take any action against them.

It does not ensure proportionate representation to all constituent group of population.

I was able to cover only those employees who were currently working in the company.
CHAPTER 2

EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION

2.1

CONCEPT

Employee satisfaction is the terminology used to describe whether employees are happy and contented and fulfilling their
desires and needs at work. Many measures meaning that employee satisfaction is a factor in employee motivation, employee
goal achievement, and positive employee morale in the workplace.
As per Vroom Employee Satisfaction is a positive orientation of an individual towards a work role which he is presently
occupying
Employee satisfaction is a measure of how happy workers are with their job and working environment. Keeping morale high
among workers can be of tremendous benefit to any company, as happy workers will be more likely to produce more, take fewer
days off, and stay loyal to the company. There are many factors in improving or maintaining high employee satisfaction, which
wise employers would do well to implement.
Employee satisfaction, while generally a positive in organization, can also be a bad luck if mediocre employees stay because
they are satisfied with your work environment.
Many experts believe that one of the best ways to maintain employee satisfaction is to make workers feel like part of a family or
team. Holding office events, such as parties or group outings, can help build close bonds among workers. Many companies also
participate in team-building retreats that are designed to strengthen the working relationship of the employees in a non-work
related setting. Camping trips, paintball wars and guided backpacking trips are versions of this type of team-building strategy,
with which many employers have found success.
Of course, few workers will not experience a boost in morale after receiving more money. Raises and bonuses can seriously

affect employee satisfaction, and should be given when possible. Yet money cannot solve all morale issues, and if a company
with widespread problems for workers cannot improve their overall environment, a bonus may be quickly forgotten as the daily
stress of an unpleasant job continues to mount.
If possible, provide amenities to your workers to improve morale. Make certain they have a comfortable, clean break room with
basic necessities such as running water. Keep facilities such as bathrooms clean and stocked with supplies. While an air of
professionalism is necessary for most businesses, allowing workers to keep family photos or small trinkets on their desk can
make them feel more comfortable and nested at their workstation. Basic considerations like these can improve employee
satisfaction, as workers will feel well cared for by their employers.
The backbone of employee satisfaction is respect for workers and the job they perform. In every interaction with management,
employees should be treated with courtesy and interest. An easy avenue for employees to discuss problems with upper
management should be maintained and carefully monitored. Even if management cannot meet all the demands of employees,
showing workers that they are being heard and putting honest dedication into compromising will often help to improve morale.
Satisfaction = f(what employee expects, what she gets, time, back ground of the employee- social, economic, cultural)
Satisfaction being a continuous process starts from the day 1 and gets reinforced with time depending on the importance of the
various factors considered to be important for the individual employee. Loyalty towards the organization starts to develop when
the employee continues to get the positive reinforcements on various important aspects for the duration of the employment.
Core Values as a Foundation of Employee Satisfaction:
These are the values that have enabled employees to build the leading company in industry; these are the values that will fuel
employees worldwide growth in the coming years; and these are the values that will drive employees career:

Professionalism Demonstrating professional methods, character and standards. Treating prospects, clients and co-workers

generously and charitably at all times, but especially in the face of adversity.

Enthusiasm Showing excitement, optimism and passion for your work.

Resourcefulness Acting effectively and imaginatively to produce great results from scarce resources.

Self-directedness Working independently and autonomously to achieve the goals set by management.

Ethics Acting in accordance with the accepted principles of right and wrong that govern the conduct of our profession.

Unselfishness Putting others before yourself, giving your time and effort for prospects, clients and co-workers. Showing

cooperative effort as the member of a group to achieve a common goal.

Strategic-mindedness Suggesting and implementing long-term improvements springing from a sequence of short-term

tasks.
2.2 WHY TO STUDY ABOUT EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION?
The study of "employee satisfaction" helps the company to maintain standards & increase productivity by motivating the
employees. This study tells us how much the employees are capable & their interest at wok place? What are the things still to be
satisfy to the employees. Although "human resources" are the most important resources for any organization, so to study on
employees satisfaction helps to know the working conditions & what are the things that affect them not to work properly?
Always majority of done by the machines/equipments but without any manual moments nothing can be done. So to study on
employee satisfaction is necessary
The Hows and Whys of Employee Satisfaction Mapping:
An organization is all about customer satisfaction. Companies understand this and focus all their energy on their service or
customer experience. However, many companies do this at the cost of employee experience. What does this mean? Is customer
satisfaction not the priority?
It is! But it is important not to lose sight of people who deliver the end product or service to the customers the employees.
These are the people that need a proper support system. Employee satisfaction is paramount as this is what will determine the
success or failure of a company. When employees are satisfied and happy about working in an organization, the customer is the
first person to notice that.

With employees getting thin-skinned every day, it depends completely on the employer to ensure they do not have their top
talent drained away by the new competitor on the block. In the current scenario, the decision of hopping by the employee is
triggered by the minutes of issues, such as being ticked off in a not too friendly tone or even an uneasy office environment.
It becomes important to be aware and understand the signals that are given out by the employees. The management will do
well to catch them before it is too late and the employee makes the decision to quit. This understanding gives the employers an
edge and gives them the time to take corrective measures if necessary, in order to prevent talent loss. It could be that the
employee is not happy with the environment or is suffering from a relationship issue with a colleague or a superior. These issues
need to be handled before they get out of hand.
How do employers understand their employees? How do they know what employees want? How do they map their satisfaction
levels? There are several ways of mapping employee satisfaction.
Surveys: This is a traditional method that involves employees participation. Employers create surveys that have questions on
the different parameters related to the organization. They put forth questions in such a way that every aspect of an organization
is touched and the feedback is returned in the form of an opinion given by each employee. This helps employers understand
how employees think and their satisfaction levels, and paves the path for problem solving. These surveys can actually identify
problem areas and help come up with solutions to solve the problems. They reveal the employee attitude on the whole.
One-on-One Interviews: A non-conventional tool, this involves discussions with every employee on a one-to-one basis every few
months. Their thoughts are recorded and trouble parameters identified and taken care of.
Exit Interviews: This comes into action after an employee submits his resignation papers. The problem with exit interviews is
that most employees, once they decide to leave, are not forthright. In an attempt to keep good relations with the employer,
they usually do not tell-all as they ought to. Many of them in fact give personal reasons for leaving and make the employer feel
that all is well on the work front.
Employers who fail at HR and see high attrition rate are those that consider monetary compensation as highly important. In
spite of the fact that employees work for money, emotional rewards go a long way at keeping the employer-employee relation
strong and have a larger impact on employee satisfaction. Tracing and improving this satisfaction level has to be top priority for
the HR department of an organization.
Employee satisfaction mapping can be the key to a better motivated and loyal workforce that leads to better organizational
output in the form of better products and services and results in overall improvement of an organization.
If a person is not satisfied by the job he is doing, he may switch over to some other more suitable job. In todays environment it
becomes very important for organizations to retain their employees. The reason may be personal or professional. These reasons
should be understood by the employer and should be taken care of. The organizations are becoming aware of these reasons and
adopting many strategies for employee retention.
The basic needs other than routine tasks are to be taken care of on priority before it becomes late by HR department.

2.3

THEORIES OF EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION

The company's ability to fulfill the physical, emotional, and psychological needs of its employees. Satisfying the employee's all
needs, so that he can give 100% to the company. Satisfaction refers to the level of fulfillment on one's needs, desires, and
wants. It can be experienced in various levels or degrees.
Vital ingredients for any employees satisfaction are physical, security, social and egoistic needs which satisfy individuals psycho
social.
1.

Physical and Security need: This relates to satisfaction of bodily function like hunger, thirst, shelter as well as to be secure

in the employment.
2.

Social Need: Since human beings are dependent on each other. There are some needs which can be satisfied only when

individual is recognized by other people.


3.

Egoistic Need: This relates to man desire to mans desire to be dependant to do things of his own end to sense of

accomplishment
To a considerable extent however physical needs are satisfied off the job. Social needs are satisfied through personal contacts
around the job where egoistic needs are chiefly satisfied through the job.
EQUITY THEORY:
Equity Theory attempts to explain relational satisfaction in terms of perceptions of fair/unfair distributions of resources within
interpersonal relationships. Equity theory is considered as one of the justice theories. It was first developed in 1962 by John
Stacey Adams, a workplace and behavioral psychologist, who asserted that employees seek to maintain equity between the
inputs that they bring to a job and the outcomes that they receive from it against the perceived inputs and outcomes of others
(Adams, 1965). The belief is that people value fair treatment which causes them to be motivated to keep the fairness
maintained within the relationships of their co-workers and the organization. The structure of equity in the workplace is based
on the ratio of inputs to outcomes. Inputs are the contributions made by the employee for the organization; this includes the
work done by the employees and the behavior brought by the employee as well as their skills and other useful experiences the
employee may contribute for the good of the company.
The idea is to have the rewards (outcomes) be directly related with the quality and quantity of the employees contributions
(inputs). If both employees were perhaps rewarded the same, it would help the workforce realize that the organization is fair,
observant, and appreciative. This can be illustrated by the following equation:

Inputs: Time, Effort, Loyalty, Hard Work, Commitment, Ability, Adaptability, Flexibility, Tolerance, Determination, Enthusiasm,
Personal sacrifice, Trust in superiors, Support from co-workers and colleagues, and Skill
Outcomes: Outputs are defined as the positive and negative consequences that an individual perceives a participant has
incurred as a consequence of his/her relationship with another. When the ratio of inputs to outcomes is close, than the employee
should have much satisfaction with their job. Outputs can be both tangible and intangible (Walster, Traupmann & Walster, 1978).
Typical outcomes include any of the following: Job security, Esteem, Salary, Employee benefit, Expenses, Recognition,
Reputation, Responsibility, Sense of achievement, Praise, Thanks, and Stimuli.
EXPECTANCY THEORY (VROOMS THEORY):
Expectancy theory is about the mental processes regarding choice, or choosing. It explains the processes that an individual
undergoes to make choices. In organizational behaviour study, expectancy theory is a motivation theory first proposed by Victor
Vroom of the Yale School of Management.
Expectancy theory predicts that employees in an organization will be motivated when they believe that:

putting in more effort will yield better job performance

better job performance will lead to organizational rewards, such as an increase in salary or benefits

These predicted organizational rewards are valued by the employee in question.

"This theory emphasizes the needs for organizations to relate rewards directly to performance and to ensure that the rewards
provided are those rewards deserved and wanted by the recipients."
Emphasizes self interest in the alignment of rewards with employee's wants. Emphasizes the connections among expected
behaviours, rewards and organizational goals
Vroom's theory assumes that behaviour results from conscious choices among alternatives whose purpose it is to maximize
pleasure and to minimize pain. Together with Edward Lawler and Lyman Porter, Vroom suggested that the relationship between
people's behaviour at work and their goals was not as simple as was first imagined by other scientists. Vroom realized that an
employee's performance is based on individual factors such as personality, skills, knowledge, experience and abilities.
Victor H. Vroom introduces three variables within the expectancy theory which are valence (V), expectancy (E) and
instrumentality (I). The three elements are important behind choosing one element over another because they are clearly
defined: effort-performance expectancy (E>P expectancy), performance-outcome expectancy (P>O expectancy).
E>P expectancy: Our assessment of the probability our efforts will lead to the required performance level.

P>O expectancy: Our assessment of the probability our successful performance will lead to certain outcomes.
Vrooms model is based on three concepts:
1.

Valence - Strength of an individuals preference for a particular

outcome. For the valence to be positive, the person must

prefer attaining the outcome to not attaining it.


2.

Instrumentality Means of the first level outcome in obtaining the desired second level outcome; the degree to which a

first level outcome will lead to the second level outcome.


3.

Expectancy - Probability or strength of belief that a particular action will lead to a particular first level outcome.

Vroom says the product of these variables is the motivation.


In order to enhance the performance-outcome tie, managers should use systems that tie rewards very closely to performance.
Managers also need to ensure that the rewards provided are deserved and wanted by the recipients. In order to improve the
effort-performance tie, managers should engage in training to improve their capabilities and improve their belief that added
effort will in fact lead to better performance.
MASLOW'S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS:
Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology, proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper A Theory of Human
Motivation. Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations of humans' innate curiosity.
Maslows hierarchy of needs is most often displayed as a pyramid. The lowest levels of the pyramid are made up of the most
basic needs, while the more complex needs are located at the top of the pyramid. Needs at the bottom of the pyramid are basic
physical requirements including the need for food, water, sleep and warmth. Once these lower-level needs have been met,
people can move on to the next level of needs, which are for safety and security.
As people progress up the pyramid, needs become increasingly psychological and social. Soon, the need for love, friendship and
intimacy become important. Further up the pyramid, the need for personal esteem and feelings of accomplishment take priority.
Like Carl Rogers, Maslow emphasized the importance of self-actualization, which is a process of growing and developing as a
person to achieve individual potential.
Maslow believed that these needs are similar to instincts and play a major role in motivating behavior. Physiological, security,
social, and esteem needs are deficiency needs (also known as D-needs), meaning that these needs arise due to deprivation.
Satisfying these lower-level needs is important in order to avoid unpleasant feelings or consequences.
Maslow termed the highest-level of the pyramid as growth need (also known as being needs or B-needs). Growth needs do not
stem from a lack of something, but rather from a desire to grow as a person.

There are five different levels in Maslows hierarchy of needs:


1.

Physiological Needs: These include the most basic needs that are vital to survival, such as the need for water, air, food and

sleep. Maslow believed that these needs are the most basic and instinctive needs in the hierarchy because all needs become
secondary until these physiological needs are met.
2.

Security Needs: These include needs for safety and security. Security needs are important for survival, but they are not as

demanding as the physiological needs. Examples of security needs include a desire for steady employment, health insurance,
safe neighborhoods and shelter from the environment.
3.

Social Needs: These include needs for belonging, love and affection. Maslow considered these needs to be less basic than

physiological and security needs. Relationships such as friendships, romantic attachments and families help fulfill this need for
companionship and acceptance, as does involvement in social, community or religious groups.
4.

Esteem Needs: After the first three needs have been satisfied, esteem needs becomes increasingly important. These

include the need for things that reflect on self-esteem, personal worth, social recognition and accomplishment.
5.

Self-actualizing Needs: This is the highest level of Maslows hierarchy of needs. Self-actualizing people are self-aware,

concerned with personal growth, less concerned with the opinions of others and interested fulfilling their potential.
TWO-FACTOR THEORY:

The two-factor theory (also known as Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory) was developed by Frederick Herzberg, a
psychologist who found that job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction acted independently of each other. The theory states that
there are certain factors in the workplace that cause job satisfaction, while a separate set of factors cause dissatisfaction.
The two-factor, or motivation-hygiene theory, developed from data collected by Herzberg from interviews with a large number of
engineers and accountants in the Pittsburgh area. From analyzing these interviews, he found that job characteristics related to
what an individual does that is, to the nature of the work he performs apparently have the capacity to gratify such needs
as achievement, competency, status, personal worth, and self-realization, thus making him happy and satisfied. However, the
absence of such gratifying job characteristics does not appear to lead to unhappiness and dissatisfaction. Instead, dissatisfaction
results from unfavorable assessments of such job-related factors as company policies, supervision, technical problems, salary,
interpersonal relations on the job, and working conditions. Thus, if management wishes to increase satisfaction on the job, it
should be concerned with the nature of the work itself the opportunities it presents for gaining status, assuming
responsibility, and for achieving self-realization. If, on the other hand, management wishes to reduce dissatisfaction, then it
must focus on the job environment policies, procedures, supervision, and working conditions. If management is equally
concerned with both then managers must give attention to both sets of job factors. Thus, satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not
on a continuum with one increasing as the other diminishes, but are independent phenomena. This theory suggests that to
improve job attitudes and productivity, administrators must recognize and attend to both sets of characteristics and not assume
that an increase in satisfaction leads to decrease in un-pleasurable dissatisfaction.
Two-factor theory distinguishes between:

Motivators (e.g. challenging work, recognition, responsibility) which give positive satisfaction, arising from intrinsic

conditions of the job itself, such as recognition, achievement, or personal growth, and

Hygiene factors (e.g. status, job security, salary and fringe benefits) which do not give positive satisfaction, although

dissatisfaction results from their absence. These are extrinsic to the work itself, and include aspects such as company policies,
supervisory practices, or wages/salary.
Essentially, hygiene factors are needed to ensure an employee is not dissatisfied. Motivation factors are needed in order to
motivate an employee to higher performance, Herzberg also further classified our actions and how and why we do them, for
example, if you perform a work related action because you have to then that is classed as movement, but if you perform a work
related action because you want to then that is classed as motivation.
The following table presents the top six factors causing dissatisfaction and the top six factors causing satisfaction, listed in the
order of higher to lower importance.
Leading to satisfaction

Achievement

Recognition

Work itself

Responsibility

Advancement

Growth

Company policy

Supervision

Relationship with boss

Work conditions

Salary

Relationship with peers

Security

Leading to dissatisfaction

Herzberg reasoned that because the factors causing satisfaction are different from those causing dissatisfaction, the two feelings
cannot simply be treated as opposites of one another. The opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction, but rather, no
satisfaction. Similarly, the opposite of dissatisfaction is no dissatisfaction.

2.4 DETERMINANTS OF EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION


Employee satisfaction is a multi-variable and indescribable concept. There are number of factors that influence employee
satisfaction. These factors can be classified into two categories.
A) Organizational Variables:
The organizational determinants of employee satisfaction play a very important role. The employees spend major part of their
time in organization so there are number of organizational factors that determine employee satisfaction of the employees. The
employee satisfaction in the organizations can be increased by organizing and managing the organizational factors.
1) Overall Individual satisfaction: Employees be should satisfy with the organization as a great place to work.
2) Compensation and Benefits: This is the most important variable for employee satisfaction. Compensation can be described as
the amount of reward that a worker expects from the job. Employees should be provided with competitive salary packages and
they should be satisfied with it when comparing their pay packets with those of the outsiders who are working in the same
industry. A feeling of employee satisfaction is felt by attaining fair and equitable rewards.
3) Nature of Work: The nature of work has significant impact on the employee satisfaction. Employee satisfaction is highly
influenced by the nature of work. Employees are satisfied with job that involves intelligence, skills, abilities, challenges and
scope for greater freedom. Job dissatisfaction arises with a feeling of boredom, poor variety of tasks, frustrations and failures.
4) Work Environment and Conditions: Employees are highly motivated with good working conditions as they provide a feeling of
safety, comfort and motivation. On contrary, poor working conditions brings out a fear of bad health in employees. Employees
spend 6 to 8 hours at their workplace every day which makes a workplace their second home. It is up to the employers to see
and make sure that the office is fully facilitated and is in good working order. It must be well lit and well ventilated with the right
amount of lights, fans, air-conditioning. Cleanliness is of utmost importance as there are a huge number of workers working at a
job place. The offices, cubicles, rest area, washrooms, kitchen & serving area must be neat and clean. The more comfortable the
working environment is more productive will be the employees.
5) Job Content: Factors like recognition, responsibility, advancement, achievement etc can be referred to as job content. A job
that involves variety of tasks and less monotonous results delivers greater employee satisfaction. A job that involves poor
content produces job dissatisfaction.
6) Job Satisfaction: Job satisfaction is the favorableness or un-favorableness with which employees view their work. As with
motivation, it is affected by the environment. Job satisfaction is impacted by job design. Jobs that are rich in positive behavioral
elements such as autonomy, task identity, task significance and feedback contribute to employees satisfaction. Likewise,
orientation is important because the employees acceptance by the work group contributes to satisfaction. Each element of the
environmental system, can attract or detract from job satisfaction.
7) Organizational Level: The jobs that are at higher levels are viewed as prestigious, esteemed and opportunity for self-control.
The employees that are working at higher level jobs express greater employee satisfaction than the ones working at lower level
jobs.

8) Opportunities for Promotion: Promotion can be reciprocated as a significant achievement in the life. It promises and delivers
more pay, responsibility, authority, independence and status. So, the opportunities for promotion determine the degree of
satisfaction to the employees.

9) Work Group: There is a natural desire of human beings to interact with others and so existence of groups in organizations is a
common observable fact. This characteristic results in formation of work groups at the work place. Isolated workers dislike their

jobs. The work groups make use of a remarkable influence on the satisfaction of employees. The satisfaction of an individual is
dependent on largely on the relationship with the group members, group dynamics, group cohesiveness and his own need for
affiliation.
10) Leadership Styles: The satisfaction level on the job can be determined by the leadership styles. Employee satisfaction is
greatly enhanced by democratic style of leadership. It is because democratic leaders promote friendship, respect and warmth
relationships among the employees. On contrary, employees working under authoritarian and dictatorial leaders express low
level of employee satisfaction.

11) Communication Methods: When administrative policies and all important announcements are communicated to the
employees, it boosts their morale. The methods chosen for communication also play an integral role. Some of the methods that
could be used are intranet, monthly newsletters, weekly meetings etc...
12) Safety measures: An employer must make sure that he provides a safe environment to his/her employee. The security
measures outside office include security guards and parking facility. While inside the office, there must be introduced a safe
environment for male and female employees to work so that if an employee has to work late hours she/he should feel safe and
comfortable working in his/her office. There must be no discrimination or harassment practiced and the employee should be
given equal opportunity to grow as an individual despite being male or female.
B) Personal Variables:
The personal determinants also help a lot in maintaining the motivation and personal factors of the employees to work
effectively and efficiently. Employee satisfaction can be related to psychological factors and so numbers of personal factors
determine the employee satisfaction of the employees.
1) Personality: The personality of an individual can be determined by observing his individual psychological conditions. The
factors that determine the satisfaction of individuals and his psychological conditions is perception, attitudes and learning.
2) Age: Age can be described as a noteworthy determinant of employee satisfaction. It is because younger age employees
possessing higher energy levels are likely to be having more employee satisfaction. In older age, the aspiration levels in
employees increase. They feel completely dissatisfied in a state where they are unable to find their aspiration fulfilled.

3) Education: Education plays a significant determinant of employee satisfaction as it provides an opportunity for developing
ones personality. Education develops and improvises individual wisdom and evaluation process. The highly educated employees
can understand the situation and asses it positively as they possess persistence, rationality and thinking power.
4) Gender Differences: The gender and race of the employees plays important determinants of Employee satisfaction. Women,
the fairer sex, are more likely to be satisfied than their male counterpart even if they are employed in small jobs. The employee
satisfaction can also be determined by other factors like learning, skill autonomy, job characteristics, unbiased attitude of
management, social status etc. It is important for managers to consider all these factors in assessing the satisfaction of the
employees and increasing their level of employee satisfaction.
2.5

HOW EMPLOYEES CAN EXPRESS THEIR DISSATISFACTION?

Top Triggers of Employee Dissatisfaction:

Ambiguity in role and responsibilities

Responsibility without accountability. If one has responsibility but no power to take decisions or accountability one gets de-

motivated as one cannot show results or move things forward.

Sometimes employees set too high unrealistic standards/ expectations for themselves and that too sometimes lead to

against within them. In this case if they do not have a good mentor, it may lead to a lot of stress and pressure as inability to
achieve unrealistic goals may be due to circumstances beyond their control.

Lack of professionalism, lack of systems and processes also leads to employee angst.

Biased approach/favoritisms/discrimination at work

Lack of challenge in the work/lack of opportunities to move up the career ladder

The employees sent out some signals to express their discontent and the organization should not take it lightly.
1) Excessive absenteeism: When a regular employee suddenly begins to take leave or is late to work, it could indicate either his
personal problems or job dissatisfaction.
2) Lack of interest: When an employee who stays at work until his job is done, now begins to leave at sharp 5 pm no matter his
job is done or not.
3) Lack of quality and quantity in work: When an employee is dissatisfied in his job then automatically his mental state is
reflected in his quality of his work.
4) Complaints by employee: Many complaints are put forward by the employee regarding salary, benefits, working hours,
working conditions etc.
5) Off the job work: Misusing the company facility for his personal use during working hours.
6) Misbehavior: An employee may express anger, frequent argument with association and team member, which come out due to
frustration.
Effects of Dissatisfaction:
Recognizing the dissatisfaction is only half the battle. The company should consider the reason for the burnout and should try to
solve those problems because it will affect other employees also. Otherwise it will affect the company in many ways like
* Low productivity
* High employee turnover cost
* Poor employee morale
2.6 WHY IS EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION IMPORTANT?
Purpose / benefits of employee satisfaction include as follows:
1. Importance of employee satisfaction for organization
Enhance employee retention.
Increase productivity.
Increase customer satisfaction
Reduce turnover, recruiting, and training costs.
Enhance customer satisfaction and loyalty.
More energetic employees.
Improve teamwork.
Higher quality products and/or services due to more competent, energized employees.
2. Importance of employee satisfaction for employee
Employee will believe that the organization will be satisfying in the long run.
They will care about the quality of their work.
They will create and deliver superior value to the customer.
They are more committed to the organization.
Their works are more productive.
Outcome of Employee Satisfaction:
a.

Satisfaction and Productivity: Satisfied employees are not necessarily more productive. Employee productivity is higher in

organization with more satisfied employees.


b.

Satisfaction and Absenteeism: Satisfied employees have few avoidable absenteeism.

c.

Satisfaction and Turnover: Satisfied employees are less likely to quit. Organization takes actions to retain high performers

and to weed out lower performers.


d.

Satisfaction and Organization Behavior: Satisfied employees who feel fairly treated by and are trusting of the organization

are more willing to engage in behaviors that go beyond the normal expectation of their job.

e.

Satisfied employee increase Customer Satisfaction: Because they are more friendly, upbeat and responsive. They are less

likely to turnover which helps build long-term customer relationship. They are experienced.
2.7

THE BEST HR PRACTICES THAT SUCCESSFUL COMPANIES PRACTICE

Why are employees in some companies happy to stick with the company while others look for a change? The reason is that
some companies know how to take good care of their employees and provide a working environment that helps them retain
their identity, while proving themselves and growing along with the company.
How Managers Attract, Hire, Focus, And Keep Their Most Talented Employees?
Without satisfying an employee's basic needs first, a manager can never expect the employee to give stellar performance. The
basic needs are knowing what is expected of the employee at work, giving him the equipment and support to do his work right,
and answering him basic questions of self-worth and self-esteem by giving praise for good work and caring about his
development as a person.
The great manager mantra is don't try to put in what was left out; instead draw out what was left in. You must hire for talent,
and hone that talent into outstanding performance.
1.

Know what can be taught, and what requires a natural talent.

2.

Set the right outcomes, not steps. Standardize the end but not the means. As long as the means are within the company's

legal boundaries and industry standards, let the employee use his own style to deliver the result or outcome you want.
3.

Motivate by focusing on strengths, not weaknesses.

4.

Casting is important, if an employee is not performing at excellence, maybe he is not cast in the right role.

5.

Every role is noble, respect it enough to hire for talent to match.

6.

A manager must excel in the art of the interview. See if the candidate's recurring patterns of behavior match the role he is

to fulfill. Ask open-ended questions and let him talk. Listen for specifics.
7.

Find ways to measure, count, and reward outcomes.

8.

Spend time with your best people. Give constant feedback. If you can't spend an hour every quarter talking to an

employee, then you shouldn't be a manager.


9.

There are many ways of alleviating a problem or non-talent. Devise a support system; find a complementary partner for

him, or an alternative role.


10.

Do not promote someone until he reaches his level of incompetence; simply offer bigger rewards within the same range of

his work.
11.

Some homework to do: Study the best managers in the company and revise training to incorporate what they know. Send

your talented people to learn new skills or knowledge. Change recruiting practices to hire for talent, revise employee job
descriptions and qualifications.
Here are some of the best HR practices that help in the creation of a highly satisfied and motivated work force.
Work Environment
A safe and happy workplace makes the employees feel good about being there. Each one is given importance and provided the
security that gives them the motivation and incentive to stay. This is usually achieved through internal surveys to find out
whether they are satisfied and if not what they think needs to be changed.
Open Management
Employees dont like the feeling of being kept in the dark about what is happening in the company. They feel motivated and
develop enthusiasm only when the management opens up to them and discusses the company policies, sales, clients, contracts,
goals and objectives. This encourages participative management. Asking them for ideas on how to improve will get their creative
juices flowing. Being open about everything related to the company will help in building trust and motivating the employees.
This open management policy can be practiced using several tools.
Performance Incentives
Every good performance is appreciated in the form of a pat on the back, bonuses or giving some other compensation for a job

well done. Organizations that struggle to keep up with the attrition rate are mostly those that think employees are just doing
their job. Even if it is the employees job, completion in an appreciable manner calls for an incentive, and this goes a long way in
boosting the staff morale. These incentives can be implemented at the individual as well as the team level and it has been seen
that this works wonders in getting the best out of the employees. But it is important to keep in mind that these bonuses should
not be given without a reason, unless it is a commitment for annual bonuses or some such thing. Doing so will only reduce the
perceived value of the bonuses.
Performance Feedback
This is one the methods that is being followed by many organizations. Feedback is not only taken from the boss, but also from
other seniors and subordinates. Previously, appreciation was only sought from the immediate boss or the management, but now
organizations understand the importance of collecting performance feedback from several quarters. The opinion of everyone
matters, especially for someone who is in a leadership role at any level. Each person in the team is responsible for giving
constructive feedback. This kind of system helps in identifying people who can perform well as leaders at higher levels in the
organization. Even the senior level managers can use this system to their advantage, as a tool to improve themselves.
Employee Evaluation
Every company has an employee evaluation system in place but a good system links individual performance to the goals and
priorities of the organization. This works well when achievements are tracked over a year. For a fair review of each employee,
the evaluation, apart from being done by the boss, should be done by another person at a higher level, for whom the
employees contribution is important. Ratings can also be obtained by other employees. This ensures a fair and accurate rating
of each and every employee.

Sharing of Knowledge
Knowledge sharing is a wonderful strategy that helps in the betterment of the employees and their work. Keep all the
knowledgeable information in central databases that can be accessed by each and every employee. For example, if an employee
is sent on some training, the knowledge that is acquired by that employee can be stored in these databases for others to learn
from it. Even innovative ideas that the management deems fit for employees to see, can be stored here for all to see.
Publicize Good Performances
Every company has some employees who outperform others. Such performances should be highlighted and displayed where
other employees can look at them; such as on the display boards and intranet etc. This will encourage others to give their best.
A proper system should be set up to make a list of high performances at specific times in a year.
Discussions
Successful organizations nurture ideas and they understand that employees who are actually working and know the business
can provide the best ideas. The management should have discussions with employees to get these ideas out of them. There can
also be suggestion boxes to capture these ideas. Through this system, managers can find talented employees and develop
them.
Rewards
While recognition of talent is highly important, this recognition has to be made public and what better way than holding
ceremonies and announcing to the whole world (the employees), the achievements of a fellow employee. There can be nothing
better for an employee than the heady feeling from a resounding applause.
The Surprise Factor
Who doesnt like a surprise? Surprise deserving employees when they are least expecting it. It could be a gift certificate or a
small reward of some sort. This surprise doesnt have to be limited to the best performers, but it can be randomly given to
others as a motivating factor too. Anyone can be given this surprise reward.
Such healthy HR practices encourage the growth of the organization as employees after all play a major role in the well-being of

a company. Making an employee feel like a million dollars pays in the form of the success of an organization.

W E D N E S D A Y, 1 8 M A Y 2 0 1 1

PROJECT REPORTS FOR MBA


Posted by lazy at 23:42 Labels: Project Reports 0 comments

1. A Market research project on Disposable Contact lens (Title will be provided later)

2. A Case Study on Cash Management

These project reports were developed on the bases of rigorous field study. They can be used as reference to develop any new
project reports.

Each of these reports is complete with:

1. Certificate Formats - Title, proj certificate, student declaration sample, Acknowledgement sample letter etc.

2. Executive Summary
3. Introduction
4. Research design
5. Analysis
6. Synopsis & conclusions
7. Key findings

8. Recommendations/suggestions
9. Bibliography and Questionnaire