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2015

OAPPC Provincia di Bari

International Conference
September 22 | 23 | 24
Lecce, Italy

Edited by
Haim Altan
Alberto La Tegola
Eliana de Nichilo

International Conference
September 22 | 23 | 24
Lecce, Italy

Edited by
Haim Altan
Alberto La Tegola
Eliana de Nichilo

Publisher

ZEMCH 2015
International Conference | Lecce, Italy
Conference Chair
Prof. Alberto La Tegola - University of Salento, Italy
Scientific Chairs
Prof. Haim Altan British University in Dubai, UAE
Prof. Alberto La Tegola - University of Salento, Italy
Board of Referees
Alberto La Tegola
Antonio Frattari
Kheira Anissa Tabet Aoul
Arman Hashemi
Dayana Bastos Costa
Ercilia Hitomi Hirota
Karim Hadjri
John Onyango, Sara Wilkinson
Jun-Tae Kim, Karl Wagner
Liangxiu Han
Masa Noguchi
Francesco Micelli
Local organizing Commitee:
Alessia Imma Aquilino
Pasquale Capezzuto
Massimo Crusi
Daniele Lorenzo De Fabrizio
Eliana de Nichilo
Alberto La Tegola
Carola La Tegola
Francesco Ruggiero
Vincenzo Sinisi
Graphic design
Nino Perrone
ISBN 9788894152609
Ordine degli Architetti Pianificatori Paesaggistici
della Provincia di Bari
Registered with Cancelleria Tribunale di Bari - Aut. n. 3 del
16/01/2016
All rights reserved
2015 Ordine degli Architetti Pianificatori Paesaggistici
della Provincia di Bari
No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any
manner without written permission from the publisher,
except in the context of review.
This publication was made possible thanks to the
contribution of Monte dei Paschi di Siena
Printed December 2015

Organizing partners

Politecnico di Bari
Ordine degli Architetti
Pianificatori, Paesaggisti
e Conservatori
della Provincia di Lecce

Ordine
degli Ingegneri
della Provincia
di Bari

ordine
ingegneri
provincia
di lecce

Scientific Partners

Cambridge University Engineering Department


Centre for Sustainable Development

UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL
DA BAHIA - UFBA

Partners

Technical Sponsor

ANCE

ASSOCIAZIONE NAZIONALE
COSTRUTTORI EDILI
Bari - BAT - Lecce

Sponsor

Sommario

PREFACE / FORWARD
Hasim Altan, Alberto La Tegola

10

THE APULIAN WAY TO SUSTAINABILITY


Alberto La Tegola, Eliana de Nichilo

14

ZEMCH 2015 - BARI LECCE 21ST 25TH


SEPTEMBER
Arch. Vincenzo Sinisi, Arch. Massimo Crusi, Ing.
Domenico Perrini. Ing. Daniele Lorenzo De
Fabrizio

19

33

47

61

75

89

99

FEASIBILITY OF APPLICATION OF MODERN


METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION IN IRAN
Arman Hashemi, Masa Noguchi, Hasim Altan
DEVELOPING ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICES
FROM SOCIAL ASPECTS: A CASE STUDY OF
DUBAI
Dania Tachouali & Hasim Altan
MEASURING AND PREDICTING
RESIDENTIAL MARKET ACCEPTANCE
FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC TECHNOLOGIES IN
MELBOURNE VICTORIA
Neville Hurst, Sara Wilkinson
CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING OF
SUSTAINABILITY IN BUILT ENVIRONMENT
PROFESSIONALS
Sara Wilkinson
UNCERTAINTY EFFECTS OF INPUT DATA
ON COST OPTIMAL NZEB PERFORMANCE
ANALYSIS
Seyedehmamak Salavatian,
Elisa Di Giuseppe & Marco Dorazio
HOUSEHOLD LIFESTYLE AND ITS IMPACTS
ON ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN BEIJING
Nianxiong Liu, Dan Mo, Bing Chen,
Muzhou Wang
FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF GREEN MOCKUP BUILDINGS IN TROPICAL EMERGING
COUNTRIES
Karl Wagner,
Gabriele Arese & Alberto De Marco

111 INTEGRATING TOURISM WITH RURAL


SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN EGYPT:
CASE STUDY OF FAYOUM OASIS
Hagar M. Shalaby, Aia Sherif2 & Hasim Altan
123 TURKEYS ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AND
CHALLENGES TOWARD SUSTAINABILITY
Saja B. Nazzal & Hasim Altan

135 SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS FOR THE


PHILIPPINES BUILT ENVIRONMENT DUE TO
NATURAL DISASTERS
Salma Al-Zahabi & Hasim Altan
151 THE UNIVERSITY CAMPUS AS A MODEL
OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND SETTLEMENT
SUSTAINABILITY
Carla Chiarantoni & Calogero Montalbano
171 BUILDING RENOVATION, SUSTAINABILITY
AND URBAN REGENERATION
Rosa Maria Vitrano
181 SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT
AND BUILDING PERFORMANCE ON
CONSTRUCTION PRACTICES IN THE UAE
Nadia Al Badri
193 A CLOSER LOOK AT SUSTAINABILITY
PRACTICES: LESSONS FROM THE UK
Yumn Nanaa & Hasim Altan
209 VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF SOUTH
OF IRAN, EVAZ: DEVELOPING A SOLUTION
FOR FUTURE DESIGNS
Fatima Mirahmadi & Hasim Altan
225 EVALUATION AND VISUALISATION
OF THERMAL PERFORMANCE
OF INDUSTRIALISED HOUSING
CONSTRUCTION IN CENTRAL MEXICO
Habid Becerra-Santacruz,
Panagiotis Patlakas & Hasim Altan
241 MODELLING OCCUPANT ACTIVITY
PATTERNS FOR ENERGY SAVING IN
BUIDINGS USING MACHINE-LEARNING
APPROACHES
Jose Luis Gomez Ortega & Liangxiu Han
255 AN OVERVIEW OF BUILDING
SUSTAINABILITY RATING SYSTEMS IN THE
MIDDLE EAST
Sundus L. Shareef &Hasim Altan
269 SOFTWARE FOR THE HEAT FLOW
EVALUATION OF THE NEARLY-ZERO
HOUSES
Antonio De Vecchi, Simona Colajanni, Elsa
Sanfilippo, Luigi Alessandro Licalsi, Angela
DAraio, Marianna Di Salvo
279 USING 4D BIM IN THE RETROFIT PROCESS
OF SOCIAL HOUSING
Fernanda J. Chaves, Patrcia Tzortzopoulos,
Carlos T. Formoso & Jeferson Shigaki
291 EXPLORATION OF THE ZEMCH WORKSHOP
USP 2015
Karin Chvatal, Kelen Dornelles, Bruno Damineli,
Akemi Ino, Lcia Shimbo & Masa Noguchi

307 THE GREEN SPACE EXPLORED IN


DIFFERENT INDIVIDUAL HOUSING
TYPOLOGY, ALGERIA
Kheira A. Tabet Aoul, Wessal Keddah
319 AN EXAMINATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP
BETWEEN BUILDING INTELLIGENCE
AND SUSTAINABILITY USING LEED AND
BREEAM CERTIFIED CASE STUDIES IN THE
UK AND EUROPE
Tulika Gadakari,
Karim Hadjri & Sabah Mushatat

473 THE PAVILIONS OF EXPO 2015 IN MILAN,


AS A PRIVILEGED OBSERVATORY
ABOUT THE CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABLE
CONSTRUCTION IN ALL LANGUAGES OF
THE WORLD
Alberto La Tegola
489 PERSONALISATION STRATEGIES AND
RESIDENTIAL SATISFACTION IN CHILEAN
SOCIAL HOUSING
Victor Bunster, Masa Noguchi Rodrigo GarcaAlvarado & Tom Kvan

333 DESIGN DECISIONS AIMED AT REDUCING


WASTE IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF LIGHT
WOOD FRAME LOW-INCOME HOUSING
Carina F. Barros Nogueira, Fernanda A. Saffaro,
Sidnei J. Guadanhim & Erclia H. Hirota

503 OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES TO


MASS CUSTOMIZE LOW-INCOME HOUSING
IN BRAZIL
Patrcia A. Tillmann, Carlos T. Formoso,
Patrcia Tzortzopoulos

349 POST-CONFLICT SUSTAINABLE


DEVELOPMENT OF BAMIYAN CITY IN
AFGHANISTAN
Farah Al Amin & Hasim Altan

517 STUDY OF MODULAR, FLEXIBLE,


CUSTOMIZABLE HOUSING MODELS FOR
MASS PRODUCTION, WITH LOW ENERGY
CONSUMPTION
Domizia Mandolesi, Ilaria De Marco, Ilaria
Vergori

361 CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY


PRACTICES: A CASE STUDY OF A
CONSTRUCTION COMPANY IN UNITED
ARAB EMIRATES
Godwin Francis, Nada El Bana & Hasim Altan
377 ISTANBUL TOWARDS SOCIAL
SUSTAINABILITY:
A REVIEW ON ISTANBULS SOCIAL
CONDITIONS AND DEVELOPMENTS
Lama A. Mouileq & Hasim Altan
389 SUSTAINABILITY PROPOSAL FOR
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF
POPULATION, AFFLUENCE AND
DEVELOPMENT ON INDONESIA
Mahbouba M. Karima & Hasim Altan
399 SUSTAINABILITY IN NATURE: LESSONS FOR
YAS ISLAND HOUSING COMMUNITY IN ABU
DHABI
Nada El Bana, Marwa Yousuf & Hasim Altan
419 DEPLOYMENT OF SUSTAINABLE
PRACTICES ON CONSTRUCTION SITES
Natasha Ilse Rothbucher Thomas & Dayana
Bastos Costa
431 ENVIRONMENTAL BEHAVIORS OF
MODULAR NEIGHBORHOODS THROUGH
CURRENT REGULATIONS ESTIDAMA, UAE
Oraib K.A.M. Al Abbadi & Hasim Altan
447 DESIGN DECISION-MAKING PROCESS OF
AFFORDABLE LOW ENERGY HOMES IN
LATIN AMERICA
Pablo Jimnez Moreno and Masa Noguchi

529 BPM AND LSS AS ENABLERS OF MASS


CUSTOMIZATION IN CONSTRUCTION
Mara Dolores Andjar-Montoya,
Virgilio Gilart-Iglesias, Andrs Montoyo &
Diego Marcos-Jorquera
543 A DESIGN PROCESS PROPOSAL TO
BRAZILIAN GOVERNMENTS SOCIAL
HOUSING PROGRAM
Sidnei Jr. Guadanhim, Jorge Daniel de Melo
Moura, Erclia Hitomi Hirota, Hana Beatriz
Cardoso El Ghoz & Fernanda Aranha Saffaro
563 INTEGRATION OF SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS
TO REDUCE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS IN
KUWAIT
Mohammed Bou-Rabee, MagdySaadSaleh,
Suhaila Marafi
571 TOWARDS NZEBS: INNOVATIVE
MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR NEW
SUSTAINABLE ENVELOPE
Cecilia Mazzoli, Nicola Bartolini, Riccardo Gulli
583 ECO-FRIENDLY MATERIALS FOR THE
ENERGY RETROFIT OF EXISTING
BUILDINGS
Antonio De Vecchi, Antonino Valenza, Simona
Colajanni, Elsa Sanfilippo
593 ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE AND
SOLAR ENERGY POTENTIAL OF CHILEAN
MASS HOUSING
Rodrigo Garca Alvarado

603 A STUDY ON THE SIMULATION


PERFORMANCE
OF PV DOUBLE SKIN FACADE (PV DSF)
JiSuk Yu, SangMyung Kim,
JinHee Kim & JunTae Kim
613 IMPROVING THERMAL COMFORT IN LOWINCOME TROPICAL HOUSING: THE CASE OF
UGANDA
Arman Hashemi, Heather Cruickshank, Ali
Cheshmehzangi
623 CLAM LIFE MECHANISM: INSPIRED DESIGN
STRATEGIES FOR BETTER BUILDING
PERFORMANCE
Asma Al Ansari & Hasim Altan
635 ATTAINING THERMAL COMFORT THROUGH
BIOMIMICRY IN THE CASE OF EMIRATES
TOWERS METRO STATION IN DUBAI
Dana Aljadaa & Hasim Altan
653 RETROFITTING EXISTING BUILDINGS
IN UNITED ARAB EMIRATES:
BARRIERS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
Enas Alkhateeb & Hasim Altan
669 USING GAMIFICATION TO ENHANCE
UNDERSTANDING OF BUILDING
PERFORMANCE
Panagiotis Patlakas,
Zacharias Maniadis & Rokia Raslan
683 DYNAMIC SIMULATION OF A SOLAR
COOLING HVAC SYSTEM WITH NANOFLUID
Colangelo Gianpiero, DAndrea Gerardo,
Franciosa Mariolina, Milanese Marco,
de Risi Arturo
701 ENERGY RETROFIT FOR ROME
MUNICIPALITYS RESIDENTIAL REAL
ESTATE. ATER A CASE STUDY: THE VIGNE
NUOVE COMPLEX
Marina Pugnaletto,
Cesira Paolini & Carmen Spagnoli
713 ANALYSIS OF THERMAL AND VISUAL
COMFORT IN RENOVATED SCHOOL
CLASSROOMS
Hasim Altan,
Jitka Mohelnikova & Pavla Mocova
721 DESIGNING A PASSIVE AUTOMOBILE
SHOWROOM IN HOT CLIMATIC
CONDITIONS
Iyad Abdaljawad & Hasim Altan
739 PASSIVE DESIGN APPROACH FOR HIGHRISE BUILDINGS: FROM COURTYARDS TO
SKYCOURTS
Saba Alnusairat, & Heba Elsharkawy

749 THE IMPACT OF PASSIVE DESIGN


STRATEGIES ON INDOOR COMFORT OF
SCHOOL BUILDINGS IN HOT-DRY CLIMATES
Sahar Zahiri & Hasim Altan
763 SUSTAINABILITY AND OFFICE TO
RESIDENTIAL CONVERSION ADAPTATION
IN SYDNEY
Sara Wilkinson & Hilde Remoy
775 APPLICATION OF STEEL FIBRES DERIVED
FROM SCRAP TIRES AS REINFORCEMENT IN
CONCRETE
Giuseppe Centonze, Marianovella Leone,
Francesco Micelli & Maria Antonietta Aiello
785 MAINTAINING A HEALTHY LIFE INDOORS:
AIR QUALITY AND SOURCES OF NOISE IN
RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN THE UAE
Ehab Kamaleh & Hasim Altan
797 IMPACT OF RETAIL INDOOR ENVIRONMENT
ON CONSUMER WELLBEING AND
PERFORMANCE
Fathima Reaz & Hasim Altan
807 A POST OCCUPANCY EVALUATION OF THE
UAE MUSEUM INDOOR ENVIRONMENTS
Hawra Sharif Askari & Hasim Altan
819 THE IMPACT OF SMOKING ON INDOOR AIR
QUALITY IN HOSPITALITY VENUES
Parmis Nadali & Hasim Altan
831 INDOOR PLANTS IMPACT ON INDOOR
ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY
Rasha Gafar & Hasim Altan
847 A REVIEW OF INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL
QUALITY IN OFFICE ENVIRONMENTS
Reeny M. Thomas & Hasim Altan
857 GREEN WALLS FOR A SUSTAINABLE
CONTROL OF BUILDING MICROCLIMATE
Evelia Schettini, Ileana Blanco, Silvana Fuina,
Giacomo Scarascia Mugnozza, Carlo Alberto
Campiotti & Giuliano Vox

ZEMCH 2015 | International Conference | Bari - Lecce, Italy

PREFACE / FORWARD
Hasim Altan, Alberto La Tegola

Dear Colleagues and Friends,


We are glad to come together in Lecce, Italy at the 4th Annual Conference of the Zero Energy Mass Custom Home (ZEMCH) Network on 22nd-25th September 2015.
ZEMCH 2015, in its fourth year, is an annual global interactive forum for intellectual discussion
on the problems and delights of design, manufacturing and marketing surrounding the delivery
of low CO2 and ultimately, Zero Energy Houses that are customisable on a mass scale, either built
or under construction in developing and developed countries. The conference is covering topics
involving Mass Customisation and Sustainability in the Built Environment.
ZEMCH Network was established in 2010 by a zero energy mass custom home research group
to accelerate both research and development of socially, economically and environmentally sustainable homes in global contexts. The emerging concept of mass customisation is now crossing
borders into other types of buildings, and therefore the emphasis is now on more than just housing, covering the built environment. Presently, the network consists of 450 partners from over 40
countries.
This Conference Proceedings consist of many informative and comprehensive scientific abstracts
and papers, which are featured as oral presentations. Therefore, it provides a good opportunity
to become familiar with the most recent research in sustainable development. The Proceedings
covers many valuable studies and 64 full-papers presented at the Parallel Sessions over the entire
conference.
The objective of these ZEMCH conference series is to promote research and developments of
Sustainability in the Built Environment as can be also seen from the wide areas of topics including
many disciplines. We are happy to produce such a nice Proceedings, which can be used in future
scientific explorations.
Publication of selected papers in one of the below-listed reputable journals will be done among
the studies being at this Proceedings:
Engineering Sustainability
Open House International
Sustainable Buildings
Please note that the selected papers will be subject to journal peer-reviewing. On behalf of the
organisers, we would like to appreciate everyone who contributed to this Proceedings.
Hasim Altan, Alberto La Tegola

THE APULIAN WAY TO SUSTAINABILITY


Alberto La Tegola, Eliana de Nichilo

The International Conference of ZEMCH, 2015 edition, was held for the first time in Puglia in the
cities of Bari and Lecce at the Department of Engineering of the University of Salento and the
Polytechnic of Bari on days 22-25 September 2015, after the initiatives of the University of Glasgow
(Scotland) in 2012, the University of Miami (Florida) in 2013, the University of Londrina (Brasil) 2014.
The Congress was attended by speakers from 35 countries from all continents together with the
most representative authorities of the Apulia Region and the professional world.
For the event organization, in fact, ZEMCH Network for the first time asked the intervention of the
Professional Associations (Architects P.P.C. and Engineers) of the regional and provincial territory
where the conference would had been held.
This experimental co-organization formula was selected to reach a wider sharing and participation among all the parts involved in governance processes and according to ZEMCH mission: it
is true to say that the promotion and encouragement of a culture of environmental sustainability
in both territorial and urban transformations, but also in the construction of public and private
building, can be effective if administrations, professionals and enterprises share the same goals,
i.e. sustainable buildings construction techniques and sustainable building management.
In this light, the Apulian professional boards, spent their efforts to transform the initiative into a
major opportunity for their members professional growth and lifelong learning.
Therefore the Apulian edition provided a cycle of technical seminars and workshops in addition to
the international conference, to be considered an opportunity for professionals involved (experts,
professionals, administrators) to compare experiences, procedures and construction techniques
related to sustainable design, in a broader international scene.

Brief history of sustainability in Apulia


Our region since the enactment of the Regional Law n. 13 Rules for sustainable living on 10 June
2008 and the implementation of the D.R.A.G. guidelines (Regional document of general territorial
organization), has adopted some essential tools to disseminate sustainable living in cities and
provinces of Apulia.
We must quote some of the essential enactments on sustainability in our regional legislation:
DGR n. 2272 on 24th November 2009, ITACA Protocol Puglia 2009 that defines the sustainability certification system of residential buildings in accordance with Articles 9 and 10 of the
Regional Law n. 13/2008 Rules for sustainable living, and includes guidelines and annexes to
certify the environmental sustainability of buildings with a residential use;
Resolution n. 3 ITACA Protocol Puglia 2011 - Residential on 16th January 2013 (published in
the Official Bulletin of the Region, BURP, n. 26 on 19th February 2013), that replaced the previous
Protocol and contains the updated guidelines and the free calculation software, that also enables automatic compilation and printing of the certificate in conformity to the approved models;

10

ZEMCH 2015 | International Conference | Bari - Lecce, Italy

DGR n. 2751 on 14th December 2012 (published in the Official Bulletin of the Region, BURP, n.
10 on 18th January 2013) that concerns the training and accreditation system of Apulian sustainability certifiers, in accordance with art. 9 of L.R. 13/2008, and covers the requirements for the
accreditation of personnel authorized to issue the Certificate of Environmental Sustainability,
the maintenance of qualified requisite, and also identifies the characteristics of the subjects
who can be involved into the training processes;
Prize Apulia, sponsored by the Puglia Region, and awarded annually to contemporary works of architecture or urban planning characterized by their capacity to conserve, enhance and protect the natural balance of the territory, to promote accessibility and usability of the built environment, to improve urban quality and beauty of human
settlements and preserve the landscapes and the quality of existing housing stock; to respond
to the needs of the city and of all the multi-ethnic society (Art n. 1 Prize Apulia Regulation).
The prize, includes two Sections: Planners Under 40, for young authors of contemporary or
urban architectural works being built in Apulia; Private Client, for persons residing or having
their business in Apulia and who have demonstrated a particular attention to the pursuit of
quality in architecture and urban planning. Nominations for the Prize to be submitted by December 30 of each year, must be made by the municipalities on whose territory the works have
been implemented, but can also be done by the design team, by the client or the owner.
Each of the previous Regional rules has been discussed with Regional associations and Municipalities (such as ANCI Puglia) with representatives of enterprises (Confindustria Puglia and ANCE
Puglia) but also with Professional Orders and Colleges: all parts on 26th July 2012 signed a Memorandum of Understanding that encourages effective and rapid implementation of sustainable culture.
The Memorandum also encourages the constant examination of the opportunities that the regional laws provide potentially (throughout seminars, courses, competitions, etc.), and give a
central role to technicians, companies, citizens and administrations that provide the Territory in
implementing rules and initiatives that would be appropriate to take, for achieving a sustainable
urban regeneration in the next future.

Training and accreditation system of sustainability apulian certifiers : the role of


the professional orders and colleges
The Apulian system of sustainability certifiers, i.e. the authorized persons who can issue certificates of sustainability of buildings under LR 13/2008 and its subsequent implementations, is quite
articulated.
The DGR n. 2751/2012 established the need for the Region to have at its disposal a list of authorized persons to issue certificates of sustainability of buildings under LR 13/2008, who have
to be previously trained and accredited by Professional Orders and Colleges.
The training system that Apulian technicians have to follow in order to be included by their professional orders in the Regional List of Sustainability Certifiers is clearly indicated in Annex A
Attachment 1 to the DGR n. 2751/2012 and includes:
a. Qualified training course (20 hours): it includes three modules devoted to the compilation of
an Apulian ITACA Protocol;
Basic training course (60 hours): it includes six modules on
1b - Site quality (6 hours, i.e. site selection and area design criteria, analysis of climatic, environmental and of specific site factors, territorial, urban and natural peculiarities, analysis
of contamination, of urbanization level and of accessibility to the sites services, landscape

11

Integration, quality of buildings pertinent areas, support to sustainable mobility),


2b - Consumption of resources - Energy quality (18 hours, i.e. fundamentals of energy, energy
buildings performance, envelope thermal transmittance, solar radiation direct penetration,
control of solar radiation, buildings thermal inertia, heating and cooling energy systems,
electrical energy, energy for installations devoted to the production of domestic hot water,
energy from renewable sources, natural ventilation in buildings)
3b - Resource consumption - eco-friendly materials (6 hours, i.e. use of eco-friendly and recycled construction materials, use of water resources for drinking purposes),
4b - Environmental loads of buildings (12 hours, i.e. calculation of CO2 emissions, solid waste,
wastewater management, heat island effect)
5b - Indoor environmental quality (12 hours, i.e. buildings ventilation, thermal, visual and
acoustic comfort, electromagnetic pollution)
6b - Quality of service (6 hours, i.e. systems integration, wiring systems quality, performance
maintenance during the buildings long-life, buildings technical documentation, maintenance plans, external envelope performance maintenance).
Both the courses, or part of them have to be previously approved by the Regional Sustainability
Sector.
Every Apulian professional order or college has an internal Sustainability Commission, appointed by the Board, that has the task of updating the list of their accredited members, following the
instructions and evaluation criteria contained on Attachment 2 to DGR n. 2751/2012, but also to
organize events, courses and seminars on sustainability issues. Periodically each Board approves
the updated list and send it to the Regional office in charge of keeping the Apulian Regional List
of Sustainability Certifiers.
Each Sustainability Certifier has to maintain the requirements of authorized persons to issue
certificates of sustainability of buildings under LR 13/2008, by demonstrating a lifelong formal
or informal learning.

ZEMCH 2015 International Conference and Technical Seminars


in this general framework the ZEMCH Network, the Professional Associations of Architects P.P.C.
and Engineers of Bari and Lecce Provinces, selected together a series of topics in addition to the
high cultural and scientific profile of the International Conference in order to offer to Apulian
self-employed architects and engineers both an interactive intellectual discussion forum, and an
opportunity to improve their competences as authorized sustainability certifiers.
Speakers from all over the world together with the most representative authorities of the Apulia
Region, the professional world, and invited keynotes speakers of international and national fame,
compared experiences, procedures and construction techniques related to sustainable design, in
a broader international scene during the entire last week of September 2015.
The topics developed during the ZEMCH 2015 Technical Seminars, held on 21st , 22nd and 25th September 2015 in Bari and Lecce, were adequately selected in order to encounter the high scientific
profile of the International Conference and the cultural needs of regional authorized technicians
who decline sustainability during their professional practices:
September 21st POLYTECHNIC OF BARI Urban sustainability and building design for the implementation of DRAG Puglia guidelines
September 21st POLYTECHNIC OF BARI Energy efficiency and renewable energies in historical
contexts
September 22nd POLYTECHNIC OF BARI Holistic design. The design according to Design for All

12

ZEMCH 2015 | International Conference | Bari - Lecce, Italy

issues
September 24th PLENARY SESSION - The holistic concept of sustainability
September 25th UNIVERSITY OF SALENTO Phytodepuration systems and landscape. What future?
September 25th UNIVERSITY OF SALENTO Solar screening: architectural and energy-saving integration
The technical seminars became also the occasion to compare the world of scientific research and
the leading companies in the materials/components production, to meet the desires and needs
of individuals and society in terms of sustainability.
In the near future residential building will play an important role in what will be conceived as
socially, economically, culturally sustainable, and the constant change and dynamism that characterizes the process leading to buildings realization will be the focus of future experimentations.
In the light of the international scope of the initiative, the organizers have provided recording of
all events of ZEMCH 2015 for their subsequent revival in form of distant learning and open access
through the Italian national councils web sites, usually attended by architects and engineers:
www.im@teria.awn.it
www.mying.it
The ZEMCH 2015 International Conference and Technical Seminars will soon be accessible to all
architects and engineers of the entire national territory, and shortly it is expected to disclose the
electronic format (e- book) of both the Conference Proceedings and Technical Seminars on the
canal www.issuu.com.
The great participation of researchers and technicians to every single aspect of ZEMCH 2015 rewarded the organizers for the great efforts made: the Apulian formula will give at least to architects and engineers of the entire Italian national territory the opportunity to have easily access to
the interesting and admirable research work of the entire ZEMCH Network.

13

ZEMCH 2015 - BARI LECCE 21ST 25TH SEPTEMBER


Arch. Vincenzo Sinisi Presidente O.A.P.P.C. Provincia di Bari
Arch. Massimo Crusi Presidente O.A.P.P.C. Provincia di Lecce
Ing. Domenico Perrini Presidente Ordine Ingegneri Provincia di Bari
Ing. Daniele Lorenzo De Fabrizio Presidente Ordine Ingegneri Provincia di Lecce

When our colleague Alberto La Tegola, in representation of ZEMCH Network, asked to our respective Boards
to establish a collaboration for the organization of the 4th Annual Conference of the Zero Energy Mass Custom Home (ZEMCH) on 22nd-25th September 2015, we soon recognised its further potentialities.
The theme of sustainable design is currently very relevant for Apulian technicians, because of the serious
crisis affecting today the construction sector, and still in progress in our country, and also because of the
need to convert the already existing built heritage, or to make it more efficient and sustainable.
Apulia in the latest years has already developed a series of socially, economically and environmentally sustainable laws that constitute the overall frame in which housing projects can be realised in the next future.
Considering this important work on rules, ranging from certification system of both buildings and technicians, to urban policies, sustainable mobility, energy-efficient buildings and neighbourhoods, we can
justify the current attitude of our regional associations and municipalities in cultural investments on sustainability.
It demonstrates that Apulia has today a diverse and dynamic approach to sustainability within the national
Italian territory.
I
ts effect can be recognised also in the slow but continuous impact on construction industry, building performance, sustainable community development, where innovation and industrialization, and product development are more often inspired to sustainability.
All the institution we involved in the initiative, in fact, grant almost immediately their patronage and sponsorship, demonstrating that a silent substrate, made of people who in different ways and with complementary competences currently work on sustainability in Apulia is alive and growing.
This large ZEMCH 2015 Conference, being held in Puglia for the first time was a result of a great organizational effort, to which colleagues, academics institutions and sponsor contributed with enthusiasm and to
whom we owe gratitude.
We thank above all Vincenzo Zara, Rector of University of Salento and Eugenio Di Sciascio Rector Polytechnic of Bari, but also to Prof Antonio Ficarella Director of Department of Innovation Engineering of University
of Salento.
The International Conference and the Technical Seminars would not have been possible without the
great participation and generous support of the numerous experts invited in each seminar/conference
session that put at the disposal of our members their precious contribution.
We are extremely grateful for both the concession of the patronage and for the personal contribution to
the Plenary Session in particular to:
Michele Emiliano, President Regione Puglia;
Carlo Birrozzi and Maria Piccarreta, Soprintendenza Belle Arti e Paesaggio;
Leopoldo Freyrie, President C.N.A.P.P.C.;

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ZEMCH 2015 | International Conference | Bari - Lecce, Italy

Giorgio Assennato, Director A.R.P.A. Puglia;


Paolo Perrone, Mayor Comune di Lecce;
Antonio De Caro, Mayor Comune di Bari;
Luigi Perrone, President ANCI Puglia,
Fabio Modesti, Director Parco Nazionale dellAlta Murgia;
Gaetano Centra, Federazione Regionale degli Ordini degli Architetti P.C.C. di PUGLIA;
Oronzo Milillo, Federazione Regionale degli Ordini degli Agronomi di PUGLIA;
Salvatore Valletta, President Order Geologist Apulia;
Francesco Tarantini, Legambiente Puglia,
Carmelo Torre, President I.N.U. Puglia,
Giuseppe Seracca Guerrieri, President A.D.S.I. Sezione PUGLIA;
Enrico Albanese, A.R.C.A. Sud Salento.
The organizers and the authors of this book are deeply grateful to the sponsor that have given their financial
support, and participated with their representatives to the technical seminars and to the Plenary Session:
Domenico De Bartolomeo, President Confindustria Bari-BAT;
Beppe Fragasso, President ANCE Bari-BAT;
Monte dei Paschi di Siena Lecce;
Franco Manzi, Manzi Marmi Srl Trani;
Mario Contini, Azko Nobel SIKKENS;
Stefano De Vito, Damiano Gigante and Giuseppe Foti Rossito, Comelit S.p.a. ;
Giuseppe Massari, Quemme s.r.l. Manduria;
Tamara Dongiovanni, Punto DFV;
Alessandro Frigerio, Frigerio Tende da sole S.r.l. ;
Paolo Marini, Compost Natura S.r.l. , Arnesano (LE);
Bruno S.r.l., Acquaviva delle Fonti (BA);
Agrid S.r.l. Bitonto (BA);
Felicia Bio di Molino Andriani S.r.l. Gravina in Puglia (BA);
Antonio Quarta, Quarta caff S.p.a. Lecce.
A special debt of gratitude is due to the entire Boards of O.A.P.P.C. Provincia di Bari and Lecce and Boards
of Ordine Ingegneri Provincia di Bari and Lecce, and in particular to: Alessia Aquilino, Franco Avella,
Fabiana Cicirillo, Pasquale Capezzuto, Flavio De Carlo, Rocco De Matteis, Eliana de Nichilo, Carola La
Tegola, Nunzio Perrucci, Fabio Rimo, Francesco Ruggiero, Andrea Toscano.
We have also to remember the valuable contribution of our members that supported the respective Boards
in the organization of each event held in Bari and Lecce, spending their efforts as tutor of each seminar/
conference session of ZEMCH 2015 and in particular to: Domenico Delle Foglie, Angelica Foscarini, Loredana Modugno, Pietro Gigante, Francesco Fusilli, Stefania Marella, Nicola Petruzzella, Giorgio Skoff,
Angelamaria Quartulli, Maria Giuseppina Urgo.
We have also to warmly thank the silent work of our secretariats which currently and patiently support our
members, and this this time have been on loan for the national and international guests: Emilia Antoniozzi, Giovanna Carbonara, Marco Iannone, Mara XXX, Laura Pieschi, Marco Quarta, Ivan Taurino.

15

International Conference
September 22 | 23 | 24
Lecce, Italy

Edited by
Haim Altan
Alberto La Tegola
Eliana de Nichilo

Publisher

International Conference | Bari - Lecce, Italy

Session I - II

FEASIBILITY OF APPLICATION OF MODERN


METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION IN IRAN
Arman Hashemi1, Masa Noguchi2, Hasim Altan3
1 Centre for Sustainable Development, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, UK,
Email: a.hashemi@eng.cam.ac.uk
2 EDBI Research Group, Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, The University of Melbourne, Australia,
Email: masa.noguchi@unimelb.edu.au
3 SDBE, Faculty of Engineering & IT, British University in Dubai, United Arab Emirates,
Email: hasim.altan@buid.ac.ae

Abstract
Various plans and policies have been adopted by the Iranian Government to address the
housing shortages in Iran. Some of these policies have been successful and some have failed
dramatically deteriorating the housing conditions. Technology transfer from other countries,
such as the UK, may facilitate industrialisation which has been recognised as an effective way
to address housing deficiencies in Iran. The Iranian and UK construction industries, however,
differ in various respects which may increase the risk of failure if transferred technologies are
not adapted to Iranian needs and conditions. This paper compares the current conditions of
the Iranian and UK construction industries to identify the risks and opportunities if Modern
Methods of Construction (MMC) were to be transferred from the UK to Iran. Several issues
such as demand and supply, regulations and standards, practicality, costs, design, sustainability, and governmental policies have been studied in detail. The results reveal that MMC could
potentially improve the housing conditions in Iran by addressing major issues such as skilled
labour shortages, energy and materials wastes, building quality and speed of construction.
The major risks are also identified as volatile economy and housing market, transportation
and industry capacity. The chance of successful adoption is considerably higher for those
MMC that are suitable for small projects, do not require highly skilled labour and heavy machinery, and are compatible with prevailing methods of construction in Iran.

Keywords

Modern Methods of Construction, MMC, Construction Technology, Housing,


Technology Transfer, Iran, UK.

19

1. Introduction
During the last few decades, the Iranian Government has adopted various plans and strategies
to improve the housing conditions in Iran. Some of these plans have been successful and some
have failed dramatically deteriorating the housing conditions. It is estimated that over one million
residential units are currently required to be constructed annually (BHRC 2009) to answer the current demand. The current housing output should almost be doubled (Hashemi and Hadjri 2014)
in order to answer the demand during the next 15 years. This is by far beyond the current capacity
of the Iranian housing industry. For this and many other reasons, Industrialisation and Modern
Methods of Construction (MMC) have been suggested as effective ways to increase the housing
output in Iran (Hashemi 2015).
MMC can be classified under five main building methods of: 1) volumetric systems; 2) panel systems; 3) hybrid systems; 4) sub-assemblies and components; and 5) site-based methods (Ross et
al. 2006). MMC have several claimed advantages over traditional methods of construction such as
higher speed of construction; improved quality and health and safety; addressing skilled labour
shortages; minimising material waste; enhancing value for money invested; and cost predictability (Buildoffsite 2013; Myers 2013; Miles and Whitehouse 2013).
Such potential advantages of MMC over traditional methods of construction have encouraged
the Iranian and UK governments to promote MMC with the intention to improve the housing
outputs as well as the quality and energy efficiency requirements. Yet, despite governmental supports and incentives, the share of industrialised methods in Iran has remained considerably lower
than expected. In 2008, for instance, the share of industrialised construction methods was less
than 3% of (Fatemi Aghda 2008). Several reasons such as small scale of projects, costs and limited
knowledge of stakeholders about advantages and risks of such methods have been suggested
for the limited application of industrialised construction methods and the failure of previous attempts in Iran (Hashemi 2014; Hashemi 2015).
When considering the transferability of MMC to Iran, some additional criteria are involved; some
are desirable, some absolute; some controllable, some uncontrollable; some measurable and
some immeasurable. Some areas are of particular importance in the Iranian context as follows:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Demand and supply


Practicality
Costs
Energy efficiency and waste reductions
Regulations and standards

In the following sections, these criteria are examined and key differences between the Iranian
and UK conditions, potentials, and limitations are discussed in detail. The aim is to evaluate the
opportunities and difficulties facing MMC if transferred to Iran.

Research Methodology
The methodology of this paper is direct comparison between the Iranian and UK construction industries. It is aimed to identify and then evaluate the risks, barriers and opportunities if MMC were
to be applied in large industrial scales Iran. Relevant documents in English and Farsi languages

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published by individual researchers, Iranian and UK governments, and other research bodies are
studied. The outcomes of the study are then discussed in detail to identify the critical factors
which affect the feasibility of application of MMC in the Iranian construction industry. Some recommendations are then drawn based on the findings of the research as the way forward.

2. Detailed comparison between the Iranian and UK construction industries


This section intends to discuss the abovementioned criteria in order to identify differences between the Iranian and UK conditions and to highlight opportunities and risks facing MMC in Iran.
To emphasise the interactions between the identified criteria, all factors involved in a particular
topic are included even though this necessitates some repetition.
2.1 Demand and Supply
The UK construction industry accounts for 8.7% of the countrys GDP (BERR 2009). The share of
the construction industry in the Iranian economy is around 5% of GDP (CBI 2014) of the Iranian
economy (CBI 2013a). In 2003, the private sector was responsible for around 90% of the residential
buildings in the UK (Lovell 2003) which decreased to just above 78% in England during 2012-13
(DCLG 2013). Prior to the Mehr Housing programme which was introduced by the former Iranian government, private sector was responsible for around 95% of the residential buildings in
Iran. This figure, according to the published documents by the Central Bank of Iran, decreased to
around 63% in 2011/12 (CBI 2013b). The share of the private sector returned back to more than 95%
in 2012/13 (SCI 2013a). The housing sector is one of the few Iranian industries where the governments share is much less than the private sector, giving developers and potential investors the
freedom to follow their plans in applying MMC without much control from the government.
Iran needs around 1.5 million new houses to be constructed annually by 2025 to answer its cumulative housing demand (BHRC 2009). According to the Statistical Centre of Iran, housing production was 693,670 units in 2007 (SCI 2008), 621,492 in 2009 (SCI 2010), 701,806 in 2010 (SCI 2013a),
765,024 in 2011 (SCI 2012), and 729,933 in 2012 (SCI 2013a) and 770,410 in 2013 (SCI 2014), which means
an average of around 705 thousand units per annum since 2007 (Table 1: Housing output 2007-2013).
The annual housing production should therefore increase by an average of 800,000 to answer
the current demand. This figure rises to more than 1000,000 housing units if the shortfall of the
previous years since 2007 is brought into the account. Although the Iranian government has been
trying to increase the housing supply, housing demand has been increasing inexorably year by
year as the current housing output is not capable of dealing with such huge demand.
Table 1: Housing output 2007-2013
2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

New housing units

693,670

650, 000 (Est.)

621,492

701,806

765,024

729,933

770,410

Average

704,627

Year

The UK situation is different in terms of the housing demand and supply. The demand is estimated to be around 233,000 housing units per annum during the next twenty years (CIH 2012); however, the recent housing recession considerably affected these figures. Housing supply in 2010 and
2011 was 103,000 (CIH 2011) and 146,000 (134,900 units according to DCLG (2012) units respectively
(Pawson and Wilcox 2013).
The cost of an MMC factory including staff training is over 10 million in the UK (Lovell 2003) and,

Feasibility of Application of Modern Methods of Construction in Iran

21

therefore, potential investors need to be assured about the long-term continuing demand for
MMC products. Comparing the Iranian and the UK conditions reveals that the housing demand
in Iran is over six times greater than in the UK which could be regarded as a continuing long-term
demand for MMC products. The massive housing backlog in Iran is a great opportunity for MMC
to be successfully adopted by the construction industry.
2.2. Practicality
Iran suffers from the shortages of skilled construction labourers, availability of heavy machinery, and inefficient infrastructure and transportation systems. Availability of raw materials is also
a fundamental issue. Reinforced Concrete (RC) and Steel frame systems are the most common
construction systems in Iran. According to SCI (2013a) about 82.5% of new buildings in 2012 in Iran
were constructed from either steel or reinforced concrete frame systems. Steel and reinforced
concrete systems are therefore very well known to Iranian architects, engineers and builders (Figure 1: Construction methods in Iran.). Thus, those MMC that are compatible with steel and concrete frame systems will have a higher chance of success in Iran.

Figure 1: Construction methods in Iran.


Industrial capacity not only deals with the availability of raw materials, labour, and machinery,
but also the capacity to answer the demand. It should be noted that to increase the construction
production modestly in a national scale, there should be a substantial investment in production
of raw materials to create a new capacity. The investment on raw materials should be based on
the future demand for them (Harvey and Ashworth 1997). A lack of industrial capacity regarding
availability and production of raw materials was one of the major reasons that resulted in the
failure of Winston Churchills 1944 emergency housing plan to produce 500,000 housing units
without increasing demand on conventional building resources and skilled labour (Finnimore
1989). Increasing production capacity for raw materials and improving infrastructure are therefore
key to successful application of MMC in Iran.

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2.3. Costs
The costs of MMC should be comparable with the prevailing methods of construction in Iran.
Higher costs of MMC products are a major barrier to broader applications of MMC in both Iran
and the UK. The average cost of MMC in the UK is currently 8-15% more than traditional methods
(CABE 2004) and it has been estimated that such materials and products could be up to four times
more expensive in Iran than in other countries (ICC 2005). Nevertheless, some examples in the UK,
such as Design for Manufacture (DfM) 60K house competition in 2005, prove that MMC can produce affordable, high quality, sustainable houses (English Partnerships 2006; HCA 2010).
Transportation distances are also one of the barriers towards broader application of MMC in the
UK since well-established factories are situated in the north of England while the demand is in the
south (Bagenholm et al. 2001). This is also an important issue in Iran since Iran is a vast country and
transportation can considerably increase the costs. Recent increases on fuel costs in both Iran and
the UK make this issue more important. MMC factories should therefore be located around the
areas where the current and future demands are concentrated. It is vital to avoid unnecessarily
long transport of materials/products, which increase costs and CO2 emissions of MMC.
Meanwhile, construction material and labour costs are much less in Iran than in the UK; however,
inflation is much higher (average of 21.5% in 2011 (CBI 2013c) and the economy is less stable. According to Statistical Centre of Iran, the increased costs of construction materials in 2012 varied
between 22.5% and 180.5% compared to 2011 in Tehran (SCI 2013b). The majority of construction
materials have seen an increase of more than 35% while many have seen a price increase of above
100% during this period which is much higher than the average inflation. These factors can considerably affect the finished prices of MMC in Iran; however, the same situation applies to other
products and industries.
Other issues such as lower quality and much more material waste (explained below) as well as
much higher construction dead-load, make the Iranian traditional construction methods rather
more expensive than those in the UK. Therefore, while MMC are about 8-15% more expensive than
the traditional methods of construction in the UK (CABE 2004), the finished prices of some MMC
may be well below the costs of the conventional methods in Iran. Moreover, because of low quality of materials and poor workmanship (Figure 2: Low building quality in Iran.), Iranian buildings
have a short lifespan and are vulnerable in the event of earthquake (Hashemi 2014). The average
building lifespan in Iran is about 30 years (Fatemi 2009) compared to the normally expected building lifespan of 60 years. Due to better quality controls in the factory, MMC can potentially produce
buildings with longer lifespans and less maintenance, leading to personal and national savings
particularly in terms of the embodied energy of buildings. In addition, the higher construction
speed of MMC means enhanced value as investors money will not be bound up in one project for
a long time.

Feasibility of Application of Modern Methods of Construction in Iran

23

Figure 2: Low building quality in Iran.


An important issue is the nature of the Iranian construction industry with many small builders
which makes it difficult to benefit from mass production and economies of scale. Statistics suggest that in 2008, 40% of all newly constructed residential buildings in Iran had three or more
stories and 30% have three or more units. This figure increased to 53% in 2012/13 (SCI 2013a). Mass
building appears to be much more prevalent in some parts of the country and especially around
big cities (Figure 3: Use of MMC is more viable in larger construction projects.). For instance, in
2012/13, 93.5% of the building permissions for residential buildings in Tehran were issued for buildings with five or more stories with around 52% which had five or more residential units (SCI 2013a).
Yet, compared to the UK, a very few projects may be considered as mass building to benefit from
the economies of the scale even in large cities such as Tehran. Therefore, transferred MMC to Iran
should be capable of supporting small developers/projects.

Figure 3: Use of MMC is more viable in larger construction projects.

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ZEMCH 2015 | International Conference | Bari - Lecce, Italy

2.4. Energy efficiency and waste reductions


Sustainability and energy efficiency in buildings are relatively recent issues in Iran; however, they
are becoming increasingly important. One of the main barriers toward applying energy efficiency
plans are the very low prices of energy. Energy efficiency regulations became mandatory for all
buildings in urban areas in 2010 (IFCO 2015). The government has also reduced the majority of
fuel subsidies, which has considerably increased the prices revealing the importance of energy
efficiency to the society. Yet, compared to the UK, energy costs are much lower in Iran. According
to the Iranian Fuel Conservation Company (IFCO), building costs in Iran increase by less than 5%
if energy efficiency requirements are applied correctly. Such extra immediate costs are returned
in about three years (IFCO 2009). UK building regulations have much higher energy efficiency
standards than the Iranian ones, which could make UK MMC products comparably expensive if
transferred to Iran. Therefore, transferred MMC should be modified and adapted to comply with
the Iranian standards and requirements to reduce the costs.
Table 2: Waste reduction potential of offsite methods of construction (Hartley and Blagden 2007)
Offsite Method/Products

Waste Reduction (Est.)

Concrete Panel Systems

20-30%

Timber Frame System

20-40%

Precast Floor Systems

30-40%

Pods (Kitchen, Bath)

40-50%

Precast Cladding

40-50%

Structural Insulated Panels

50-60%

Volumetric Systems

70-90%

Furthermore, MMC can mitigate the environmental impacts of the Iranian construction industry
by reducing the energy and material wastes during construction on site. Up to 70% of consumed
energy in gas and electricity, and water is wasted during the construction processes (Gharazi 2004)
and around 20% of building materials are wasted on site (Figure 4: Construction material storage
and waste in Iran (left) and the UK (right).) (Shakeri 2004). The wastes can be reduced by up to 90%
in the factory (Table 2: Waste reduction potential of offsite methods of construction (Hartley and
Blagden 2007)). Therefore, introducing some MMC, which benefit from a controlled factory environment, will considerably decrease environmental impacts of the Iranian construction industry.
Moreover, as described above, increased building lifespan thanks to the higher quality, not only
helps to reduce the overall costs but also reduces the CO2 emissions and embodied energy of
buildings during their lifecycles.

Figure 4: Construction material storage and waste in Iran (left) and the UK (right).

Feasibility of Application of Modern Methods of Construction in Iran

25

2.5. Regulations and policies


Compliance with building regulations and standards is one of the major issues that should be
considered when transferring a method of construction to Iran. UK building regulations and
standards are generally more detailed, precise, and comprehensive than the Iranian building regulations and standards. Therefore, in general, it could be argued that if MMC were to be transferred to Iran, they would probably comply with the Iranian regulations and standards. An important exception is the necessity for earthquake-proof design in Iran. Seismic requirements are
covered by so-called Standard No. 2800 (Iranian Code of Practice for Seismic Resistant Design of
Buildings). As Iran is situated on the Himalaya-Alps seismic belt, earthquake is a serious concern
throughout the country. Therefore, any potential MMC must comply with earthquake regulations.
This, to avoid additional costs, it may be more feasible to start with some non-structural products
and methods that do not need fundamental modifications to comply with Iranian building regulations. Different cladding and internal wall systems may be suitable options to begin with.
One of the major issues in Iran is the high sensitivity of the housing industry to economic conditions and governmental policies, especially financial ones. In many cases, such policies create
great shocks in the housing market followed by massive house price increases in a very short
period of time. Rising prices are not necessarily a bad phenomenon if they happen in a rational
way but this is not the case in Iran. The experience has shown that house prices in Iran could rise
by more than 100% in a very short period as happened recently in many parts of the country. For
this and several other reasons, there are frequent housing booms and busts which can greatly influence the demand for housing and MMC products consequently. Obviously, the governments
responsibility is to stabilise the economy since such instabilities are discouraging for potential investors. Economic instability, however, may have some benefits for some MMC too. This situation
may encourage builders to use offsite methods of construction since the contract for such methods is usually set at the beginning of the project when prices are agreed. Therefore, developers do
not need to be concerned about price fluctuations while the project is in progress on site.
Restrictive (subjective) planning policies are also a major barrier towards broader applications of
MMC in the UK (Lovell 2003; Bagenholm et al. 2001; NAO 2005). The absence of proper planning
and design policies in Iran has caused many cities such as Tehran to suffer from critical problems
such as uneven texture, heavy traffic, air and sound pollution, privacy issues and massive population density in some areas. However, fewer planning limitations decrease the associated risks of
MMC and increase the chance of success in Iran.

3. Discussions
The major reason for the Iranian government to encourage industrialised modern methods of
construction is to increase the efficiency and housing output. Arguably, this situation is comparable with the UK conditions after World Wars when massive and urgent demand encouraged
the UK government to consider prefabricated methods of construction to overcome the housing shortages. The dull and unattractive prefabricated buildings of the 20th century are widely
considered to have caused some social and environmental problems, leading to the premature
demolition of many such buildings. One of the outcomes of such mistakes was negative public
attitude towards prefabricated methods of construction in the UK. Indeed, a negative public attitudes towards such methods due to the poor quality of prefabricated systems is a major barrier to
broader application of MMC in the UK is (Lovell 2003). Iranian people, in contrast, have a fresh attitude towards MMC and prefabricated methods of construction. According to a questionnaire survey undertaken in Tehran, around 90% of architects have a positive attitude towards such meth-

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ZEMCH 2015 | International Conference | Bari - Lecce, Italy

ods of construction (Hashemi 2015). This is a great opportunity for MMC to be successfully applied
in Iran. It should be noted that after about a century of experiencing prefabricated methods of
construction, the UK is still suffering from several social, environmental, and economic problems
some of which have been the outcomes of mistakes made during the past century (Hashemi
2013). Variety in products, flexibility in application and continuous development can help to avoid
repeating the UKs mistakes. New approaches, such as mass customisation, could be an appropriate strategy which should be considered by the Iranian construction industry to address flexibility
issues. Japanese experience in mass customised housing (Hashemi and Hadjri 2013) is a great example which could be followed by both the Iranian and UK construction industries.
Moreover, continuous demand is the key factor for successful application of MMC. Foreign systems were not sufficiently adopted by the UK construction industry until late 1950s when housing
programmes grew considerably and investors became confident about local authorities and the
governments commitment to system building. This was when foreign and UK building systems
flooded into the housing market (Finnimore 1989). The Iranian government has announced some
plans to support investors in MMC; however, these plans are neither sufficient nor effective in
practice. Meanwhile, not only are high tariffs for imported materials normal but their rate is volatile, giving importers little certainty about the costs. Recent sanctions/embargoes and uncertainties about the currency exchange rates also contribute to the above worries. In this respect,
the government should provide special facilities for innovative methods of construction to make
them more feasible in Iran. Currently, considering the abovementioned risks, it seems more rational to adapt transferred MMC by minimising the use of imported materials, with a corresponding decrease in the finished prices.
Furthermore, the UK government is encouraging and promoting MMC through different activities such as research grants, best practice strategies, and national and international exhibitions
and competitions. The government is also applying MMC in social housing and other governmental projects. The Iranian government can also promote MMC by considering similar policies and
strategies. The number of relevant seminars held in the UK is far greater than in Iran. There are also
several professional organisations such as Building Research Establishment (BRE) and Buildoffsite that are constantly working on various construction technologies and MMC, whereas in Iran,
there are no professional organisations to consider MMC in detail. It is the governments responsibility to establish professional organisations to carry out more research, seminars and courses on
relevant subjects. National exhibitions and competition would also help to promote MMC in Iran.
Moreover, fundamental changes in the role of designers and manufacturers are essential in order
to have a successful application of MMC (Pasquire and Connoly 2003). The main question is as to
how ready designers, builders, and manufacturers are to change their traditional roles and attitudes toward new methods of construction. Considering MMC is a relatively new subject in Iran,
more effort may be required to change the traditional role and behaviour of the clients, designers,
engineers, manufacturers, and developers in the construction industry. Moreover, these members of the construction industry have very limited knowledge about MMC (Hashemi 2015) which
may increase the associated risks of MMC.
Identifying early adopters is also a key factor in successful application of an innovation. Early
adopters are the most influential group in any system since potential adopters look to them for
advice and information (Rogers 1995). Likely, early adopters and stakeholders of MMC are not
readily apparent in Iran. There are two key questions which should be answered:
Who are the potential investors in MMC?

Feasibility of Application of Modern Methods of Construction in Iran

27

Who would be the pioneers to adopt MMC changes and their innovative approach to design,
manufacturing, and management in the construction industry?
More research needs to be undertaken among different stakeholders including architects, consultants, engineers, developers, contractors, manufacturers, society, and the government to answer these fundamental questions.
A major point which makes the Iranian and UK construction industries different is that the UK
construction industry works as an Open or Flexible system, meaning that many products from
different manufacturers are compatible with each other. UK companies and manufacturers cooperate with each other and refer to or recommend other companies products that are compatible
with theirs. Many products can be easily applied in different projects without concerns about
their compatibility. Manufacturers also use approved contractors who work under their license to
guarantee the quality of finished products. Published literature and technical help lines also assist architects and engineers to choose the right products and materials. Many seminars are also
organised by manufacturers to introduce and promote their products in the market.
The situation is rather different in Iran since manufacturing systems are usually Closed, and different products are generally not exchangeable/compatible. Manufacturers cooperate very rarely
and, for various reasons, are not willing to publish their technical information. Moreover, a very
few companies assist architects and engineers during the design processes. Therefore, designers are responsible for almost all detailed design without much assistance from the manufacturers, which considerably increases the risks of errors and costly modifications particularly when
it comes to offsite methods of construction. This situation must change in order to decrease the
risks associated with MMC. Considering the current conditions, three options with regards to
transferring MMC to Iran appear viable:
To transfer a Closed system where every single component is manufactured in the system
itself.
To modify/adapt transferred MMC.
To start with less complex methods and products.
In the first scenario, transferred MMC may become far too expensive compared with prevailing
methods of construction in Iran. In addition, such systems may not be flexible enough for future developments, which may increase the risk of failure in long term. The second option means
applying regional/local materials and modifying the details and components to produce MMC
which are suitable for the Iranian conditions. This will considerably increase the chance of success
for MMC although it needs considerable initial investments as well as accurate planning and execution which may be costly and time consuming. The third option may be the most successful of
all suggested scenarios as the methods and products are simple and do not require highly skilled
labourers or heavy machinery and are easily combined with prevailing methods of construction.
Examples are some internal and external walling, cladding and roofing systems such as compound walls and sandwich insulated panels etc.
It should be noted that it is a great mistake to assume that traditional methods should be completely replaced with industrial and modern methods of construction. In fact the history of the UK
construction industry during the 20th century has shown that although the share of industrialised
methods increased greatly, they were never able to replace traditional methods of construction.
Traditional methods have always competed with the industrialised methods by increasing their

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ZEMCH 2015 | International Conference | Bari - Lecce, Italy

efficiency through the use and application of new and enhanced methods, components, materials, and management. This was however not possible without creating a competitive environment in which traditional methods felt under increasing pressure/threat by the very popular prefabricated methods of construction. Iran should also prepare the ground for broader application
of industrialised methods and create a competitive environment in which both traditional and
innovative methods become more efficient and adopted by the Iranian construction industry.

4. Conclusions
This paper intended to study the feasibility of application of Modern Methods of Construction
(MMC) in Iran. Several issues such as demand and supply; practicality; costs; energy conservation
and waste reductions; regulations, policies and standards were studied and opportunities, challenges and risks were identified and discussed in detail. The results of this study revealed that,
compared to the UK, the Iranian construction industry is immature in terms of efficiency and performance. Several modifications are required in order to minimise the associated risks of MMC in
Iran. The chance of successful adoption is considerably higher for those MMC that are simple and
suitable for small developers, do not require highly skilled labour and heavy machinery, and are
compatible with prevailing methods of construction in Iran.
According to the findings of this work, the current demand for housing in Iran is about six times
greater than in the UK, which could arguably be regarded as long term demand and low risk
for MMC products. However, finished prices of MMC products are not clear since several criteria, which have the potential to save (e.g. less waste, cheaper materials and labour), or increase
the costs (e.g. less industry capacity, transportation, economic instability) should be evaluated in
more detail. Moreover, environmental advantages of MMC such as greater energy saving, higher quality and, consequently, longer lifespan would potentially help to reduce the environmental impacts and CO2 emissions of the Iranian construction industry. However, there are concerns
about CO2 emissions from transportation as Iran is a vast country which suffers from inefficient
transportation infrastructure.
It should be noted that MMC are very different from traditional methods of construction in terms
of the associated risks and construction processes. Educating the stakeholders to become aware
of the advantages and disadvantages of MMC would help to reduce the associated risks. Without considering such issues, MMC may not only fail to achieve their potential advantages but
could possibly deteriorate the current situation. Yet, there are great opportunities for some MMC
if abovementioned issues are considered and MMC are adapted to the Iranian requirements and
conditions.

5. References
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Watford.
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BHRC, 2009, New Construction Technologies (5th edition.), BHRC, Ministry of Housing and Urban Development, Tehran.
Buildoffsite, 2013, Glossary of Terms 2013. <http://www.buildoffsite.com/pdf/publications/BoS%20Glossary%20of%20
terms%202013%20(web).pdf > retrieved on July 07, 2015.
CABE, 2004, Design and modern methods of construction, Research outcomes: 5, Commission for Architecture & the

Feasibility of Application of Modern Methods of Construction in Iran

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Built Environment, London.


CBI, 2013a, Economic Trends No.71, Fourth Quarter 1391 (2012/2013), Central Bank of Iran, Public Relations Department,
Tehran.
CBI, 2013b, Annual Review 1390 (2011/2012). Central Bank of Iran, In Economic Research and Policy Department, (Ed.,
Public Relations Department, Tehran, Iran.
CBI, 2013c, Economic Trends No. 67 Fourth Quarter 1390 (2011/2012). Central Bank of Iran, In Economic Research and
Policy Department, (Ed., Public Relations Department, Tehran, Iran.
CBI, 2014, Annual Review 1391 (2012/2013). In Economic Research and Policy Department, Public Relations Department,
Central Bank of Iran, Tehran.
CIH, 2011, The housing report (1st edition), The Chartered Institute of Housing, Coventry, UK.
CIH, 2012, The housing report (3rd edition), The Chartered Institute of Housing, Coventry, UK.
DCLG, 2012, Net supply of housing: 2011-12, England, Housing, Statistical Release, Department for Communities and
Local Government, London.
DCLG, 2013, House Building: March Quarter 2013, England, Housing, Statistical Release, Department for Communities
and Local Government, London.
English Partnership, 2006, Lesson Learnt, the challenge to build a quality home for 60K, Design for Manufacture,
English partnerships, Department for Communities and local government London.
Fatemi Aghda, M., 2008, Less than 3% of the countrys construction projects are industrial, trans., < http://shasa.ir/
newsdetail-48201-fa.html> retrieved on July 05, 2015
Fatemi, M., 2009, Omr-e Mofid-e Sakhtemanhay-e Tehran: 30 sal Building & Housing Research Centre. <http://www.
bhrc.ac.ir/portal/Default.aspx?tabid=56&articleType=ArticleView&articleId=32> retrieved on Sep. 30, 2010.
Finnimore, B. 1989, Houses from the factory: system building and the welfare state, 1942-1974 London, Rivers Oram
Press.
Gharazi, 2004, 70% of energy in construction process is wasted, trans., Special News of Construction and Housing, No.
50. Iran Construction Information Centre.
Hartley, A., and Blagden, A., 2007, Current Practices and Future Potential in Modern Methods of Construction, WAS003001: Full Final Report, Oxon: Waste & Resourcesn Action Programme.
Harvey, C. R., and Ashworth, A., 1997, The construction industry of Great Britain (2nd edition), Reed Educational and
Professional Publishing Ltd., Laxtons, Oxford, pp. 100-101.
Hashemi, A., 2013, Review of the UK housing history in relation to system building, Alam Cipta International Journal of
Sustainable Tropical Design Research and Practice, 6(1), pp. 47-58.
Hashemi, A., and Hadjri, K., 2013, Code for Sustainable Homes: opportunities or threats for offsite manufacturing and
mass-customization?, ZEMCH 2013 international conference: The Visibility of Zero-Energy Housing, 30th October 1st November 2013, University of Miami, Miami, USA, pp. 111-122.
Hashemi, A., 2014, Mitigating the Risks of Offsite Manufacturing through the Application of BIM, International Journal
of 3-D Information Modeling 10/2014, 3(4), pp. 26-35.
Hashemi, A., and Hadjri, K., 2014, Offsite construction, a potential answer to the Iranian housing shortages, Construction Technology and Management CTM 2014 International Scientific Conference, 9th-11thSeptember 2014, Bratislava, Slovakia, pp. 189-199.
Hashemi, A., 2015, Offsite Manufacturing: A Survey on the Current Status and Risks of Offsite Construction in Iran,
Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, 9(2), pp. 141-152.
HCA, 2010, Design for Manufacture Lessons Learnt 2, Home & Community Agency, London.
ICC, 2005, Bahregiri az technologi-haye jadid, zaroorat-e goriznapazir-e bakhsh-e maskan, trans., Iran Civil Center,
<http://www.irancivilcenter.com/fa/news/view.php?news_id=413> retrieved on Sep. 30, 2010.
IFCO, 2015, Some Clarifications Around the Title 19 of National Building Regulation, tarns., Iranian Fuel Conservation
Company, available at: <http://ifco.ir/building/mabhase19/mabhase19_desc.asp> retrieved on July 15, 2015.
IFCO, 2009, Mabhas-e 19 Moghararat-e Melli-e Sakhteman, trans., Iranian Fuel Conservation Company. <http://ifco.ir>
retrieved on February 18, 2009.
Lovell, H., 2003, Modern Methods of House Building, Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology POSTnote,
December 2003, number 209. POST.

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Miles, J., and WHITEHOUSE, N., 2013, Offsite Housing Review, Construction Industry Council, London.
MYERS, D., 2013, Construction Economics: A New Approach (3rd edition.), Routledge, Oxon.
NAO, 2005, Using modern methods of construction to build homes more quickly and efficiently. National Audit Office,
London.
Pasquire, C. L., and Connolly, G. E., 2003, Design for Manufacture and Assembly, 11th Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction, July 2003, Virginia, USA.
Pawson, H., and Wilcox, S., 2013, UK Housing Review. The Chartered Institute of Housing.
Rogers, E. M., 1995, Diffusion of Innovations, Innovativeness and adopter categories (4th edition), The Free Press, New
York.
Ross, K., Cartwright, P., and Novakovic, O., 2006, A Guide to Modern Methods of Construction, IHS BRE Press on behalf
of NHBC Foundation, UK.
SCI, 2008, Information of building certificates issued by municipalities in 2007, Statistical Centre of Iran, Tehran.
SCI, 2010, Information of building certificates issued by municipalities in 2009, Statistical Centre of Iran, Tehran.
SCI, 2012, Information of building certificates issued by municipalities in 2011, Statistical Centre of Iran, Tehran.
SCI, 2013a, Information of building certificates issued by municipalities in 2012, Statistical Centre of Iran, Tehran.
SCI, 2013b, Results of the Survey on the Construction Material Price, Second half of the year 2012, Statistical Centre of
Iran.
SCI, 2014, Information of building certificates issued by municipalities in 2013, Statistical Centre of Iran, Tehran.
Shakeri, A., 2004, 120,000 housing units can be constructed every year using building material waste, trans., Special
News of Construction and Housing, No. 52. Iran Construction Information Centre.

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International Conference | Bari - Lecce, Italy

Session I - II

DEVELOPING ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICES FROM


SOCIAL ASPECTS: A CASE STUDY OF DUBAI
Dania Tachouali1 & Hasim Altan1
1 Sustainable Design of the Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering & IT, British University in Dubai, UAE,
2013117120@student.buid.ac.ae / hasim.altan@buid.ac.ae

Abstract
In a city where everything is possible, architecture plays a significant role in improving the
quality of life, by reducing the CO2 emissions, today Dubai is a modern city with over two
million inhabitants, the modern architecture of Dubai carries the Arabic culture with western influence which is inspiring to the mind and the imagination, on the other hand, due to
the rapid developments and their environmental consequences, the UAE was ranked the first
with the highest ecological footprint according to the world life fund of nature 2010; Dubai
Plan 2021 is a key inspiration to adopt new strategies and implement new solutions to the
social, environmental and economic challenges in the region. Dubai Plan 2021 consists of five
main elements; the Society, the Experience, the Government, the Place, and the People. The
paper is aiming to achieve one of the Dubai Plan 2021 elements, the Society, by presenting
solutions that can help in reducing CO2 emissions and can mitigate the impact of the built environment, which can be achieved by creating a sustainability package. This paper discusses
the results of each practice to demonstrate how this will add value and help in achieving the
highest standards of a clean environment to face the challenges of today.

Keywords:
Sustainable Built Environment, Dubai Plan 2021, Innovative Solutions, Sustainable
Development, CO2 Emissions, Sustainability.

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Introduction
As the world is worried about the future sustainability and climate change is a global concern,
both energy consumption and CO2 emissions have been major targets in the built environment
to call for new strategies to saving energy. Dubai Plan 2021 is the latest strategy in the region to
implement a long term approach to achieve a greener economy for sustainable development and
an approach with main goals to define Dubai in 2021 the preferred place to live, work and visit;
a smart and sustainable city; a pivotal hub in the global economy; and a pioneering and excellent government. Dubai Plan 2021 consists of five main elements; the Society, the Experience,
the Government, the Place, and the People (Government of Dubai 2014). The main focus of the
study is to achieve one of the most important elements (the Society), and the study will highlight
the challenges and provide some innovative solutions to improve Dubai livability by improving
the indoor and outdoor environments with suggested strategies. The study will propose a sustainability package which will focus on the social aspects, which will carry different practices that
can be adopted to mitigate the impact of CO2 emissions and to help steer Dubai into sustainable
future. Moreover, this paper will discuss the results of each practice to demonstrate how this will
add value and help in achieving the highest standards of a clean environment.

Figure 1: UAE ecological foot print compared to the world bio capacity (Source: WWF UAE 2015)
Achieving the right practices for the social aspect is the main aim and is to achieve one of the
Dubai Plan 2021 elements, in this case the society, which will pave the way towards a city of happy
and satisfied people. Therefore, by understanding the culture of Dubai residents and the main urban ways of living, the study addresses human standards and role to achieve the image of Dubai
as a preferred place to live.

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Figure 2: Dubai Plan 2021 elements (TEC Government of Dubai 2014)

Problem Definition
Going back to Dubais History, the six emirates of the UAE were united in 1971; Abu Dhabi and Dubai were the richest emirates for having oil reserves (About News 2013), which played a big role in
speeding up the process of building a new developed city, the price of this fast growth was ranking Dubai at the top carbon polluter for consuming the highest percentage of energy (CEEI 2010).
It is predicted that oil reserves will be exhausted in 20 years (Allianz 2014); therefore a new strategy
should be adopted for energy sector to reshape the new source of energy for the UAE that can
be reliable for the long term and help in achieving a clean environment. Smith (2005) highlighted
the contribution of construction materials to the energy requirement of the architecture sector
as shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3: Role of Various Materials to the Energy Requirements of the UK construction sector (Smith
2005:14)
In addition to the environmental problems that are caused by the rapid growth of architecture,
it is important to mention that consumers in the wealthiest cities consume three times more
energy than a resident of Bombay (Smith 2005:14). As a result, the life style of Dubai residents contributes a major share of greenhouse gas emission; therefore CO2 emissions enhanced the need

Developing environmental practices from social aspects: a case study of Dubai

35

for finding unconventional solutions by implementing Dubai Plan 2021 to achieve sustainability.

Methodology
The aim of this study is to propose a sustainability package that can be adopted to mitigate the
impact CO2 emissions, and the paper is divided into four main categories, listing the objectives:
1. Presenting one of the selected elements of Dubai Plan 2021 (the Society) by highlighting a
group of strategic development goals for Dubai; each strategy is discussed by defining Dubai
Plan vision for the society.
2. Highlighting the challenges supported with statistics and tables.
3. Reviewing of literature which will highlight lessons learnt from previous practices in the same
field and will also help to pave the way for Dubai sustainable future, in order to think globally
and act locally to achieve the latest environmental practices in the social sector.
4. Determining the right solutions for the government to interact and support the regulations
with new sustainable guidelines; by referring to the literature reviews that present the same
challenges.
Figure 4 shows a conceptual framework of the main two elements of Dubai Plan 2021.

Figure 4: Conceptual framework

Glimpse of Dubai Plan 2021


In 2014, the UAE Vice President and Prime Minister, and Dubai Ruler H.H Sheikh Mohammed Bin
Rashid Al Maktoum launched Dubai Plan 2021 as a new innovative strategy for the next seven
years. This consisted of six main elements that create the image of Dubai in 2021 and can achieve
the main goal of Dubai Plan 2021, which is achieving peoples happiness (Gulf Business 2014). This
strategy is dedicated to everyone living or visiting Dubai (Emiratis, residents, tourists, organization, investors and government). A detailed journey was created since 2013 to design the framework of Dubai Plan 2021 that can cope with the changes efficiently in many categories. Figure 5
shows the framework in details since 2013, the project launch.

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Figure 5: Detailed framework of Dubai Plan 2021 (Emirates24|7 2015)


In this section, the study is presenting the social aspect (the Society) Dubai Plan 2021 by addressing three aims to achieve the image, the inclusive and the cohesive society:
1. A vibrant and sustainable multi-cultural society: Dubai is different and unique for its multicultural society that enrich the city economically and demographically, and it is considered as a
great advantage for Dubai future plan to give every citizen a chance to make a change in the
sustainability journey.
2. A tolerant and inclusive society embracing the civic values of Dubai: Despite of the people,
nationalities and their backgrounds, they are judged and treated equally because the main
vision of Dubai is meeting human needs in critical way of sustainability with respect of civic
values including tolerance and personal responsibility towards sustaining the city.
3. Cohesive families and communities forming the bedrock of society: the children are the future;
therefore Dubai plan 2021 is enhancing unity in their spirit and taking responsibility towards
the environment to make it a clean and healthy place to live.

Literature Review
Through a literature review, the study is supported by previous practices, theories and methodologies that can be inspiring to create a sustainability package for architectural and social aspects; two examples are presented to show how other countries were successful in greening their
building environment and acting socially right to have an impact on their local and global future
sustainability:
1. Factor 4 Projects: Factor 4 is a new environmental trend that aims for increasing in resources
efficiency to reduce the ecological footprint to have a society that live healthy while using half
the resources and reducing 50% of the negative impacts (GDRC.org 2015). Factor 4 follows the
Sustainable Development World Strategy, the Tokyo Protocol and the European Energy Policy.
One of Factor 4 projects is the social housings in Europe which aims for four targets (Suden.org

Developing environmental practices from social aspects: a case study of Dubai

37

2014): The first target is guiding the citizens to set up sustainable solutions to generate power for
their buildings by offering innovative solutions that are already tested and guaranteed in term of
money back. The second target is offering all the required technical information about applying
new sustainable strategies to the building and how it will affect economically. The third target is
focusing on stretching the life span of the resources and the lifecycle of energy. The fourth and
the last target is aiming to create new jobs. Another successful project is recycling carpets; most
European companies now sort the carpets to reuse or recycle them according to their components instead of burning them or sending them to the land fill. Srinivas. H (2013) highlighted the
advantages of recycling or reusing the carpets, it consumes less energy comparing with manufacturing new carpets. Moreover, it deducts the energy needed to get the virgin materials and
minimizes the areas used for landfills. In addition to that, recycling carpets helps in opening new
markets for eco-friendly products.
2. Agenda 21: Agenda 21 was established in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro as a result of the world conference on environment and development by the Center for Economic Development (UCED).
The main purpose of this agenda is to put international guidelines for sustainable development
for different subject areas; economic, environmental, social, and industrial (Plessis 2013). Figure 6
shows what the causes of unsustainable development are to avoid them.

Figure 6: Causes of unsustainable development (PSDN 2015)


To act locally with referring to agenda 21, Local Agenda 21 was established to achieve human
needs for living quality life by protecting the ecosystem with human practices which can be
achieved by interactive and collaborative participation (UN 2015). Yirmibesoglu (2015) highlighted
in his research three main goals for Local Agenda 21: The first goal was the local administration of
the city which should act and participate with the citizens to implement Local Agenda 21 guidelines. The second goal was increasing the interaction between local and international communities to encourage co-operation between both administrations and exchange knowledge and
experiences in the environmental field. The third goal was encouraging women and youth to be

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decision makers in the community and have their voices heard to make a change.

Figure 7: The sustainable development in relations to the essential dimensions of society (PSDN 2015)
Figure 8 shows in Germany the impact of implementing Local Agenda 21 parameters on the CO2
emissions; an increase of the share of renewable energy was expected and CO2 emissions have
been decreased as a consequence of introducing electricity TAX.

Figure 8: CO2 emission in Germany (UN 2015)


3. Earth Charter: Newman (2008) defined earth charter as a document that consists of shared
values and principles towards achieving a sustainable future. It was launched in June 2000 by
local governments at the Johannesburg earth summit and thousands of people in seventy eight
countries formed the document. Earth charter shares four main values: The first value is to respect
and care for the community of life to respect earth and life in all its diversity, and care for the community by being smart in using natural resources without harming the environment when people
are given the freedom. On the other hand, they are responsible of the consequences. The second
value is ecological integrity. Its the human duty to protect the ecosystem to sustain the humans
needs by adopting regulations and preserve conservations. In addition to that, its very important

Developing environmental practices from social aspects: a case study of Dubai

39

to prevent harm to the environment by reducing, reusing and recycling used materials; and supporting scientific and technical cooperation on sustainability to develop the study of ecological
sustainability. The third value is the social and economic justice. It is everyones right to have clean
water, clean air, food security, and shelter; institutions must promote for human development in
addition to financial organizations. The fourth value is democracy, non-violence and peace: all
involved institutions should participate in decision making and have access to justice, to support local, regional and global civil society and protect freedom; schools are involved as well by
educating the young generation and preparing them to contribute in sustainable development
and teaching them respect to all living beings and avoiding violence. Earth charter can be an inspiration and a reference for business, researches and decision making; it can be an educational
instrument for the young generation.

Expected Solutions
After reviewing literature and analyzing different studies that have a similar approach of this
study, the following solutions have been suggested accordingly with Dubai Plans themes and
aims. This sustainability package has been suggested for the social aspect (the Society):
Integrating Media Tools at the Right Areas
The technology nowadays helps the government to reach everyone, launching social media
flat form in the right place where people can enrich Dubai vision with their ideas and enhance
awareness of sustainability. It gives an opportunity of interaction between people and their surroundings with engagement of mobility and Wi-Fi technology; the government is now able to
connect with people at any place in addition to the architectural surfaces that can be used for
social engagement. Wireless technology offers unlimited destination, designers can be creative
to integrate media methods into human life. Therefore the following methods have been further
suggested that can be applicable to increase awareness about sustainability in the society:
Visual activities: mapping and scenario planning is an attractive method to link with people
and deliver a message by a play.
Mobile social network: using robots is one of the latest media methods to allow people to see
the sense of the city.
Interactive urban screens/ foursquare.
Exchange information over radio waves
Touch screens as an urban-technological imaginary
Integration of social media network (face book/twitter and LinkedIn) to create organizational
accounts to connect people locally and on an international scale to focus on major issues to
discuss about sustainability, and give a platform for people to interact and share their thoughts.
These designs will allow people to visualize the future that we are aiming for. It is important to
develop new concepts to attract people attention and present sustainability in innovative way,
the relationship between people, technology and the environment is going much further and
reaching to a great impact on the society. Sustainability must be put at the heart of peoples
agenda and cooperate to build a sustainable world, this can happen by cooperate activities; social
media is a tool to reflect how people operate towards the future and encourage others to follow
and do a step towards a greener life. The challenge related to integrating media tools is making
information uptake easier for consumers which can be 30 seconds radio show or a screen slot or
printed poster to avoid information overload, and present sustainability to people in the most
attractive method.

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Creating Strategies for Visioning


Its important to know what people should value the most, what the role of place in sustainability is, and what peoples responsibilities are towards the place (Newman & Jennings 2008). To
achieve sustainability, people should relate vision to human needs of today without affecting
on the future generations needs; as sustainability is a global concern, every city should setup a
framework and act locally with a global aspiration for sustainability. To develop visions strategies
Dubai should set goals to enrich the ecological, social, and economical values by the incorporation with decision makers.
It is important to mention that H.H Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al-Maktoum Vice-President
and Prime Minister of UAE, and Ruler of Dubai insists on dedicating the government to satisfy
humans demands (Expo2021 2013) by engaging people to ensure that the new policies meet the
needs of people, this process will bring Dubai people together and give them the opportunity to
dream and imagine the future of Dubai to build a better sustainable world. Amen (1997) explained
how people can accept the consequences when they are given the freedom and not forced to
change, the community participation is the key to grow the vision of the city in different sectors (business, education, health care, and environment); this can be achieved by hosting public
events and encouraging children visioning in schools.
To achieve the right strategies for visioning, each strategy should give an answer to these questions to obtain sustainability:
a. Calculate the ecological footprint of Dubai to know where we are now and evaluate the impact of the recent CO2 emissions on the environment.
The ecological footprint of UAE in 2008 which indicates that people of Dubai consume food,
energy, goods, and services more than the planet can handle naturally to regenerate; WWF
(2015) also indicates that Dubai people need 4.5 planets to cover their demands.
b. Set goals according to the ecological footprint result. Figure 10 shows that household contributes with 57% of the UAE footprint; this finding is the key to develop goals that should be
obtained on the long and short run to live in a good place that is blessed with a healthy environment.

Figure 9: UAE Footprint by Demand (GFN 2015)


c. Enriching community engagement with government and private sectors as it was mentioned
in the literature review, Factor 4 Project can be obtained to encourage the citizens to setup
sustainable solutions to reduce negative impact of the ecological footprint up to 50%.

Developing environmental practices from social aspects: a case study of Dubai

41

Figure 10: Sustainability Strategy Model (Newman & Jennings 2008:29)


Figure 10 is relating the vision to the environment and how cities can become more sustainable by
consuming less resource to minimize the waste and maximize the livability; by implementing this
model people will gain environmental, social and economic benefits for the future generation,
and to achieve that, vision principles should be considered:
Integration: economic, social and environmental factors should be integrated to achieve the
goal of reducing CO2 emission.
Commitment: People should believe in the importance of sustaining their life needs to plan
their strategies and start making a change towards their future.
Hope: When people are working on preserving their life and resources, they are giving hope
for the future generation to have a quality of life.
To achieve the strategies for visioning, the government must get over the barriers; it can be financial barrier which focus on the economic growth rather than peoples right, and it can be avoided
if the economy is considered as part of the environment. The innovation and social barrier is one
of the biggest challenges especially when it comes to changing humans behaviors to achieve
sustainable development; over all, sustainability must be a priority for the government to initiate
the change and be supported by a global vision to follow like the earth charter.
Educations Role in Enhancing Awareness of Social Issues
Education plays a big role by supporting the next generation of sustainability leadership, the
UNESCO (2014) reported that the environmental impacts are results of peoples unsustainable
practices which were learnt, but now its the time to teach the young generation how to live
sustainably which requires to do changes in the way the children are educated, by now people
know that children should feel the responsibility towards their environment, and learn how they
can make a change to see how their studies about the importance of the environment and to the
global warming can be implemented by real projects and see how they can add value to their
surroundings. Kiran Bir Sethi (the founder of river school in Ahmadabad in India) explained how
giving the children the opportunity to experience real world project like experiencing child labor,
they learnt about their rights and they were willing to give their opinions accurately out of honest
feelings.

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The first step towards education role is to pave the way for our children to find their purpose in
life instead of making their decisions; children can be concerned about the environment equally
as they are concerned about other subjects and that comes by enhancing awareness about sustainability and what are the negative impacts of the daily practices towards the environment and
how the children can help in reducing the CO2 emissions; if the children are treated like they make
a difference in the world, they will make a difference. The second step is to motivate the children
to work with others to build a sustainable future by developing their social skills and encourage
them to participate in environmental activities out of school. The third step is to develop the human right education and focus on efficiencies and how the school is managing to reduce energy
consumption, minimizing waste and water use, and link it to the classroom learning. Figure 11
shows how to approach education for sustainability, it includes different adjectival approaches
(Human rights education, environmental education, peace education, and multicultural education), schools should not neglect the social , economic and political factors in addition to the
environmental factor; to achieve a sustainable learning these five areas should be covered within
the school curriculum (Gilbert 2004:195):
Studies that support social sustainability
Studies that support economic sustainability
Studies that support ecological sustainability
Studies that support democratic sustainability

Figure.11 Sustainability Strategy Model (Calder & Smith 1992:12)


Because sustainability is hard to define, one of the biggest challenges in educational sector is to
teach sustainability, it might be easier to change the young generation behaviours than adults
as children are more flexible and easier to adapt, on the other hand, it is a great responsibility to
prepare a generation who will be the decision maker for the future, therefore the academic experience should be rich of tangible resources and professionalism in teaching.

Developing environmental practices from social aspects: a case study of Dubai

43

Conclusions
In the view of the above, it is important to mention that the main aim of the study is to create a
sustainability package for one of Dubai Plan 2021 themes (the Society) that can be practiced and
applicable in Dubai. It is very challenging to find innovative solutions for a city that has the care of
trusted hands and updated with latest practices in all categories. The solutions are inspired by the
authors readings and analyzing the literature reviews that have the same approach, in addition
to international practices that can be applicable in Dubai. The study enriched the sustainability
package with statistics and given tables to estimate the level of the problem and presented the
right solutions, and showed the impacts of these solutions on the ecological foot print of Dubai.
The paper presented (the Society) element, and suggested three innovative strategies that can
help in reducing CO2 emissions on the long-term and short-term; the strategies were inspired
from other studies that are global organizations that support sustainable development. The
solutions given varies between theoretical and conceptual framework to develop the vision of
people towards a sustainable future, the impact of given solution cannot be predictable as they
all focus on changing peoples behaviour which will reflect on the CO2 emissions with their practices. Mostly importantly, all suggested strategies should be supported by the government and
the decision makers, because without their support there will be no potential for modifying and
achieving the required goal.

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Developing environmental practices from social aspects: a case study of Dubai

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International Conference | Bari - Lecce, Italy

Session I - II

MEASURING AND PREDICTING RESIDENTIAL


MARKET ACCEPTANCE FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC
TECHNOLOGIES IN MELBOURNE VICTORIA
Neville Hurst1, Sara Wilkinson2
1 School of Property, Construction & Project Management, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria, 3001 Australia. Email:
neville.hurst@rmit.edu.au
2 School of the Built Environment, Faculty of Design Architecture and Building, University of Technology Sydney, NSW,
2007, Australia. Email: Sara.Wilkinson@uts.edu.au

Abstract
Globally varied, and in some cases extensive efforts, have been made by governments and industry stakeholders to create a market appetite for solar technologies within the housing sector. Given the benefits to the individual home-owner of lower energy bills and, more broadly
to the environment as housing contributes 25% of all built environment related green house
emissions, it is perplexing why solar technologies do not have a more consolidated position
in the housing domain. Uptake of such technologies by end users has been moderate and
this phenomenon has not been unnoticed by researchers. Since global warming is a universal
problem, and with efforts to abate further damage remaining elusive, it is both appropriate
and timely to review how residential markets are responding to these technologies.
Australian governments have adopted a view of allowing market forces to drive the social
acceptance of energy efficiency technologies into the housing market psyche. Newly constructed homes in Australia are required to meet minimum energy efficiency performance
standards. However, there remains no requirement to uplift the energy performance of existing buildings, which are, and will be for many years to come, the substantive population
of the Australian housing stock. This is also the case for other countries. Real estate agents,
as market facilitators, are in a unique position to observe market behaviours and potentially
influence them through their engagement with buyers and sellers. Using this unique circumstance, this research has examined an extensive database of real estate agent advertisements
in Melbourne Victoria from 2008 - 2013 to undertake a time series analysis aimed at measuring
the rate of increase of the appearance of words relating to solar technologies. It was found
that without specific government efforts aimed at increasing the appetite of homebuyers
for energy efficient housing the opportunity for solar technologies to significantly contribute
towards the mitigation of climate change in the foreseeable future would be lost.

Keywords
energy efficiency, real estate agent, housing, advertising, Solar

47

Introduction
Since the release of the Bruntland Report nearly three decades ago (Bruntland, 1987), climate
change has become deeply ingrained in public discourse and has challenged governments to
implement ways of reducing damaging anthropogenic activities. Buildings are major contributors to negative environmental impacts via carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions emanating from ongoing occupation of buildings. The need to reduce these damaging activities is deemed essential
by many (Stern 2007, Garnaut 2011). Globally, varying climates present long-term housing issues
unique to individual countries, such that development possibilities are particular to each city and
must be assessed within the context of its own region (Bruntland 1978:170).
Considerable research has been undertaken into the barriers facing the adoption of energy efficient housing, largely concluding that without concerted government intervention integration
of such measures into everyday house choice decisions is problematic (Blunt & Dowling 2006,
Reid et al 2010). As key stakeholders, it is incumbent upon government and industry to consider
mechanisms that facilitate market acceptance for more energy efficient houses. Environmental
policies in Australia have been the subject of extensive debate as political ideologies collide in
public forums resulting in a view that Australias commitment to ongoing change is questionable
(Lowe, 2014). Current paradigms are embedded in neo-liberal capitalistic beliefs that market forces will drive change. The current Australian government has set in place a framework to facilitate
this standpoint. Solar technologies are considered an essential component of CO2 emission reductions due to their ability to replace fossil fuel in energy production (Nelson et al 2014). Considerable efforts and advancements have been made globally to introduce solar technologies into
the housing sector and, in Australia, federal and state governments also introduced schemes to
subsidise solar technologies. These financial subsidies apply to both installation and feed-in tariffs, but have been progressively reduced from the initial levels, claiming that design and manufacturing improvements have led to considerable real cost reductions (Climate Commission 2013).
Examining the effectiveness of this approach, this research investigates the extent to which real
estate agents in Melbourne Australia are advertising house solar energy technologies and the
relationship they may have with demographic characteristics. The research examines real estate
advertisements used to market established housing stock in Victoria between 2008 and 2013.

Drivers for domestic solar technologies


The scientific community has attributed many recent extreme weather events to climate change
as being caused anthropogenic activity leading to excessive amounts of greenhouse gas (GHG)
emissions (Australian Academy of Science 2010 ). Housing in Australia is believed to contribute
between 7% (Department of Industry 2014) and 20% (EPA 2014a) of national GHG emissions. Victorian housing, which is heavily reliant on coal for electricity generation, is at the upper end of
that estimation (Environment Victoria 2014). Although the actual the estimates vary considerably,
there is no disagreement about the negative effect housing has upon the environment and that
measures must be implemented to reduce these impacts.
However, exactly how to encourage the uptake of more energy efficient housing has challenged
governments globally. Some have opted for regulatory frameworks with minimum building
standards for new and extensively renovated homes, whilst others add reporting requirements.
In response to the international call to reduce GHG emissions the Australian government initially
planned to introduce mandatory energy efficiency reporting at the time of sale. This method-

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ology was considered an appropriate strategy by Federal and State governments to inculcate
improved social environmental attitudes towards housing. However this policy has since been
revoked. Currently Australian governments favour market forces to create demand for energy
efficient housing. Legislative framework, which varies throughout the states, requires only new
homes and extensions beyond existing rooflines, to comply with prescribed energy efficiency
standards.
Given the majority of Australian housing was constructed prior to 2005, the year which heralded the introduction of mandatory energy efficiency standards, many houses have poor energy
performance rating of 2 stars or less utilising the NATHERS system of 0-10 star rating (Environment Victoria 2014). Under the NATHERS system a 10 star dwelling suggests no artificial heating/
cooling is required for thermal comfort. Outside of new homes, which are subject to mandatory
requirements, the uptake of energy efficient technologies has been slow. Arguably market forces
will drive change over time, but change is likely to be slow (Cudmore, 2011) and it is unlikely that
homebuyers will respond to general information alone when it comes to developing sustainable
practices (Mackenzie-Mohr & Smith 1999, Henning 2008).
Historically heating and cooling costs have not featured heavily in the home-buying decision
when buyers are considering the future benefits derived from housing. However increasing energy costs may change this perspective. The proposition held by supporters of a market led adoption of energy efficiency in the home-buying decision, is that as energy costs rise buyers will seek
more energy efficient houses thereby driving greater market demand and acceptance of this type
of housing. Electrical energy costs in Victoria have risen considerably in recent years, and over the
study period, increased a total of 63% for the average household (Essential Services Commission
Victoria 2013). It follows then, if rising energy costs is to be a catalyst for creating demand for more
energy efficient housing, evidence of words and phrases highlighting the benefits of house energy efficient technologies ought appear in real estate agent advertisements.

Barriers to the uptake of domestic solar technologies


The subject of this research is non-detached housing stock and the unit of analysis real estate
agent advertisements. As much of this housing stock was built prior to energy performance regulations, it is appropriate to review barriers for retrofitting houses with energy efficient technologies.
Retrofitting energy efficient technologies needs to be cost-effective for homeowners to outlay
capital funds (Pellegrini-Masini et al, 2010). Viability is often measured in terms of the homeowners ability to achieve future benefits via reduced energy bills and recover capital expenditure
prior to selling. Australian households are comparatively mobile; only 27% living in their current
home for more than 15 years (ABS 2010). This high rate of mobility may impede investment in energy efficient technologies.
With specific regard to solar technologies, the subject of this research, the cost of installation
and benefits gained are of immense importance to the homeowner (Branker et al. 2011). Without
government support solar system technologies are unlikely to be attractive. The financial considerations of such technologies are two-fold. Firstly the initial installation, which in Australia costs
thousands of dollars and; secondly, the extent of rebates provided for excess electrical energy,
generated from the PV arrays, which is fed back into the grid. If this financial framework does
not capture the interests of the general public little, or no, real gain will be made in the shift to
renewable energies.

Measuring and predicting acceptance for photovoltaic technologies in Melbourne Victoria

49

A third factor and potential barrier is the market facilitator, namely, real estate agents. This group
must be able to sense a market appetite for solar technologies if they are to be promoted in advertisements and the sales process. If the agent does not understand the benefits to owners and
occupants, they are less likely to make such references in advertisements. Inability or reluctance
on the part of agents to promote house solar technologies positively could therefore act as an
impediment to long-term market acceptance of such technologies.

Solar in Australia
Australia is one of the sunniest continents in the world (NREL 2008) yet it has one of the lowest uptake of small-scale solar technologies (Pew 2013) suggesting a disconnect between opportunity
and resource exploitation. There are approximately 1.25 million solar PV installations in Australia
(Clean Energy Council 2013) and relative costs for the purchase and installation of PV systems
has fallen to approximately one quarter compared to costs around the late 1990s/2000 (APVA
2013). As a result of government efforts to enhance the uptake of such technologies, these costs
are currently subsidised by rebates at Federal and State government levels. At the Federal level,
homeowners seeking to install a new system are able to apply for solar rebates to assist with initial
capital outlays, and at the State level feed-in tariffs of 6.2 cents per kilowatt-hour exist (Energy and
Resources Victoria 2015A). This amount, under the current Liberal Federal government has been
reduced substantially from 60 cents per kilowatt-hour provided in 2009 under a Labour Federal
government (Energy and Resources Victoria 2015B). This decline in feed-in tariff rates is arguably
appropriate as the market rate for domestic electricity supply is around 30 cents per kilowatt-hour
(Origin Energy 2015) and therefore, high feed-in tariffs are unsustainable.
The argument for the adoption of solar technologies in Australia is predicated upon cheaper energy bills. Typical Australian rebates for PV systems allow for payback back periods around four
to six years depending upon the size of the system (Solar Choice 2014). Installations of solar PV
systems in Victoria have increased significantly since 2008 (Figure 1). This sudden and rapid uptake
is largely attributed to the introduction of more generous government rebate schemes. Financial
funding for these schemes has been progressively reduced from 2012. Figure 1 shows the total
installations of PV systems in Victoria since 2006 and Figure 2 shows the year on year growth of
these systems. In Victoria 12.9% of dwellings have been fitted with PV systems (Australian PV Institute 2015).

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(Source: Authors)
As shown Figure 2, the numbers of new PV installations have waned since 2012, and one possible cause is the reduced feed-in tariffs rates, leading to extended payback periods and reduced
upfront rebates to offset installation capital costs. However, if there is a market demand for such
technologies from home buyers, then this should be observed in marketing campaigns as real
estate agents would be keen to promote these technologies if they perceive a buyer demand.

(Source: Authors)

Marketing and advertising housing


When real estate agents advertise housing for sale or lease, it is important to promote the most
attractive characteristics to potential buyers as means of creating enquiry. Whilst acting in the
best interests of their client, usually the seller, the role of the real estate agent is central to the

Measuring and predicting acceptance for photovoltaic technologies in Melbourne Victoria

51

sales process and dichotomous in itself. To achieve a successful outcome, real estate agents must
be proficient at negotiation, understand building design and technologies, have extensive working knowledge of consumer and property laws, understand selling and marketing principles and
possess in-depth knowledge of the geographic and demographic composition of the region in
which they work (Arndt et al 2013). Agents are generally remunerated via success fees, thereby
aligning both parties towards a successful outcome. The objective to sell is innately linked to a
marketing campaign that highlights the houses most attractive attributes to attract the most
suitable buyer (Bridge 2001, Perkins et al 2008).
Advertising is a core element of any marketing campaign. The advertisement is produced to attract qualified buyers with the aim of motivating them to enquire and view the property. The
agent has an aligned interest to the seller to produce quality advertisements as it; prompts buyer
inquiry, is a means of enhancing agency and is designed to locate the property within its submarket through the use of persuasive language (Bruthiaux 2000).
To be successful real estate agents must be in-tune with the market in which they operate to
ensure advertisements are written to attract suitable buyers to the house being offered for sale.
Real estate agents often use emotive text to highlight characteristics of a house to create desirable images in the mind of reader (Pryce & Oates 2008). Studies have shown that real estate agents
manipulate linguistic patterns in order achieve favourable outcomes (Beangstrom and Adendorff
2013, Perkins et al 2008, Schollmann et al 2001). Textual variances of real estate advertisements
can be informative when examining social change. Studying house advertisements over 20 years
Rodriguez and Siret (2009) observed that housing preferences had changed in the use of space
and the concept of comfort within the built environment. They noted advertisements are a compact description of the characteristics and qualities that dwellers and real estate-agents give to a
house in order to make the best sale (Rodriguez and Siret, 2009:93). Following this observation,
real estate agent advertisements are considered a useful way to examine social trends and; therefore, words that refer to solar technologies ought to appear in house advertisements if a demand
for such technologies in housing was emerging under a market led policy, such as that favoured
by successive Australian governments.

Framing the research: The City of Melbourne


The City of Melbourne is a large cosmopolitan city comprising approximately 4.35m people (ABS,
2013) with much of Melbournes original growth to the east of the citys CBD. Currently extensive
development is occurring in the citys western region creating a city with wide spectrum of old
and new housing styles and technologies. Many suburbs in the inner and middle-eastern regions
have median prices exceeding $1m and are colloquially referred to, as the desirable leafy suburbs. This mix of housing styles and demographics provides an ideal tapestry in which to study
the uptake of introduced technologies such as solar.

Research aims and objectives


The aim of this research is examine the uptake of solar technologies, within the prevailing government policy framework, by residential property market participants, specifically house buyers.
The Australian government has opted for a market led policy believing that buyer demand will
lead to potential sellers installing solar and energy efficient technologies in order to avoid pricing discounts. Therefore the primary research question is: How are advertisements promoting solar
technologies influenced by government policy?

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Principal-agent theory suggests that agents will act ethically on behalf of clients but retain an
element of self-interest (Anglin & Arnott 1991). When applied to the context of this research it is
posited that if real estate agents perceive a benefit in promoting house energy efficient technologies, such as solar, they are likely to do so and will therefore script words and phrases within
advertising material to attract buyer interest.
This research examines the potential for success of the Australian governments strategy of using
market forces to drive demand for energy efficient housing, thereby encouraging house-owners
to retrofit technologies to avoid price discounts. The objective is to gain a deeper understanding
of the extent of engagement that real estate agents have in the promotion of energy efficient
characteristics. As market facilitators real estate agents exhibit significant influence over the sales
process (Jauregui & Hite 2010) and therefore it is essential that their role be understood together
with the influence of demographic profiles upon solar technologies.
At any given point in time there is approximately 30,400 houses for sale in Melbourne (Mr David
Hall REIV email 22nd June 2015). Latest approvals for solar installations indicate that currently approximately 12.9% have been fitted with PV panels. Therefore it can reasonably concluded that
approximately 3922 of the houses on the market at any given point in time would be fitted with
solar technologies. If real estate agents are seeing such technologies as attractive to the market
then one should be able to observe a similar percentage of advertisements with words and phrases referring to these technologies. Thus this research is aimed at investigating the extent to which
real estate agents are acting in the manner sought by a market led policy.

Research Method
This investigation is informed by research that suggests education and wealth influence decisions
to adopt energy efficient and sustainable practices within domestic environments. With this in
mind, the aim of this research is to investigate the extent to which real estate agents include
words and phrases relating to existing solar technologies in advertisements. Such findings will
enable a better understanding of the extent buyers are seeking such technologies as part of their
home buying decision. This research adopts a quantitative approach by assembling a database to
explore the research questions. Data used in this study is real estate agent advertisements used
to promote residential properties between July 2008 and June 2013. In Victoria real estate agents
submit their advertisements together with sales information to the Real Estate Institute of Victoria (REIV) at the time of sale. The REIV is Victorias industry peak body representing approximately
70% of all real estate agents (J Mitchell REIV email, 26th November 2014) with the remaining 30%
largely being non-residential agents. The statistical methods adopted best practice approaches
and ensure that internal validity is addressed (Silverman, 2008).
Keywords that either directly or make inferred reference to solar energy being available within
the advertisement were searched and included in the count. Keywords were identified through a
review of a random selection of 250 advertisements, noting any words that related to solar energy features (see Table 2). References to solar hot water services were not included. The rationale
for excluding solar hot water systems is that electric hot water systems in Melbourne account
approximately 43% of all installed systems (Origin Energy 2015) and the inclusion of these systems
here has the potential to corrupt the count, where the objective was to focus on the diffusion of
PV panels into the market. Evaluating textual composition of advertisements within geographical regions and comparing each to demographic profiles will demonstrate whether real estate
agents are recognising market demand for energy efficient technologies.

Measuring and predicting acceptance for photovoltaic technologies in Melbourne Victoria

53

Family income often influences where people purchase their home. Wealth is also correlated to
the likelihood of adopting better environmental practices (Mandell and Wilhelmsson 2011) and
therefore it is appropriate to investigate if advertisements in different regions display a varying
amount of words relating to solar technologies. For this part, analysis of local government areas
(LGAs) defined by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) were used. Each LGA has information
regarding wealth and other demographic characteristics provided in census data. The REIV data
provided with postcodes were matched with LGAs to allocate data for analysis. In a small number of cases postcodes were applicable to two adjoining LGAs. These were examined in detail
to determine the extent of data corruption. In the worst case it was found 98.6% of the relevant
postcode from REIV data resided in a single LGA with the remaining 1.4% within the adjoining
LGA. Given the large size of the database this was accepted as a limitation to the result. The database was screened to include only detached dwellings resulting in 91,331 items of data. Attached
dwellings were of interest because owners are free to make choices about retro fitting and house
upgrades. SPSS Version 22 was used to undertake the analysis.
Table 1 shows the demographic variables used for analysis and Table 3 provides a sample of the
data acquired from the Real Estate Institute of Victoria (REIV) after cleaning for irrelevant sales
such as vacant land. Table 3 provides details of the word categories used in the analysis. Words
and phrases within advertisements were grouped into primary categories that identified the nature of the terminology used in order to further understand if certain solar technologies were
preferred in favour of others. Previous research has revealed that buyers who are more educated
and affluent are more likely to adopt energy efficient behaviours and are willing to pay for such
technologies (Jansson et al 2011, Mills & Schleich 2012). This therefore would suggest that markets
exhibiting such demographic profiles would have a greater prevalence of language referring to
solar technologies appearing in the advertisements. Strings of text were examined for words that
related to such technologies being present in the house.
Table 1 Demographic ABS & Property Variables
1. Median Age
2. Median Monthly Mortgage Repayments
3. Median Total Weekly Personal Income
4. Median Weekly Rent
5. Median Total Weekly Family Income
6. Average Number Of Persons Per Bedroom
7. Median Total Weekly Household Income
8. Average Household Size
9. No. Beds (From Description)
10. Education Group 1 (University)
11. Education Group 2 (Technical And Further Education TAFE)
(Source: Authors)
Table 2 Keywords searched and coded into SPSS
str_solar_panel

SOLAR PANEL

str_solar_power

SOLAR POWER

str_solar_energy

SOLAR ENERGY

str_solar_electricity

SOLAR ELECTRICITY
SOLAR ELECTRIC

(Source: Authors)

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4 No. Bedrooms

$1,425,500 Sold Price

10/08/08 Sale Date

HOUSE Property Type

VIC State

3124 Postcode

Camberwell Suburb

5289591 Record ID

Table 3 Sample of REIV data

Comments
Situated on a generous allotment this home provides a great opportunity
for you to live in one of Melbournes most desirable suburbs. Comprising:
Two living areas with hardwood floors- Period style kitchen with gas
cooking facilities, recently installed solar panels, spacious rear yard for
the family and off street parking. Located a comfortable stroll to popular
Bourke Road retail precinct and rail. First time offered for sale for many
years. This is a home to excite the most discerning buyer.

(Source: Authors)

Results And Discussion


Real estate agent advertisements were examined for the frequency of words and phrases used
to inform the reader of existing solar technologies. Grammatical forms were examined and are
explained in Table 4.
Table 4 Flag category used
Flag

Explanation

flag_solar1_word

Words and phrases that attempt to highlight the house comprising installed and functioning solar
power source. For example; solar power, solar energy, solar panel(s).

(Source: Authors)
These categories were designed to capture the possible range of descriptions that could be used
when describing solar technologies within the house and were guided by contemporary research.

Correlations
As the aim is to consider the influence of demographic profiles on solar words in advertising,
bivariate correlations between the keyword and demographic variables were undertaken. All variables exhibited weak form correlations but were nonetheless significant in many cases. Solar
words appeared negatively correlated for regions where the residents had undertaken higher education [r=-0.009, n=91,331, p=0.001]. This contradicts previous research findings (Eves and Kipps
2010; Zhang 2010) that more educated people are more likely to adopt energy efficient technologies and real estate agents appear to be marketing to this disposition. Although weak, this finding could be explained by the proposition that government subsidies are available to all people
and attraction to energy bills is likely to be taken up irrespective of educational background. Correlation with household size is also weak but significant [r=0.016, n=91,331, p= 0.001]. This finding
suggests that larger households are seeking ways of reducing ongoing energy bills. In itself this
would seem intuitive, however this can generally only be achieved if the household income has
sufficient to outlay the initial capital expenditure. Previous literature suggests that pro-environmental behaviours and investment are linked to income levels (Jansson et al 2011). As no correlations with weekly family income were found one plausible reason is that households are seeking
to take advantage of government subsidies, and if none, then they may not invest in such technologies. The third and highest correlation is No. of bedrooms in the house [r=0.035, n=91,331, p=

Measuring and predicting acceptance for photovoltaic technologies in Melbourne Victoria

55

0.001]. As it is likely that houses with more bedrooms are larger in floor area it is probable that the
occupants would again seek to reduce energy bills and seek install solar technologies if possible.

Logistic regression
Finally, to further elucidate findings from the data, logistic regressions for the keyword were conducted. The logistic regression reveals the likelihood of the keyword appearing in advertisements
within the specific geographical regions. As geographical areas exhibit unique demographic
characteristics a logistic regression will enable the examination of the likelihood of the keyword
appearing in advertisements within those regions thus indicating whether or not emergent association exists. In order to define regions in a manner consistent with ABS data used within this
research, the ABS statistical regions were adopted and applied here. These regions are defined
by clustering neighbouring LGAs and labelled in a manner that reflects their relative geographic
position to the Melbourne CBD. Logistic regression outputs are shown in Tables 5.
Table 5 - Logistic regression of Solar keyword
Independent Variable

S.E.

Wald

Df

Significance

Exp(B)

region_inner Eastern Melb

0.015

0.112

0.018

0.894

1.015

0.25

0.127

3.872

0.049

1.283

region_north Eastern Melb

region_mornington Peninsula

-0.032

0.119

0.073

0.788

0.968

region_north Western Melb

0.118

0.138

0.74

0.39

1.126

region_outer Eastern Melb

-0.085

0.131

0.422

0.516

0.919

region_outer Western Melb

0.152

0.111

1.885

0.17

1.164

region_south Eastern Melb

0.459

0.119

14.812

1.582

region_south Melb

-0.138

0.117

1.395

0.238

0.871

(Source: Authors)

Regional discussion for keywords


For the solar keyword, only South Eastern Melbourne, one of Melbournes middle/higher income
regions, was significant at the 0.001 confidence level. The Mornington Peninsula, a popular beachside retirement region, was significant at the 0.05 confidence level. Both these regions are typically well established in terms of housing stock and therefore if solar technologies are present, they
have probably been retrofitted. These results support two propositions. The first, that retirees
with constrained income are seeking ways of reducing energy bills and therefore may be attracted to houses displaying technologies capable of achieving this. Secondly households who have
higher levels of income are likely to be committed to higher mortgage repayments and would
therefore, seek ways of reducing ongoing energy bills. This would be more possible when government subsidies are available. No other regions were statistically significant.

Conclusions
The need to reduce carbon emissions and the impact on the planet by changed behaviours and
ways of thinking is considered to be increasingly urgent. Residential buildings have a significant
affect upon the climate and the diffusion of beneficial technologies into markets and society more
broadly is critical to abate environmental damage. If governments persist with indirect action policies, it is crucial that market participants understand the benefits of energy efficient technologies
and factor cost premiums into purchase decisions. This understanding can be achieved through
the engagement of market facilitators that is, real estate agents.

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This research investigated the appearance of words and phrases relating to solar technologies
in advertising to examine the effectiveness of a market led policy for the diffusion of energy efficient technologies in the Victorian housing market. The research question posed was; how are advertisements promoting solar technologies influenced by government policy? Results show that the
market is not yet paying significant regard to solar technologies and therefore not responding to
the governments objective of a market led adoption of energy efficient housing. Advertisements
describing solar technologies whilst present are disproportionate to the number of potential
properties that could include such words and phrases.
This research is unique in using real estate agent advertisements to reflect market activity and
buyer attitudes towards energy efficient housing. Real estate agents aim to promote the characteristics they believe will be most attractive to homebuyers. Therefore if solar technologies were
front of mind to the buyers, textual phrases relating to such technologies ought be found within
advertisements. The findings suggest that little progress has been made towards the diffusion of
energy efficient paradigms into the housing market. This in turn implies that indirect action policies are not likely to make any significant contribution towards the reduction of carbon emissions
in the residential sector, at least in the foreseeable future. It is the opinion of the researchers that
government must take a direct approach to this important issue.
Further studies that investigate reasons for the low level of market promotion of solar and energy
efficient technologies in the housing sector are likely to provide perspectives that could further
inform this research. This research is part of a broader project to investigate market/demographic
characteristics and acceptance of energy efficient technologies and the limitations apparent in
this article are acknowledged.

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International Conference | Bari - Lecce, Italy

Session I - II

CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING OF
SUSTAINABILITY IN BUILT ENVIRONMENT
PROFESSIONALS
Sara Wilkinson1

1 School of the Built Environment, Faculty of Design, Architecture and Building, University of Technology Sydney,
Australia, sara.wilkinson@uts.edu.au

Abstract
With the connection between energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and climate change and
the reality that as a whole, the built environment produces around half of total emissions, there
is substantial potential within the sector to reduce emissions and a key role in mitigating global
warming. However indications imply that our current grasp of the concept of sustainability is
disjointed and ambiguous (Cook & Golton, 1994. Wilkinson et al, 2004. Wilkinson 2012. Wilkinson,
2013). Many terms cover sustainable buildings, such as ecological, green, Gaian; do they mean the
same thing or are they different? Furthermore do those employed in built environment professions
demonstrate a clear understanding of the concept of sustainability? The consequence of a lack of
understanding is that the built environment industry and professions will be unlikely to deliver
sustainability efficiently or even at all, with broader and more onerous consequences for society.
This research sought to ascertain individual professionals conceptual understanding of sustainability in the built environment. Evidence is accumulating (Wilkinson 2014, Van Der Heijden &
Van Beuren 2013) that mandatory and voluntary approaches to increasing sustainability in the
built environment is having, at best intermittent and at worst negligible success, in Europe and
Australia. This research increases our understanding of how individuals understand the concept
of sustainability; and explores how that type of understanding influences their behaviour and
actions with respect to sustainability. A better understanding of this relationship will enable us to
develop mechanisms that are more likely to deliver the sustainability targets required to mitigate
climate change (MacKenzie-Mohr, 2006). This qualitative research adopted an online questionnaire survey data collection to ascertain individuals Individuals were sampled within a number
of key organisations in the property and construction industry. Issues of internal and external
validity and reliability were addressed in the data collection and analysis.

Keywords
conceptual understanding, built environment professionals, technocentrism, ecocentrism,
sustainability.

61

Introduction
The awareness of the relationship between greenhouse gas emissions and observed climate
change and global warming has risen significantly over the previous 30 years. From initial scepticism and denial, globally more governments and business sectors have acknowledged and accepted that some action is necessary to reduce greenhouse gas emissions attempt to mitigate
the perceived impacts of climate change (Stern 2006, Garnaut 2008). Policies and strategies have
been debated and launched at all levels of government, and corporate social responsibility (CSR)
has been taken up by some within the business community.
Construction, which involves the mining, extraction and use of resources, has a substantial environmental impact (Ortiz et al, 2009). The impacts of the buildings constructed vary in terms of
the amounts of embodied energy, as well as, water and energy consumption during the building
lifecycle. Specification of materials and the resources used in maintenance and repair has further
impacts. The built environment in total is responsible for around half of all greenhouse gas emissions (Wilkinson, 2011), although estimates do vary from around 30% to 50% depending on what
is included or excluded in the calculation. Overall the impact from the built environment is significant, and will increase with population growth and increased urbanisation of the worlds population (RICS, 2015). Therefore the way built environment professionals perceive and understand
the concept of sustainability is crucial to the implementation of meaningful actions to mitigate
climate change.
It is said that sustainability is a contested concept; in other words it is interpreted or perceived
differently by different actors; it means all things to all men (Sderbaum 2011, Washington, 2015,
Cook & Golton 1994). If the concept is poorly understood, it follows that actions and practices may
be ill-informed, misguided and ultimately will not deliver the much needed outcomes (Cook &
Golton, 1994). To capture the views of those professionals who work in the built environment, this
paper addresses the questions; what is the conceptual understanding of sustainability within built
environment professionals and, (b) what is the implication of this level of conceptual understanding
with regards to delivering sustainability?

The spectrum of sustainability; ecocentrism to anthropocentrism


Within the built environment a surfeit of terms encompass the concept of sustainability. For example, green, Green, greener, Gaian, ecological, environmentally sensitive, environmentally conscious natural, and sustainable design or building are some of the terms adopted (Wilkinson,
2012). Such variations beg the questions; do these concepts overlap or, are they the same? Are
there shared aspects between the concepts and if so, what are they? Further, is the degree of
sustainability embedded within some concepts questionable? Moreover is it conceivable to consider a sustainable building in an absolute or a relative form? By this, it is meant; can a building be
actually sustainable when considering the earths total resources (absolute) or, is it simply more
sustainable than a building to which is it contrasted (relative)? Currently building rating systems
such as BREEAM, Green Star and LEED are regarded as being sustainable in an absolute sense. This
research elucidates some of these questions. Currently, sustainability is the preferred term and
typically embraces economic, environmental and social considerations (Elkington 1997), although
the term was defined initially in the Bruntland Report in 1987 (WCED, 1987). The concept is further
informed by political and philosophical notions, considered within the literature review, which
exposed distinct attributes and sub-groups which needed to be de-constructed and ordered to

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clarify shared and unique attributes.


A central division is Ecocentrism and Anthropocentrism (Pepper 1984, Dobson 1990, Brown 1995).
An Ecocentric worldview sees ecosystems as part of an integrated environmental system with
organisms, biological communities and ecosystems creating the mantle of life surrounding the
planet. Ecocentrism is advocated by an environmental movement known as Deep Ecology (Naess
1990, Washington, 2015) and is grounded in seeking the common good of the human and non-human world (Purser & Montuori, 1995). Ecocentrics are radically egalitarian, and entities such as animals, humans, rivers, seas and lakes are all believed to have equal and intrinsic value (Washington,
2015. Naess, 1990). Ecocentrics claim only when this worldview is adopted will we exchange environmentally destructive policies, for more benign policies. Paradoxically in asking humankind to
take responsibility for whole of the ecosphere Ecocentrics express Anthropocentrism (a human
centred worldview). It is claimed the egalitarian Ecocentric world would collapse into nihilism if
no distinctions of value are made, where for example, the value of a child in a ghetto tenement
is equal to that of a family of rats (Brown, 1995). Taken to extremes, there is a view that Ecocentrism lends itself to an ideology of domination, where eco police enforce eco policy (Dobson,
1990). Therefore although reduction in mankinds interference with the ecosphere is desirable,
it is argued that some types of Ecocentrism would involve the rejection of human rights in favour of the ecosphere. An example is the Transpersonal Ecology group who propose a cull of the
human population as a solution to population growth (Naess, 1990). Ecocentrics tend to dislike
centralised systems and materialism within social and political systems; a stance which puts them
heavily at odds with current prevailing paradigms of growth and consumption (Cook & Golton,
1994, Washington, 2015).
Anthropocentrism, is the dominant worldview, where humankind is believed to have the foremost role, only humans possess intrinsic value, are the rightful masters of nature, as well as being
the origin and source of all values (Pepper, 1984. Cook & Golton, 1994). Clearly Anthropocentrism
is a very different world view to Ecocentrism (Washington, 2015). It is asserted that to deliver sustainability sufficient to avert overwhelming levels of climate change, it is necessary to persuade
civil society to make a break from the anthropocentric perspective where the environment affects
and benefits humans (Salinger 2010). Within Anthropocentrism resources are extracted without
replenishment and non-reusable materials such as plastics and nuclear waste accumulate. Some
argue that Anthropocentrism is based in the positivist, objective-thinking characteristics in our
scientific, mechanistic and technological world view which emerged from the 17th century onwards (Brown, 1995. Washington 2015). Ecocentrics believe Anthropocentrism is the root cause
of the ecological crisis (Cook & Golton, 1994). However Anthropocentrics believe that mankind
can provide a technological fix to environmental problems (Washington, 2015). Another term for
Anthropocentrism is Technocentrism (Cook & Golton, 1994).
Nevertheless it is nave to see a clear gap between Ecocentrism and Anthropocentrism / Technocentrism, as the boundaries are blurred and the issues are complex (Pepper, 1984). One issue
between an Ecocentric worldview and an Anthropocentric one is; where does the line between
fair use and abuse lie (Purser and Montuori 1996)? Or, where does economic development become
exploitative? Pearce (1993) and Pepper (1984) perceived further subgroups or categories within
Ecocentrism and Anthropocentrism. Within Anthropocentrism those on the left, known as Accommodating Environmentalists tend to be gradual reformers believing in careful economic and
environmental management but without radical change to social economic and political structures (Cook & Golton, 1994). Those on the right, identified as Cornucopian Environmentalists, believe in unfettered economic growth and humankinds right to use resources as they see fit. Within

Conceptual understanding of sustainability in built environment professionals

63

the Ecocentrics, there is division between those on the right; Deep Ecologists, who put a greater
emphasis on the limits to growth or carrying capacity of the earth, and those on the left, Moderate Ecologists, who believe in decentralised political and social institutions. Deep Ecologists
believe in compulsory restraints on human population growth and on resource consumption.
Economically, Anthropocentrics are neo-classicists, believing economic growth is possible, and
rejecting intervention to tax or incentivise sustainability measures, the market is king. This stance
is beginning to change and evolve in capitalist economies with an increase in the scope of environmental legislation. For example, in 2010 the disclosure of energy consumption in commercial
buildings in Australia became mandatory (Warren & Huston, 2011) and in the UK similar legislation, Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs), was mandated in 2007 (DirectGov, 2012). There is
also mounting evidence that mandatory approaches to sustainability in the built environment
are more effective that voluntary approaches (Wilkinson et al, 2015, Wilkinson, 2014). The carbon
pricing mechanism, or Carbon Tax was contentious legislation in Australia, which commenced in
July 2012, and met significant resistance in the parliament during 2011. There was concern about
the potential impact on the economy and the amount of the carbon price compared to other
countries; it was rescinded after the 2013 election when a neo-liberal party displaced a labour
administration. The Australian government had largely offset the potential negative political and
economic impacts of the pricing mechanism with generous government assistance to households. It was a temporary shift in the neo-classical economic philosophy to Accommodating Environmentalism, which has returned to a Cornucopian position. Another concern is that within
the built environment, improved economic performance through a perceived increase in capital
value is the main argument used to persuade owners and investors to adopt sustainability (Eichholtz et al 2009, Fuerst & McAllister 2011, Newell 2008).
Thus a spectrum of ideas and values exist within the concept of sustainability which goes from
dark green to light green, or as some have suggested to grey; implying that the pursuit of weak
sustainability does not deliver sustainable outcomes (Cooper 1994, Washington 2015). The range
of views identified in the literature is shown in Table 1 below. Five groups were identified, two being classed as Anthropocentric (Accommodating and Cornucopian Environmentalism) and three
as Ecocentric (Transpersonal, Deep and Moderate Ecology).

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Deep Ecology

Moderate
Ecology

Accommodating
Environmentalism

Cornucopian
Environmentalism

Belief system

Transpersonal Ecology

Stand-point

Table 1: Ecocentric and anthropocentric standpoints. (Source: Author)

Religious level of
belief

Bio-ethics and
intrinsic value

Primary value of
ecosystems

Intra and intergenerational equity

Support for traditional


ethical reasoning

Accepts carrying
capacity of earth
argument

Instrumental value in
nature

Rights of humans

Accepts carrying
capacity of earth
argument

Emotional and irrational

Rational and pro science

Lacks faith in technology


Population

Population cull

Resource
consumption
World view

Faith in science and technology

Reduce population Zero population


growth

Silent

Extreme
preservationist

Resource conservationist

Resource
preservation

Ecocentric

Resource exploitative

Anthropocentric

Lacks faith in technology

Faith in technology

Waste

Reuse, repair and then recycle

Economic

Capitalism is not
sustainable.
Rejects
consumerism.

Heavily regulated
economy.
Capitalism is not
sustainable.
Do not favour
overseas trade.
economics. Rejects
consumerism
Little overseas trade.

Zero economic
growth. Capitalism
is not sustainable.
Do not favour
overseas trade.
economics. Rejects
consumerism. Little
overseas trade.

Managed growth.
Capitalism is sustainable.
Consumerism is
acceptable.
Overseas trade is
acceptable.

Maximise growth.
Capitalism is
sustainable.
Substitution theory
prevails.
Laissez faire
economics.
Green consumerism is
accepted.
Promotes
consumerism.
Promote foreign trade
/ agreements

Energy

Preservationist

Preservationist

Conservationist

Conservationist

Nuclear is acceptable,
conserve and increase
consumption

Strong
sustainability

Weak sustainability

Very weak
sustainability

Very strong sustainability

Recycle

In Table 1 the most radical group, Transpersonal Ecologists are so embroiled in ecosophical debate
they are unable to form a coherent group who are capable of action (Dobson, 1990). The Deep
Ecologists and Moderate Ecologists share some beliefs, such as, both groups believe capitalism
is unsustainable, but also have distinct and separate positions on issues. Deep Ecologists believe
in bio-ethics and the intrinsic value of nature, where Moderate Ecologists believe in the primary
value of ecosystems; which is a less extreme view. A similar situation exists for Anthropocentrics.
The two Anthropocentric groups share views on the value of science and rational thought. They
diverge on the rights of humans, which are dominant in the Cornucopian Environmentalists

Conceptual understanding of sustainability in built environment professionals

65

group, Accommodating Environmentalists however, hold there is instrumental value in nature.


These beliefs are shown figuratively in figure 1 as the spectrum of sustainability.

Figure 1.The spectrum of sustainability. (Source: Author).


Figure 1 shows the separation between Transpersonal Ecology and Anthropocentrism / Technocentrism. Elsewhere there is some overlap between the groups in their value systems and beliefs.
There is a broader divide between Ecocentrism and Anthropocentrism where one is considered
to deliver strong sustainability and the other weak sustainability. The question is: is weak and very
weak sustainability going to deliver sufficient changes for the generations to come and those already here? Washington (2015) and Brown (1995) strongly assert this level of sustainability will fall
far short of what is needed.
The built environment is responsible for significant environmental impacts. Buildings use resources during construction with the extraction of resources, energy and water resources are used in
the transport and manufacturing of construction materials and components. Vast amounts of
waste are created at this stage. During the operational phase energy resources are used to light,
heat and cool buildings, and water is used in building services. Materials used during construction affect occupant health. At the end of the lifecycle, unless materials are re-used or recycled,
they are transported to landfill where the resources are lost in perpetuity. Around 25% of the built
environment is housing.
Within the built environment, professionals impact on the sustainability of the buildings that they
design, build and sometimes operate, and in this regard their conceptual understanding of sustainability is extremely important. Education on sustainability in built environment courses has
been delivered since the early 1990s and therefore most professionals should have been exposed
to the concept of sustainability. Many organisations adopt CSR as a means of organising, structuring, managing and reporting their environmental impact (Wilkinson et al, 2004) and this is
another way in which professionals would be aware of sustainability.

Research questions and methodology


This research is qualitative, in that it seeks to gain a deeper understanding of the ways in which
people conceive the world around them and adopts an inductive hypothesis generating approach (Bryman, 2012). The research methodology was based on an online questionnaire, which

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was easily distributed among built environment professionals globally. In order to gain as wider
spectrum of responses as possible the survey was distributed via the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) Oceania LinkedIn, the ZEMCH LinkedIn and the researchers LinkedIn networks. The researcher endeavoured to collect data from different countries to determine whether
attitudes varied between developed and developing nations. The survey was distributed in May
2015 and open for a 4 week period.
The survey comprised three distinct sections as follows. Section one asked the respondent about
their age, gender, the sector they work in, level of education and professional qualifications and
membership, and the global region they work in. The second part of the questionnaire comprised questions about different viewpoints of sustainability, and aimed to reveal whether respondents held Ecocentric or Anthropocentric/Technocentric perspectives. This data was critical
as it helped identify whether or not there is a clear and consistent set of viewpoints. Section three
posed questions about environmental actions respondents take at home, on the assumption that
at home they have dominion and choice over actions. The final section posed the same questions
about action but set in the workplace to see whether variation existed between actions at home
and at work. The aim was to determine whether the views respondents expressed in section 2
were followed through with actions in sections 3 and 4. Only responses to section 1 and 2 are
reported here.

Data analysis and discussion


Section one asked respondents about themselves to gain a deeper understanding of their background and level of experience. There were 59 responses to the survey, which is relatively small.
Males comprised 76.8% of the respondents. 39.3% of respondents were aged between 41 and 55
years of age, followed by 37.5% aged 26-40 years. The sample is experienced with 71.15% having
over 10 years professional practice experience. Of the remaining respondents, 15.38% had 5 to
10 years experience and 13.46% had less than 5 years experience. Overall 33.33% most of the respondents are employed in academic roles, followed by property 22.22% and construction 17.67%,
with the remaining respondents employed in architecture, engineering and land surveying. However this is a reasonable range of built environment professionals. They are highly educated, with
71.15% having a post graduate qualification. Given the distribution of the survey most are members
of the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS), 58.56% followed by the Australian Property
Institute (API) at 29.27%. Built environment professionals often join more than one professional
body and this is the case with this sample. Not surprisingly 82.35% worked in the Oceania region,
with 5.88% each based in the UK and Middle East. 76.47% have responsibility for decision-making
in the work role and 60.78% are responsible for other staff members.
Overall the sample is predominantly male, well educated, academic, experienced, a member of
RICS, responsible for decision-making and staff within the workplace, and working in Oceania.
Given the age and level of experience all respondents should have had reasonable exposure to
sustainability concepts at university and in the workplace as well as through continuing professional development requirements of the professional bodies they belong to.
Section two asked respondents about their personal view on a number of key tenets of sustainability as summarised in table 1 above. Table 2 provides a summary of the responses to questions
8 to 15. Question 8 asked whether respondents believed that humankind is a part of the eco-system, this is a Moderate Ecology standpoint, which 97.7% agreed to, with 2.3% not knowing the
answer (Dobson, 1990. Washington, 2015). When compared to question 9, which asked whether
respondents believed that humankind is the most intelligent of species on the planet and that

Conceptual understanding of sustainability in built environment professionals

67

gives humankind the right to decide how the planet resources are used, 54.5% agreed with this
Cornucopian standpoint. This illustrates that the understanding is not fixed to one set of values or
ideas espoused by each grouping within the sustainability spectrum of thought; a finding echoed
by Washington (2015). Question 10 asked about the carrying capacity of the earth and population
issues, which is in the discourse of Ecocentrism (Dobson, 1990). Each response reflected the slight
differences between Transpersonal, Deep and Moderate Ecology standpoints as well as the Accommodating and Cornucopian standpoints. Here the responses showed 57.1% fell in the Ecocentric school of thought and 42.9% adopted a Anthropocentric / Technocentric position. In question
11 respondents were asked about the issue of resources and what we need to. The responses
reflected standpoints from all schools of thought. The do nothing, exhaust the resources we currently use like oil and then substitute switch to gas, or solar power is a Cornucopian standpoint
and only 2.4% held this view. 34.1% adopted the Accommodating Environmentalist view of use
less resources now save energy, however overall most (63.4%) took an Ecocentric standpoint of
resource preservation (Moderate Ecology) and the highest group 46.1% held the strong preservation (Deep Ecology) view. So in this instance the majority took the Ecocentric standpoint, which
contrasts to question 9 where Anthropocentric / Technocentric thought dominated.
Question 12 explored the issue of resource consumption through attitudes to waste and recycling. The first option recycle products is an Anthropocentric / Technocentric standpoint which
47.5% agreed with, the Ecocentric standpoint to repair and reuse had a slightly higher response
at 52.5%; overall a fairly even split. A more marked division came out in question 13, which examined possible responses to climate change. Anthropocentrics tend to believe we can engineer
solutions because of our inherent intelligence and position as the dominant species on the planet
(Pepper, 1984). The question asked the way to solve the problem of climate change and global
warming is to invent some technologies such as cloud seeding to create rainfall where we need
and want, in this way will be able to produce enough food to sustain the global population, is
a Cornucopian standpoint which 12.5% concurred with. However the majority of 87.5% believe
humankind has to change our behavior more radically; a technological fix is not the answer to
the problem; a standpoint held in the Accommodating Environmentalist and Ecocentric groups.
This is another example of a belief or value, which overlaps Ecocentrism and Anthropocentrism /
Technocentrism to some extent.
In question 13 the focus shifted to economic views with regards to policy and sustainability. 23.1%
agreed with the Transpersonal Ecology view that capitalism and consumerism are not sustainable, whereas 23.1% believed that heavy intervention is required into economic policy to ensure
sustainable policies are enacted. Only 5.1% agreed with the Moderate Ecology belief that zero
growth is the solution. So overall 51.3% held Ecocentric standpoints. The remaining 48.7% were
Anthropocentric/Technocentric and believed that managed growth and consumerism were acceptable; an Accommodating Environmentalist view (28.2%) or that consumerism and capitalism
are definitely sustainable (20.1%); a Cornucopian belief. Question 14 asked about energy policy
overwhelmingly the responses were Anthropocentric / Technocentric, 70% believed in the Accommodating Environmentalist and Moderate Ecology beliefs that energy conservation to be the
preferred solution, while 20% adopted the Cornucopian view that we can increase energy use by
adopting nuclear. This is a position, that is highly contentious, and some Ecocentrics have shifted
on recently (Washington, 2015). Only 10 % held the Deep Ecology and Transpersonal Ecology view
that preservation of resources is the solution humankind should adopt. So overall we can see that
the conceptual understanding of the sample complex and fragmented.

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Table 2 Summary of responses of questions 8 to 15


Question
number

Transpersonal
Ecology

Deep
Ecology

Dont
know

0%

2.30%

54.40%

11.40%

42.90%

0%

34.10%
5.70%

11

12

25.70%

25.70%

46.30%

17.10%

34.10%

52.50%

13
15

Accommodating Cornucopian EnviEnvironmentalist ronmentalist

97.70%

10

14

Moderate
Ecology

87.50%
23.10%

23.10%
10%

2.40%
47.50%

5.10%

28.20%
70%

0%
0%

12.50%

0%

5.10%

0%

20%

0%

Figure 2 Summary of responses to questions 8 to 15 showing type of environmentalism adopted


Question 16 looked at several statements, each of which reflected different standpoints. 81%
agreed with the inter-generational equity argument posited in the Bruntland definition of Sustainable Development (WCED, 1987) and an Accommodating Environmentalist view. However this
dropped to 52.4% who agreed with intra-generational equity, also part of the Bruntland definition
of Sustainable Development (WCED, 1987) and an Accommodating Environmentalist view. Only
47.5% of respondents agreed with the Moderate Ecology standpoint that the earth has intrinsic
value and should be protected on this basis (Dobson, 1990). An even smaller percentage of 2.4%
agreed with the Cornucopian standpoint that humankind can look outside planet earth to grow
lettuces in space as a viable solution to the issue of climate change and population growth, and
11.9% felt the planet was humankinds to do as they wished with; another Cornucopian standpoint
(Washington, 2015). 21.9% adopted the Ecocentric standpoint that humankind is the problem,
and a small minority of 7.1% held the Anthropocentric / Technocentric view that a rational, scientific solution was the right course to follow.
For this section of the paper, each persons answers to the questions in this section on the five environmental groups were scored with one point towards that groups viewpoint for every statement chosen that represents that groups viewpoint. As the maximum possible points for each
of the five were different, the five scores were converted into a percentage of the total possible
(see table 3).

Conceptual understanding of sustainability in built environment professionals

69

Table 3 Respondent scores by sustainability standpoint

(source: Author)
A factor analysis was performed to simplify the five standpoints and scored each person on the
resulting factors to get an idea of their tendencies (see table 4). The first component loads positively on the three ecology standpoints that are associated with strong sustainability. It also loads
very negatively on Cornucopian Environmentalism, which is associated with a weak sustainability standpoint. The second component loads positively on Accommodating Environmentalism,
which is associated with weak sustainability. When respondents are scored on these two components, high scores on the first factor indicate a strong sustainability standpoint. High scores on
the second factor indicate a weak sustainability standpoint.
Table 4 Factor analysis of respondents standpoints on the sustainability spectrum

(source: Author)
Looking at the distribution of factor scores in the figures 3 and 4 below, it appears that the academia/education sector is scoring higher on factor 1 and lower on factor 2 than some of the other
sectors, indicating a stronger sustainability standpoint.

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ZEMCH 2015 | International Conference | Bari - Lecce, Italy

Figure 3 Strong Sustainability Factor by Type of Employment

(Source: Author)
Figure 4 Weak Sustainability Factor by Type of Employment

(Source: Author)
The mean factor scores of the academia/education sector were tested against the scores for construction and property, since they had larger numbers of respondents than the other sectors.
No significant differences were found between academia / education and construction. Table 5
below shows the comparison between academia/education and the property sector. The results
show that the academia/education sector has a stronger sustainability standpoint than the property sector.

Conceptual understanding of sustainability in built environment professionals

71

Table 5 Comparison between academia/education and the property sector and level of sustainability

(source: Author)
These tests were also run on the variables of gender, age groupings, years of experience, and
education and no differences were detected and the reason is likely to be the small sample size.

Conclusions
The built environment as a whole has a substantial environmental impact that could deliver significant impacts on mitigating climate change. However, as a sector, what do we believe? And,
do we collectively, have the strength of belief to deliver the changes needed to make an impact?
There is a spectrum of thought within the paradigm of sustainability, ranging from Transpersonal, Deep and Moderate Ecology falling within an Ecocentric school of thought. Their worldview
is contrasted to an Anthropocentric/Technocentric worldview, which embraces Accommodating
Environmentalism and Cornucopian Environmentalism. The key issues are discussed in the literature review and summarised in table 1. The danger is, that we think we are all talking the same
language, with the same understanding of issues and solutions. This is clearly not the case and to
be expected to some extent, however the consequences are potentially dire, and we need to understand our different standpoints more objectively. The consequence of not having this deeper
conceptual understanding is that opportunities for effective action will be missed. This research
explored the conceptual understanding within a small sample of built environment professions.
In answer to the question (a) what is the conceptual understanding of sustainability within built
environment professionals, it is shown that there is a broad spectrum of views expressed from
Ecocentrism to Anthropocentric/Technocentrism that need to be acknowledged and taken into
account, where possible and relevant. The issues are complex, and as the result show, there is little
consistency and awareness of conceptual understanding amongst built environment professionals. Within the grouping academics were found to adopt views that lead to strong sustainability.
Whist some would argue that this position reflects a disconnect between the real world and the
ivory towers of academia, we can see it also as a call to arms, as the opportunity to educate and
inform the conceptual understanding of future generations of built environment professionals
rests in our hands. Firstly though, we must inform ourselves of this discourse, and of the different philosophical positions within the spectrum of sustainability for a deeper and more fully informed conceptual understanding. The second question asked (b), what is the implication of this
level of conceptual understanding with regards to delivering sustainability? The implications are
clear; inaction and indecision are not sufficient, weak levels of action are also inadequate. It is
clear that the degree of sustainability embedded within some concepts, those of Cornucopian
Environmentalism particularly are weak and very questionable. As a sector we need to engage in
this debate explicitly and consciously. After all, the planet depends on it.

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ZEMCH 2015 | International Conference | Bari - Lecce, Italy

References
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ZEMCH 2015 | International Conference | Bari - Lecce, Italy

International Conference | Bari - Lecce, Italy

Session I - II

UNCERTAINTY EFFECTS OF INPUT DATA ON COST


OPTIMAL NZEB PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS
Seyedehmamak Salavatian1, Elisa Di Giuseppe1 & Marco Dorazio1
1 Construction, Civil Engineering and Architecture Department, Universit Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy,
e.digiuseppe@univpm.it, s.salavatian@univpm.it, m.dorazio@univpm.it

Abstract
According to EPBD recast 2010, all European member states have to set their national
minimum energy performance requirements with a view to achieve cost-optimal levels
following the delegated regulation No 244/2012 and normative EN 15459:2008. Although
economic input data utilized for calculating future costs are based on statistical predictions and not definite, most of studies in this regard are based on a deterministic system
that do not consider any randomness of parameters in global cost calculations.
This paper aims to utilize EU suggested methodology on a representative apartment
building in Italian context in order to evaluate effects of uncertainties in assumed economical input data on calculation results. In this study, twenty two wall envelope technologies were taken as design variables for acquiring primary energy needs and performing
LCC calculations. By analyzing time series of main financial rates during recent years, their
magnitude as well as marginal percentages were introduced and applied to the parameters by means of a of Monte Carlo based method; Then, amount of uncertainties for obtained results were quantified by means of statistical indicators and variation of possible
output around base case values were figured out. Moreover, influence of individual input
as well as combination scenarios were studied in a sensitivity analysis. Among studied
parameters, Rp (Product price development rate) was identified as the most dominant
stochastic parameter.

Keywords
Nearly zero energy building (nZEB), Building envelope, Cost benefit analysis,
Uncertainty analysis, and Sensitivity analysis.

75

Introduction
Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) in 2002 had set a framework which forced all
member states to determine their national required building performance. Later in 2010, EPBD
recast requested member states to ensure that their minimum energy performance requirements
for buildings must be complied with a view to achieve cost-optimal levels. Main purpose of this
type of study is to make a proper link between financial targets and building energy performance.
This economical assessment shall be done in accordance with a comparative methodology described by EU No 244/2012.
The most common method to assess cost efficiency of energy performance requirements of
buildings is Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis. In this regard, European standard EN 15459:2008 presents the detailed method of buildings global cost calculation which considers all types of cost
during building life time including investment costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, operational costs, replacement costs, and added costs. All the future costs are calculated in their value at
the starting year by means of the method Net present value (NPV) which is a tool for financial
assessments of long term projects.

Literature review
There is a great number of researches which has performed LCC analysis of an entire building(Badea et al. 2014:542555)(Corrado, Ballarini, & Paduos 2014:443452)(Fabbri, Tronchin, &
Tarabusi 2010:30643071)(Ferrara, Fabrizio, Virgone, & Filippi 2014:442457)(Gani & Ylmaz 2014:94
107)(Han, Srebric, & Enache-Pommer 2014:223231)(Kapsalaki, Leal, & Santamouris 2012:765778)
or specific building elements e.g. energy supply systems(Aste, Adhikari, & Manfren 2013:615624)
(Georges, Massart, Van Moeseke, & De Herde 2012:452464)(Leckner & Zmeureanu 2011:232241)
in various building types, commercial buildings (Kneifel 2010:333340) and office buildings (Pikas, Thalfeldt, & Kurnitski 2014:3042) in different contexts in order to determine the cost optimal
solutions. In Italy, Corrado (Corrado et al. 2014:443452) studied a typical apartment block taken
from National Building Typology as a reference building and applied a sequential technique in
which energy efficiency measures (EEMs) for the building envelope as well as technical systems
and renewable technologies were applied. Results showed that the optimal level gets an annual
primary energy use for heating, cooling and domestic hot water of 115 kWh/m2yr corresponding
to an actualized global cost of 676 /m2.
Some studies demonstrated that within different assumptions, different cost optimal levels are
obtained. In a study in Turkey (Gani & Ylmaz 2014:94107) EU methodology framework for cost
optimal calculations were adapted in the national level according to Turkish factors and implemented on an exemplary office building under two different climatic zones and regarding different time periods in order to find the lowest LCC under a limited number of retrofit packages. By
considering various time scales, this study found out that lowest global costs varies in short-term
(e.g. 5 and 10 years) or long-term (e.g. 20 and 30 years) periods. Results also showed that cost optimum point in temperate dry or hot-humid climates doesnt belong to the same retrofit scenario
as a consequence of higher cooling energy needs in the latter one.
The global cost calculation procedure recommended by EN 15459 which was utilized in aforementioned studies is modeled based on a deterministic system that does not consider any randomness for involved parameters. According to Sterner (Sterner 2000), whole life costs of a building
cannot be supposed definite and this uncertainty is mainly due to insufficient economic data and
the limited ability to foresee future consequences. Therefore, a LCC analysis is expected to involve
the uncertainty embodied in the assumptions concerning future costs, cost development, future

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ZEMCH 2015 | International Conference | Bari - Lecce, Italy

inflation rates and the anticipated life of the component or facility. For these reasons, some researchers tried to use economic risk assessment, using either probabilistic or sensitivity approach,
to evaluate some of these uncertainties (Cole & Sterner 2000:368375). In this way its possible to
lessen the uncertainties in the result by performing sensitivity analysis over the parameters which
are of the greatest importance to the result (Sterner 2000:387393).
A considerable number of studies have performed sensitivity analysis regarding their LCC calculations. According to (Boermans, Hermelink, & Schimschar 2011) a sensitivity analysis was carried
out on three different energy price development scenariosi.e. high (+30%), medium (base case),
low (-30%) - with two individual measure packages over a case study to assess the sensitivity of
results. Their comparison illustrated that energy price evolution can change the optimum cost
level; in the low energy price scenario the lowest global cost goes for the package with higher
energy needs while for high price scenario ,with 25% growth in global cost, the package with
lower energy needs comes out as the lowest one. Also impact of different interest rates on results
was examined when applying lower (2%) or higher (6%) rates, compared to a base case of 4%. It
was shown that with a lower interest rate, investigation on energy efficiency measures is more
beneficial. Similar results were observed in a study in Denmark (Marszal & Heiselberg, 2011) which
implemented for a multi-storey residential netZEB.
In the context of Estonia (Jarek Kurnitski et al. 2011), a cost optimal and nZEB energy performance
level calculation was conducted on a detached house. LCC analysis was carried out for four construction concepts as well as all relevant heating systems. By comparison of global incremental
energy performance related costs, the lowest PV (present value) of cost was found. Although
primary calculations were done by energy escalation rate (e) of 2%, it was observed that results
are sensitive to interest rates and with a higher rate (e=3%) the cost optimal is shifted to the left
toward lower primary energy needs however cost optimal solution remained the same case. In
the other side with a lower value (e=1%) cost optimal shifted to right and cases with lower PV and
higher energy needs became cost optimal. Similar results were also observed in (J Kurnitski et al.
2013:183) where a sensitivity analysis on the value of real interest rate was performed in the cost
optimal calculations of a representative Estonian apartment building and by lowering the interest
rate, cost optimal level was shifted to lower primary energy needs.
Additionally, It was argued in (Pikas et al. 2014:3042) that although nZEB requirements (100
kWh/m2yr in Estonian context) are not the cost optimal solutions at this moment, by performing
some sensitivity analysis it has been found out that they may become cost optimal in near future
under particular values of energy escalation rate and probable construction costs reduction of
some specific element. In Finland (Hamdy, Hasan, & Siren 2013:189203), the sensitivity analysis
regarding energy price escalation rate (e) for a cost optimal level of a single family house -within
the range from 2 to15%- showed that investing on energy saving measures and renewable energy
sources is more feasible at higher energy price escalation rates.
Some authors in Australia (Morrissey & Horne 2011:915924) applied more than one discount rate
for samples consisting of 80 house plans. They used a 3.5% discount rate for 030 year period,
and 3% for 3070 years. Moreover, this study investigated two different cost scenarios for gas and
electricity with low and high prices and it was observed that the differences between energy
costs at high and low scenarios were marginal at the 10 years-time horizon but after 25 years, an
approximate 25% difference in values appeared in energy savings between high and low energy
price scenarios.

Research Aim
By taking advantage of the experiences of previous researches on uncertainty analysis in LCC calculations, this paper aims to utilize EU suggested methodology on a reference building in Italian

Uncertainty effects of input data on cost optimal NZEB performance analysis

77

context in order to find out how the cost optimal energy performance outcomes are vulnerable
to uncertainties of several economical input data as influential parameters of building lifetime
cost calculation. Its focus is to monitor the variations in achieved results to illustrate their sensitivity to uncertain economic parameters.
Firstly, an Italian representative apartment building model was simulated with twenty two different wall envelope technologies and then by means of global cost calculation, the cost-optimal
solution was found out. In particular, crucial economic parameters which have the highest influence on the global cost calculations are investigated in order to look at the effects of their variation in a specific range on global energy performance related cost results.

Methods
The entire procedure of this study relies on four main steps; defining envelope technologies for
the reference building (RB), simulating and obtaining the energy needs, performing cost optimal
calculation to find out life cycle present value of cost and as the final phase, analyzing deviation
of cost optimal solutions versus uncertainties in financial parameters.

Reference building
European Directive EU No 244/2012 requires investigation of cost optimal nZEB energy performance level to be performed on different building categories; single-family houses, apartment
blocks and multifamily buildings, office buildings and other non-residential buildings. The chosen RB is a sample of social housing built by ACER (housing service of region Reggio Emilia) in
2005 with energy consumption of slightly more than 70 kWh/m2yr. This RB properly represents a
typical Italian condominium with constructive characteristics of Mediterranean area such as walls
and attic made of brick. Summary of main geometrical and constructive properties of the building is presented in Table 1 and Table 2 respectively. Brick structure applied in the RB guarantees its
compatibility with typical Italian traditions in construction methods.

Figure 1: Isometric view of analyzed building

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ZEMCH 2015 | International Conference | Bari - Lecce, Italy

Table 1 : General data of building

Unit

Value

Gross heated volume

m3

3962

Outer surface encircling the heated space

m2

1923

S/V

m-1

0.485

Usable surface

m2

948

Number of heated floors

--

Net internal height

2.7

Number of units

--

12

Table 2 : Constructive data of building


Thermal transmittance
[W/m2K]

Construction element

Description

Opaque vertical envelope

22 different stratification, as described in table 3

Transparent vertical elements

Windows with solar transmittance of 0.67 without


shielding, except for those shielded by projection of
the building

Upper horizontal enclosure

Attic in brick and cement

0.297

Lower horizontal enclosure

Attic in brick and cement

0.21

Roof covering

Pitched roof with roof tiles

0.623

Internal partitions

11 cm Brick dividers

Vertical divisions between heated


areas

Multi-Layer brick wall with inserted thermal


insulation

0.393

Horizontal divisions in heated areas

Attic in brick and cement

0.576

1.4

Building envelope technologies as design variables


Twenty two different alternatives are considered for opaque envelope of the exterior wall. They
are picked based on their spread in the Italian building sector. This selection includes single-layer,
multilayer, with or without insulation panels as seen in Table 3, with thermal transmittances ranging from 0.134 W/m2K to 0.267 W/m2K calculated according to EN ISO 6946:2008.
Moreover, their periodic thermal transmittances (Yie) are calculated according to EN ISO 13786
and are all within the required range of national standard described in DPR 59/2009. Only the alternative No. 22 is a monolayer wall in brick with the transmittance as the limit value requested in
the standards for climatic zone E. Heating system for spaces and domestic water is assumed as the
gas boiler and no mechanical cooling and ventilation are considered according to the common
practice in traditional construction systems in Italy.
Energy simulations were conducted for all 22 alternatives and primary energy needs of the RB
for space heating and domestic hot water are obtained by means of the professional simulation
software, Termo which is compatible with national standard for determination of energy performance (UNI TS 11300) and models the entire building in semi-stationary state with climatic data of
city of Bologna to obtain the total primary energy needs.

Uncertainty effects of input data on cost optimal NZEB performance analysis

79

Life cycle cost analysis


The financial calculation was carried out according to the Global Cost method described in the
European Standard EN 15459 and was provided for economic issues of building systems involved
in the energy demands. This standard permits that only components and systems which influence
the energy performance of the building are considered and others could be assumed constants
and not be applied in the calculations. Global cost is sum of the present value of the initial investment costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, operational costs and replacement costs (referring
to the starting year), as well as disposal costs and its equation can be written as
(1)

Where:
: calculation period
Cg (): global cost referred to the starting year 0
CI: initial investment cost
Ca,i(j): annual cost for component j at the year i
Rd (i): discount factor for the year i
Vf,(j): final value of component j at the end of calculation period
Calculation period was considered 30 years, as recommended for residential buildings in EN 15459.
Annex A of the same standard represents life span of construction elements which is determining in calculation of their replacement cost and residual value as well as their maintenance costs
which is a percentage of initial cost.

Financial input parameters


Energy carriers of the building is considered to be gas and electricity as it is common among
Italian residential buildings and their costs are obtained through the energy tariffs provided by
AEEG (Authority of electricity and gas) and are updated every three months. According to AEEG
databank updated on December 2014, electricity and gas prices are considered to be 0.2716 /
Kwh +VAT (10%) + excise costs and 0.4759 /m3 + VAT (22%), respectively. It must be noted that in
this study illumination related costs as well as energy consumption of household devices are not
considered.

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ZEMCH 2015 | International Conference | Bari - Lecce, Italy

Table 3 : Main thermal characteristics of analyzed wall envelope technologies


Wall
code

Wall Description

Thickness
(cm)

U-value
(W/m2K)

Yie
(W/m2K)

Clay block, monolayer, non-insulated

43

0.236

0.004

Clay block, monolayer, non-insulated

53

0.203

0.001

Load bearing, monolayer, highly insulated


for seismic zones

46.5

0.229

0.001

Clay block, monolayer, non-insulated

53

0.225

0.002

Load bearing, interlocking clay block,


monolayer, non-insulated, with external
mortar finishing

45

0.277

0.003

Clay block, externally insulated

45

0.205

0.004

Load bearing, reinforced blocks, externally


insulated

43

0.235

0.012

Load bearing, monolayer

45.5

0.289

0.003

Load bearing, reinforced blocks, multi-layer

46

0.236

0.011

10

multi-layer, facing brick

45.3

0.208

0.022

11

multi-layer, facing brick

45.3

0.225

0.022

12

multi-layer, facing brick

47.3

0.218

0.012

13

Interlocking blocks, monolayer

48

0.175

0.001

14

Interlocking blocks, monolayer

48

0.244

0.003

15

monolayer, developed insulation


integrated blocks and slats as finishing

43

0.201

0.002

16

monolayer, EPS inserted blocks

43

0.214

0.005

17

Load bearing, monolayer, high


performance integrated insulation

43

0.243

0.003

18

monolayer, insulating plaster

46.5

0.233

0.003

19

multi-layer, perforated brick, facing brick

46.5

0.217

0.010

20

Load bearing, multi-layer, facing brick

50

0.213

0.009

21

highly insulated light-weight dry wall

47.3

0.134

0.024

22

insulated wall with U-value required for


zone E according to Leg 311/2006

38

0.32

0.016

Historical data from ISTAT (Italian national institute of statistics) and ECB (European Central Bank)
are utilized as data resources of interest rate and inflation rate. Rate of development of energy
price is another important parameter which affects total global cost by altering energy cost and
differs from inflation rate; data sources for its estimation were taken from AEEG as well as Italian
stock market and European commission reports. Moreover product market might vary from region to region inside the country and cause differences in final investment cost rather than the
assumed costs. To consider this into calculations, investment costs are taken as uncertain values
and accordingly wall envelope related prices in various geographical locations of Italy were studied to be compared and estimate the variation of products price.
According to Burhenne(Burhenne, Tsvetkova, Jacob, Henze, & Wagner 2013:143154), input uncertainty and future trend of economic data are determined by measurements, estimates, and
judgements. In this study, ARIMA models were utilized to analyze historical data to predict averages for future values based on time series data; Predictions obtained by the models are also
subject to uncertainties, therefore a plausible variation range of values are provided by means of

Uncertainty effects of input data on cost optimal NZEB performance analysis

81

given confidence interval of 90%. Rate values and variation interval of parameters considered in
calculations are represented in Table 4.

Figure 2: Example of estimation for gas price by ARIMA models

Uncertainty/ Sensitivity analysis


Statistical method of Monte Carlo is used to generate probabilistic output. In this method, for
the desired parameters, values from their probability distribution are randomly selected and a
simulation is undertaken. Simulations are repeated in a large number of evaluations with new
values randomly selected (I. Macdonald & Strachan 2001). Sample size of simulation in this study
was taken 100 as recommended by Macdonald (I. A. Macdonald 2009:992999) for building simulation. In this study, by generating an Excel calculation sheet which operate automatically by
utilization of Visual Basic Application (VBA) codes, all inserted input are applied in calculation of
corresponding global cost and VBA macro enables repetition of calculations for 100 times while
varying input parameters within their given variation range. Distribution of all simulated results
is studied and their uncertainty range is quantified. In the second step sensitivity analysis is performed and through a regression analysis, coefficient of determination (R2) is considered as the
indicator for variance of obtained values. In this way importance of individual input parameters
are compared to determine the most and least influential parameters.

Result
By inserting primary energy needs of 22 cases in the calculation sheet which is created according
to EN 15459, PVs are achieved. Figure.2 indicates primary energy consumption and global cost of
22 studied alternatives. As seen in the scatter plot, wall No.22 with U-value compatible with Lgs.
311/2006, represents the highest energy needs and lowest global cost while wall No.21 with the
minimum transmittance among alternatives (U-value=0.134 w/m2K) does not lead to a reasonable
global cost. Among all simulated cases, wall No.4 and No.5, as highlighted in the graph, are the
most cost-efficient with primary energy consumption of 37.5 and 40 kwh/m2yr, respectively.

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Table 4: Rate values and variation interval of input parameters


Base case Value

Range
of Variation

Market interest rate (R)

4.25%

15 %

Inflation rate(Ri)

1.90%

5%

Rate of development of energy cost (Re)

1.95%

25 %

Rate of development of price for envelope and technical system (Rp)

10 %

Rate of development of price for maintenance

5%

Rate of development of price for added cost

5%

Variable Parameter

Figure 3: Global energy performance related cost for various wall envelope technologies
Toquantify uncertainty, i.e. uncertainty analysis (UA), amount of outcome values, first standard
deviation (SD) was utilized. SD is a proper measure to describe data dispersion around the mean
and has the same unit of data. In figure.4, mean value for global cost obtained from 100 times of
Monte Carlo simulations is shown. Moreover, SD of all output data of 22 cases respect to their
mean value is presented which varies within 30 to 36 /m2 and its magnitude is about 5% of the
mean.
However SD is a practical statistical indicator for data distribution, it doesnt consider the importance of variation respect to the actual value and in this study acts mostly as an indicator for
comparison of wall alternatives. Hence, for a more overall perception of results, a probabilistic
approach was considered. In figure.5, box whisker plot graph visualize a proper overview of un-

Uncertainty effects of input data on cost optimal NZEB performance analysis

83

certainty distribution in obtained outcome. The identical range of output as well as equal length
of interquartile for all cases indicate that differences in wall technology, which ends in various
global costs, doesnt influence tendency of output uncertainty. Distribution of data in all cases fits
normal distribution due to median and mean value located at the same level and no skewness is
observed in none of them. Therefore, assuming that output distribution is a normal one, it could
be concluded that 68% of data ( SD) is located within 5% on either side of the mean and in the
same way, 95% of data ( 2SD) within 10.
Additionally, apart from total uncertainty quantification, it is an added value to distinguish individual input importance in output uncertainty and figure out which input parameters are more
dominant than others in varying outcome. Hence in the second step, a sensitivity analysis (SA)
was performed to study how output variation could be attributed to variation in individual input
parameters. For this purpose the regression analysis was utilized since it shows more quantitative
measures of sensitivity.
In figure.6, regression model of different scenarios are shown. In this method one or more input
parameters are considered variable within their predicted variation range while others are kept
identical to their baseline values in all iterations. Coefficient of determination (R2) was considered
to study variance of obtained values via simulations that is explained by variation in expected
value, i.e. base case value. The lowR2value suggests that data is spread widely around the regression line while a large R2 indicate a strong relationship between obtained values and fitted model.

Figure 4: illustration of mean value and Standard deviation of 100 iterations in Monte Carlo simulations

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Figure 5: Box plot of obtained results by 100 iteration of Monte Carlo simulation for 22 wall envelope
alternatives

Figure 6-a: Regression model of variation in individual input parameters

Uncertainty effects of input data on cost optimal NZEB performance analysis

85

Figure 6-b: Regression model of variation in input parameter combination scenarios


In this study, the more variation around regression line points out higher influence of the specific
parameter in output uncertainty. Input ranking is determined by considering this equation:
Dominance factor (%)=1-R2

(2)

As seen in figure.7, uncertainty in Rp, either solely in the left side or included in combination set
of input parameters in the right side represents the highest output uncertainty effect; while other
parameters have rather equal position in the graph. This result denotes that among investigated
input parameters, geographical based disparity in product prices might cause the greatest uncertainty in global cost calculation outcome.

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Figure 7: Dominance ranking of input parameters in output uncertainty; (a) left: individual parameters,
(b) right: combination set of parameters.

Conclusion
This study investigated stochastic nature of some input parameters involved in cost optimal nZEB
calculations and their effects on output uncertainty. By conducting an uncertainty analysis, obtained results of Monte Carlo simulations represented a normal distribution and revealed the
probability that potential output be located within 5% of base case value (deterministic calculation) is 68% while it is 95% for 10% around it.
In sensitivity analysis, through the regression analysis carried out, it was observed that Rp (product price development rate) has the highest dominance in affecting output uncertainty and created the largest variance; while other studied parameters were at the same level of importance.
Therefore, forhigher level of accuracy in results,more precise input assumptions are required. For
this purpose, it is desired that EU suggested methodologies in their following revisions consider
stochastic nature of input parameters in determination of cost-optimal nZEB level and include
them as a phase in calculation process. This could be achieved through a parametric procedure
which in preliminary steps marginal error of each uncertain input parameter is determined and all
values within expected range are taken into account in the calculation. In this way, it is more likely
that obtained cost-optimal level would be closer to reality. In-depth investigation of this step of
study could be subject of future works.

References
ASTE, N., ADHIKARI, R. S., & MANFREN, M., 2013, Cost optimal analysis of heat pump technology adoption in residential
reference buildings. Renewable Energy, 60, pp. 615624.
BADEA, A., BARACU, T., DINCA, C., TUTICA, D., GRIGORE, R., & ANASTASIU, M. ,2014, A life-cycle cost analysis of the passive house POLITEHNICA from Bucharest. Energy and Buildings, 80, pp. 542555.
BOERMANS, T., HERMELINK, A., & SCHIMSCHAR, S., 2011, Cost optimal building performance requirements, European
council for an energy efficient economy.
BURHENNE, S., TSVETKOVA, O., JACOB, D., HENZE, G. P., & WAGNER, A., 2013, Uncertainty quantification for combined
building performance and cost-benefit analyses. Building and Environment, 62, pp. 143154.
COLE, R. J., & STERNER, E., 2000, reconciling theory and practice of life-cycle costing. Building Research & Information,
28(5/6), pp. 368375.
CORRADO, V., BALLARINI, I., & PADUOS, S., 2014, Assessment of Cost-optimal Energy Performance Requirements for the

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Italian Residential Building Stock. Energy Procedia, 45, pp. 443452.


FABBRI, K., TRONCHIN, L., & TARABUSI, V., 2010, the cost-optimal levels of energy performance requirements: rules
and case study applications, pp. 30643071.
FERRARA, M., FABRIZIO, E., VIRGONE, J., & FILIPPI, M., 2014, A simulation-based optimization method for cost-optimal
analysis of nearly Zero Energy Buildings. Energy and Buildings, 84, pp. 442457.
GANI, N., & YILMAZ, A. Z., 2014, Adaptation of the cost optimal level calculation method of Directive 2010/31/EU considering the influence of Turkish national factors. Applied Energy, 123, pp. 94107.
GEORGES,L., MASSART, C.,VAN MOESEKE, G., & DE HERDE, A., 2012, Environmental and economic performance of
heating systems for energy-efficient dwellings: Case of passive and low-energy single-family houses. Energy Policy,
40, pp. 452464.
HAMDY, M., HASAN, A., & SIREN, K., 2013, A multi-stage optimization method for cost-optimal and nearly-zero-energy
building solutions in line with the EPBD-recast 2010. Energy and Buildings, 56, pp. 189203.
HAN, G., SREBRIC, J., & ENACHE-POMMER, E., 2014, Variability of optimal solutions for building components based on
comprehensive life cycle cost analysis. Energy and Buildings, 79, pp. 223231.
KAPSALAKI, M., LEAL, V., & SANTAMOURIS, M., 2012, A methodology for economic efficient design of Net Zero Energy
Buildings. Energy and Buildings, 55, pp. 765778.
KNEIFEL, J., 2010, Life-cycle carbon and cost analysis of energy efficiency measures in new commercial buildings, 42,
pp. 333340.
KURNITSKI, J., SAARI, A, KALAMEES, T., VUOLLE, M., NIEMEL, J., & TARK, T., 2013, Cost optimal and nearly zero energy
performance requirements for buildings in Estonia. Estonian Journal of Engineering, 19(3), 183.
KURNITSKI, J., SAARI, A., KALAMEES, T., VUOLLE, M., NIEMEL, J., & TARK, T., 2011, Cost optimal and nearly zero (nZEB)
energy performance calculations for residential buildings with REHVA definition for nZEB national implementation. Energy and Buildings, 43(11), pp. 32793288.
LECKNER, M., & ZMEUREANU, R., 2011, Life cycle cost and energy analysis of a Net Zero Energy House with solar combisystem. Applied Energy, 88(1), pp. 232241.
MACDONALD, I. A., 2009, Comparison of sampling techniques on the performance of Monte-Carlo based sensitivity
analysis. In Building Simulation pp. 992999 Glasgow.
MACDONALD, I., & STRACHAN, P., 2001, Practical application of uncertainty analysis, 33, pp. 08.
MARSZAL, A. J., & HEISELBERG, P., 2011, Life cycle cost analysis of a multi-storey residential Net Zero Energy Building in
Denmark. Energy, 36(9), pp. 56005609.
MORRISSEY, J., & HORNE, R. E., 2011, Life cycle cost implications of energy efficiency measures in new residential buildings. Energy & Buildings, 43(4), pp. 915924.
PIKAS, E., THALFELDT, M., & KURNITSKI, J., 2014, Cost optimal and nearly zero energy building solutions for office buildings. Energy and Buildings, 74, pp. 3042.
STERNER, E., 2000, Life-cycle costing and its use in the swedish building sector. Building Research & Information,
28(5/6), pp. 387393.

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International Conference | Bari - Lecce, Italy

Session I - II

HOUSEHOLD LIFESTYLE AND ITS IMPACTS ON


ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN BEIJING
Nianxiong Liu1, Dan Mo2, Bing Chen3, Muzhou Wang4
1 School of Architecture, Tsinghua University, China, phlnx@tsinghua.edu.cn
2 School of Architecture, Tsinghua University, China, mdan@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn
3 School of Architecture, Xian Jiaotong-Liverpool University, China, Bing.Chen@xjtlu.edu.cn
4 School of Architecture, Tsinghua University, China, 906466@sina.com

Abstract
Compared to the centralized thermal environment controlling system which has been widely
used in the north of China, natural gas heating household deserved more attention. The application of a decentralized household gas heating boilers with more customized functions can
be operated according to the user demands and lead to better energy efficiency based on the
principle of lifecycle analysis. This paper aims to provide an insight survey into household of
lifestyle, thermal comfort and gas consumption in Beijing, China, and explore the impact of their
habits and behaviour the way of using gas-consuming heating boilers (e.g. duration, intensity
and frequency of use) to ensure indoor thermal comfort on energy consumption. To achieve
this objective, a pilot study was conducted. Twelve households have been randomly selected as
sample and relevant data has been collected using multi-strategy research approach from a long
term perspective from 2012 to 2013. Household hourly room temperature monitoring data points
and annual temperature profiles are used in not only recognizing the usage patterns of heating
equipment controlling, but also in the evaluation of household thermal comfort. Additionally
household heating energy consumption data were collected by gas meter recording. From a
socio-technical perspective, it is found that different households often have different patterns
on controlling appliance, as a result, the household thermal comfort zone hours and gas consumptions were varied greatly during monitoring periods. This comparative analysis have shown
that higher gas consumption did not necessarily yields higher comfort hour percentage proportionally. It suggested that there were potentials in energy saving by lifestyle and behaviour.It is
expected that some findings from this research would serve as an evidence database to inform
occupants about a more energy efficient way of managing energy-consuming appliance and
thereby guide the building design and controlling system operation in the future.

Keywords
Lifestyle, Energy Consumption, Thermal Environment, Controlling System.

89

Introduction
Household energy consumption is a socio-technical phenomenon, arising from interactions between people and technology (Lutzenhiser 1993).In the case of households thermal environment,
the energy saving potential decreased under the update of residential building codes and progress of technology in China. The impact of occupant behaviour, however, has become increasingly significant. Occupant behaviour rather than households physical characteristics deserves more
attention in energy efficiency. There might be great difference in energy consumption or carbon
emission of the same household depending on users sustainable view and lifestyle. The promotion of occupants knowledge, motivation and value was the key factor in reduction of building
carbon emission (Chen et al. 2010).
In Germany the main factors inuencing choice when purchasing a specic heating system have
been identied and economic aspects are very important (Decker et al. 2015). In China, there was
a comprehensive survey of 1450 households in 2012 to identify the characteristics and potential
driving forces of residential energy consumption. The results show that commercial energy is
used mainly for space heating in urban areas and space heating and cooling patterns show a vast
disparity in different climate zones.40 percent of surveyed households use central heating systems. Individual heating meters are not widely used, so 92 percent of centrally heated households
pay in accordance with the heated area or the dwellings room area (Zheng et al. 2014).This means
that household owner will not benefit economically from energy efficiency behaviour. This policy
will not play an active role in encouraging the change of household lifestyle in energy saving.
About 75 percent of the energy consumed in the residential sector in the Netherlands is used for
home heating. Investigation of household behaviour and its impact on the use of natural gas for
home heating was carried out. Household behaviour and home characteristics prove to be the
major determinants of energy use for house heating. The greatest savings can be attained by
reducing the amount of energy (mainly natural gas in the Netherlands) used for home heating.
Large differences are observed between households in the use of natural gas. These differences are related to the behaviour activities and lifestyle of the household members. Most energy
use however is related to the usage of appliances and energy savings require changes of behaviours and daily routines e.g. lowering the thermostat at night, closing curtains, using fewer rooms
and using ventilation systems sparingly (Verhallen et al.1981).In the examined the relationship
between homeowners attitudes and their winter gas consumption, the results confirmed that
thermal comfort was the most important determinant of household energy use. Residents need
or desire for comfort can have a substantial impact on consumption because space heating comprise the biggest components of residential energy consumption. It must be remembered that
energy consumption is not behaviour; it is a consequence of behaviour primarily thermostat setting in the case of residential energy use (Becker et al. 1981).
Winter heating energy consumption is a large part of the households total energy consumption
in cold zones of China. Compared to the centralized heating system which has been widely used
in the north of China, the application of a decentralized household gas heating boilers with more
customized functions can be operated according to the demands of occupant and lead to better energy efficiency. Previous research has shown that, household heating gas consumption is
7~9m3/ (100m2d) in Dalian, Shenyang and Harbin, cities of severe cold climate zone (Qian et al.
2005), and 7.21Nm3/ (m2a) in Beijing, city of cold zone (Hua 2003). This provide the general description of household gas consumption, however there are no detail study currently on household

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heating energy efficiency and it relationship with indoor thermal environment as well as occupant behaviour.
The object of this paper is to provide an insight survey into household of lifestyle in Beijing, China,
and explore the impact of their habits the way of using gas heating boilers (e.g. duration, intensity and frequency of use) to ensure indoor thermal comfort on energy consumption. It is found
that different households often have different patterns on controlling appliance. It is expected
that some findings from this research would serve as an evidence database to inform building
occupants about a more energy efficient way of managing energy-consuming appliance, and
provide ideas and recommendations to achieve energy efficiency in households.

Research approach
To achieve this objective, a pilot study is conducted 12 households have been randomly selected
as sample in a community, and relevant data has been collected using multi-strategy research approach from winter heating months, December, 2012 to April, 2013. There is an interrelated analysis, from a socio-technical perspective, of households thermal environment, occupant behaviour
and energy consumption in winter gas boiler heating based on post occupancy monitoring.
This study attempt to recognize and understand the impact of occupant behaviour on energy
consumption. It contains five main processes: sampling selection and participator recruitment,
data collection, data analysis, case study and interrelationship study of occupant behaviour and
energy consumption.

Data collection
This survey was carried out in Beijing. Researchers recruiting 12 participants from a typical 6~12
stories residential community built in 2002. The distribution of sample households is shown in
Fig.1.House type A (139m2, 3 bedrooms ), B (120m2, 2 bedrooms) , C (80m2, 1 bedrooms) and D
(150m2, 3 bedrooms) from building No.10, 11, 14, 23 and 30. Distribution of some of the households
surveyed is shown in Fig.1.

Figure 1: Distribution of some of the households surveyed

Household lifestyle and its impacts on energy consumption in Beijing

91

The data was surveyed and collected in three methods: post occupancy monitoring, questionnaire and gas meter records. The general situations and lifestyle patterns, including the heating demand and appliance controlling, were captured through in-depth questionnaire and walk
around survey. Temperature (T) and/or Relative Humidity (RH) of household living room or bedrooms were automatic recorded hourly from December, 2012 to April, 2013. Quarterly household
gas meter records were collected. They outlined the general situation and specific character of
each household.
In each household, 3 loggers were installed in living room and bedrooms (south facing and north
facing), attached to positions 1m above the floor in each room, with no direct exposure to sunlight. The outdoor temperature were also recorded for comparison purpose.
To get lifestyle patterns in detail of the residents, questionnaires were developed to collect information regarding household, equipment and operation in the following areas, questions about
family: members, vocation, education, employment and income etc.; questions about house location, area, orientation, etc. ; questions about lifestyle patterns: age, activity, clothing, time staying at home, etc. ; questions about heating boiler demands: time, room, temperature, etc.; lists
of gas-consuming equipment and other issues concerning the environmental awareness, waste
classification, energy saving building refurbishment, energy efficiency electricity appliance. Information concerning the households characteristics and specifics was shown in Table 1.

Members at home
(day/night)

Ages

Members Hours
staying at home (h)

Activity

A(3)

4/6

139

3/5

DEEA

14

BD

B(2)

2/6

120

10

A(3)

2/6

139

2/5

EEFB

16

11

A(3)

1/6

139

4/4

Clothing (Winter)

Area (m2)

10
10

Floor/total floors

House type
(bed-rooms)

1
2

No.

Building
No

Table1:Informationfromquestionnairesofsamplehousehold

11

B(2)

2/6

120

2/2

EF

11

B(2)

2/6

120

0/3

DDB

ABC

11

C(1)

1/6

80

1/2

ED

24

11

B(2)

4/6

120

0/0

DDB

11

A(3)

4/6

139

0/0

DDB

10

14

A(3)

4/6

139

1/4

DFB

12

11

23

A(3)

4/7

139

0/2

EE

12

12

30

D(3)

2/12

150

3/6

DDEEA

13

Ages: A. <6y; B. 6-18y; C.18-30y; D. 30-50y; E.50-65y; F. >65y;


Activity: A. physical exercise; B. reading and TV; C. cleaning; D. working;
Clothing ;A. Short Sleeves; B. Shirts; C. Sweaters; D. Jacket; E. others;
For each household, heating boiler controlling patterns, for example temperature setting, zonal
control, usage duration, starting mode, operational adjustment, were also be recognized from
superposition of the temperature profiles of living room, bedrooms and outdoor, combined with
information obtained through the questionnaire. The occupant behaviour and controlling pat-

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terns were described and classified based on duration, intensity and frequency of use, and gas
consumption.

Data processing
Data points contained in each logger (temperature values), labeled with date and time, were
downloaded and exported to MS-excel and plotted on temperature line profiles.
According to the monitoring, during winter heating period, December, 2012 to April, 2013, the
outdoor temperature ranged from -9.1~33.6C,while indoor room temperatures for the sample
occupant and household ranged from 7.3~31.5C.The maximum, minimum, mean values of room
temperatures varied from house to house and room to room, as were shown in Fig 2. It is clear that
for different house, the operation and adjustment of gas boiler, the settings of heating temperature varies to size of household, family members age, clothing, activity and time staying at home.

Figure 2: Household rooms temperature distribution (December, 2012 to April, 2013)


(1) Percentage of comfort temperature hours (Pcth)
Percentage of comfort temperature hours (Pcth) was introduced in evaluate the thermal comfort
of each household. According to Chinas Design Standard for energy efficiency of residential buildings in severe cold and cold zones(JGJ26-2010), the computational temperature for winter heating
is 18C. Pcth, as a new variable, would be the percentage of comfort temperature hours (T18C)
of total monitored hours. It described and evaluated the thermal environment of rooms or households. Pcth of sample households were shown in Fig.3.
(2) Heating boiler gas consumption estimate value (ENG)
Gas consumption cannot be record separately from household meters due to equipment limitation, however, quarterly gas meter records of the first, second and third quarter of 2013 were available. Monthly gas consumption value per square meter (ENG) was introduced in the estimate of
the heating boiler gas consumption. The monthly amplitude was supposed to be the proportion
for heating. ENG in this study was the difference value of gas consumption of heating months
(January to March) and non-heating months (April to September).
Households quarter gas meter readings and ENG of 2013 was shown in Fig.3. Monthly ENG of sam-

Household lifestyle and its impacts on energy consumption in Beijing

93

ple household during the monitoring months ranged from 0.8 (No.11) to 5.1 (No.7) m3 / (m2month),
whereas the mean value was 2 m3/(m2month). It was also notable that, Pcth of No1,4,5,6,10,11,12
was quite similar in value, ranged from 97.6% (No.5 ) to 100% (No.1,4,6 and 11), however, their ENG
varied far apart from 0.8 (No.11) to 3.1 (No.5) m3/(m2month). ENG of No.5, 3.1 m3 / (m2month), was
nearly two times as much as that of No.4 ,1.4 m3 / (m2month), whereas Pcth of No.5 (97.6%) was
even slightly lower than that of No.4 (100%).Additionally, Household No.7 marked the highest
ENG,5.1 m3 / (m2month) and meanwhile the lowest Pcth (78.5%) among households. This comparative analysis had made it clear that higher household gas consumption did not necessarily yields
higher comfort hour percentage proportionally. It suggested that there were potentials in energy
saving by gas boiler controlling patterns.

Figure 3: Households quarter gas consumption (2013), ENG and Pcth

Case study
Heating boiler controlling patterns were not only reflected on indoor thermal environment, but
also on actual gas meter reading results. As shown in Fig 3, there was no linear relationship between the ENG and Pcth. More gas consumption did not mean more comfort temperature zone
hours for those households surveyed.
When analyzing energy efficiency, several factors such as controlling patterns, gas consumption
and thermal comfort were interrelated. In the following case study, as shown in Tab.2, analysis of
those factors and temperature profiles of some of the households, No.5, 6 and 11, helped to figure
out the relationship between operation patterns (e.g. duration, intensity and frequency of use,
temperature settings, zonal controlled) and gas consumption.
Household heating controlling patterns were monitored and recorded in the room temperature
profiles, depended on not only weather condition but also user demands and interactions between occupant and equipment. They were also impacted by the house characteristics, such as
the size, family members age, clothing, activity, presence and absence. In the superposition of

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ZEMCH 2015 | International Conference | Bari - Lecce, Italy

room temperature profiles, the time and spatial variations of thermostat settings, such as turned
on and off, operated continuously or periodically, adjustment and controlling of equipment
settings could then be described and further recognized combining with questionnaire, Usage
patterns across the monitoring period, for example, time (daytime, nighttime), duration (always
on, on continuously), frequency, and temperature settings (high, low in value, time variation),
adjustment (active /inactive), zonal control (room variation) were identified and then categorized
by profile characteristics. For example, as shown in Tab.2, in sample household No.11, family members were absence at daytime and heating equipment was running periodically. Room temperatures were adjustable according to the user demand from 19~23C. Household room temperatures varied independently during monitoring period. Although the heating energy consumption
(ENG) of No.11 was relatively low in value, 0.8 m3/ (m2month), it actually had a rather high value
of indoor thermal comfort temperature hours percentage (Pcth, 100%,mean value 83%).As for
household No.5, on the other hand, the heating system was running continuously and not active
in temperature setting adjustment. It had a much higher value of energy consumption (ENG)
3.1m3/ (m2month) and yet a slightly lower Pcth (93.9%) than that of No.11 (100%).
Table 2: Superposition of room temperature profiles, boiler controlling patterns and gas consumption
No.

Room temperature profiles(Dec.2012~Apr.2013 and


Feb.1~Feb.14 2013)

Controlling patterns,
gas consumption and thermal
comfort
Controlling patterns: Heating
system was running continuously,
and periodically. Room temperatures
were ranged from 17 to 25C.Settings
were not adjusted actively. Not zonal
controlled and room temperatures were
varied independently. Temperature of
living room was always higher than
bedrooms.
ENG: 3.1(mean value 2), m3/(m2month);
Pcth: 93.9% (mean value 83%);

Household lifestyle and its impacts on energy consumption in Beijing

95

Controlling patterns:Nobody was


at home during daytime; Heating
system was running continuously
and periodically. Room temperatures
were ranged from 18~24C, Settings
were not adjusted actively. Not zonal
controlled and room temperatures were
varied independently. Temperature of
bedrooms were always higher than
living room.
ENG: 2.4(mean value 2), m3/(m2month);
Pcth: 97.5% (mean value 83%);

11

Controlling patterns: Nobody


was staying at home at daytime;
Heating system running periodically.
Room temperatures were ranged
from 19~23C. Not zonal controlled.
Settings were adjusted actively. Room
temperatures varied independently.
Temperature of bedroom (N) was
sometimes higher than living room or
bedroom(S).
ENG: 0.8(mean value 2), m3/(m2month);
Pcth: 100.0% (mean value 83%);

It was clear that, differences of household controlling patterns of appliance were always neglected in the widely used centralized heating system, which deserved more attention in energy efficiency perspective. The following results could be derived from case study.
(1) In the application of a decentralized controlling system with more customized functions, from

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a socio-technical perspective, households always had their own winter heating demands and had
different patterns in controlling heating boiler appliance. The household energy consumptions
were different to each other even if all the monitoring households were selected from a community and they have the same physical characteristics such as construction of building envelop or
thermal performance.
(2) Interrelated analysis of appliance controlling patterns, energy consumption (ENG) and indoor
thermal environment (Pcth) had shown that, Households percentage of comfort temperature
zone hours value was not directly relate to its energy consumption. Even for households with the
same percentage of thermal comfort temperature hours, the gas consumptions were different
due to lifestyle and appliance controlling.

Conclusion
Energy savings arising from patterns on controlling heating boiler appliance. The case study above
has demonstrated the impact of their ways of using gas-consuming heating boilers (e.g. duration,
intensity and frequency of use) to ensure indoor thermal comfort on energy consumption. Occupant behaviour regulations can save more energy and lead to better energy efficiency based on the
principle of household lifestyle and occupant behaviour.
The number of sample households is limited in this study, however, further research with big data
analysis approaches to massive databases, and its possible in the future to gain more precise
insight into residential thermal environment condition and energy consumption patterns. It is
possible, with socio-technical analysis, to optimize both house design and occupant appliances
usage.

Acknowledgements
Project 51178238 supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China. Thanks to sample
households and Feng Sijies contribution in data collection. Thanks to Han Mengzhen for the help
in data processing.

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VERHALLEN,T. M. M. and RAAIJ, W. F. V.,1981, Household Behavior and the Use of Natural Gas for Home Heating. Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 8, No. 3 (Dec.), pp. 253257.

Household lifestyle and its impacts on energy consumption in Beijing

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ZHENG,X.,WEI,C.,QIN,P., GUO, J., YU,Y., SONG,F. and CHEN, Z.,2014, Characteristics of residential energy consumption in
China: Findings from a household survey, Energy Policy 75, pp.126135.

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International Conference | Bari - Lecce, Italy

Session I - II

FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF GREEN MOCK-UP


BUILDINGS IN TROPICAL EMERGING COUNTRIES
Karl Wagner1, Gabriele Arese2 & Alberto De Marco3

1 School of Business, University of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, karlwagner@unikl.edu.my


2 Department of Management and Production Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Italy, gabriele.arese@studenti.polito.it
3 Department of Management and Production Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Italy, alberto.demarco@polito.it

Abstract
In recent years, global warming has been identified as the most serious environmental problem facing our planet Earth. Malaysia, like most of the rapidly developing nations, is facing a
significant challenge by spreading carbon and greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere.
According to UNEP SBCI and other independent sources, it is estimated that buildings contribute to as much as at least one third of total global greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, encouraging investments in energy efficient buildings is a chance that governments can grasp in order
to reduce spreading gases into the atmosphere and improving living conditions. This study undertaken for low and zero energy efficient residential buildings for mass customization aims to
present and share the findings of Green Building profitability. It considers the life cycle of green
buildings and how to showcase cost-effective investments of residential sustainable buildings
not only in Malaysia, but also other developing countries around the tropical belt. If successful, the findings can even encourage investors and owners to embark in energy efficient residential houses. The methodology for this study is developed through the analysis of two setup
Mock-Up Green Buildings in Kuala Lumpur/Malaysia. Instead of running simulations, the authors
use them as two case studies equipped with green elements. Demo Houses insulation performances are evaluated through data monitoring, and the Life Cycle Costing Approach is used as
a tool to compare a sustainable demo house with a conventional one in terms of cost/benefits
as well as cash flows analyses. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is conducted in order to study the financing plans and to design and evaluate an appropriate financial structure of debt and equity
sources of funds. The conclusion of this paper demonstrates that investing in sustainable technology-based green buildings definitely produces larger financial value comparing to the conventional ones even with short-term considerations. Furthermore, it suggests and exemplifies a
financial scheme and capital structure owners could use as a guide to pursue such capital projects.

Keywords
green buildings, energy efficiency, cash flow analysis, financial structure

99

1. Introduction
Nowadays, there is widespread evidence that Green is going main stream. The energy efficient
technologies in the built environment are growing rapidly (Kok et al. 2011) and some real estate
developers and governments are considering sustainable buildings already as a real opportunity.
A growing number of online resources and articles show the environmental and social benefits
of green buildings. It is widely recognized that energy efficient buildings lead to natural resource
conservation, air quality improvement, waste reduction and health and productivity improvements. However, the picture is more complex when dealing with financial-economic advantages
of building green since: the actors involved in the green projects include banking institutions. It
implies precise knowledge of buildings financial performance measures, there is a lack of knowledge about the cost the house would have as a conventional bricks-and-concrete building.
This research attempts to analyze the financial benefits of sustainable buildings in developing
countries by gathering the data from two small experimental mock-up buildings located in Malaysia. The two case studies allow the comparison among sustainable and conventional design,
since the first is equipped with green elements, while the second one is a standard conventional
building. Hence, the research aims to study the financial plan and profitability focusing on a specific house design.
With this research, the authors like to answer the questions Is it profitable and financially sustainable investing in the two investigated buildings? How does the financial model change according
to the different project risk profile? Is an investment in green or in conventional buildings more
beneficial?
Summarizing, this study aims to demonstrate in how far integrating sustainable or green building practices into the construction industry can be a solid financial investment. The trial is made
via analysing primarily the profitability and the bankability of those capital projects.

2. Literature Review
This paper will seek to compute the financial value and feasibility of a green building compared
with a conventional one, looking at the buildings entire life cycle from the angle of three methods.
The literature shows that, from a profitability perspective, a) the Net Present Value (NPV) method
is the most common project evaluation technique used for investment decisions. It examines the
cash flow of a project over a given time period and compares it to one equivalent present date
value. In general, a project is undertaken if the NPV is positive and, if two or more projects are
alternatively considered, the project that has greater present value is selected (Remer et. al. 1995).

(1)

A first crucial issue in using the NPV is the choice of the discount rate, also referred to as the minimum attractive rate of return (MARR). In the literature it is widely recognized that the Weighted
Average Cost of Capital (WACC) is a good approximation of the MARR mainly for its ability to deal
with levered capital and to incorporate the tax shield in the present value computation (Farber
et al. 2006).
(2)

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ZEMCH 2015 | International Conference | Bari - Lecce, Italy

Further complementary methods used beside the NPV to determine the return are the Internal
Rate of Return (IRR) and the payback period:
b) The IRR can be considered as the rate of return that renders the NPV equal to zero. This method
has its appeal in practice because of the tendency to look at investments in terms of percentage
return of the capital invested (Bagajewicz 2008).
c) Finally, the payback period of a project refers to the number of periods or years it takes before
the cumulative forecasted cash flow equals the initial investment (Brealey et al. 2002).
(3)

A second crucial aspect is Project Financing (PF) to assure that the stream of cash flows generated
by the project is able to repay for the debt. Usually, lenders assess the capacity of the company
to service the loan looking at the annual DSCR. This important indicator is defined as the ratio of
annual cash flow available for debt service to annual principal and interest payments, as shown in
the following equation (Zhang et. al. 2005).

(4)

where is the yearly debt service coverage ratio; is the operating cash flow at year j; is the debt
instalment (principal plus interest); and N is the debt repayment period.
According to the definition, it is clear that the DSCR is strictly related to the companys financial
leverage. Generally, lenders prefer a high equity level to minimize their risks as debt has a higher
rank in repayment than equity investment (Zhang et. al. 2005). On the other hand, private investors aim to ask for more debts since it is a cheaper source of capital. Thus, the choice of the minimum DSCR determines the maximum amount of debt the company can ask.
For lenders, a project is considered bankable if it doesnt fall below certain DSCR targets anytime.
In other words, this achieved if the revenue stream generated is sufficient enough to protect the
lenders from the perceived risk. The minimum DSCR required by lenders depends on the site
country, industrial sector, lenders involved and market situation (Zhang et. al. 2005). Generally,
the DSCR of the project must be in the range of 1.10 - 1.25 in order to be considered bankable. The
comfortable range of DSCR is 1.30 1.50 and even realistic a DSCR greater than 1.50 is preferable
(Koh et al. 1999). However, according to the risk profile of the project, the bankable target may rise
up to 1.5-2.0 (Yescombe 2007).

3. Research Methodology
The methodology for this study is developed through the analysis of two set up Mock-Up Buildings with equal 3m3, positioning and shading in Kuala Lumpur/Malaysia. Both are life labs, each
simulating a small bedroom in a residential area to stay in. The first one, the Mock-Up Green Building (MUGB), is equipped with green passive materials and active technologies available in the Malaysian market. Instead, the Mock-Up Conventional Building (MUCB) is a reference demo-house
built up following the nowadays common industrial building design of local conventional and
not-sustainable houses with sand bricks, zinc roof, louver windows with aluminium frames (IBS).
The analysis section of this research investigates the financial plan of both case studies. Typically, real estate projects face negative balance of the cash flows in their initial phase due to the
construction costs. With this model, the authors try to solve the financial gap by suggesting the
amount debt capital the developers can ask using financial-leverage based mechanisms. Further-

Financial Analysis of Green Mock-Up Buildings in Tropical emerging Countries

101

more, they show the profitability of each project by discounting the cash flows of both MUCB and
MUGB. Thus, the analysis is carried on with a matter-of-fact approach in two phases: by selecting
the capital structure which satisfy the minimum DSCR, and by studying the cash flows over the
life cycle of the buildings.
Finally, financial-plan scenarios are developed through a multivariate analysis changing the values of the two independent variables: loan duration and DSCR target. The outputs of each scenario are the following indicators of profitability and bankability measures: debt percentage, average
DSCRpost-tax, yearly minimum revenue, NPV, IRR and Payback.
3.1 Case studies in two Life-Labs
The two case studies are part of a larger research project The Making of a Proto-Tropical Passive
and Low-Energy House at the University of Kuala Lumpur. It includes the construction of altogether three sustainable demo-houses M1, M2, M3 and the conventional one M0 to run comparative experiments and researches about low and zero-energy efficient buildings in a tropical
country. For the research presented here, the two buildings mentioned above are selected and
described as such:
a) The conventional MUCB M0 is a standard concrete foundation and sand brick building as it is a
wall family undoubtedly still taking the unquestioned lead in the modern tropical built environment. Replacing traditional clay and stilt houses, it uses basically sand bricks, it is equipped with
single glazed metal-framed windows and has a zinc or metal deck roof and gypsum board ceiling.
Typically for low-cost housing in tropical countries, a thin gypsum board ceiling and no shading
system is provided. With high heat transmission rates and no insulation, this kind of building has
both a tremendous heat intake and long daily heat retention cycles to digest by the thermal mass
of its bricks. Literally speaking, the walls cannot unload the heat intake it has harvested during the
daytime before. b) Conversely to the open air house, the MUGB M1 is an airtight low-energy house
with the same dimensions of its standard counterpart. It uses aerated Lightweight Reinforced
Concrete (LRC) blocks instead of the standard sand bricks which have a high heat transmission
(U-value of 8.0). The producer sells the material as a Green Product and assures high thermal insulation with U-values of only 2.3-2.4 at the comparative thickness of 10cm. This building will later
be equipped with GE solar panels that are used as complementary electricity supply, fitted with
5 cm Wood Wool Cement Boards (WWCB) shutters and uPVC low E-glazed windows. The ceiling
is also made by a 5 cm layer of WWCB assuring further thermal insulation. Unlike the common
almost insulated heat tank of conventional buildings, the ventilated roof allows enhancement in
terms of thermal performance. The house follows the principle of the fully insulated building: the
airtight low-energy house no longer allows gaps that let the passively or actively cooled indoor
air escape and fresh hot air enter the building in an uncontrolled manner during the daytime after
about 8:30 am. At a later stage, a CO2 alarm will still enable to house to harvest fresh air during
the daytime.
3.2 Data collection
The data needed and collected for this research are related to two elements: the construction
considered as capital expenditures (CAPEX) and the operating expenditures (OPEX).
The capital expenditure (CAPEX) has been gathered comparing the official quotations received
independently from local suppliers with the real costs the buildings incurred. Since most of the
building elements are sponsored or funded by the private sector, the researchers have contacted
those suppliers directly in order to come up with gaging the real final cost of both buildings upon
completion. Table 2 shows the overall capital expenditure of MUCB and MUGB inclusive of labour.

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ZEMCH 2015 | International Conference | Bari - Lecce, Italy

Table 2: Capital Expenditure of MUCB and MUGB


Description

MUCB (M0) cost

MUGB (M1) cost

New Building and structures 3 x 3 m

5.922,00RM

5.625,90RM

Walls

1.700,00RM

1.938,00RM

Finishes

1.656,00RM

1.573,20RM

Door and Windows

1.390,00RM

3.981,06RM

Roof and Roof Covering works

3.696,00RM

3.416,20RM

Painting Works

1.020,00RM

969,00RM

Electrical

3.425,00RM

3.253,75RM

Solar (DC-run light generation)


Total

760,00RM
18.809,00RM

21.517,11RM

A different approach has been used to estimate the operating costs (OPEX), as at the time of
the research both buildings were not connected to electrical supply yet. Due to the lack of past
data about the real operating expenditure of the two case studies, the researchers simulated the
buildings performances through a comprehensive building simulation tool. The software used
is is a widely used whole-building performance simulation tool known as eQUEST. The software
needs the development of an underlying model. Hence, the following design parameters have
been inserted: The buildings location and orientation, dimension, envelope insulation, finishing,
building operation schedule and interior end-uses are the parameters. Both buildings have been
considered a residential single-family area type with an operation schedule of 24-hours per day
over the entire year.
The yearly operating costs of both MUCB (M0) and MUGB (M1) resulting from the output of the
simulation are shown in Table 3. The highest position within the electricity consumption are the
cooling costs derived from the different active cooling demand of both buildings. Due to the fact
that M1 is about 2.4 degree C cooler than M0, it will also consume less energy to cool the house
down to an acceptable maximum tropical thermal comfort level of 28.6 degree C during the day
respectively the heat peak hours (Wagner 2013):
Table 3: Yearly Operating Expenditure of MUCB (M0) and MUGB (M1)
MUCB

MUGB

Water consumption (RM/Year)

42,07

42,07

Electricity consumption (RM/Year)

233,33

146,53

Total (RM/Year)

275,39

188,59

4. Analysis
In order to develop a comprehensive financial model for the two investigated compared buildings, the analysis proceeds in three phases. The first step is to set up the financial model by doing
some basic assumptions related to the Malaysian financial market. Afterwards, the future cash
flows are projected: operational, investment and financing cash flows are evaluated on a yearly
basis throughout the whole buildings life cycle. Finally, a multivariate analysis is conducted to
create different scenarios and evaluate the buildings financial measures by changing some independent variables.

Financial Analysis of Green Mock-Up Buildings in Tropical emerging Countries

103

4.1 Financial model assumptions


Representing the financial performances of a project implies some basic assumptions that are the
foundations of the project itself. Concerning this research, the assumptions are related to the type
of loan and type of repayment method used for the analysis. Furthermore, the following input
information is needed to set up the financial model: cost of equity, cost of debt, tax rate, and tax
shield in Malaysia. The information is aggregated through a literature review.
In Malaysia, banks offer two types of loans: Islamic and Conventional. However, the latter accounts
for 90% of the total debt sources of funding and, generally, banking institutions offer plain-vanilla
mortgages at a fixed or variable interest rates (Endut et al. 2008). This research applies the standard type and fixed interest rate repayment system: the payments are equals each year and at the
beginning a greater amount of the interest is paid.
Several models could be applied to estimate the cost of equity. According to the literature the
Malaysian cost of equity can be estimated around 14% (Boubakri et al. 2012) and, according to the
Malaysian Central Bank, the effective debt rate floats around 4.85%.
Finally, the last parameter is the tax the Malaysian government imposes on the local companies.
The Malaysian tax rate is at 24% and the Malaysian government considers any interest paid on
outstanding debt as tax deductible (Pricewaterhouse Coopers 2014).
4.2 Cash flow analysis
The first step involves the identification of the capital structure. Different percentages of debt are
analysed. Then, the capital structure that maximizes the financial leverage is the one that satisfies
the minimum DSCR target. The DSCR is calculated with equation (4).
The cash flows of both MUCB and MUGB are then estimated: each individual inflow and outflow
is evaluated on yearly basis over 30 years of buildings operation. The element considered in the
cash in is the operating revenue; it is considered as the minimum level of income needed in order
to consider the project bankable. Hence, the operating revenue as defined above is strictly related to the financial leverage and it is computed with the formula:

(5)

Where NOI is the Net Operating Income and the OPEX is the Operating expenditure.
The cash out considered in the analysis are the operational expenditure, the tax payment, loan
interest payment and principal. The tax payment is simply the tax rate applied to the taxable income; the debt instalment (principal plus interest) instead is computed as follows:

(6)

Where M is the monthly debt instalment; L refers to the loan amount; I is the interest rate; and n
the loan period.
Finally, the present value of the future cash flows is determined and the WACC is used as the discount rate; the WACC is considered the best rate to use in order to take into account the time value of money and the risk uncertainty when dealing with levered capital. The WACC is computed
by applying Equation (2). Table 4 shows the cash flow analysis.

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Table 4: Cash flows of the MUCB with loan 30 years and DSCRpre-tax 1.35
0
Year #
18809
Capex
Revenues
Opex
EBITDA
Dep.
EBIT
Loan Int.
EBT
Tax
Earnings
Principal
16551,9
Cash In
18809,0
Cash out
-2257,1
Cash Flow
Discounted -2257,1
cash flow
Cumulated -2257,1
DCF
DSCRpre-tax
DSCRposttax
1,29
Average
DSCRposttax

28

29

30

1717,3

1717,3

1717,3

1717,3

1717,3

1717,3

1717,3

1717,3

1717,3

1717,3

1717,3

1717,3

275,4

275,4

275,4

275,4

275,4

275,4

275,4

275,4

275,4

275,4

275,4

275,4

1441,9 1441,9 1441,9 1441,9 1441,9 1441,9 1441,9 1441,9 1441,9 1441,9 1441,9 1441,9
627,0

627,0

627,0

627,0

627,0

627,0

627,0

627,0

627,0

627,0

627,0

627,0

815,0

815,0

815,0

815,0

815,0

815,0

815,0

815,0

815,0

815,0

815,0

815,0

802,8

790,4

777,4

763,7

749,5

734,5

718,8

702,3

685,0

140,2

95,6

49,0

12,2

24,6

37,6

51,2

65,5

80,5

96,2

112,7

129,9

674,8

719,3

766,0

2,9

5,9

9,0

12,3

15,7

19,3

23,1

27,0

31,2

161,9

172,6

183,8

9,3

18,7

28,6

38,9

49,8

61,2

73,1

85,6

98,8

512,8

546,7

582,2

255,6

268,0

281,0

294,6

308,9

323,9

339,6

356,1

373,4

918,2

962,7

1009,4

1717,3

1717,3

1717,3

1717,3

1717,3

1717,3

1717,3

1717,3

1717,3

1717,3

1717,3

1717,3

1336,7

1339,7

1342,8

1346,1

1349,5

1353,1

1356,9

1360,8

1365,0

1495,7

1506,4

1517,6

380,6

377,6

374,5

371,3

367,8

364,2

360,5

356,5

352,4

221,6

210,9

199,7

362,8

343,0

324,2

306,3

289,2

273,0

257,5

242,7

228,6

57,7

52,3

47,2

141,7

370,3 2760,6 2813,0 2860,2

-1894,3 -1551,3 -1227,1 -920,7 -631,5 -358,5 -101,0


1,36

1,36

1,36

1,36

1,36

1,36

1,36

1,36

1,36

1,36

1,36

1,36

1,36

1,36

1,35

1,35

1,35

1,34

1,34

1,34

1,33

1,21

1,20

1,19

4.3 Multivariate analysis


The last phase of the analysis is to identify how certain variables have impact on the bankability
and profitability measures of the projects. The target is to observe and evaluate the uncertainty of
some input values by creating different scenarios answering some what-if questions.
The selected input values are the DSCRpre-tax targets and the loan duration. Mainly because they
are related with the banks risk of lending the money: technology-based projects may result more
riskily from the borrowers point of view, and a longer loan duration means a higher risk exposure.
In particular, the DSCRpre-tax is observed in a range from 1.25 up to 1.55. Concerning the loan
duration, usually banking institutions dont offer loans longer than 30 years; the loan periods selected for the sensitivity analysis are 20, 25 and 30 years.
The profitability performance measures evaluated in each scenario are the NPV, payback and IRR.
The bankability is analyzed by computing the average DSCRpost-tax that, as a rule of thumb, must
be greater or equals to 1.20. Finally, the Revenue shows the minimum income the project needs in
order to consider the project able to repay for its outstanding debts.

5. Results& Discussion
The output of the sensitivity analysis for both Green and Conventional buildings can be found
in Tables 2 and 3. The rows show the variation of the loan period; whilst the columns refer to the
different levels of DSCRpre-tax the banks ask in order to consider the project able to repay for its
outstanding debts. Each scenario is evaluated through indicators of both profitability and bankability measures.

Financial Analysis of Green Mock-Up Buildings in Tropical emerging Countries

105

Table 5: MUCB Sensitivity Analysis results


L = 20

L = 25

DSCRpre-tax1,25

DSCRpre-tax1,35

DSCRpre-tax 1,45

DSCRpre-tax1,55

D%

D%

D%

D%

80%

70%

65%

Average
1,17
DSCRpost-tax

Average
1,25
DSCRpost-tax

Average
1,34
DSCRpost-tax

Average
1,44
DSCRpost-tax

Revenue

1.767RM

Revenue

1.786RM

Revenue

1.795RM

Revenue

1.794RM

NPV

1.859RM

NPV

1.412RM

NPV

839RM

NPV

155RM

IRR

8,4%

IRR

8,2%

IRR

7,8%

IRR

7,5%

Pay-Back

24 years

Pay-Back

25 years

Pay-Back

26 years

Pay-Back

30 years

D%

87%

D%

83%

D%

78%

D%

74%

Average
1,20
DSCRpost-tax

L = 30

75%

Average
1,27
DSCRpost-tax

Average
1,36
DSCRpost-tax

Average
1,44
DSCRpost-tax

Revenue

1.725RM

Revenue

1.752RM

Revenue

1.776RM

Revenue

1.789RM

NPV

2.567RM

NPV

2.451RM

NPV

2.142RM

NPV

1.778RM

IRR

11,4%

IRR

10,6%

IRR

9,8%

IRR

9,3%

Pay-Back

13 years

Pay-Back

14 years

Pay-Back

17 years

Pay-Back

19 years

D%

93%

D%

88%

D%

84%

D%

80%

Average
1,20
DSCRpost-tax

Average
1,29
DSCRpost-tax

Average
1,37
DSCRpost-tax

Average
1,45
DSCRpost-tax

Revenue

1.673RM

Revenue

1.717RM

Revenue

1.745RM

Revenue

1.767RM

NPV

2.622RM

NPV

2.860RM

NPV

2.829RM

NPV

2.659RM

IRR

20,5%

IRR

15,6%

IRR

13,5%

IRR

12,1%

Pay-Back

6 years

Pay-Back

8 years

Pay-Back

9 years

Pay-Back

11 years

Table 6: MUGB Sensitivity Analysis results

L = 20

DSCRpre-tax 1,25
D%

80%

AverageDSCRpost- 1,19
tax

L = 25

D%

75%

Average
1,28
DSCRpost-tax

DSCRpre-tax 1,45
D%

70%

Average
1,38
DSCRpost-tax

DSCRpre-tax 1,55
D%

65%

Average
1,48
DSCRpost-tax

Revenue

1.895RM

Revenue

1.917RM

Revenue

1.927RM

Revenue

1.926RM

NPV

2.613RM

NPV

2.204RM

NPV

1.626RM

NPV

900RM

IRR

9,2%

IRR

9,0%

IRR

8,7%

IRR

8,3%

Pay-Back

23 years

Pay-Back

23 years

Pay-Back

24 years

Pay-Back

26 years

D%

87%

D%

83%

D%

78%

D%

74%

Average DSCRpost- 1,21


tax

L = 30

DSCRpre-tax 1,35

Average
1,28
DSCRpost-tax

Average
1,38
DSCRpost-tax

Average
1,47
DSCRpost-tax

Revenue

1.847RM

Revenue

1.877RM

Revenue

1.905RM

Revenue

1.920RM

NPV

3.165RM

NPV

3.150RM

NPV

2.919RM

NPV

2.584RM

IRR

12,0%

IRR

11,4%

IRR

10,7%

IRR

10,2%

Pay-Back

11 years

Pay-Back

12 years

Pay-Back

14 years

Pay-Back

16 years

D%

93%

D%

88%

D%

84%

D%

80%

Average DSCRpost- 1,20


tax

Average
1,30
DSCRpost-tax

Average
1,38
DSCRpost-tax

Average
1,47
DSCRpost-tax

Revenue

1.788RM

Revenue

1.838RM

Revenue

1.870RM

Revenue

1.895RM

NPV

3.028RM

NPV

3.421RM

NPV

3.510RM

NPV

3.424RM

IRR

20,6%

IRR

16,1%

IRR

14,3%

IRR

13,0%

Pay-Back

6 years

Pay-Back

8 years

Pay-Back

9 years

Pay-Back

10 years

The first scenario is not considerably bankable for both MUCB and MUGB; both buildings have
an average DSCRpost-tax lower than 1.20 that is the minimum threshold to claim the project fi-

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ZEMCH 2015 | International Conference | Bari - Lecce, Italy

nancially viable. All the other scenarios can be considered bankable, however different optimal
capital structures are needed according to the different bank requirements.
Graph 1 and Graph 2 provide a better understanding of buildings financial scheme and profitability; they plot the values of the dependent variables Rent, NPV and Leverage according to the different combinations of DSCRs and Loan durations. At a glance, the graphs show how increasing
the DSCRpre-taxthe minimum needed income rises and the related financial leverage falls. This
is due to the risk profile of the project: if the lenders consider it a high-risk project they request a
higher yearly income to the borrowers and, consequently, they are less willing to provide funds.
Graph 1: MUCB Sensitivity Analysis

Graph 2: MUGB Sensitivity Analysis

The worst scenario is with DSCRpre-tax equaling to 1.55 and a loan of 20 years; in this case the
borrowers need at least 35% of Equity in their capital structure otherwise they would lack of debt
carrying capacity.
Similar considerations can be done with the profitability analysis. Generally, investors seek to
maximize the financial leverage since the debt capital incurs in a lower cost than the equity. Consequently, it permits the NPV maximization. The data show that the financial leverage is maximized with the lowest DSCRpre-tax and the larger loan period possible.
The choice of the minimum DSCRpre-tax and the duration of the debt are crucial from the lenders
prospective since they are strictly related to the intrinsic risk of the project. Dealing with innova-

Financial Analysis of Green Mock-Up Buildings in Tropical emerging Countries

107

tive technology-based projects like green buildings can bring about banks and lending agencies
to ask for more strict requirements raising the DSCRpre-tax targets and shortening the loan duration.
From a conventional building prospective, the best bankable scenario is with an annual minimum
rent of 1.717RM and 88% of debt leading to a NPV of 2.860 RM. Starting from this reference standard value, it is possible to realize that the sustainable building outperforms in terms of NPV, under
the conditions of a 25-years long loan. The only exception is the scenario with DSCRpre-tax1.55
where even with loan durations of 25 years the NPV is lower than the conventional one.
In summary, we can state that a sustainable design -following the standards set up in our case
study- leads to profit maximization, even if specific considerations need to be investigated in case
the banks are asking a DSCRpre-tax greater than or equal to 1.55. However, according to our experience and with the concept that rental building is considered a quite safe investment project,
the banks are not supposed to ask more than 1.45 for the DSCRpre-tax and a loan shorter than 25
years. This leads to the conclusion that the Green Mock-Up Building is a more profitable investment than its standard counterpart, even compared to the worst-case scenario.

6. Conclusions
This research has investigated the advantages of going green and energy-efficient in a tropical
emerging country like Malaysia merely from a financial point of view. The study addressed two
specific experimental case studies and attempts to prove the higher financial value private owner
can benefit by choosing a specified sustainable design rather than its standard counterpart.
The body of this research focused on determining the cash flows over the life cycle of both conventional and green buildings and to deploy a financial plan in order to support private building
investors in choosing among sustainable and standard design.
As summarized in the previous section, the results prove that the Green Mock-Up building produces larger financial value compared with the conventional one. Even in the worst-case scenario
where more strict requirements are considered our to green and sustainable project, the findings
show that the investors should still focus on the sustainable design.
Apart from a reduction of operational costs and subsequently CO2 to cover the gap towards the
achievement of thermal comfort, there are plenty of additional sustainable buildings advantages
not considered in this mere financial research. It is widely recognized that green energy efficient
buildings lead to environmental assets (reducing waste, improving health by air quality, conserve
natural resources) and social benefits (well-being and quality life improvement). However, those
benefits are so far still enunciated more related to public institutions rather than to private investors. To enable potential buyers to gain more information, our approach focused the profitability
of sustainable buildings. .The findings presented in this initial publication can even encourage
investors and owners to embark in energy efficient residential houses

References
BAGAJEWICZ, M. (2008). On the Use of Net Present Value in Investment Capacity Planning Models, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.,
47, 94139416. University of Oklahoma, 100 E. Boyd T-335, Norman, Oklahoma 73019.
BOUBAKRI, N., GUEDHAMI, O., MISHRA, D. and SAFFAR, W. (2012). Political connections and the cost of equity capital,
Journal of Corporate Finance, 18, 541559, Elsevier.
BREALEY, R.A. and MEYERS, S.C. (2002). Principles of Corporate Finance, The McGrawHill Companies, 7th revised edition, ISBN 978-0071151450.
ENDUT, N. and HUA, T.G. (March 2008). Household debt in Malaysia, Proc. of a joint conf. organised by the BIS and the
Bank of Korea, 107-116, Seoul.

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FARBER, A., GILLET, R. and SZAFARZ, A. (2006). A General Formula for the WACC, Int. J. of Business, 11(2), ISSN: 1083-4346.
KOH, B.S., WANG, S.Q. and TIONG, R. L. K. (July 1999). Qualitative Development of Debt/Equity Model for BOT infrastructure projects, Proc. of Int. Conf. on Constr. Process Re-engineering, 501-512. Faculty of the Built Environment, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
KOK, N., MCGRAW, M. and QUIGLEY, J.M. (May 2011). The Diffusion of Energy Efficiency in Building, Papers & Proceedings,
101(3), 77-82. American Economic Review.
PRICEWATERHOUSECOOPERS (2014). 2014/2015 Malaysian tax and business booklet, PP13148/07/2013 (032730).
REMER, D.S. and NIETO, A.P. (August 1995). A compendium and comparison of 25 project evaluation techniques, Int. J.
Production Economics, 42, 79-96. Harvey Mudd College of Engineering and Science, Claremont, CA 91711, USA.
WAGNER, K. (March 2013). Tropical Thermal Comfort and Adapted Tropical Green Residential Housing, Conference Affordable Quality Housing, Marriot Hotel Putra Jaya.
YESCOMBE, E.R. (2007). Public-Private Partnerships Principles of Policy and Finance, Elsevier Ltd, ISBN: 978-0-7506-8054-7.
ZHANG, X. and ASCE, M. (2005). Financial Viability Analysis and Capital structure Optimization in Privatized Public Infrastructure Projects, J. Constr. Eng. Manage. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2005)131:6(656).

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International Conference | Bari - Lecce, Italy

Session III

INTEGRATING TOURISM WITH RURAL


SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN EGYPT: CASE
STUDY OF FAYOUM OASIS
Hagar M. Shalaby1, Aia Sherif2 & Hasim Altan2
1 Faculty of Engineering, Architectural Department, Alexandria University, Egypt, Haidyyy@gmail.com
2 Sustainable Design of the Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering & IT, British University in Dubai, Dubai, UAE
2014217022@student.buid.ac.ae / hasim.altan@buid.ac.ae

Abstract
The Egyptian rural deteriorating conditions require careful, fundamental and creative solutions in order to improve the living conditions and to maintain the characteristics of local
communities at the same time for future sustainable development of the region. Rural tourism or tourism in rural areas is a growing form of activity which can bring economic and social
benefits to the society, and can be a tool for achieving a good level of sustainable development in the rural areas. Although rural tourism in its true form is relatively new in Egypt, the
development of this is considered to be a necessary ingredient that can have a positive impact
on the rural community improvement with less needed financial support. This paper represents the Fayoum Oasis as an example of a potential site/region that can be exploited for the
purpose of sustainable development of poor rural settlements by adding a new product to
the countryside depending on its variable characteristics from the natural environment, the
landscape, the presence of traditional arts, and other local cultural products, such as food and
other local cuisines. Although there will be some negative socio-cultural impacts of applying
this new activity on the local communities, the potentials can be developed to achieve a sustainable development mostly for its social means by ensuring the continuity of its uniqueness
and again by providing economic benefits to the society at the same time. The research is
analysing the current situation of the rural tourism in Fayoum in order to formulate a set of
goals and recommendations to achieve a successful sustainable rural tourism development.

Keywords
Fayoum Oasis, Rural Tourism, Rural Settlements, Sustainable Development, Egypt.

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Introduction and Background


The percentage of rural population in Egypt is 57% (World Bank 2008). A typical Egyptian rural settlement is a compact agricultural village surrounded by intensively cultivated fields. The villages
range in population from 500 to more than 10,000. They are almost similar in physical appearance
and design throughout the country, except for minor local variations in building materials, design, and decoration. Until comparatively recently, the only source of drinking water was the Nile;
consequently, many of the villages are built along the banks of its canals (Britannica Encyclopedia
2002).
About 99% of the rural population has an access to water and 93% accessed to sanitation network. Egypt has reached the Millennium Development Goal of halving the number of people
without proper access to safe water and sanitation by 2015 ahead of time in 2008 (World Bank
2008). However, according to the government report of the same year, Egypt was still off track to
achieve the sanitation target in rural areas, especially in Upper Egypt and in frontier governorates.
Currently, poverty percentage in rural Egypt is about 30% of total villages, 30% are suffering from
pollution and 28% is the percentage of unemployment according to the Ministry of Economic
Development. The same problems are continuously reappearing as a result of the improper practices of the population. The most noticed one is the unauthorized construction in locations where
the needed infrastructure is not available or not enough.
The countryside is attractive by the culture flavour given to it by the people living in it. It consists
of overlapping social spaces with their own logic, institution, and networks of actors. The attractiveness of the countryside lies in what urban life cannot give. Rural Tourism can be an important
force for developing disadvantaged rural areas. In particular, rural communities with few other
options for development may perceive that tourism represents a panacea for growth (Aref and
Gill 2009). Nowadays, rural tourism has turned into a leading economic activity and studies show
a positive relationship between developing rural tourism and an increase in income, it can be a
suitable way to enhance economic advantage and employment (Egbali et al. 2011). Rural tourism
became very popular especially in the economically developed countries. It is its economically
and socially positive impact which allows farmers to gain additional financial sources and create
new job positions for other local people. In fact, it is a very positive and ecological form of tourism. Unlike the uncontrolled mass and purely commercial tourism, rural tourism leisure activities
have a very low negative impact on the environment (Simkova 2007). However, making use of the
tourism attractions in such rural areas needs solving not only the problems of the fresh water, but
solving serious visually, healthy and environmentally problems caused by the insufficient draining water system in most of the rural villages as well.
Regarding Egypt, the Egyptian rural tourism takes a modest position in comparison with the other tourism types. Although rural tourism is a key element in the development process, it is underestimated in Egypt as it is often viewed as recreation, not business. It is rarely included in the
rural villages development schemes as the rural tourism activities are not taken seriously within
the proposed tools to achieve sustainability in the Egyptian villages. This is due to the absence
of the actual realization of the importance of such activity in poor areas in addition to the lack
of awareness, the lack of good marketing plans, the lack of an institutional framework, the lack
of the tourism work force, the lack of information about the problems and challenges and the
available components of the rural tourism in Egypt. Moreover, the bad reputation of the Egyptian
rural areas especially the agricultural villages - due to the low level of services, infrastructure and
the natural pollution- is negatively reflected on this industry.

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For the purpose of playing the positive role of tourism in the process of rural sustainable development, paying attention to environment management, local contribution, firm laws, marketing
and realistic planning in tourism seems necessary (Egbali et al. 2011). The objective is to get closer
to the values of the rural world, such as its culture and heritage, contemplating the countryside,
tranquility, physical and spiritual renewal, and the like (Polo and Frias 2010) in order to form the
tourism as a tool to achieve the sustainability development depending on the place without outer finance. Tourism cannot and will not be the solution to the rural crisis and the introduction of
tourism must not be seen as a substitute for more stable livelihood options. This is critical particularly as tourism is an activity that is based on consumption, and it seeks to substitute in the rural
context, livelihoods based on production (Equations 2008).
Attention to sustainability in rural areas is usually focused only on the agricultural lands as it is
the most prevalent pattern in the countryside. The goal of sustainable agriculture is to increase
food production in a sustainable manner, ensuring and enhancing food security and improving
livelihoods in rural areas. This goal should expand to include the development of all the forms
of the countryside. In order to realize this goal, efforts should be made towards educational programs, efficient utilization of economic incentives and the development of appropriate and new
technologies. Such efforts will ensure stable supplies of nutritionally adequate food, employment
and income generation to alleviate poverty, and protect natural resources and environment as
well. However, conserving and rehabilitating the natural resources on marginal or lower potential
lands in order to maintain sustainable man/land ratios is extremely important (Kruseman and
Vullings 2007). The question is how to establish new patterns and processes of development in
rural areas, besides the agricultural pattern, which are stable and more sustainable? (Shalaby et
al. 2011:16).

Tourism and Rural Sustainability


When illustrating the relationship between tourism, sustainability and rural regions, the community is central to this process, and in many ways cannot be separated from any of the elements on
the map (Aref and Gill 2009). Moreover, the objective of human development of rural community,
especially the disadvantaged, women and youth, helps focus on what is their own, e.g., their skill
in traditional arts and crafts, their cultural heritage, community or private land, natural resources
(flora and fauna) and environment of the area. The attempt to promote what is their own obviously leads to addressing what is their due, e.g., their right to the wealth generated by tourism
in the given locale and the right to decision making about its creation and equitable distribution,
on the one hand, and the right to protect and preserve what is their own on the other, and this
is a form of economical sustainability (Equations 2008).
The challenge is how to establish new patterns and processes of sustainable development in rural
areas. How to create these patterns and processes of development to achieve greater sustainability? As well known, the comprehensive concept of sustainability is extended to the environmental,
social and economic development. To achieve that in a rural primitive society which is somehow
unattractive for investments, primitive activities (beside agriculture) that match with that reality
must be highly considered. It is an integrated and interdependent process, beside the concern
to agricultural work, primitive activities, traditional works and local heritage are key solutions for
such communities. The traditional craft business is probably the clearest type of such target, small
businesses that rely on traditional character and hand folkloric would maximize economic returns
for individuals and the rural community. This will create new jobs and improve the standard of
living as a result of the continuous attachment with visitors and touristic groups who come to

Integrating tourism with rural sustainable development in Egypt: case study of Fayoum Oasis 113

visit those areas and learn about them. These visitors will transfer an image of a better life, which
may raise the level of the acceptable living standards to the population. Here, we can assume
that rural tourism can be the content of this strategy, without tourism market, these required
customers will not be available to accommodate these products and activities, and to develop
the stereotypical image of the local population. After all, there are no blueprints for sustainable
development, behaviors and trends that may/may not lead to tangible results in the near future
and on the long term.

Rural Sustainability Goals in Egypt


The challenge lies in how rural sustainable development can be translated into principles so
that effective policies can be based on in order to reverse current unsustainable trends of environmental degradation and human oppression (Abo Elfetouh 2006). According to Abo Elfetouh
(2006), there are five major pre-requisites for sustainable rural development:
1. A learning-process approach.
2. Peoples priorities first.
3. Secure rights and gains.
4. Sustainability through self-help.
5. Staff calibre, commitment and continuity.
Tunis village in Fayoum is a good model of how tourism can be successfully integrated in the sustainable development through the five pre-requests motioned above. Although it took 50 years
of spontaneously local efforts to achieve rural sustainability, the village has turned from extreme
poverty to a sustainable village based on rural tourism without any governmental prior planning
schemes. Making the rural poor the starting point in the development process and to put the
priorities of the poor first of all is crucial for promoting sustainability. Ensuring that the individuals
have secure rights to resources with focus on issues of land ownership and tenure are key issues
for increasing benefits and productivity (Abo Elfetouh 2006). According to Abo Elfetouh (2006),
sustainability development goals within the context of rural Egypt are:
- Conserving Natural Resources and the Environment: the protection of agricultural land from
haphazard urban encroachment along with the other resources such as water surfaces and deserts, as well as preservation of water quality and air quality alike.
- Promoting Economic Growth: the stimulation of the local economic development, mobilization of resources and elaboration of new financial mechanisms to create more job opportunities,
which are appropriate to the market demands.
- Social Development and Equity: improvement of the quality of basic public services, narrowing
the rural urban gap on the national and regional level alike and promoting gender equality.
Objectives, strategies and laws were formulated to achieve the sustainability goals but each region has its own character that requires a special treatment in order to exploit its ingredients as
appropriate for its circumstances. Rural tourism may be the solution as it has always been a valuable, growing economic strategy, advantage of low risks and costs and considering that resources
are available, costs are low and plans are smaller compared to other tourism plans nonetheless it
provides:
Economic growth in rural areas.
Create variety and stability in employment.
Dynamism in commerce and industries.
Creating opportunities to larger incomes in multiple activities.
Creating new markets for agricultural products.
Enhance a basis for the regional economy.

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Methodology
This paper is analytical qualitative study adopting an exploratory orientation in order to achieve
the following tasks:
Displaying the main features of the Egyptian rural.
Identifying the main aspects involved in the rural sustainable development and the rural tourism.
Presenting tourism as a proposed tool for achieving a successful rural sustainability development.
Viewing a primary model of tourism-rural sustainable development in the selected case study
area, in this case; Fayoum Oasis - Tunis village as a good sustainable rural touristic village in
western Egypt.
Clarifying the importance of the awareness in the rural sustainable development.
Formulate a set of recommendations depending on the extracted results.

Case Study: Fayoum Oasis - Tunis Village


Fayoum is a green oasis lies in the middle of the Desert, in the West of the Nile, located in the
North Upper Egypt Region. The governorates total area covers 6068 km2. Fayoum combines geographical and climatic characteristics of both Delta and Upper Egypt and the Western Desert; it
represents a valley, a delta, and a lake. This provides a diversity of rural activities such as; agriculture, fishing in Qaroun and Rayan Lakes, handicrafts in Tunis and Nazla village. Villages in Fayoum
are less crowded than in Delta and less polluted; people of Fayoum are more civilized than people
of the Delta, and less conservative than the population of Upper Egypt (El Saed). Among the most
noted sustainable villages depending on rural tourism Tunis, Fayoum is not only a famous rural
tourism destination in Egypt, but also is a very important international tourism destination when
it comes to history, heritage and environmental eco-system. The following figures are illustrating
the tourism potentials and the rural activities in Fayoum oasis, and around Tunis village. The oasis
contains a special composition of rural and tourism along with four well known paths for visitors
and tourists. These potentials can easily be used to achieve a successful sustainable development.

Figure1: The tourism potentials along with the local/rural activities in Fayoum oasis

Integrating tourism with rural sustainable development in Egypt: case study of Fayoum Oasis 115

Figure2: The current rural tourism tours in Fayoum oasis

The Sustainable Rural Tourism in Fayoum Oasis: Tunis Village


In spite of the existence of three nature reserves in the green Fayoum, villages are very far from
being sustainable mainly due to the lack of awareness. Only Tunis village is a special case as it
presents the only sustainable rural tourism destination in Fayoum. The village site is very special,
located on a hill, surrounded by flat land at the same level of Lake Qaroun, which provides a panoramic view of the region, a mixture of water and greenery natural scenic gives Tunis its distinguished features (Mustafa and Emam 2013).

Figure3: Arial view of Tunis village


It is located on the western edge of Qaroun Lake, 60 km from the city of Fayoum and 100 km from
the capital, Cairo. Tunis was a simple village suffered from low levels of education and poverty for
many years. A Swiss woman, Eveline Burie came in on the sixteenths to fulfill a passion in pottery

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works and took a wise step as she established the first workshop in her house for childrens education Pottery industry; a step which changed the destiny of the village to be an international
destination of art and nature scenic beauty (El-Galy 2014). In one hour drive from Cairo by a public
bus or private vehicles, you can reach the village of celebrities and writers as known for the Egyptians. It is a low cost tourism destination; an individual can spend an entire day with eating three
meals for only 100 Egyptian pounds -about 15 dollars- (Saad El-Deen 2010).
Tunis contains a variety of natural assets exploited in rural tourism; it can be divided into three
categories: focal, secondary, and supporting facilities. Focal attractions are as follow:
Local handicrafts art and products (schools, workshops, exhibitions and the yearly pottery festival (Fig.4).
Local architecture, local traditions and local food.
Direct contact with communities lifestyles; i.e. the Bedouin, fishermen and farmers.
Tunis is the closest site to the world heritage site of Wadi El-Hitan and fossils of Gabal Qatrani.
Desert safari activities; mountain climbing and hiking, desert trekking, trails, horse and camel
riding.
The secondary attractions:
Fayoum cultural foundation and caricature museum.
Water sports activities in the lakes; small sailboats, feluccas, kayaking, single-line fishing in
Wadi El Rayaan, bird watching around the lakes and in the agriculture lands.
The other tourism facilities and services are included within the ecological accommodation in
Zad El Musafer lodge, Sobek, Zelal El Nakheil and the Safari Camps in Wadi El Rayan.

Figure4: The marketing posters of Tunis pottery festival 2013

Environmental Sustainability: Conserving Natural Resources and the Environment


Tunis is one of the richest natural spots in Egypt; there is a lake, the beautiful birds, green hills,
in addition to a large number of lush fields of fruit and the olive trees that surround the village
from all directions. As eyes are moving to south, a yellow soft desert sands are extending on the
horizon (Saad El-Deen 2010). At the beginning, Tunis was just a group of nests (A very low level of
unlicensed housing) inhabited by limited number of workers and peasants. This continued to be
the case until the couple (Evilin and Hijab) built the first house with the vernacular style of rural
Egypt and the architecture of the poor by Hassan Fathy. Now there are about 300 vernacular style
villas belongs to artists, writers, critics and academics. All residents were committing to build their

Integrating tourism with rural sustainable development in Egypt: case study of Fayoum Oasis 117

houses with the local style of architecture (Fig.5 and Fig.6), houses are made of stones, sand and
mud. The unspoiled palm trunks are used for windows and ceilings. As they used the special natural components that keep the inside not affected by external temperature, they reduce the use
of electricity (Mustafa and Emam 2013). Yet, there are serious attempts to insert the solar panels
for electricity similar to reality in El-Hetan nature reserves.

Figure 5: The vernacular architecture in a private villa


Figure 6: The vernacular architecture in Zad El-Musafer Eco-lodge
It is important to note that the village has adopted an organic-waste management system depends on an agreement between the residences; farmers are using the organic waste as a natural
fertilizer in agriculture. It should also be noted that the non-organic waste, especially plastics,
are limited on what tourists are bringing with them from outside the village. The whole village,
including the eco-lodges is adopting the trend of reducing the trash production as much as possible. Pots for the kitchen and dining are made of mud, copper and metal, and all of the furniture
is based on natural raw materials. The environmental-style houses provide a solution to the problem of the high price raw materials. It is providing a low economic cost shelter with elements of
comfort, beauty and distinctiveness. Not only the houses, is Tunis famous for but also its environmental Eco lodges like Zad El-Musafer, Sobek and Zelal El-Nakheil (Mustafa and Emam 2013).
Villagers are seriously taking care of their farmlands (Fig.7) as they depend on them for the food
supplies. They are very interested in the preservation of biodiversity in their village and they are
aware of its importance as a tourism attraction.

Figure7: the extended green farm lands around Tunis village


The awareness that has spread in the village is the main reason for achieving a good level of sustainable development. Cars are very limited to 4X4 for safari trips in the desert which moves in
specific paths because of the natural reserves in the neighborhood and recently, the villagers are
trying to use the electrical oven instead of the diesel fuel in order to get rid of the only source of
air pollution in the village.

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Economical Sustainability: Promoting Economic Growth


Eveline School was established about 25 years ago. The place known as the School of Pottery,
but the original name was The Ptah association of pottery training for children from urban and
rural areas (Mustafa and Emam, 2013). In Egyptian mythology, Ptah is the demiurge of Memphis,
god of craftsmen and architects. The school was a nucleus of a new economic activity and the
pottery industry was flourished in the village and became a source of income beside agriculture
and reduced the unemployment rates. The school is responsible for marketing the products and
the manufacturer gets 33% of the revenue. The selling rates are medium throughout the year
except during the pottery festival in November. There no division of labor in pottery works, everyone is working and each worker is responsible on his products from the beginning until it is ready
to be showed (Mustafa and Emam 2013).
Another economic direction was introduced when some visitors proposed to establish a place
where writers and artists can stay in the village (Mustafa and Emam 2013). Zad El-Musafer was
the first eco-lodge in Tunis followed by Sobek and Zelal El-Nakheil. The environmental accommodation became an attraction and has contributed to the recruitment of young graduates from
the village. At the end, the booming of the tourism activities led to the prosperity of the village
economy.

Social Sustainability: Social Development and Equity


Residents does not exceed 4 thousand people work in agriculture, fishing in Lake Qaroun, pottery
and some art crafts from palm fronds. Residents are four types:
Permanent residents and they do not exceed five families.
The foreign workers, translators, artists and painters, and they spend the whole winter working
in the village and they return to their countries with the beginning of the summer to present
what they have produced for publishing, exhibitions, etc.
The visitors on the weekly holidays and public holidays.
Those who bought houses and left them closed they do not come at all.
Evelyn had a huge impact on the rural community, beside her pottery workshop, she has helped
many people to establish their own independent pottery industry workshops. Mahmoud El-Sharif says: For more than 20 years, all of us in the village have learned at Madame Eveline workshop,
she transformed the youth into creative artists. During our education she focused on values and
principles of love and compassion and how to rely on ourselves. After many years, she helped us
in establishing international exhibitions in different countries (El-Galy 2014).
Even children of Tunis are very sensitive to beauty and arts as Eveline trained them to be inspired
by the nature around them. Now they became very talented youth participating in international
exhibitions to present their special products (Mustafa and Emam 2013). It is important to mention that gender equality is promoted in the village, women also have their own business and
they have their independent workshops and exhibition beside their role as housekeepers. Eveline
lived 10 years in the village without electricity, water or even TV, now there is a huge Improvement
of the quality of basic public services from electricity, fresh water network and good sanitation
system to telecommunications in order to fulfill the very basic needs of the residents and visitors.
In a building with a distinctive Dome of the mud in the center of a green area surrounded by tall

Integrating tourism with rural sustainable development in Egypt: case study of Fayoum Oasis 119

trees, the caricature paintings published in various newspapers and publications in Egypt are
lined together to form the first museum of cartoons in the Arab world, which opened in March
2009 (Mustafa and Emam 2013). The idea of 1977 has been revived by the Egyptian caricaturist Mohamed Abla who believes that caricature is a historical document presents a live picture reflect
almost every moment of the history. The museum contains a collection of the oldest and best
of what Egyptians caricature artists drew since 1927 to date (Mustafa and Emam 2013). Now the
village is combined of a unique and diversified community as farmers are living next to foreigners
in real harmony as the various cultural activities in the village made the rural urban gap in Tunis
almost not exist.

Conclusion and Recommendations


A good level of awareness of the importance of sustainability is a necessary element for the success of any sustainable development. The success of any development depends primarily on the
community acceptance and their positive contribution. The boom of pottery industry in Tunis
had played the main role in spreading the awareness of rural tourism, especially with the occurrence of economic benefits and the improvement in living conditions. The good sense and the
ability to realize the unique beauty of the place, the pottery festival, the oriented tourism marketing, environmental hotels and the local architecture were prefect techniques contributed to
the rural-tourism sustainable development in Tunis village. The existence of the natural reserves
in the area helped to enrich the community awareness which preserved the local identity as a
source of personal income and a product. Locals are refusing and standing against any activity
that may destroy the nature or hurt their special identity.
By building a low-carbon economy that makes efficient, sustainable use of resources, protecting
the environment and preventing biodiversity loss, Tunis is a successful model of the congenital
sustainable rural tourism development. New strategies should be formulated to help consumers
make well-informed green choices. In order to achieve a successful sustainable tourism by integrating tourism activities, a serious attention should be given to the following considerations:
Preserving cultural values in any society or country must be a priority in any development
plan. The historical remnants, treasures and documents of high cultural values are supposed to
be preserved and fairly protected to be passed on to the future generations (Egbali et al. 2011).
Aboriginal tourism operators, Band Council, and community stakeholders must be invited to
the tourism table, so to speak. They need to be included in all stages of tourism development,
especially when they are incorporating their culture as part of the tourism package.
A participatory community based impact analysis should be undertaken to find out: How
many people have moved from the low income to middle income groups after being associated with the project? / Gender impact - change in the roles of women engaged with the project
/ Employment generation.
A good sustainable development plan requires and it should include an environment impact
assessment (environment friendliness, meeting environment management standards) with a
strong focus on the energy and waste, coasts and financial sources, ethics and responsibility
to the environment (Simkova 2007).
It is required to reach a community that accepts the simplicity of living so the undergraduates
will return to their origins in order to stand against the bad practices that may distort the place.
The educated youth are able to develop new sustainable practices and new options according to
their experience and their knowledge gained from what they have learned. Moreover, the mental
health, comfort, relaxation and tranquility offered by the place should be the priority number one

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of such tourism development plans, especially with the noise and crowdedness of city modern
life.

References
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University, Egypt.
AREF, F., and GILL, S.S. 2009. Rural Tourism Development through Rural Cooperatives, Nature and Science international journal, 7(10), pp. 68-73.
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%A8%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%81%D9%8A%D9%88%D9%85-%D8%AA%D8%AA%D8%AD%D9%88%D9%84%D8%A5%D9%84%D9%89-%D9%88%D8%A7%D8%AD%D8%A9-%D9%84%D9%84%D8%AC%D9%85%D8%A7
%D9%84-%D8%A5%D9%8A%D9%81%D9%84%D9%8A%D9%86-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B3%D9%88%D9%8A%
D8%B3%D8%B1/1818460#.VauZXfkirIU > Retrieved on 17 July 2015.
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LOUREIRO, C., and KASTENHOLZ, E. 2011. Corporate reputation, satisfaction, delight, and loyalty towards rural lodging
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%8A%D8%A9-%D8%AA%D9%88%D9%86%D8%B3-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B3%D9%8A%D8%A7%D8%AD%D9
%8A%D8%A9-%D8%A8%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%81%D9%8A%D9%88%D9%85-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A8%D8%
AF%D8%A7%D9%8A%D8%A9> Retrieved on 5 July 2015.
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International Conference | Bari - Lecce, Italy

Session III

TURKEYS ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AND


CHALLENGES TOWARD SUSTAINABILITY
Saja B. Nazzal1 & Hasim Altan1
1 Sustainable Design of the Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering & IT, British University in Dubai, UAE,
sajabassam2@gmail.com / hasim.altan@buid.ac.ae

Abstract
Turkey is one of the countries that exposed recently to fast increase in economy and population. This caused a noticeable inequality of welfare between the socioeconomic groups and
the region. Thus, the country increased its energy consumption. These changes stimulated
the demolition of the ecosystem and the developments which affected the wellbeing of the
social sustainability. This study aimed to investigate the environmental, social and economic
issues that the country faced in the past and at present. Thus, the paper evaluates the impact
of these issues on the countrys development and the human health. Moreover, defining the
challenges that already implemented by the country toward sustainability have been discussed in the paper. In the study, a holistic approach have been adopted to cover the main
issues of sustainability and to provide the appropriate solutions within a sustainability package in order to enhance the countrys income and society. This was supported by an extensive
literature review. The study revealed five main issues in Turkey which are; air pollution, Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions and climatic change, water resources pollution, green land degradation and energy consumption. The proposed solutions are; social awareness, renewable
energy (solar and wind energy), water resources conservation, biodiversity and conservation
of forests, GHG and CO2 emissions reduction, Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and construction
waste management and integrated sustainable regulation and policies.

Keywords
Healthy Environment, Social Impact, Economy, Natural Resources, Sustainable
Development.

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Introduction
Environmental issues have been increasing in the whole world. Peoples health and wellbeing
are affected by these issues such as air pollution, water pollution, energy consumption, urban
sprawl and CO2 and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. Some countries started to stop the negative changes effecting their civilization by implementing sustainable strategies. These strategies
are achieving some sustainability in these countries without destroying the need of their future.
Turkey is one of these countries that have noticeable negative changes allowing features to move
toward sustainability.
Turkey has a strategic location between Asia and Europe, which make it as an energy link between
the oil and natural gas producer in the Middle East and the western energy consumer markets.
Its bordering the Black Sea, Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. The total area of Turkey is
approximately 781,000 km2, most of it in Western Asia and only 3% in Southeastern Europe. Topography of the country is very tough and has many slopes. Half of the land area is occupied by the
rivers. It has approximately 9 rivers and 26 catchment areas.
In recent years, Turkey was exposed to fast increase in economy and population. This caused a
noticeable inequality of welfare between the socioeconomic groups and the region. Thus, it has
increasing energy consumption. These changes stimulated the demolition of the ecosystem and
the developments that affect the wellbeing of the social (Evrendilek and Doygun 2000).
The study is investigating the main environmental, social and economic issues that Turkey faced
in the past and is facing at present. Because of these issues are causing a continuous degradation
for the natural resources. Thus, it affects the satisfaction level of the public in their country and
affects their health negatively. Thus, the study aims to evaluate the impact level of these issues on
the countrys development and the human health. Moreover, the aim of this study is to improve
the quality of the life, increase the healthy life lived, control all the hazards that cause a deterioration for the public and the natural resources, increase the stewardship practices and develop the
country economy but in sustainable way. This is carried out by providing a sustainability package including several solutions. The paper further elaborates on and discusses these solutions.
In more specific, the paper is focusing on four topics which are; the main environmental, social
and economic issues in Turkey, the impact of each on the social, the implemented challenges and
strategies toward sustainability as part of a sustainability package.

Approach, Methodology and Analysis


In order to achieve the aims of this study, a holistic approach will be conducted in order to cover
the main issues of sustainability in Turkey. An extensive literature review has been conducted
to extract the countrys environmental issues, causes, impacts and their challenges toward sustainability. This review will help in providing several new solutions to be applied (or can possibly
be applied) which have been identified through analyses of exiting literature, by studying their
results and making comparisons in order to achieve the sustainable solutions.

Environmental, Social and Economic Issues in Turkey


Turkey has several issues that related to these three main pillars of sustainability. Environmental
issues can affect the social and the economy stability and vice versa. So, they are all related to

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each other and couldnt be separated. This part will define the main issues in Turkey and how they
affect the three pillars of sustainability. Moreover, the impact of each issue on the social sustainability will be addressed.
GHG Emissions and Climate Change
Turkey considered one the countries that have a rapid increase in urbanization, economy and
population. The population in 1990 was approximately 56.47 million, it increased to reach 73.72
million in 2010 and it expected to reach 85.41 million in 2050. Increasing the population led to
increase the urban areas which lead to increase the economic rate. Thus, industrialization has an
impact in increasing the economy in Turkey (PMR 2013). It has been noticed that increasing in the
economy leads to increase the GHG emissions in the same time.
As shown in Figure 1, the GHG emissions in 1990 reached approximately 187 million tons tCO2e and
it increased 114.90% in 2010 (TurkStat 2012). Thus, it shows that the GHG emissions do not have a
significant increase in 2008 and 2009 because of the economic crisis. While in the other years it
has a steady increase.

Figure 1: GHG emissions in Turkey between 1990 and 2010 (TurkStat 2012)
The main problem of increasing the GHG emissions especially CO2 is refers to burning fossil fuels.
High level of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere is lead for the climate change in Turkey. Most
of the energy that used in Turkey is supplied by imports, so it considered high energy importing
country (Kaygusuz 2003). Turkey is an energy intensive country when its compared with the developed countries. After the studies that conducted by Turkish Statistical Institute in 2012, it shows
that GHG emissions mostly came from energy and industrial sectors as shown in Figure 2. In 2010,
the energy sector recorded the highest GHG emissions sector which reached 70.9% of the total
GHG emissions while the industrial sector took the second place. Energy sector could include
residential, manufacturing, electricity generation and transportation.
Air Pollution
The most critical issue and threaten the human health in Turkey is air pollution. A rapid economic
growth, population growth and energy consumption in Turkey lead to increase the air pollution.
When comparing Turkeys carbon emissions per capita to EU advanced countries, it seems that
Turkey has the highest (Bilen et al. 2008). Man-made activities and natural sources emit dangerous pollutants to the air. These activities can include; burning fossil fuels to produce electricity

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and for transportation, industrial activities, waste management, agriculture and natural disasters
(EEA 2013).
Sari and Bayram (2014) conducted a study in zmir and they found that the concentration of different pollutants in the cities depend on the meteorology, topography and the pollutants source.
One of the sources that emit significant amount of pollutants is domestic heating. The pollutants
from this source mainly increased due to the increasing of population and households. Thus, it
can be found only in winter. Moreover, the study shows that the most polluted region from the
domestic heating in zmir is the central district (konak). It has approximately 18% of 10 kt SO2 and
5 kt PM10.
The intensive use of coal for domestic heating in the areas increases the amount of CO, PM10 and
SO2 in the air. As a result, they started to use the high quality coal which has less ash and sulphur
while the eastern part of the city is less exposed to the pollutants due to the wind direction and
less population.

Social Impact of Air Pollution and GHG Emissions:


Altug et al. (2014) stated that a lot of pollutants can cause several problems for the humans respiratory tract (chronic bronchitis and asthma). Thus, it stated by Likhvar et al. (2015), that it causes
mortality due to the cardiovascular diseases. GHG emissions cause also a negative impact for
human health. There are major air pollutants that emit from the source mentioned above which
affect the social comfort and threaten their health which are:
Ammonia (NH3): Mainly emit from agriculture and can be formed for secondary pollutant. It
cause irritation for different body parts and its sensitive for people who have asthma because
it makes difficulties in breathing.
Sulfur Dioxide (SO2): Emitted from burning fuels for electricity production. It can produce secondary pollutants. It can cause a health problem (lung and respiratory system) and damage for
the forests and ecosystem in lakes.
Carbon Monoxide (CO): Produced from incomplete combustion in transportation, industry,
business and household activities. Nervous system will be affected by this particle. Thus, it
cause fatigue and discomfort symptoms.
Nitrogen Oxides (NOx): Transportation and industrial sectors are the main sources of NOx. It
contains the nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen monoxide and it can help to form ozone. It affects
the lung, liver, spleen function, respiratory system and it causes acid deposition.
Non Methane Volatile Organic Compound (NMVOC): Emitted from cleaning products, paints,
transport and solvent uses. Some vegetation can produce biogenic NMVOC but the amounts
rely on the species and the temperature. It harms the human health and can be precursors of
ground- level ozone.
Water Resources Pollution
Lakes pollution can occur due to the industrial waste, agricultural activities, urban activities and
mining of metals. This can affect the aquatic life in negative way and damage the ecosystem. This
can be undertaken especially when the concentration of the heavy metal reach the toxic level
in the water (Guven et al. 1999 cited in Karadede and Unlu 2000). Thus, debris (any manufacture
solid waste that entering the waterways from any source) in marine and waterways have a high
impact in water pollution. Bosporus straits in Turkey are exposed to pollution due to the shipping
traffic accidents which cause severe environmental problems. Thus, its threatening the health of
12 million residents that live around it.

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In 1994, Nassia disaster happened in the Bosporus straits (oil tanker ships accident). It resulted in
spilling large amount of oil in the straits and it affect the aquatic environment by killing around
30 seamen. Another problem can affect the ecosystem is releasing contaminated water from the
oil and natural gas ships. Clean up mechanisms is very costly and it estimated to be as high as $15
billion (EIA 2000).
Ground water pollution sources in Turkey divided into two parts; the natural activities and the anthropogenic activities. The anthropogenic activities include the underground septic tank, waste
from industrial activities and mining, agriculture and improper construction. The natural sources
include geothermal fluids, geological formation and seawater intrusion. These are found in the
Central and Mediterranean regions and arsenic in Aegean region. Geothermal fluids can harm
the bones, skeleton and dental. Leakage of surface water can also increase the pollution level of
the ground water. Thus, sea water intrusion can contaminate the ground water especially in the
coastal areas (Baba & Tayfur 2011).
Water Pollution and its Social Impact:
Some rural areas use the groundwater as drinking water. So, this will cause dangerous diseases
for them. Lakes, rivers and sea pollution will give uncivilized image of the sea, affect its aesthetic value and alienate the sea visitors. Direct contact to the polluted water can cause infectious
hepatitis, diarrhea, bacillary dysentery, skin rashes, and even typhoid and cholera (Sheavly and
Register 2007).
Green Land Degradation
Studies shows that 90% of the forest in Turkey is natural and it have a huge number of trees and
shrubs in different species. Over grazing, cutting, fires and clearance of agriculture reduce the
forest areas from 60%-70% to 26% and increase the steppe areas from 10%-15% to 24% (Mayer and
Aksoy 1986 cited in Colak and Rotherham 2006).
Forest areas started to be threatened by the unsustainable agricultural expansion and damaging
the wild plants by the forest villagers and commercial collectors. These activities increase the
social and economic pressure on the forest resources. Excessive use of herbicide because of the
intense farming cause a soil erosion (Colak and Rotherham 2006). Lack of management of forest
harvesting and grazing in the past and present make also problems in destroying the forests areas. Thus, increasing the areas for industrialization and urbanization has a huge impact especially in the mountain zones. Uncontrolled and unsustainable tourism development in coastal and
mountain areas in Turkey affect the ecosystem in these areas. Thus, it affects the economic growth
in these zones. Intensive construction activities occur to accommodate the increasing of tourism
number (Colak and Rotherham 2006).

Green Land Degradation and its Social Impact:


Lack of green lands in Turkey will reduce the natural aesthetic value and affect the psychology
of the habitats. Thus, it will have an impact on the tourist influx to the country, which will reduce
the economy. Green land degradation affect the air quality in negative way, increase the pollutants and increase the risk of the climatic change. People in rural areas will affected more than the
others because it cause malnutrition for them and even reduce their income. Therefore, diseases,
health risk and poverty will be increased (UNCCD 2013).

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Energy Consumption
Energy use in Turkey has been increased significantly over the past 20 years. Figure 3 shows that
the energy consumption in 1980 reach 1.0 quadrillion Btu (quads) and its increase to reach 2.9
quads in 1998. As above mentioned, most of the energy use is for the industrial sector (50%). Some
experts ensure that 22% of the energy consumption in Turkey is lost due to inefficient distribution
and relay systems (EIA 2000).

Figure 3: Energy consumption in Turkey between 1980 and 1998 (EIA 2000)
Sozen et al. (2005) stated that there are few energy sources in Turkey; most of the net energy
consumption (52%) is produced by imports. Coal, oil, natural gas, geothermal and lignite are parts
of the initial energy sources in Turkey. The major source for fuel production in Turkey is the coal.
Recently the oil for energy consumption increased. The oil consumption reached 44% and natural
gas reached 12% in total primary energy source consumption. While, in the primary energy source
production, the ration of the oil is 1% and the natural gas has 13%. This is due to the lake of oil and
natural gas fields in Turkey. The biggest ration is for the lignite. In 21st century, Turkey has insufficiency of energy sources because of the rapid increase of domestic energy demand. Therefore,
the reliance on outside energy supplies has been increased in this time (Sozen et al. 2005).

Energy Consumption and its Social Impact:


As mentioned above that energy consumption will increase the level of GHG and carbon emissions. Energy use is responsible for three quarter of the dangerous CO2 emissions. That means
the air will be more polluted with dangerous particles which will affect the human health and
comfort. Thus, the traditional energy production didnt give the opportunity for the end user to
participate in the energy production. While, the renewable energy allow for them to sell their
own power to the main grid (PV installed on the roof ) which increase the social acceptance for
the renewables.

Challenges Toward Sustainability


In the last 15 years, Turkey has started to implement new strategies to create a sustainable environment due to the negative impact of the problems that occur. The Constitution ensures in 1982
that the living environment should be healthy for the citizens. In 1991, the awareness of the environment was increased and the Ministry of Environment have been established. However, the
economic and social issues were still not integrated within the environment (Kaygusuz 2009). The

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government of Turkey established the way toward the environment protection, energy polices
and increased the efficiency of the economy (Bilen et al. 2008).
Since 1991, Turkey started to utilize from its energy sources that considered renewable energy
due to its benefit in GHG emissions reduction and other environmental issues. So, it started with
geothermal energy, solar thermal energy and hydropower energy. Investment can increased significantly due to the fixed feed in tariffs and purchase obligation for distribution companies under
the proposed new Renewable Energy Law. Thus, Turkey implemented strategies to produce electricity from nuclear power plant and decreasing the reliance on energy imports. But, this procedure need a lot of studies for the investment cost, waste disposal, safety and other issues related
to nuclear power plant (Bilen et al. 2008).
According to Kaygusuz (2009), sustainable environmental practices became the preference in
Turkeys Eight Five Year Development Plan for 20012005. Moreover, the National Environmental
Action Plan (NEAP) worked to increase the energy and environment awareness by implementing
several strategies. The big challenge is the demand of energy have been increased (growth of
economy) while, the low carbon emission is the target. As mentioned above, burning of fossil fuels emit GHG which cause a climatic change. So, the regulation for the next 20 years will be highly
aware of accommodating between the energy and worlds climate. These sustainable regulations
will affect the economy of the future. The steps toward this issue started with the National Climate
Coordination Group then, a National Climate Program was developed in the scope of the United
Nations Framework - Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Moreover, International Energy
Agencys business as usual scenarios have been already put the regulations at the mid of 2006
(Kaygusuz 2009).
Moreover, practices in solid waste management have been conducted. Since 1950s, industry sectors started to recycle the glass, plastic, metal and papers. Thus, it recycle more than two millions
of junk metal each year, since it considered one of the biggest importing country of junk metal.
Recycling the waste of the household has been accomplished mainly for the packaging waste.
Separating the recyclable materials has been completed since 1993. A lot of strategies toward
MSW management were implemented in Turkey (Metin et al. 2003).

Sustainable Solutions: A Proposed Sustainability Package


The mentioned issues identified above need to be solved by creating a proposal for sustainable
strategies. These strategies will help in decreasing the GHG emissions, reducing climate change
and thus improving the air quality in Turkey. Therefore, health and the life of the social will be
improved.
Clean and Sustainable Energy
Toklu et al. (2010) ensured that Turkeys geographic location encourage to shift from the non-renewable energy to the clean energy. Haluzan (2015) mentioned some of the renewable energy
advantages comparing with the fossil fuels. These advantages include:
Renewables allow for the private sectors to participate in energy production, so it provides
more jobs for the citizens. This will give the country an excellent opportunity to boost with its
economy.
It decreases the reliance on the foreign oil and stop importing it from other countries. Increasing the reliance on the existing renewable sources will improve the energy security and energy independence. Thus, the country will get the benefit from its natural resources instead of

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destroying them.
Renewable energy sources have abundant amount of energy unlike the fossil fuels have limited amount. For example, Turkey can use intensive amount of sun energy without intermittence.
It increases the political relationship in term of exchanging the knowledge. Thus, large renewable projects could be shared with other countries.
Ocak et al. (2004) stated that Turkey have large amount of renewable energy sources. In 2001,
the energy that produced from the renewables reaches 8.95 Mtoe. In the near future, the major
sources of energy in Turkey are the fossil fuels, nuclear energy and renewables (biomass, direct
solar energy, hydropower and wind).
In other words, Turkey has already implemented some strategies to emphasize on renewable as a
source of energy. But, still it has a high amount of coal consumption which has an environmental
risk mainly air pollution. Renewables have some of disadvantages but comparing with the fossil
fuels, they are not harmful. Biomass, geothermal and hydropower energy are exploited well in
Turkey. Solar and wind energy are used in limited area while they have the proper conditions to
utilize from them.
Solar Energy
Solar energy is inexhaustible and unlimited source of energy. Turkey is located in sunny belt between 36N and 42N latitudes. Figure 4 below shows the annual average solar radiation and sunshine duration in different areas in Turkey. It seems that there is a high potential for solar energy
application to be installed in different locations in Turkey. This is due to the availability of the land
and high amount of solar radiation. The amounts of solar energy that can be exploited reach 36.2
Mtoe per year. The percentages of the land area that can be utilized for solar energy in 10 month
reach 63% while, in the whole year, 17% of the land area can be utilized (Ocak et al. 2004; Sagbas
and Karamanloglu 2011).

Figure 4: Solar and wind energy potential in Turkey (Ocak et al., 2004).
Turkey considered a third largest producer of solar thermal energy in the world. On the other
hand, it doesnt have a significant installed capacity of PV cells. Whereas, PV applications can be
exploited in different areas in Turkey, where there is direct solar radiation and land availability.
So, getting the benefit from all solar energy application will reduce the reliance on fossil fuels as
s source for energy.

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Wind Energy
Wind energy has been used currently in many countries due to its huge power, low cost and it
causes air pollution. Turkey one of the countries that has the suitable conditions for wind energy
and it can cover all the electricity needs. However, it did not utilize this abundant amount of energy. Sagbas and Karamanloglu (2011) stated that the potential wind energy in Turkey is approximately reaching 88,000 MW while Turkey only installed 12 wind power plants. However, in 2007,
the wind energy installed capacity started to increase from 50 MW to reach 150 MW in 2008.
Water Resources Conservation
Ocak et al. (2004) ensured the importance of storing the runoff water in water storages during
different time in the season. In order to use it when there is a need for it. Thus, the cleanness of
the water resources in Turkey such as; Bosporus, lakes, river and underground water is very important. Cakmak et al. (2007) cited that the current legal management in Turkey is integrated and not
enough to avoid the water pollution. Thus, there is a need for comprehensive regulation in order
to establish a standards and law for using these resources.
Strategies and adequate planning for pollution reduction in groundwater should be conducted. Proper construction methods and industry activities will enhance and increase the quality
of groundwater. It can achieve by replacing the toxic raw materials and solvents with less toxic
or nontoxic and increase the efficiency of the manufacturing process (recycle and reuse). Thus,
design for waste reduction which should be issued in the planning phase (Granholm and Chester
2003). Some industries dump their waste in the groundwater instead of pay for warehouse to
store their waste. The waste could be stored in old oil deposits because it works as geological trap
(Sviridova et al. 2007).
Another solution for groundwater pollution could be implemented is fixing the leaky sewers and
mains systems. This method could be expensive but in the long term the risk of the pollution will
be higher. Geothermal pipes that contain fluids must be insulated well in order to stop leakage in
groundwater (Sviridova et al. 2007). There are different methods of cleaning up the oil that spills
in the Bosporus. The issues are that these methods are expensive and may result in GHG emissions. Thus, it will harm the aquaculture. So, avoiding spilling the oil in the sea is much easier than
cleaning it.
Biodiversity and Conservation of Forests
Strategies and programs for conservation of forest product and increase the biodiversity should
be implemented in sufficient way. Management for these programs is very essential in order to
achieve the goal of them. These strategies will not be affective without the awareness of the public
and their desire to change their behaviour in order to create a healthy sustainable environment.
There are three actions should be taken in term of biodiversity which are; protection, research and
development and utilization (Kaya and Raynal 2001).
Turkeys government should be aware about land degradation risks. In order to implement the
policies that conserve the historical, cultural and natural resources, increase the biodiversity and
protect the genetic resources. It should start with identifying the factors that threaten the biodiversity in forests and destroy the natural resources. Then, measures should be taken to stop
the loss of natural habitats. Continuous researches and update methods to protect the land and
forest from degradation. Policies, regulation and proper management should be accomplished.
The harmonization between the objectives of the forest management system and the plant diversity should be assured. Thus, silviculture and forest engineering practices should be studied and

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reviewed properly. Some of unplanted sites in afforestation areas should be reserved in order to
produce the diversity of the natural habitat.
GHG and CO2 Emissions Reduction
This solution can be achieved by applying more than one strategy. These strategies could be:
Using renewable energy and stop burning fossil fuels will reduce these emissions as mentioned above.
Carbon tax: its a well-known instrument and can be applied within the existing administrative
system. It considered cheaper than the emission trading system. The taxes are differentiate
according to the GHG taxed, the size of the tax and the exceptions and concessions that provided for the large energy production stakeholders. High taxes are associated with the energy
production from burning polluted fossil fuels (in term of greenhouse gases) while lower taxes
for less polluted fossil fuels (Diesendorf 2007; Spaulding et al. 2008).
Emission trading: this way is much complex than the carbon taxes. It works to set standards
for the allowable amount of emission. It can give special permissions for the some producers
to emit specific amount. The allowable amount of emission should not obstruct the target of
GHG emission reduction. It allow in trading the permits. This can be done by when some of
entrants can decrease their emissions at lower cost than others. So, they have the ability to sell
their permits for other entrants that decrease their emissions at higher cost (Diesendorf 2007).
Life cycle analysis (LCA): specific programs and methods used to measure the environmental
performance for a building or product. It improve the construction steps and methods in order
to achieve less carbon footprint e.g. using replacing some materials with other that has less
carbon emission. Moreover, LCA used to measure the environmental performance for specific
material or product which also helps to define the amount of emissions. Specifying the LCA for
the materials that used in the building will reduce the emissions and increase the efficiency of
the building.
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and Construction Waste Management
Beside the strategies that already implemented in Turkey regarding the MSW, additional practices
should be accomplished in order to minimize the waste generation. Waste reduction and recycling are the main strategies to reduce the MSW. Waste reduction could be done by increasing
the durability and the life cycle of the product in order to resale it again. Thus, it could be done
by composting. The use of internet has a significant impact on the use of the papers. MSW could
be recycled if have the incentives and the support from the government. Economics of recycling
should be considered before the recycling process occurs. This can be achieved by studying the
energy cost of recycling product vs. landfill disposal. Thus, the energy cost of producing a new
product from recycled one vs. producing new product from the scratch. Moreover, the health
effect cost should be considered.
Social Awareness
Peoples awareness of environmental problems and the risks that associate with them is the first
step toward sustainability. They have to understand the causes behind sustainability e.g. why
we have to reduce the carbon and GHG emissions and why we have to reduce the green land
degradation, etc. Therefore, when they understand these issues, they will convinced and have the
motivation to change their behaviour. Changing in their behaviour will strongly affect in achieving the solutions because most of environmental problems are caused by the humans. Internal
motivation of the individuals is important because it will take long term to behave sustainably.
Social milieu should be helpful and encourage people to change their way toward sustainability.
It may differ from one to another because of the way of thinking (Werner 1999).

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Integrated Sustainable Regulation and Policies


In order to achieve a sustainable environment, integration of regulations and policies should be
enforced. This solution could be considered as a long term solution. Government is responsible
to put these policies and regulations. Thus, it should put a penalty for the outlaw people. These
regulation should considered the three pillars of sustainability which are; environment, economy
and social. Because of each one of these is connected to the other and cannot be separated. Regulations and policies should be taken for every practice that cause a negative environmental and
economic impact, deplete the natural resources, increase the climate change, increase the heat
island effect and affect the human health and wellbeing.
When the government implements these strategies and policies to protect the environment, the
habitat will be affected and encouraged. So, integrated regulation in the country will encourage
the people to change their behaviour and becoming more awareness about the environment.
National policy should have strategies that reduce the climate change and global warming. These
can be at local government level, and then it will have the potential to be international. It promotes the growth of the natural resources, decrease the automobile emissions and increase the
potential of renewable energy. Thus, it encourages the habitant and the private organizations to
embrace the sustainable practices (Salkin 2009).

Conclusions
To conclude, Turkey is one of the countries that have aesthetic and valuable natural features
which can increase the quality of life. These features should be conserved by using sustainable
strategies and policies that protect them from degrading. Therefore, this study provides the most
appropriate strategies that could help the country after reviewing the main problems. In order to
insure the high quality of living, reducing the death rate because of the diseases and pollutants
in the air, and providing the citizens all the support to live safely in their country are essential
features. Furthermore, sustainable living should be spread all over the world in order to stop the
global environmental crises and helping one and other. Starting the implementation in one country will encourage the awareness of the other countries.

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Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey, Energy Conversion and Management, 45(6), pp. 845-864.
PARTNERSHIP FOR MARKET READINESS (PMR), 2013, Market Readiness Proposal.
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Books.

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International Conference | Bari - Lecce, Italy

Session III

SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS FOR THE PHILIPPINES


BUILT ENVIRONMENT DUE TO NATURAL
DISASTERS
Salma Al-Zahabi1 & Hasim Altan1
1 Sustainable Design of the Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering & IT, British University in Dubai, UAE,
alzahabi.salma@gmail.com / hasim.altan@buid.ac.ae

Abstract
The Philippines with its high population, limited development, continues natural disasters,
and poor economy, creates extremely poor living standards not only for its people living today, but also for the future generations living conditions. The Philippines is one of the most
disaster-prone countries in the world, said the Australian Aid program of Philippines (2007),
keeping it in a large-scale danger zone to date. In this study, the research was divided into
four main categories: (1) selecting a relevant case study; (2) conducting reviews of previous
literature and experiments; (3) suggesting sustainable solutions, and finally (4) creating a
comparison between proposed solutions and other existing implementations and their outcomes. The paper suggests anti-flood floating shelters with an initial dynamic design shape
allowing protection of residential shelters and occupants during and after natural disasters
such as heavy floods. The approach is to create both solutions to save the countrys people
and infrastructures from natural dangers. Sustainable design illustrates low energy shelter
designs, inspired by buoyant concept and light floating materials. The proposed design is presenting two types of renewable energy generations; hydropower energy and vortex induced
vibration aquatic clean energy (VIVACE) through machines underwater. As a result, shelters
dynamic shapes allow water circulation and movement to generate energy using hydro turbines attached to proposed shelters that will supply power in presence and absence of floods
during natural disasters. In conclusion, the paper suggests a large-scale design implementation plan covering existing houses in collaboration with the governments future sustainable
projects.

Keywords
Philippines, Natural Disasters, Floods, Buoyant definition, Anti-flood Shelters,
Hydropower Energy, Energy Turbines, Renewable Resources.

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1. Introduction
The Philippines is a country of the largest American population in Asia, where many Americans
have seen its paradise islands nature and decided to stay in, based on the author Sabrina Lovino,
2012. Philippines coastline islands are unique by their baby-blue pacific oceans, long leafy tree
forests, warm tropical weather and a number of 7,100 different islands; forming its paradisiacal
atmosphere. Nevertheless, in contrast with its beauty, Philippines is known by its high population, limited development, continues natural disturbance, and poor economy which forced huge
number of local residents to live overseas and fight for a better individual income. The Philippines
as a country is well known by its extreme poor living standards, pollution and highly vulnerable
conditions to climatic changes and its impact. The Philippines is one of the most disaster-prone
countries in the world, said by the Australian Aid program of Philippines in year 2007. Continuously, in recent years 2011, 2012, and 2013, there were the five deadliest typhoons recorded in the
Philippines. Moreover, the year 2013 has been recorded as the strongest typhoon to hit country,
which killed thousands of lives, resulted in major damages and predicted higher risks in the future.
The Philippines show a huge conflict between its beautiful magical natural resources that definitely attracts tourism, and its extreme poor living of residents and the continuous damages
caused by its natural disasters. Moreover, understanding current risks and the ongoing severe
problems, observing damages and issues expanding through the countrys lifetime and expected
to continue in the future, this study aims to propose a plan that can balance the current situation
by improving countrys economic status, suggesting sustainable solutions for housing, and using
its natural resources as sources and tools to help developing further, by also increasing its income
in order to achieve a better and more sustainable outcome.

2. Methodology
The paper is divided into four main categories; First (1), selecting a relevant case study; a city
experiencing major aspects that must be discussed and analyzed. Second (2), studying pervious
reviews and experiments (i.e. constructed solutions or suggested ideas), and addressing the main
problems, causes and challenges faced. Third (3), suggesting sustainable solutions that are based
on upgraded sustainable ideas for more effective and environmentally friendly impact to fill-in
gaps of earlier solutions. Solutions will be divided into two main aspects: Aspect A, is how to
protect and prevent (or reduce effects on) residences and infrastructures from natural disasters
by enhancing better control systems and using successful implementation techniques made by
developed countries with relevant issues of concern. Aspect B, is to make use of natural resources, rather than neglecting their existence, such as generating electricity from water. Fourth (4),
creating a comparison between proposed solutions and other existing implementations, and
discussing their outcomes if there were to be implemented showing improvements or any other
successful results, e.g. countrys economy.

3. Philippines Islands Nature


3.1 Geographical Aspects and Climate
It is recorded as the 7th highest population in Asia, and the 12th country in the world. Philippines;
the islands which are known as the Republic of Philippines, located in southeast Asia, is marked
as 64th largest country in the world, consisting of 7,107 different islands. Its current population

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(2014) is recorded as an approximate of 107 million people; based on the estimation of worlds
population (2014) by the United States Bilateral Relations Fact Sheets, in addition of 12 million
people who live overseas. Philippines total islands area is 300,000 square kilometers, considering
it as the 5th longest coastline and also as the 3rd deepest country in the world. The Philippines is
a tropical maritime climate, usually known by its hot and humid weather. Introducing three main
seasons; hot dry season, rainy season, and cool dry season. Coolest month starts from January,
warmest in May, and the rainiest season from June to August. On the other hand, it is also usual
for unexpected rain or storms to visit Philippines islands anytime through the year, provided by
the worlds weather and climate information (2013). Moreover, the Philippines is known by its distinguished environmental nature, because of its location and ground level. It introduces volcanic
island nature, earthquakes and mainly heavy rain that leads to major natural disasters such as
storms, floods or typhoons.
3.2 Environmental Disasters
One of the environmental problems (disasters) the country is facing regularly is floods; they are
the result of heavy continuance rain falling on rivers, and because of its deep surface levels, water
easily enters islands surface. An average of 20 tropical cyclones, of which 5 to 7 are destructive,
hit the country every year (AusAID, 2011). Floods end in massive destruction in the city as a whole;
destroying its nature (i.e. landscape, agriculture), buildings (i.e. houses, schools, hospitals, governmental centers), public ways (i.e. subways/transportation bypass), and end up killing residents (elderly, men, women and many kids). Even when floods occur in a smaller scale, mentioned by one
of the residents in Manila, Philippines capital; water can stay more than a day or two, residents
may swim or use boats to travel from one area to another, where water levels can reach our knees
and many times to our chests, forcing us to collect our furniture in our houses, arranging them on
top of each other, protecting and raising them from water level. The recent and biggest Typhoon
in the region, internationally known as Haiyan (Yolanda) occurred in the Philippines in December
2013, which resulted in massive damages and deaths.

4. Case Study
Selected area is Metro Manila city; selection is made based on areas location, population, high
percentage of damages obtained, and availability of complete information and studies made earlier by different associations such as Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery Trust
Fund of the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID). Figures below (Fig.1 and
Fig.2) illustrate images of Metro Manila; Figure 1 presents map of the city with clear view of islands
connection to the water surfaces and river lines. Figure 2 illustrates realistic image taken in 2012
during NECK-DEEP flood.

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Figure 1: Boundary of study area and the river basins (AusAID 2011)

Figure 2: NECK-DEEP floods devastated parts of Metro Manila as monsoon rains poured endlessly
(AFP/DND 2012)

5. Conducted Reviews
AusAID, is a development partner that works as an agency on governmental projects of Philippines to mobilize, fund, and reduce risks from natural disasters by setting different systems and
services, focusing on the most vulnerable - the poor. The reviews and documents discussed are
highlighting many aspects, like urban planning and infrastructure, economic and mortality risks,
emergency preparations, and development goals of reducing damages. The program is designed
to show how AusAID will substantially contribute to building the resilience of Philippines cities
over the longer-term through four activities (AusAID 2011:38):
1. Enhancing national capacity for risk analysis.
2. Helping communities build disaster preparedness and awareness.
3. Establishing risk-sensitive land use plans and policies.
4. Building safer and disaster-resilient homes and settlements.

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6. Potential Sustainable Solutions


Suggested solutions are categorized into two main parts; (1) protecting and preventing highest
risks of natural disasters of individuals or small groups (families), and (2) usage of natural resources as a source of generating income. Details are presented in Figure 3 below.

Figure 3: Potential sustainable solutions


Philippines poor economic status, low employment, limited educational opportunities, high
population and construction condensation, presents high poverty in population that most residents are barely able to pay their electricity bills and/or send their children to schools, buy cars
for transportation, or own homes with basic comfort standards. The Philippines society lives in
ignorance that challenges the country is facing, a lot of development and safety assurance need
to be obtained. Thus, simple guides must be delivered to the society to highlight the importance
of safety and to reduce the risk of deaths in poor areas.
Preventing natural disasters can be implemented in various techniques; in rainy seasons, studying to prevent the floods (flood protect system), such as creating dams, river dikes, landscaping,
rise homes ground levels, underground water tunnels, and other building design suggestions. In
contrast, during dry seasons, using underground water tunnels for car transportation to reduce
the traffic, and using stored water when country suffers from water shortages during dry seasons.
Moreover, the usage of natural resources to enhance better sustainable living, e.g. electricity from
water by hydro-electric power, which gives free sustainable technique in generating electricity,
selling electricity, increasing economic growth, and allowing employment. The methods and systems used are influenced and studied by other countries that initially started these strategies,
such as the Netherlands (most densely populated on earth) that used several flood controls for
hundreds of years starting from basic manual systems to technologically highly-developed solutions. In addition, Malaysia, which started the first underground flood system tunnels and bypass,
and other countries like Japan and Pakistan.
6.1 Hydro-electric Power (HEP)
HEP is a technique for generating electricity or watts from water, which can play a key role in
funding of power projects (Kim and Urpelainen 2012). This study suggests an examination on using HEP on a group of houses; an average of six, low to medium shelters at standard levels, then
determining the amount of power generated and if the amount can be used as a permanent
generator. Also, finding solution in presence of flood (high current water) or in absence of flood
(low current water).

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7. Protection and Prevention of Natural Resources (Destruction)


7.1 Metro Manila Current Practices
Metro Manila, a popular region in the Philippines, it includes governmental sectors and other
metropolitan cities; presenting the highest population density, 43,079.38 per km2. One of the metropolitan cities, is the city of Manila, overall consists of clusters of high-rise buildings, towers,
universities, and other famous shopping malls in the city center, as shown earlier in Figure 2. On
the other hand, smaller buildings and houses occupy the rest of the areas. These low building
structures and housings are most likely the ones that would be affected by floods and natural disasters, which take place in the city. This study is using a single area compound of a small housing
project in order to improve their performance and to meet a higher level of sustainable design,
by also focusing on their current and future practices.
7.2 Sustainable Usage of Housing Land
Metro Manila is an area that consists of buildings and homes of different sizes and heights. In
general, the most areas that were affected by floods are areas of low height buildings and houses.
On the other hand, tall buildings are less affected and they are considered as safer shelters. Thus,
redesigning areas of single-story homes to multiple story buildings would majorly affect and help
positively to reduce natural disaster impacts. Considering houses of single stories, illustrated in
Figure 4 below, a compound of an approximate area of 600 square meters (sqm), including four
single story houses per compound, which makes it a ratio of 4:4 is full filling the whole area. While
redesigning the same occupancy area with single and multiple story buildings, decreases the
ratio to 1:4 and allows 3:4 ratio for other services and spaces. This division reduces land occupancy
and helps reducing the risk of house flood damages where three houses are considered in a safe
zone while only one lower level is in risk.

Figure 4: Top view, housing compound sample, 4:4 housing area, no housing services, single-story
level (left), 1:4 housing area, 3:4 housing services, multi-story houses (right)
Nevertheless, multiple story buildings still lack efficiency and protect their users from massive
amounts of water entering homes during high flood activities. Because ground level and subways
are still affected and cannot be accessible, as shown in Figure 5 below; lower building story, and
other services and subways are majorly affected, and must be carefully studied.

Flood water level


Figure 5: Elevation view, housing compound sample, 1:4 housing area, 3:4 housing services, multi-story houses

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Liquid-proof building material is also required; bad proofing and finishing will not only allow
water to pass through houses external walls and building indoors, but also destroys their structure, e.g. Philippines most recent floods in 2014 destroyed hundreds of houses and infrastructures
completely. Philippines government organized hundreds of tents for occupants who lost their
houses, which is absolutely considered as an endurable solution. Many residences are still using
the same tents until today, facing more issues than they faced in their original homes, said by one
of the residents, Jason Fabra, 2014.
Other suggestions discussed by engineers and designers is to raise the ground level of the whole
area that is highly affected by the floods. This concept would help reduce the probability of the
water reaching occupied surface areas by creating a new ground layer on top of Philippines existing island layers, however, building materials, cost, time, and efficiency, make it not the best
sustainable solution to be conducted in the case of Philippines due to its current and poor economic status. As an alternative, solutions must be effective and economically sustainable to obtain much more efficient results, lower costs and earth/user friendliness.
Figure 6 below presents a flood resistant home, using one of the initial strategies; raised platform
from ground level. This idea of detaching homes from ground level was never the perfect solution. A house pillar heights are never enough, based on different flood water levels. In addition,
for the period of absence of floods in the rest of the year, design shows poor interaction with its
surroundings, space is wasted on ground level, hard accessibility and costly construction material
usage.

Figure 6: Flood resistance home design (Aussie Handmade 2014)


7.3 Flood Control Concept
Buoyant defined as the ability or tendency to keep afloat or rise to the top of a liquid or gas (Oxford Dictionaries 2015). The idea of obtaining object maximum balance on any depth or liquid surface, which allows an object, such as a small boat to flow high above water level. Instead of water
liquid overlapping boats roof and ends up sinking, this technique will allow a boat to smoothly
run on water surface. Nevertheless, the same strategy can also be used on bigger scale boats and
yachts. New idea was raised by using similar methods in houses designed to obtain balance in
houses during flood periods, and to make them work exactly as boat floating in a marine. Considering the areas infrastructure in case of a flood; the new idea will play a massive support to
prevent their destruction, but instead to make them float and interact smoothly with their natural
surroundings.
How can boats float and function? Mainly, boats fall under four main categories; (1) how fast it can

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speed on water surface, (2) boat stability, (3) cost of material used to build and design, and finally
(4) the draft, how deep a boat can operate in water. These are summarized under Archimedes
principle and physics of buoyancy (Carroll 2015; Nave 2015). A principle that states; the buoyant
force is equal to the weight of the displaced water, and thus allows an object to float. Shape of
an object also plays a role on its balance and stability. Flat base boats are likely to be more stable
than shaped ones; they help boats to keep their minimum body surface under water level. They
will also minimize friction between boat surface and floodwater flow, which will not allow any
strong hits on objects basement, but instead run smoothly below.

8. Anti-flood Floating Shelters (AFFS) Concept Design Proposal


8.1 Proposed Housing Design System Anti-flood Floating Shelters
In this study, the proposal is a unique sustainable concept, suggesting a new and an innovative
design, which will be tested on a small scale; single housing compounds or a single building. After
testing and commissioning a design proposal, effectiveness and workability will be evaluated;
design can be then approved and applied on different sites that are considered highly affected
by floods, such as the City of Manila, Philippines.
Anti-flood floating shelters (AFFS) concept will mainly focus on the idea of flexibility. The concept
of flexibility will elaborate design in; (1) usage in different occasions, and matters, (2) how design
can be adjusted based on natural disasters, (3) how proposed design can make usage of water,
and generate other resources, and finally, (4) highlights the presence of design concept in respect of its surrounding nature, materials, and most importantly its users. All of the above will be
combined to produce a unique, good-looking design that considers the environment and future
living. This design proposal will be shown in two stages; a building during a regular dry season,
and a second scene during a wet rainy season (or presence of flood).
The main influence are the boats and their ability to balance and float on water surfaces. Thus,
buoyancy principle will be applied on homes on a regular basis, they will settle down on ground
as a regular system, but during floods, homes will rise by buoyant system installed under the
house or building, and therefore will rise on top of water level, building will be able to move vertically. In case of major floods, none of the houses will sink and be covered by water, but instead,
all homes and buildings will be floating on top of the water surfaces. On the other hand, boat and
buoyant system, were not the only features and elements that influenced the proposal in this
study, but also a conceptual design, suggested by a designer from New Orleans, Cornell, who designed a proposal after Hurricane Katrina struck New Orleans considering its surrounding neighborhoods; it was considered one of the most catastrophic natural disasters ever to impact the
United States (US), said by one of a single family home owner. The concept of this proposal was
to protect the family house by the ability of the house to rise up in the attendance of water. The
house is attached from both sides, by two supporting walls; as shown in Figure 7 below. Images in
the figure were captured from a video of flood simulation to show the workability of the system
in a smaller scale, illustrating southwest view of the family home, showing the extraction of the
house upwards, without causing any damages of destruction to its exterior or interior structures.
Finally, the very bottom images illustrate the final design in a real flood scene where the design
shows nicely how it floats and prevents the house from sinking in water like other neighboring
homes.

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Figure 7: Anti-flood house, video capture, New Orleans (PEREZ TORRES, 2012)
8.2 Philippines Anti-flood Floating Shelters
When considering the City of Manila, many aspects are taken into consideration in addition to
floating system of the house, because Manila is known by its high number of residents and low
economical rates. The area must be designed carefully in a way to obtain the extreme benefits;
especially considering sustainable renewable aspects; earth friendly and cost effective scenarios,
to assure its future convenience. Thus, design must be able to observe maximum number of families living and in need of such resources.
Firstly, building will consist of two stories only, allowing 3 different tenants or users to each floor,
a total of 6 tenants per building (shelter). Total average of the building will be an approximate of
400 square meters, comparing the earlier total area of a standard compound, standard housing
clusters of four equals to an approximate of 600 sqm. Comparing both areas to be occupied by
land, proposed design will reduce a percentage of 44.44%. Table below illustrates a detailed calculation (Table 1).

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Table 1: The data of the standard and proposed design areas required
Land Area
Standard design

1 tenant

150 sqm

Proposed design

1 tenant

66.66 sqm

Secondly, it is the building shape, which is considered as a critical point, because of building land
critical nature, proposed building will not be built in a practical dry area, but instead, it will be
built in an area that is probably expecting a natural disaster anytime during the year. Thus, special
design outline must be proposed to conduct an accurate, successful, and workable design outcome. At the very beginning, the aim was to make use of every side of the interior space, and to
reduce the maximum cost, thus shape A was proposed, as a basic square shape as can be seen in
Figure 8. However, in case of flood, water would strike directly on the buildings sharp edges allowing hard collision, performing a direct high pressure on its exterior structure, which will cause
it to shake and increase the probability of being damaged. On the other hand, circular design plan
as shown as shape B, will give more easy and flexible flow of water waves around the building. Yet,
considering its interior curved walls, design is not much appreciated and considered as a waste
of space. As a result, combination of both shapes have been considered in order to produce more
convenient square curved edges building shape, to also fulfil both aspects and to produce more
rich design, repeating the shape 3 times, increasing the number of residences, and implementing
a more flexible outline, and to generate the acceleration of water smoothly on the building, allowing water flow from all sides. Shapes A, B, C, and D are illustrated in Figure 8 below.

Figure 8: Building design outline development, illustration


Thirdly, understanding the obtained design shape, while building an operating system must be
understood too. As mentioned earlier, concepts behind boats and floating design systems will be
proposed to design a sustainable initial proposal that is qualified to operate the building based
on its current situations and problems of concern. In the case of Manila city, which faces a high
number of floods per year, sustainable design must reduce the destructions caused by these disasters, and make use of this non-stopping natural resource, considering countrys future. Proposed design will be flexible in a way that it can be elevated from the ground level, based on flood
water level, and can be returned back safely in the absence of flood. At the center of the building,
tubular column will be structured in the ground, up to the highest level of the building, to hold
and support the building in presence of floods, and as a main structure for the building when
rising vertically, allowing building usability in different occasions and water levels.
As shown below (Fig.9), building is divided into three different sectors, and connected in a center
by a single big structural tubular column, which holds the building structure together, and because of buildings shape, all building sides will smoothly prevent any direct harsh contact of
water flows, and in this way, any damages and issues will be reduced.

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Figure 9: Floodwater flow on proposed design building, illustration


Overall, figure below (Fig.10) summarizes building system, and explains all working mechanisms.
Blocks A, B, and C are the basic houses division of every floor, connected by center column, which
is structured deep in the ground, and around the column (in white color) is the main staircase
that will be the access tool to building blocks. The lowest level of the building, illustrated in grey
color, contains the buoyant device. In case of floods, these devices will be filled with water before
it reaches the house, making the buoyant device float, floating the building with it. The proposed
building design will only have the flexibility of moving vertically; upwards and downwards, and
the level of the water will dedicate its height, keeping the house and all interior content dry and
safe.

Figure 10: Building buoyant system before and after the presence of flood (3DS Max render)

Structural walls will contain multiple layers to protect building interior from its exterior unwanted
weather. Walls will include, interior wallboards, nailing ribs, studs, spray on insulation, and finally
waterproof plastic finishes, and by offsetting the exterior finish of the house, creating multipurpose wall functions as a rain screen, and heat/humid resistant material finish, which will resist
any approximate of 90% of the house, by avoiding any humid heat entering the space. Using this
method, building is saving energy while keeping the interior space cooler.
In addition, for dry and sunny seasons, windows must also be protect by heat reflectors, to enable
them to work as shading devices for house interiors, by rebounding outdoor radiation and keeping cool air into the interior space. Furthermore, heat exhaustion, hot air produced by occupants
and building equipment, is always stored high in ceiling levels as shown in figure below (Fig.11),
and by allowing openings through the staircase, around structural column; air will flow and exit
from interior space to the exterior.

Sustainable solutions for the Philippines built environment due to natural disasters

145

Figure 11: Building heat exhaustion (3DS Max render)


8.3 Anti-flood Floating Shelters (AFFS) and Hydro Power Renewable Energy (HPRE)
As mentioned earlier, the huge amounts of water that the City of Manila is collecting daily/monthly, must not be neglected, but instead must be used wisely, as an important source of energy. This
resource will work toward helping occupants instead of causing them negative impact on their
living and health. Generating energy from water is a common technique used by many sectors
and in different fields, usually in large scale projects where harnessing hydro energy is effective
by reducing poverty in different countries, such as China, Japan, Pakistan and India. In addition to
many other resources like coal, gas, and oil, among these energy powers, hydro power is the only
renewable resource.
Energy access is only emphasized in a tiny minority of projects (Kim and Urpelainen 2012:411), indicating that although government is working with different associations to adopt better sustainable guidance and implementation, nevertheless, the poor society is still receiving unsustainable
solutions at high costs, which cannot be affordable or beneficial. In the case of Philippines, hydro
power is generated by large private and governmental sectors, using big electrical generators to
extract energy power from moving water. Nevertheless, these projects are not reaching the users
directly (i.e. the city people) and have no straight benefit for people in need, instead, the private
sector is selling these energy sources to the government at high prices, because they are still
considered as new systems. This process is helping the country to grow slowly, but not effective
enough to give guidance to most of the residences, and to help with reducing the big bills residents are paying currently.
AFFS will propose two types of new hydraulic design systems, used as a small scale implementation, generating energy to single buildings only. System A Turbine Wheel, will generate energy
in the presence of a high water flow during floods, and stores energy in battery generator during
the absence of water. System B, named as VIVAC (University of Michigan 2009) will generate energy from slow water currents, which can be used as a permanent energy source.
AFFS HPRE - Type A
Considering the proposed design, two residential stories in addition to the ground buoyant system story will be built, and on the first story base, two turbines will be installed on each side
of building blocks. Turbines will accelerate and generate energy in the presence of floodwater,
directly connected to building battery storage, which will allow building residents to use their
self-energy generation. Figure below (Fig.12) will illustrate basic elevation of one of the building
blocks.

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Figure 12: Building hydro-energy turbines, 3Ds Max Render

As shown in above figure (Fig.12), turbines will be placed on the first floor base, 2 per block, and
6 turbines for 6 shelters. Each turbine will supply energy to one residential shelter. This source of
energy will be useful in emergency cases, such as during floods. On regular basis during floods
in Philippines, electricity is cut or disconnected due to wire damages or for safety guide. Using
hydro-energy turbine, residents will not worry about any safety issues; instead, energy will be
sufficient in a larger scale during flood emergency.
AFFS HPRE - Type B
VIVACE an approved invention system produced by the University of Michigan researchers in
2009, and used as a power generator in slow water moving currents deep in both ocean and river waters. VIVACE does not depend of any type of turbines, dams or waves, and it is believed to
be more environmentally friendly than that other sources. The machine imitates the strategy of
school of fish, and pops a cylinder in the bottom of the river, across the direction of water current,
the cylinder moves will cause the water to move above and below the cylinder, resulting in particle vibration, which are captured by the machine.

Figure 13: VIVACE machine, invention by University of Michigan (video capture) (University of Michigan 2009)
Because of the Philippines islands nature, the cities are surrounded by seawater from all sides,
and river lines cutting the islands. VIVACE will be installed deep in rivers or sea grounds, connected to battery generators that will directly connect to building battery, and to generate permanent
energy supply for the residences; proposing sufficient amount of energy for residents to use on
a daily basis.
Overall, AFFS will focus on illustrating a sustainable building sample that can work in presence
and absence of floods, highlighting two major points; (1) protecting structure and residences of
flood casual damages, and (2) generating energy from water and protecting Philippines future
residents with a permanent source of energy. AFFS will help proposing a better and a more sus-

Sustainable solutions for the Philippines built environment due to natural disasters

147

tainable system for the Philippines residences in the presence of floods and other natural disasters, and keeping the country in the developed nations list of the future, and giving its residents
an opportunity to a safe land and a better living area.

9. Conclusions
Every year, the Philippines is economically decreasing because of the infrastructure loss caused
by various different natural disasters. In 2014, more than two billion dollars were recorded as loss,
in addition to human lives that are being in danger and facing major risks. The probability of
having bigger disasters are increasing based on recent climate change scenarios. It is highly recommended that the government should take an action and start building renovation systems by
updating buildings with new sustainable solutions, relevant to most of the developed countries,
and by paying costs to improve building systems and to reduce any likely future damages, rather
than losing on more and more costs on a yearly basis.
The study has suggested ideas that can be obtained as future sustainable solutions in order to
utilize the areas to be livable in the coming years with appreciations from those residents. All
suggestions are made for individuals and small scale buildings, and can be carried out as accurate
solutions to allow the private companies and individual residents to action upon such proposals, and to also enable them to start their own building constructions, which will not only raise
awareness throughout the country, but also motivate other residents and local authorities as well
as the government. The study may be expanded in the future for more detailed information and
simulation about the AFFS proposal design and system.

References
ASCOSTA, A.L., EUGENIO, E.A., and ENANO, H.N., 2014, Sustainability trade-offs in bioenergy development in the Philippines: An application of conjoint analysis, Biomass and Bioenergy, pp. 1-22.
AUSTRALIAN AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (AusAID), 2011, Building the resilience and awareness of
metro manila communities to natural disasters and climate change impacts.
BUREAU OF INTERNATIONAL LABOR AFFAIRS (ILAB) and US EMBASSY, MANILA, 2003, Philippines, Foreign Labor
Trends, 1990-1991.
CARROLL, B.W., 2015, Archimedes Principle. [online] retrieved from: http://physics.weber.edu/carroll/archimedes/principle.htm [Accessed: 3 Aug 2015].
DINH LE, H., SMITH, C., HERBOHN, J., and HARRISON, S., 2012, More than just trees: Assessing reforestation success in
tropical, Journal of Rural Studies, 28(1), pp. 5-19.
DINH LE, H., SMITH, C., HERBOHN, J., and HARRISON, S., 2014, What drives the success of reforestation projects in tropical developing countries? The case of the Philippines, Global Environmental Change, pp. 334-348.
GHASSEMINIA, A.S., and FARAJI, A., 2008, Storm Resistant Boat Designing Based on the Geometry and Movement of
Water Strider. Journal of Bionic Engineering, Suppl., pp. 87-90.
HARMS, U., KOEBERL, C., and ZOBACK, M.D., 2007, Continental Scientific Drilling. A Decade of Progress, and Challenges
for the Future.
KIM, J., 2012, R&D investment of electricity-generating firms following industry restructuring. Energy Policy, 48, pp.103117.
KIM, S.E., and URPELAINEN, J., 2013, International energy lending: Who funds fossil fuels, who funds energy access for
the poor? International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, 13(4), pp. 411-423.
LASCO, R.D., VERIDIANO, R.K.A., HABITO, M., and PULHIN, F.B., 2012, Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest
degradation plus (REDD+) in the Philippines: Will it make a difference in financing forest development?. Mitigation
and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change (2013), 18, pp.1109-1124.

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NAVE, R., 2015, Buoyancy. [online] retrieved from: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/pbuoy.html#arch3


[Accessed: 3 Aug 2015].
OXFORD DICTIONARIES, 2015, Oxford Dictionaries. [online] retrieved from: http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/buoyant [Accessed: 3 Aug 2015].
PEREZ TORRES ARQUITECTOS, 2012, [online] retrieved from: http://www.pt-arq.com/ [Accessed: 1 Aug 2014].
RASWAN, K.J., and TUPPER, E.C., 2001, Basic ship theory, Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford.
SHAISH, L., LEVY, G., GOMEZ, E., and RINKEVICH, B., 2008, Fixed and suspended coral nurseries in the Philippines: Establishing the first step in the gardening concept of reef restoration, Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and
Ecology, pp. 8697.
UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN, 2009, [online] retrieved from: https://www.umich.edu/ [Accessed: 10 Jul 2014].

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International Conference | Bari - Lecce, Italy

Session III

THE UNIVERSITY CAMPUS AS A MODEL


OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND SETTLEMENT
SUSTAINABILITY
Carla Chiarantoni1& Calogero Montalbano2
1 Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Politecnico di Bari, Italy, carla.chiarantoni@poliba.it
2 Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Politecnico di Bari, Italy, calogero.montalbano@poliba.it

Abstract
The present research explores the spatial and functional structure of the university campuses
in the contemporary outline of the energetic, environmental and settlement sustainability.
The campuses, also due to their different origins, are neatly differentiated according to spatial
and functional organisation, often causing significant effects also on the urban systems to
which they are variously connected. The different rates of interference with the social and
spatial dynamics of the urban systems to which they are connected turn them into extremely
interesting models for their potential influence on transformation and restoration processes
of the contemporary town. The long formal and energetic restoration process that has involved over the last decades many urban realities has once again highlighted the extreme
importance of these places seen as open laboratories for the experimentation of innovative
settlement models; socially, technologically and energetically sustainable. This has often imposed a rethinking about the strategic relationship between the university campuses and the
towns. In this respect, there are significant transformation processes started by some universities which have originated deep reflections on the sustainability of the settlement and have
significantly affected the local social-economic fabric. From here emerges the hypothesis of
a new project scenario for the implementation of Tarantos University Center, for which the
Polytechnic of Bari is searching for new development strategies, as a laboratory for urban and
environmental experimentation, able to cope with the current territorial issues and respond
to the even more intricate needs of the university and urban community. The so defined procedure is articulated in three stages: Interpretation of the behavioural models of the campuses; Analysis of models and examples that interfere with the urban regeneration processes;
Examination of Tarantos University Center and its urban context, comparison with the critically inferred model of reference and formulation of the first project hypothesis.

Keywords
university campuses, Green Campus, sustainable settlement models, urban regeneration,
innovative constructive solutions

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Introduction. From the theorisation of university models to the Green Campus


The image of the monastic cloister surely constitutes the project archetype of the university
building as a circumscribed place where small communities of learners can discuss and share
their knowledge.
Such idea has remained rather unchanged until the modern age, consolidating, especially in
central and southern Europe, in architectonic organisms greatly integrated with the town and
their economic/social apparatus, sharing the facilities, public green areas, the commercial fabric
and, eventually, the residential system (Baratta & Carlini 2012).
In England and especially in America [1],on the contrary, the university institution was shaped,
except for a few instances, on the principle of colleges: actual settlements, substantially isolated,
marginal with respect to the urban context and independent from the system of the social relationships of the town (Chiarantoni 2008).
From these two behaviours it is possible today to derive two different settlement models that
identify the university campuses: the Anglo/American campus, originated from the Anglo-Saxon
college, and the general European, seen as natural evolution of the long history of the athenaeums, forced to communicate with the towns they are located in (Chiarantoni 2005).
With respect to these two cases, the middle European model, to which we shall refer in the following, due to its particular proximity and ability to interfere with the urban development processes,
can be divided into two further sub-models in function of the major or minor concentration of the
structures within the urban fabric: the concentrated model and spread model (Baratta & Carlini
2012).
The concentrated model involves all the academic and research buildings as pavilions subsequently distributed within a closed academic fence and organised according to a plant, derived from a
master plan, that alternates closed spaces to open collective spaces and promotes the exchanges
and the interdisciplinary dialogue among professors, students and researchers.
The spread model, instead, is characterised by university structures raised in the urban centres
and then developed through the successive acquisition of buildings, even distant among them,
although arranged within the same town and very often shared with the urban community.
In both these models, in a paradoxically opposed condition compared to the Anglo/American
campus model, it can be seen, moreover, that the university residence, technically designed to
compose the basic fabricof any pseudo-settlement system (Caniggia & Maffei 1979:122-165; Caniggia 1981; Rossi 1966; Falasca & Carbonari 1987), plays a marginal role within the university system, appearing as an autonomous reality, more or less integrated in the urban neighbourhood
it belongs to.Such behaviour is probably derived from the lack of vocation of middle-European
University Center to act as pseudo-settlements, contrarily to what happens to the university settlements of Anglo/American campuses.
Hence the research, hereof summarised, of a developmental model of the university systems that
interferes directly with the urban structure, sharing the infrastructures and the primary services
to optimize and maximize its efficiency of use.
The experimental value of such an integration would affect significantly the implementation of
sustainable facilities and practices within the urban environment and the social, cultural and economic enhancement of the urban settlements.
At the same time the economies of scale and the variety of facilities in university centres would be
maximized, especially under the circumstances in which the economic autonomy of universities
appears to be rather limited (Coppola Pignatelli 1995).
Even the role of the university residence would tend towards renewal, finding a greater mediation
with the urban context, thanks to the research of specific living mixtures (Macchia et Al. 2012) and

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its unequivocal tendency to compose homogeneous fabrics, through which it could be reconnected to the urban organism.
Apart from the theme of an experimentation greatly connected to the urban developing processes, there is, on the other hand, another issue in this context that affects more and more the planning of modern university centres and that, since about a decade, has led some universities to
employ their theories and technologies to transform their venues into green campuses, through
which to embody the idea of green/sustainable university [2]: prototypes on urban scale of the
various experiments on the principles of energetic-environmental sustainability.
The design theorem, in such cases, is basically focused on the strategic integration between territory, local resources and university settlement, as well as on efficient energy management of
buildings.
Table 1: Actions to support sustainable campus planning, design and development. (Clayton
2013:41)
Category

Action

Campus planning

Campus-specific sustainability objectives included in all campus planning instruments (i.e.


considering climate and weather patterns, topography, geology/soils, hydrology, urban design
context).
Space planning at campus, precinct and building scale to optimise flexibility, adaptability,
diversity and multifunctionality of spaces.
Investigation of non-building solutions to accommodate university growth.
Physical accessibility of the campus to the external community, different age groups and people
with a disability.

Campus building design

Design to the appropriate green building rating system as the minimum starting point.
Each new building / major refurbishment to incorporate at least one innovative sustainability
feature beyond the requirements of the green building rating system.

These theoretical aspects provide the basis to the experiments conducted on Tarantos context
and the project of implementing its University Center as indicated by the Polytechnic of Bari over
the next years.
Starting from these physical and theoretical models it is now possible to deepen some non-exhausting interventions that allow us to comprehend the modality of interpretation of some of
these actions as actual virtuous processes.

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Study Cases. 1-The University of Bristol _Feilden Clegg Bradley Architects LLP,
2006

Figure 1: Urban structure and localization (Macchia et Al. 2012)


Over the last 20 years the University of Bristol has recorded an increment in the number of students from 8,000 to 12,000, as well as a growing demand for research facilities. In order to address
these issues the University required 38,000 sqm of new academic spaces, but great part of the existing building heritage was not able to provide room for classes and modern research. Moreover
the campus was saturated.
The only possible area of development was the historical-archaeological that houses the Royal
Fort Gardens, on which great of the master plan was focused. The latter has taken time to enhance
the historical features and the natural landscapes present in the area and create:
a better pedestrian access to the campus, providing a new cycling path that opens the boundaries of the campus towards the town;
better relationships between the University and the town, by means of the planning of a wide
range of public facilities within the campus;
a mixture of space and facilities in the central area of the university department;
strong relationships between existing and new academic buildings, animating public areas
and creating new flexible structures to satisfy future requirements.

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Figure 2: Boundary conditions and ideogram of the intervention. (Macchia et Al. 2012)
The Masterplan is thus articulated in 10 strategic steps that delineate the picture for the proposed
development for the next 10 or 15 years.
Table 2: Actions to support sustainable campus planning
Category

Plan Actions

Campus planning

1. Make Tyndall avenue, the social core of academic life


2. Extend the pedestrian path, internal to the campus, towards east and reconnect it to Tyndall
Avenue
3. Create a new entrance, representative of the University, on Tyndall Place
4. Create new axes and panoramic views of Saint Micheals hill towards Fort Roayal Gardens
5. Create new connections between the town in the south, through openings in the dense
building fabric south of the campus
6. Reinforce the common sense of belonging of the area through the enhancement of Royal Fort
gardens
7. Create the new department of life sciences on the eastern side of the university district
8. Create a New Learning Centre on the existing site of Arts Library and IT Centre
9. Redevelop Hawthorns site at the entrance of the campus also for student residence functions
10. Create a new welcome centre building at the entrance of the campus and Royal Fort
gardens

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Study Cases. 2-The University of Salford (Munchester) _ Turley Associates, 2011

Figure 3: Urban structure and localization (Macchia et Al. 2012)


The campus is located west of the old town of Salford about 3.2 km from Manchester and consists
of 3 colleges, 12 schools in total, integrated to some shops and an art museum. Albeit the mixture
of functions, they appear diffusely distributed over a land of 70 ha, marked by evident physical
barriers represented by Irwell river at east and the great Peel Park that rises at the centre of the
campus, on a greatly elevated plateau. For these reasons the activities of the campus appear to
be very fragmented, and the park, though with a high landscape-natural value, is not much used
also for its scarce visibility from outside.

Figure 4: Boundary conditions and ideogram of the intervention. (Macchia et Al. 2012)

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The campus area is marked by an external high speed road system (A6 and the railway) and an internal road system that lacks a hierarchy of pedestrian/vehicular and in which more than 21 parking areas contribute to the conflict between drivers and pedestrians. The area is characterised at
east, by the presence of dismissed areas, and in the north, by an industrial plant, Innovation Park.
This, together with the scarce affluence of the park users, suggests an insecure image of the campus at night hours. The scarce nightlife of this area is also caused by the proximity of the urban
centre that acts as a catalyst for the activities.
The masterplan proposes to lead the development of the campus over 20 years, with the aim of
creating a green campus that would embrace the surrounding nature represented by Peel Park.
Aside from the redevelopment of the green area, in particular the one next to the overflowing river bank, the plan attempts to free the campus from isolation and introversion through the reconfiguration of the internal and external road systems, so to incentivize the pedestrian movement,
and the demolition of the numerous obsolete buildings that turn their back to the park, to open
new squares towards the new linear park.
The discouragement of car use is also achieved through a new student residential pole, close
to the academic core, and to a nearby private sport centre. This strategy, together with the construction of new public commercial spaces, open to the district, contributes to the restoration
of the campus vitality over the 24 hours. Lastly, a further opportunity for growth stems from the
Innovation Park for the development of strategic synergies between the academic world and the
world of work.

Study Cases. 3-The Usek University (Kaslik- Beirut) _ Antoine Dahdah Architect,
2010

Figure 5: Urban structure and localization (Macchia et Al. 2012)


The USEK community is the third biggest private University in Lebanon and the biggest University of the country after the Lebanese University (public university) and Saint Joseph University
(private university).
At present, USEK welcomes more than 7,000 students over 4 campuses (Kaslik, Zahle, Rmeich,
Chekka), with its ten faculties and four institutes, namely fourteen academic units that offer a
wide range of levels of instructions. USEK students are educated by a teaching staff including

The University Campus as a model of environmental and settlement sustainability

157

around 1,000 educators and researchers; the administration is composed by 290 staff members.
The project has a clear environmental vocation that completely falls within the logic of the energetic-environmental sustainability of the Green Universities. The policies it formulates involve
the subjection of all the new constructions and the retrieval of the existing ones to satisfy the US
Green Building Council LEED Gold standard requirements for new buildings and Silver standard
for the existing ones. Moreover the University will adopt a low consumption purchase policy for
the equipment and aims to become, within 5 years, a car-free campus. Shuttles for all the teachers, the personnel, students and visitors will be available.
Table 3: Actions to support sustainable campus planning, design and development
Category

Plan Actions

Campus planning

introduction of a GREEN FLET (transport system) using hybrid busses that recharge with solar
energy and a car pooling system, a plan for cycle paths and car parks to discourage the use of
cars
implementation of water retrieval system with large storage basins and compatible strategies
for food supply and waste recycling
study of the views of the new buildings to offer glimpses on the new campus garden and the
natural values of sea and mountains
redistribution of parking areas under the Eco- garden platform.

Campus building design

construction of modern didactic building for and a great sports center with passive behavior in
terms of orientation and materials according to the LEED protocol
creation within the Eco- garden of a nursery for herbal species for the conservation of
biodiversity
creation of a raised platform connecting the elevated part of the campus to the lower one and
sustaining an eco-garden of 14,000 m2

The University will begin producing at least 30% of its electricity consumption from local renewable sources (solar panels), within 4 years.
The plan involves an enormous raised platform on which a mantle of vegetation will be placed.
Underneath the latter there will be the parking area. It also involves the addition of new university structures, among which academic buildings and a sport centre. The plan also foresees the
retrieval of existing buildings and the addition of a path covered by solar panels that crosses the
area.
***
To sum up, among the various enhancements of the international university poles, both for the
ones falling within the specific denomination of Green Campus and those of wider extent, there is
a common tendency to redevelopment with concern to environmental protection. This sees the
disincentive use of cars, and the pedestrianisation of the internal routes to the campus and, also,
the redevelopment of green spaces, as important objectives for development.
To this matter, careful attention to the energetic project of the university settlement is paid with a
particular reference to the constructions and to an interrelation between the innovative energetic systems that, if well managed, could bring about experimentations and prototypes for wider
impact and implementation on urban scale.
Moreover, in the interventions examined it can be noted how, although present the same requests for academic spaces, services, residences, routes, etc., the single projects stem from the
specific relationship between the town and university pole and from the integration that it is

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being pursued between them.


The aim of such interventions, therefore, has to be connected to the wider argument about the
impulse to the development of new protocols and the beginning of new processes/projects for
urban and energetic regeneration.

The case of Taranto


The study therefore focuses on Taranto and its University Center. Taranto is one of the most industrialised towns of southern Italy. A town whose economy has for years revolved around the great
steel industrial plant of ILVA (second in Europe until the 90s) and the petrochemical industry. With
the outbreak, in 2012, of the case Taranto, following inquiries on the companys top management
for the environmental disaster, the problem of decontamination of the areas of high risk of environmental crisis is dramatically opened at a national level.
From this it comes to the urgent provisions for the restoration and requalification of Tarantos
territory [3] and the plan of action on the SIN areas (Sites of National Interest) included in it [4],
for around 65 million [5].
In the coming years Taranto will be therefore very affected by complex reclamation operations
that will be accompanied by a process of industrial reconversion, hopefully inspired by the principles of Green Economy. All this will transform Tarantos area in an enormous laboratory which, in
order to function, will necessitate continuous fuelling aside from large funds from knowledge,
technologies, experiments and human resources specialised on the themes of sustainable development.
Coherently with its mission, the Polytechnic of Bari, inspired by the models of some famous industrial cities that relied on research, innovation and culture (among which Pittsburgh, Sheffield,
York, Tremont, Bagnoli, Genova, Bilbao), intends to contribute to the development of Tarantos
area creating a Green Campus in which to conduct research, experiments and teaching on the
themes of sustainable development.
Tarantos University Center could, in this sense, become a great open air laboratory for strategies
and operations able to positively act on the territory.
This could be achieved through processes of high environmental and energetic efficiency, transforming, contextually, a technically isolated and decayed urban sector of the town, Paolo VI district, in a laboratory for experimentations of new urban practices, technologically, socially and
culturally advanced and so, in a new bet for the rebirth of a town that has temporarily lost its
own raison dtre. In this sense, Tarantos University Center would represent for the town a development lever and, at the same time, a solid opportunity for research and experimentation for
the Polytechnic, for the companies existing on the territory and hopefully for other companies
attracted by the reclamation and experimentation activities that could begin.
In this respect it is impossible, on the other hand, to circumscribe the problem of Tarantos University Center to the mere presence of a campus isolated within the current boundaries and unable
to interfere with the urban fabric. The attempt to establish a new interaction with the town might
therefore define further levels of urban infrastructures and renewed interactions between public
and private places of the university with the possibility of introducing numerous approaches and
principles for the sustainable development of this territory.

The strategy for urban integration and the system of sustainable mobility
The case of Taranto has therefore been examined and compared with the models previously obtained.
The analysis, started from the reference framework of the Strategic View indicated for the town

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159

(Montalbano et Al., 2015) (Fig. 6) and from an initial survey of the spatial and functional structure
of the urban neighbourhood of reference, have allowed to highlight the considerable urban value
of the district Paolo VI within which the University Center stands and, at the same time, the high
weakness and risk factors that have determined thus far the marginalisation and degradation of
this district (Tab.4).

Figure 6: Strategic plan proposed for the mobility of the town of Taranto
(Montalbano et Al. 2015:34)

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Table 4: SWOT Analysis at urban level. (Authors: M. Positano & G. Sorino)


Strengths

Weaknesses

Opportunities

Threats

1. Tarantos City
Council in cooperation
with A.M.A.T. S.p.A.
and C.T.P. (local
public transport)
has provided a fast
line that goes from
Parco Cimino to via
Margherita and vice
versa
2. The A.M.A.T S.p.A.
in July 2008 has
presented a project
on sustainable
mobility (still not
approved) that
involves:
creation of
exchange parking
areas in Cimino
between private and
public vehicles and a
landing place for the
waterway service;
creation of an
integrated area of
interchange and
intermodality in
Croce locality (near the
active railway station);
waterway
service in support
of the tourism
development
(itinerary Mar Piccolo,
itinerary Isole
Cheradi, itinerary
Spiagge, itinerary
mari di Taranto).

1. The presence of a single active


railway station, external to the
core centre of the town. Its position
seems to have been conceived
in function of the industrial and
commercial activities, rather than
public transport
2. The ports exploit especially the
industrial and commercial potentials
of Tarantos area. At present there
are only two routes that partly
involve the internal basins (only
in the first inlet of mar Piccolo). The
latter are exclusively used for tourism
purposes to reach S.Pietro island.
3. The railway network only
covers great distances and serves
principally the town harbour.
4. The only connections
between Paolo VI district and
the Tarantos town centre are
road transport (cars and busses),
through two routes: SS7ter and
SS172.
5. Only the SS172 allows the
residents of Paolo VI district to
reach the (active) train station. The
distance factor forces to public
transport (busses) or private in order
to take advantage of the railway
service.
6. The routes of the bus lines 11, 17
and 24 are long, the frequency of
departure is above 20 minutes (at
certain times it is above 35 minutes).
The stops within the district and the
town are on average 400 metres
apart. There are no fast or direct
lines (without intermediate stops)
that connect the main urban poles
(Station New Hospital Campus
Shopping Centre).
7. The extra-urban transport is
provided by the FSE bus service, but
the routes connecting Paolo
VI district with Bari, Martina
Franca and San Giorgio Ionico
are only run during the school
period at restricted times, with few
stops.
8. The disused railway track
comes to the military port on mar
Piccolo and Tosi shipyards, currently
in disuse.

1. Reactivation of the inactive train


station adjacent to Paolo VI district.
2. Reactivation of the dead track as
urban surface rail line, with a diversion
towards San Giorgio Ionico.
3. Activation of a new intermodal
station (subway, rail, bicycle paths, Circum
Mar Piccolo road, urban streets) near the
shopping center, at the end of Via della
Liberazione road.
4. New fast bus line with final stop at
the currently inactive station parking area
Nasisi (to be reactivated) and Parco Cimino
parking area (as foreseen by the 2008
project by A.M.A.T. S.p.A.); moreover two
intermediate stops will be included.
5. New stop at the junction between
SS ter, via Giobatta Magnaghi and
via Mario Rondinelli. This location will
correspond to the final stop of both the fast
line and line 24.
6. Redesign of line 24. The new final
stops are the new stop at the junction
between SS ter, via Giobatta Magnaghi and
via Mario Rondinelli and the parking area in
Cimino. A slight diversion from the line will
regard the route to the shopping centre,
until the final stop in the parking area.
7. Redesign of the bus lines 11, 17
and 24. Two new lines will connect Paolo
VI district with the town centre. A third,
internal, line will exclusively serve Paolo VI
district.
8. The final stops of the new lines will be
respectively: Station 1 Shopping centre
and Station 2 Hospital.
9. The extra-urban bus lines FSE go
along the fastest main (existing) roads (SS
and SP). The only necessity is to cover
more time slots, valid for the whole week,
every day and not only during school time.
10. The fast line as envisaged in the City Hall
plan can be extended until the parking area
in Croce locality (by the active train station).
It would still stop in via Margherita.
11. The racecourse is served by SS 77.
It is hoped that such resources will be made
accessible also to the residents of Paolo VI
district. There is therefore the possibility to
create a new route that connects the
racecourse with the north-east part of
the district.

1. The public
service related to
urban transport
by bus lines is
not convenient
(waiting time
factor). So the
faster and direct
connections
between Paolo
VI district and
the rest of the
town occur by
road, mainly
with private
cars. The frequent
use of cars causes
traffic jams and
high level of
atmospheric
pollution.
2. Paolo
VI district
appears as an
autonomous
reality
compared to
the town centre.
3. The presence
of the Shopping
centre in the east
periphery of Paolo
VI district does
not favour small
businesses and
the development
of a competitive
market at retail
level.
4. The
racecourse
(north-east of
the district) is an
isolated structure
that would offer a
great potential not
yet exploited in
the most suitable
way.

The University Campus as a model of environmental and settlement sustainability

161

This study has highlighted some aspects of great interest for the enhancement of mobility and
infrastructural connections of Paolo VI district. In particular, these connections would allow:
a high potential of reunification of the district with the rural and environmental system of the
northern edge of Mar piccolo. Such condition would make Paolo VI strategic district, in a view
of Vast Area, for the speed of connection with the other settlements of Tarantos inland (among
which Grottaglie with its airport, Montesemola and Statte), and for its immediate connection
with the urban green belt of Taranto, from which take advantage of zero kilometre food products and through which reach new levels of environmental integration.
a new continuity with Taranto, founded on a principle of sustainable mobility (European Commission 2004: 20-49; European Commission 2013) thanks to:
the creation of a light mobility system defined by the transformation of the dismissed railway line Circum Mar Piccolo into electrified surface metro line;
requalification of the system of local road public transport of Circum Mar Piccolo, that
would definitively solve the connections on the eastern segment of the town;
creation of a system of waterways mobility that will turn the small harbour area of the
ex-shipyards Tosi into an important outflow on the Mar Piccolo and from here a connection
point to the whole urban system;
creation of a new train station with intermodal exchange (convergence of the railway, light
underground, Circum Mar Piccolo road and beginning of district walk and cycle paths with
bike sharing exchange) in contrada Torre Rossa (close to the current shopping centre), as a
new urban gate to the district.

Figure 7: SWOT Analisys at urban level. (Authors: M. Positano & G. Sorino)

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Towards an experimental district


Examining the inside of Paolo VI district the provisions of green areas and facilities have been
analysed as well as the settlement skeleton (arterial roads and axis) and the nature of settlement
fabric (residential types, settlement distribution, open or closed shape of the fabrics) (Caniggia &
Maffei 1979; Rossi 1966; Gibelli 2003:61-62).
A scarce organisation of the settlement fabric has been observed, along with the almost total
lack of diffusion of base services of the district; serious problems of formal articulation and spatial
dispersion of the fabric; a significant presence of urban dispersion areas (degraded green areas or
simple waste lands), as derived from the coarse zoning policy from the 70s.
Moreover, the presence on the edge of the district of a large shopping centre has prevented in
time the development of retail trade, eliminating that network of small businesses that actually
shape a substantial part of the residential fabric of a town. Such features, associated with the
substantial isolation of the district with respect to the remaining part of the town and the characterisation of the buildings fabric founded on an accentuated distance between the bodies and
a elevated development in height determines the substantial absence of an urban continuum,
transforming the Paolo VI district in an unpleasant and socially fragile dormitory district (Fig. 8
and Tab. 5).

Figure 8: SWOT Analisys of Paolo VI district - Taranto. (Author: M. Positano)

The University Campus as a model of environmental and settlement sustainability

163

Table 5: SWOT Analisys of Paolo VI district - Taranto. (Author: M. Positano)


Strenghts

Weaknesses

Opportunities

Threats

1. Paolo VI district rises on


the junction of territorial
connection roads that
reach Grottaglie, Statte,
Vocchiaro and Montemesola.

1. The routes of the bus lines


11, 17 and 24 are long, the
frequency of the departures
is above 20 minutes (at
some times even above
35 minutes). The stops
within the district and the
town are on average 400
metres apart. There are
no direct and fast lines
(without intermediate stops)
connecting the urban poles
(Station New Hospital
Campus Shopping centre,
...)
2. There are not very
functional cycle paths.
3. Within the district there
are no:
Colleges for offsite
students;
Leisure areas
4. The private urban voids
cover an area widely higher
than the buildings.
5. The percentage of well
managed private green areas
is higher than the the public
one.
6. Within the buildings fabric
an accentuated distance
between the constructions
can be noted, as well as
an elevated development
in height of the prevailing
building type. The absence
of a urban continuum is
incremented by the presence
of imposing floating building
volumes in empty space and
emphasized by the presence
of empty spaces either not yet
built or waste lands.

1. Redesign of public
transport lines
2. Creation of activities
and leisure facilities in the
proximity of the shopping
centre
3. Retrieval of the
environmental park in the
vicinity of Paolo VI district
4. Retrieval and
reconversion of the PIP
area
5. Requalification of the
waste lands within the
district
6. Redesign of the cycle
paths and routes
7. Promotion of
agriculture of proximity
systems
8. Thickening of the
settlement fabric to solve
the urban discontinuities
9. Creation of an
infrastructural axis
for sport and leisure
activities in green.

1. The zoning that affected


the district has highlighted
large waste lands within
the settlement fabric. Such
areas, even if conceived
to provide facilities for the
district, collective spaces and
public green areas, are still
abandoned. From this it
can be observed how the
public open spaces are in
all respects urban voids
rather than spaces of
relation.
2. The presence of the
shopping centre does
not favour retail trade,
eliminating the network of
small businesses that indeed
composes a substantial part
of the residential fabric.
3. Paolo VI district is, indeed, a
dormitory district.

These conditions reveal, on the other hand, interesting opportunities for urban development that
might exploit the presence of the university, the presence of services at urban scale (municipal
offices, hospital, sport centres), the social mixture and new cooperative forms to promote the
transformation of the district. In this respect the enhancement, the extension and the ramification of the University Center within the context of Paolo VI would undoubtedly determine strategic relapses for the rebirth of the district. (Tab. 6)

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Table 6: Actions to support sustainable Paolo VI district planning, design and development
Category

Plan Actions

Street Infrastructure

1. Creation of a new train station with intermodal exchange (convergence of railway,


light underground, Circum Mar Piccolo road and beginning of district walk and cycle paths with
bike sharing exchange) in contrada Torre Rossa (by the current shopping centre), as a new urban
gate to the district.
2. Redesign of the bus lines. Two new lines can connect Paolo VI district to the town centre
and a third one, internal, serving exclusively the district with the last stop at the Hospital and
Shopping Centre. The latter would include a series of intermediate stops, 300m away on average.
3. Redesign of the cycle paths and routes with rest areas for bike sharing.

Urban design

4. Requalification of waste lands internal to the district (creation of equipped parks and
urban gardens) and those in the proximity of the University Pole (greenhouses and ecogardens with nursery of herbal species for the preservation of biodiversity).
5. Promotion of agriculture of proximity systems that would favour the management
and maintenance of agricultural areas and develop a commercial network of local zero
kilometres product as an alternative market that could flank, without any competition, the
shopping centre.
6. Retrieval of the environmental system adjacent to Paolo VI district, and facing the Shopping
Centre (characterised by the presence of farm lands, archaeological areas and the environmental
system of a river) as equipped environmental park.
7. Retrieval and reconversion of the dismissed PIP area for the realisation of laboratories,
areas for experimentation and business incubators for the university.
8. Thickening of the settlement fabric(residential and specialist) also with buildings
dedicated to the students hospitality (student houses, student centre,..); with the use of low
density and finegrain housing types (e.g. terraced) to solve the urban discontinuities, reshape the
urban roads (main roads, secondary and virtual axes), reduce the size of the open spaces,
9. The racecourse is served by SS 77. It is desirable that this resource is made accessible also
to the residents of Paolo VI district. Hence the necessity to create a new road system that
connects the racecourse with the new sport centre (CUS) creating an infrastructural
axis for sport and leisure activities in the green.

Building design

10. Transformation of the current campus (branch of the Polytechnic of Bari) and
creation of a GREEN CAMPUS.
11. Creation, in the waste lands surrounding the current campus, of structures with
low environmental and energetic impact formally identitarian as:
Colleges and student residences for offsite university students and visiting
professors;
An equipped park with refreshment points;
A sport centre;
A multifunctional cultural centre;
12. Promotion and creation of leisure activities and structures (cinema, disco pub,...)
in the proximity of the shopping centre. The choice of this kind of attractions arises from
the necessity of reactivating the area of the shopping centre also during evening and night
hours.

The university campus as experimental laboratory


From the context analysis previously indicated it is possible to define a strategy of design intervention that reviews and reinforce the collocation of the new Tarantos University Center so to
achieve strategic objectives on different scale:
on district scale, for what regards the social and spatial regeneration of Paolo VI, its distributive
and energetic efficiency, and its relationship with the town;
on metropolitan scale, for what concerns the service provided to the extended territory and
the rational employment of the connections and the opportunities offered for the business
development of the surrounding local contexts;

The University Campus as a model of environmental and settlement sustainability

165

on national and international scale for the experimentations on the urban, environmental and
energetic processes it could favour.
These aspects define the need of a project that would collocate didactic and research activities in
the district, constantly inspiring to:
the recognizability, the functionality and the energetic efficiency of the single buildings;
the reduction of the inefficiencies connected to the students and teachers mobility and the
dispersion of the services;
the functioning of the district according to a highly integrated logic of facilities and mobility
systems to ensure the maximum accessibility from the outside [from the international accesses (as Grottaglie airport) and national ones (as the Bari-Taranto highway and the railway)] but
also the maximum dynamicity, logicity and ease for moving people, as well as the sustainability of internal mobility;
creation of an open university settlement, permeated and animated by public and private
spaces, that would use the education and cultural diffusion functions of the university as instrument for the benefit of the town and to favour the integration in the relational life.
In the pole will have to be collocated research laboratories and training activities, but also activities connected to innovation, technological transfer towards the small and middle businesses
and territorial services, making it a place of contiguity and permeation between industrial and
academic research, social and student aggregation and, then, the driver for urban regeneration.
Within such context, the architectonic quality, the sustainability (containment of the consumption of resources, energy saving, use of renewable energy, employment of eco-compatible materials, reduced environmental impact, reduced operational and maintenance costs should surely
become primary strategic objectives) and the technologic innovation of the buildings, in order to
return the image of high level architectonic and technological culture, would become important
strategic objectives. In this respect the actions aimed at the technological enhancement of the
new venue will have to take into account specific aspects and impacts that could be summarised
as follows.

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Table 7: Sustainability aspects and impacts, significance and potential management responses in
relation to the maintenance of campus grounds (Clayton 2013:32)
ACTIVITY

ASPECT

IMPACT

SIGNIFICANCE

MANAGEMENT

Water use

Resource depletion

Depends on climate and


geography will be of
major significance for
some sites

Use recycled water and/


or captured rainwater
Select low water
requirement plants

Fuel use

Resource depletion
GHG emissions
Air pollution

Depends on extent
of mechanised
maintenance, impacts
likely to be moderate

Substitute biofuels for


fossil fuels Purchase fuelefficient equipment
Reduce use of
mechanical equipment
Improve equipment
maintenance, training

Fertiliser use

Replace artificial
Resource depletion
Impacts generally
Damage to soil structure moderate, but may be fertilisers with organic
Runoff / eutrophication more significant where products
a university is located
near sensitive natural
ecosystems

Herbicide / pesticide use Resource depletion


Effects on non-target
species
Runoff / water pollution
Spillage
Grounds
maintenance

Generally as above;
however the impact of
a spill may represent a
major risk

Reduce chemical use


Substitute non-persistent
for persistent chemicals
Improve chemical safety
storage, handling,
training

Biodiversity and
ecosystem services

Positive or negative
Biodiversity and
ecosystem services may impacts range from
be maintained, enhancedrelatively low to high,
or reduced, depending depending on location
on maintenance regime (urbanised vs. natural
ecosystems)

Specify local native


species
Preserve significant
vegetation during
building works Avoid
monocultures
Avoid environmental
weeds

Soil disturbance

Erosion
Compaction
Dust

Apply mulch
Use no-till methods

Generally low, but may


be moderate, again
depending on location

Garden organics (green Reduction of landfill


waste)
space GHG emissions
Impacts of transport to
landfill
Land and aquifer
contamination
Production / use of
compost

Process garden organics


Moderate negative
to generate mulch and
impacts from landfill,
but these will increase as compost
landfill space runs out in
many regions
Moderate positive
impact of composting

Campus amenity

Impact on work/
study environment,
productivity, quality of
life

Moderate positive
impacts

Local employment

Impact on local economy Range from low


to relatively high,
depending on location

Continually improve
maintenance standards,
training
Hire grounds staff from
local area

The University Campus as a model of environmental and settlement sustainability

167

Conclusions
Such study allows to highlight how, through specific typologies of actions, it is possible to produce, within the processes of urban transformation, effects that aid the regeneration of the parts
of the town in physical and social decay..
The university campuses, intended as places of research and cultural training, to that effect, thanks
also to the numerous social facilities (residential, sport, cultural, leisure,...) that rotate around
them, affect directly the enhancement of the urban spaces, determining, at times, a turnaround
of the role and the hierarchies of the spaces and the urban and extra-urban connections. The
inclusion of these places in specific urban contexts becomes, therefore, one of the most effective
tools within the requalification policies of the urban areas of the contemporary town.
The aspects of experimentation and technologic innovation that may result from these places
should not be neglected. These settlements, due to their multi-faced functions, can become places of applied research where experiment innovative constructive solutions from the technical
and technological point of view. In this sense the case of Taranto poses itself as a significant opportunity for the start of such experimentation.

Acknowledgements
The present work is an integral part of a larger research regarding the campuses and the processes of urban regeneration, conducted by the authors for several years through publications
and degree thesis. The section on the development of Tarantos University Centre takes its cue
from the elaboration of the Strategic Plan of the Polytechnic of Bari in 2014 concerning possible
investments for the rebirth of the territory of Taranto and some preliminary studies conducted by
professors Barbara Scozzi and Pierpaolo Pontrandolfo (Scozzi & Pontrandolfo 2013).

References
BARATTA A., CARLINI S., 2012. Alloggi e residenze per studenti universitari. Lesperienza del programma 338/200, TECHNE, aprile, 262-270
BOLOGNA R., 2009. Costruire in laterizio, n. 130, 2-3
CANIGGIA, A., 1981. Strutture dello spazio antropico. Studi e note. Alinea, Firenze
CANIGGIA, G., MAFFEI, GL., 1979. Composizione architettonica e Tipologia Edilizia I. Lettura delledilizia di Base. Marsilio, Venezia, 122-165
CHIARANTONI, C., 2005. La residenza universitaria. La storia e le funzioni. Analisi critica della situazione italiana. Il ruolo
del progetto tra norma e tecnologia nella definizione delle nuove tendenze. PhD Thesis, Politecnico di Bari.
CHIARANTONI C., 2008. La residenza temporanea per studenti. Atlante italiano. Alinea, Firenze
CLAYTON, J. (Ed), 2013. Greening University Toolkit. Transforming universities into green and sustainable campuses.
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
COPPOLA PIGNATELLI, P.,1995. Progetti per la nuova sede della Terza Universit di Roma, Industria delle costruzioni, n.
289-290 pag. 68-75
EUROPEAN COMMISSION Environment Directorate-General, 2004. Reclaiming city streets for people. Chaos or quality
of life?. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg
EUROPEAN COMMISSION, 2014. EU Energy, Transport and GHG emissions trends to 2050 Reference Scenario 2013.
Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg
FALASCA, C C., CARBONARI, M., 1987. Residenza e fenomenologia urbana. Alinea, Firenze
GIBELLI, MG., 2003. Il Paesaggio delle frange urbane. Volume 19 di Quaderni del piano territoriale, Franco Angeli.
MACCHIA M., MUDONI M., PEDONE V., 2012. Il campus come parte di citt: nuovi scenari di riqualificazione e sviluppo

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sociale. Degree Thesis, Politecnico di Bari.


MONTALBANO, C., GUSTAMACCHIA, L., TORRE, C., NEGLIA, G.A., CHIARANTONI, C., 2015. The Gardens of Taranto.
Peripato Garden: The gate to the sea as tool for internal and urban regeneration Feasibility Study. Polytechnic
University of Bari
ROSSI, A., 1966 (2006). Larchitettura della citt. Citt Studi Edizioni, Milano.
SCOZZI, B., PORTLANDOLFO, P., 2013. Idea progettuale per Un Green Campus a Taranto sede di Ingegneria dello Sviluppo Sostenibile. Report, Politecnico di Bari, 29 Aprile
TAFURI, M., DAL CO, F., 1979. Architettura Contemporanea. Vol I, Electa, Milano, 32-49.

The University Campus as a model of environmental and settlement sustainability

169

Note
[1] In America, in particular, the term campus denotes integrated structures in a single organisational system of didactic,
residential and service functions, including almost all the student residences within the campus. The morphologic
setting is mostly structured into monofunctional buildings (residences, gyms, library) concieved for convential
typological models and low density building structures immersed in the green, with the dislocation of the collective
services in barycentric areas at the service of several residential structures. This is due to the specific mentality of the
colony, so the American towns, being detached from any connection with history rose as an implant able to maximize
the efficiency of the building zones with the possibility to destine great areas to specific functions (zoning), as the
university (Tafuri & Dal Co, 1979: 32-49).
[2] For the promotion of these concepts several university networks have been instituted, as for example Universities
Leaders for a Sustainable Future (ULSF) International Sustainable Campus Network (ISCN) and the Association for the
Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education (AASHE).
[3] Draft law n. 1733 converting into Law order from DL 5 January 2015, n. 1, concerning Urgent provisions for the
conduct of businesses of national strategic interest in crisis and the development of the town and the area of Taranto.
By Doctor Vera Corbelli Extraordinary Commissioner for the urgent operations of reclaiming, environmentalisation
and requalification of Taranto.
[4] The surface concerned by the interventions within the National reclaiming plan and environmental restoration,
approved with the DPCM issued 468/2001 is divided as follows: 22.0 km2 (Salina Grande); around 17 Km of coastal
development. In the Senate of the Republic hearing: Doctor Vera Corbelli, Tarantos area, state of implementation of
the scenario/route actions to be carried out, ROME 19 January 2015.
[5] D.L. 129/2012 converted from the Law 171/2012 art.5 understanding concluded on 26 July 2012. The 65 ME of resources
transfered to the Special Accountability derive from the funds: CIPE (110 ME), MATTM (28 ME), network and mobility
PON (14 ME), research and competition PON (30 ME), c.d. Kyoto Fund (70 ME).

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International Conference | Bari - Lecce, Italy

Session III

BUILDING RENOVATION, SUSTAINABILITY AND


URBAN REGENERATION
Rosa Maria Vitrano1
1 Department of Architecture, University of Palermo, ITALY, rosamaria.vitrano@unipa.it

Abstract
The paper investigates issues related to the principles of eco-sustainability and criteria of design choice to be made in respect to the characteristics of the interventions. It proposes cases
of recovery and re-use sustainable in Sicily, whose choices of action were made in respect of
the environment and local traditions. General directives: reduction of the energy consumption; use of recycled and recyclable materials;improvement of the thermo/igrometric. The
programming is based not only on the control of the performance, but on an idea of global
quality of the operations. The correspondence between the needs and the requirements of
the organism and the norms that protect the user, its a necessary condition to complete a
renovation project and achieving the objectives

Keywords
renovation, building renewal, sustainable, regeneration, rehabilitation

171

Introduction - The case of Cianciana in Province of Agrigento - Sicily


Cianciana is a municipality in the province of Agrigento in Sicily, it is rich in history and natural
beauty. This picturesque town is a special case of urban regeneration and environmental sustainability. The history of Cianciana is linked to the presence of sulfur mines and the river Platani,
which over time have played an important role for the whole community (fig.1) (Sanzeri, 2007).
The City of Cianciana seemed destined to be abandoned for the closure of the mine but thanks
to a virtuous strategy to promote tourism in the area ciancianese since 2002 the urban center is
undergoing a major tourist flow: A case that is attracting the attention of publications over the
world. A small town inland back to life thanks to foreigners: Cianciana, 3500 souls to 450 meters
above the sea, in the province of Agrigento (table 1). A municipality that seemed destined to
disappear gradually after the closure of the mines (when the inhabitants were over 10 thousand)
and instead returned to growth. The empty houses were purchased by the British, Danish, French,
Polish, American, Russian. But also Swedish, Finnish, and Norwegian. And today foreigners make
up 10 percent of the population (...). Cianciana has become an attractive international thanks to
the natural and cultural resources in the area but also for the high quality of the environment. To
attract foreigners are the rhythms of life (...)

Figure 1: Municipality of Cianciana (Agrigento)

Table 1: Historical table (P.Sanzeri)

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Table 2: Project of urban redevelopment

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Cianciana is a small Switzerland: the waste has reached 68 percent. The streets are clean and without holes and the water is always present (...). (A. Alfano)
So Cianciana is a municipality that does not surrender to the crisis but on the contrary, today in
partnership with the University, is developing an urban regeneration project aims to promote the
area and the historical, cultural and landscape that possesses

1. Attractiveness of the landscape and nature of the City of Cianciana


The attractiveness of the landscape and nature City of Cianciana are input design of sustainable
urban regeneration. Cianciana is part of the Sicani Mountains and is located in the valley of Platani. The limits of the territory consist of the Walloon Cini, the Walloon Intronata, Millaga and
Knights and south from the river Platani. The territory of Cianciana, extended 3,700 hectares, comprises former fiefdoms Cianciana, Feudotto and Bissna.
Land and subsoil - The territory is a succession of hills and valleys from which rise: Rosskopf (756
m), Pizzo Firraria (656 m) and Monte Chiappara (703 m). Monte Cavallo are some caves of great
archaeological and naturalistic interest: the Horse Cave, the Cave of the Mayor, the Grotto and the
Cave Zubbio freezes, in which cavity, hundreds of meters long, it has a much lower temperature
than the outside. Very interesting from the geological point of view, natural and archaeological
landscapes of these caves have underground very interesting: the percolation of water inside the
caves, over time, has formed stalactites; in the bottom of Horse Cave it is also a pond deep, about
six meters, in whose waters have been found remains of ancient civilizations.
Rivers and springs - In the territory of Cianciana flows the river Platani that the ancestors called
Halykos to the saltiness of the water. The river forms the border south of the town.

Building renovation, sustainability and urban regeneration

173

Table 3: The ecological area particular of the green wall in the prospect - containing emissions and
use of alternative energy in buildings

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Figure 2: Municipality of Cianciana - project areas

Table 4: Technologies for building renovation

Long ago the ancient peoples it went back with their boats to refuel salt and fod. Platani grows on
the slopes of a particular type of natural flora of interest medicine and food, it was known in the
past by shepherds and farmers who made heavy use. Along the river you can find the presence of
several nesting species, including: the wagtail, the moorhen and woodcock.
In the municipal area there are also small springs that were once used by the population for domestic use. About 700 meters away from the town is the source dellAlbano, 2 km of the Pile,
behind the Mother Church to St. Anthony. 4 km from the town, in the feud of Bissana are the
source of the Sick and the Fountain of the Moor. These small sources, close to the town, formed
the reference point for the supply of Ciancianesi. Only in 1910, it is realized the aqueduct, which is
fed by the waters of the springs Voltano.
Soil and vegetation typical of the Mediterranean
The soil is of Pliocene origin: in outcroppings are yellow sand, tufa, blue clay; in the basement
there are deposits of rock salt and sulfur *.
The vegetation has a variety of crops: vineyards, olive groves, cereals, almond groves, orchards,
vegetables and pastures. The wooded area covers about a fifth of the entire municipality: the larger part was implanted in the Monte Cavallo, the remainder in the district Pintaloro. It is plantations
consist of a mixed deciduous conifers: eucalyptus, pine and cypress trees.
The slopes of the Rosskopf are rich in vegetation typical of the Mediterranean: elderberry, oleander, reed, mastic, palma nana, olive, locust, sage, thyme, rosemary and asparagus.

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2. Dynamics of technological project and methodology of intervention


The redevelopment of Cianciana is part of a project intervention complex and diversified, which
will characterize the values of the existing environment.
The main purpose of the research project was to support the Municipality of Cianciana with the
drafting of guidelines concerning the applicable technologies in the urban context (fig.2); achieve
the development and / or modification of municipal building regulations in order to make viable
technologies, materials and criteria, aimed at saving energy and enhancing sustainable. The redevelopment of the buildings has been turned to experimentation with materials and energy-efficient construction techniques (table 3).

Table 5: Technological analysis - state of conservation of the buildings - calculation of energy dispersion in buildings damaged, calculation of energy requirements in buildings - technologies for
building restoration

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The project intervention has been designed as a tool aimed at:


Redevelopment / regeneration of the built environment;
Enhancement of cultural, environmental and naturalistic;
Promotion of a sense of belonging on the part of the community, considering the social expectations through participatory planning processes.
The proposed research project has been the result of a participatory public decision aimed at
achieving greater coherence between the needs of residents and the works of environmental
transformation.

3. Towards the smart city - use of vegetation for energy retrofits of buildings
and land use
The regeneration project concerns the transformation of urban areas and the recovery of three
buildings, which are located along the SS118 in the southern outskirts of Corleone Agrigentan,
which branches off the historic urban core.
In particular those concerning:
1. the ecological renovation of the buildings (fig.3). Containing emissions and use of alternative
energy in buildings. The refurbishing work includes the development system of the buildings
in terms of energy, through the use of vertical gardens on prospectuses of the buildings, the
use of photovoltaic on the roofs and micro wind turbines in the open areas intended for agricultural green / urban gardens;
2. the upgrading of the municipal gardens: green trails and paved paths for parking, an information point, a ticket office and service environments for users and for maintenance personnel of
the open spaces, an outdoor theater that looks out on an extraordinary landscape.

Table 7: The ecological area - an urban district with low energy consumption,
draft urban regeneration and environmental.

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3. conversion green area in urban allotments - parcelling of the green area for agricultural land
subsidiary with a thistle and decumanus which incorporates the urban texture of Cianciana.
These two great boulevards will shape clearly defined area: the people, according to precise
rules, they will have the opportunity to grow their own products for private use and can expose them for sale at the ecological space.
4. processing of extra urban area - now abandoned - to be used as RV parking, to accommodate
the many visitors from all over the world.
5. the reclamation of an urban area of small dimensions, which in the current state is in strong
state of building and environmental degradation; the Municipality, attentive to the decorum
and the urban quality, decided to intervene in this area with the design of plots of urban garden for the local community.
The restoration project aims to create new spaces for todays meeting and socializing in which
the rehabilitated areas become the focal points of the dialogue between ciancianesi and foreign
nationals. All this in a logic of green city, where the man rediscovers the values of
the land and
healthy life.
Retrofit of buildings - The retrofit includes a set of operations aimed at improving the performance of individual buildings and aims to its substantial improvement in terms of environmental
impact (table 4).
The ultimate goal is to transform the buildings with a system of greening / renaturation horizontally and vertically to reduce emissions into the environment.
The technologies of greening / renaturation of the buildings will allow to considerably decrease
the use of cooling systems for electrical pollutants. It is indeed an urgent need to comply with the
directives that the European Community indicates for containment. This greening / renaturation
of buildings is a system to integrate existing with the new paying attention to the future.
For renaturation of the buildings must be integrated other measures to achieve the ultimate goal
of sustainable redevelopment: the use of renewable energy, the use of environmentally friendly
materials and techniques for building insulation and therefore to improve the thermal comfort.
The measures provided for retrofitting the buildings were made system after thorough analysis
of the urban fabric, the study of pre-existing natural, as well as aspects of climate acting on the
buildings.
The retrofitting is also linked to the analysis of the intrinsic characteristics of the buildings, regarding their state of physical obsolescence, performance and installations (table 5).
The forecast of the specific actions of retrofitting, to improve the system performance of buildings, including the construction and use of the following systems of environmental conversion:
a. use of vertical and insulation in the external walls (table 6)
b.
c. the replacement of windows - with new thermal break windows or the application of the double glazing.
d. the modernization of the plant - it is recommended that the electrical, plumbing and air conditioning. The use of renewable sources - use the sun to produce electricity with photovoltaic
panels or hot water with solar thermal (to be inserted in the roof or in front), use the wind by
installing wind micropale inserted in the garden (table 7) .

Conclusions
The territory of Cianciana implement all its resources, natural, cultural and landscape. In the draft
environmental regeneration is experienced using housing green, what system of new characterization of the urban image. In addition to the redevelopment of the buildings they have been

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designed new urban centers that will be the development of connectors for the expansion of
tourism. These planned actions are the active instruments to define the possible prospects to
Cianciana can apply for green city of the Province of Agrigento, exploring scenarios still little practiced in this context and in the short and medium term priority will be attributed character. The
regeneration project follows the aim of reducing emissions and the use of alternative energy
in buildings, whereas 33% of CO2 emissions in the environment resulting from the construction
sector.
The regeneration project involved the integration of environmental public spaces in green agriculture, urban gardening, social services, tourism services and private residences. It also makes a
district carbon negative able to produce more renewable energy than many consumed through
the use of wind and geothermal sources.
In the project for Cianciana the theme was therefore the environmental regeneration, which has
combined urban solutions of architectural quality with operations environmentally sustainable.

Notes
* Image taken from P. Sanzeri, St. Anthony of Cianciana. Story of a newly founded cities, Graphics Geraci, 2009, p. 158.
** Cianciana has become famous for its sulfur extracted from the nineteenth century. Sulfur extracted in the territory of
Cianciana has a special feature this unique, has a hexagonal crystal structure. The high costs, because of the depth at
which the ore is in the territory ciancianese, have meant that mining was stopped in the sixties. You can find the sulfur
crystals Cianciana in major natural history museums in the world: London, Bern, Milan and Washington.

References
Anzalone R.,Esperienze di territorio, Cianciana 80-81,Ila Palma, Palermo 1982.
Cannatella F.,Cianciana onomstica, volumi 1-2, Grafiche Geraci, Santo Stefano Quisquina 2008.
Cottino P.,La citt imprevista: il dissenso nelluso dello spazio urbano, Eleuthera 2003.
DAngelo P, Estetica della natura. Bellezza naturale, paesaggio, arte ambientale, Laterza, Roma 2001.
Griffo P., Akragas, Legambiente, Agrigento 2005
De Miro Ernesto,La fondazione di Agrigento e lellenizzazione del territorio fra il Salso e il Platani, in Kokalos VIII,
Palermo 1962.
Di Giovanni G.,La Circoscrizione territoriale di Cianciana e dei Comuni finitimi, Montes, Agrigento 1877.
Fazello T.,Della Storia di Sicilia, Tipografia Giuseppe Assenzio, Palermo 1817.
Norberg - Schulz C., Genius Loci, Paesaggio Ambiente Architettura, Electa Editrice, Venezia, 1979.
Sanzeri P., SantAntonino di Cianciana, storia di una Citt di nuova fondazione, Grafiche Geraci, Santo Stefano Quisquina 2009.
Vitrano R.M., Definire i nodi dellidentit per la rigenerazione del paesaggio Mediterraneo: un futuro governabile per
Agrigento e la Valle dei Templi, in CITTAM, Luciano Editore, Napoli 2008.
Vitrano RM . Habitat Tecnologia Sviluppo - Sviluppo sostenibile dellambiente costruito e valorizzazione delle risorse
locali, vol. 1, Luciano Editore, Napoli 2009.
Vitrano R.M., Sistemi verdi. Linee Guida per un progetto tecnologico appropriato, Vol.1 in Collana Scientifica Progetto
Tecnologia Ambiente di Alinea Ed., Firenze 2014.

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International Conference | Bari - Lecce, Italy

Session III

SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT AND BUILDING


PERFORMANCE ON CONSTRUCTION PRACTICES IN
THE UAE
Nadia Al Badri1
1 Interiors and Architecture Department, University of Sharjah, UAE, nalbadril@sharjah.ac.ae

Abstract
Over last decade, rapid growth in economic and population accompanied with depletion of
the energy resources lead to serious impacts on environment and humanity. This development coupled with active constructions, which in some cases ignore the impact on the environment. Therefore, principle of sustainability has been required to reduce this negative
impact on the environment and the humanity. In developing countries, it seems that there is
a huge gap between current construction practices and sustainable principle, which needs
more attention to clarify and define the problems to find suitable solutions before it comes
more difficult and expensive. The study aims to evaluate and assess the current standing in
terms of building sustainability and performance through collecting data on construction
practices in UAE. A survey have been designed in order to collect data from experts who are
involved in constructions projects such as architects, civil engineers, mechanical engineers,
electrical and interior designers. A questionnaire has been designed to demonstrate strong
and feeble points to clarify the current practices in terms of sustainability and performance
in constructions. The result of the data lead to highlight the significant important of sustainability and buildings performance issues in United Arab Emirates to recognize the problems,
reduce the obstacles, and try to stimulated solutions and alternatives to improve the current
situation, furthermore to be sure that sustainability implementation will be achieved in future
.

Keywords

Sustainability, building performance, construction practices, survey, and sustainable


implementation

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1. Introduction
Sustainability has been defined as The needs of present without compromising the ability of
future generation to meet their own needs. In 1992, these principles were backdrop in Rio Earth
Summit, the major concern in economic and environmental issues was the sustainability in addition to other topics such as poverty, peace. These classic archives are very important to recognize
the sustainability development in the world. (Blackburn 2007).The rapid growth in economic and
population associated with the sprawl of the cities and the affluence of the industrialization to
distributed several kind of pollution such as air pollutions, water pollutions, in addition to the
changing in climate, health problems, sick cities, depletion of the resources, natural hazardous.
Early twentieth century the deterioration of urban condition need to draw attention globally, the
professions of city planning, architects, landscape designers, are worried about the expansion
of the industrial cities. (Wheeler & Beatley 2009).The Kyoto Protocol adopted in 1997 and implemented in on February 2005, which address the global warming and stabilization of greenhouse
gases as major issues by UNFCCC (United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change). A
consequence of these sustainability developments, in November 2009 187 states have signed and
ratified the protocol including the United Arab Emirates which was ratify the protocol on 26 January 2005. (Salama & Hana 2010).The unique location associated with natural resource such as Oil,
rich natural gas, fishing, pearling to create significant importance for U.A.E. since the discover of
oil which exploited in 1960, U.A.E became an open economy with high per capita income.
It has transfer form an impoverish region of small desert to a modern state with high level of lifestyle. Further U.A.E becomes as centre of business, trading, banking, financial services, and tourism for the Gulf countries and for the entire world. (Carter 2006).In Europe, over 40% of energy
consumption has related to building industry, 50% of natural resources have used as a materials
related to constructions sector, 50% of national waste produced by building field. In fact, these
percentages are even higher in U.A.E in way that it should be attract more attention from the
government. In order to align the construction sector with sustainability development approach,
the major attention should direct towards establishing a new regulation in addition to sustainable guideline (AboulNaga & Elshehtawy 2001). According Asif (2015) GCC countries facing many
challenges in terms of energy and environment, the GCC countries considered as the highest in
the world in terms of energy consumptions. The average figure of GCC is more than seven times
than global average, meanwhile Qatar, Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates are amongst the top
six countries in world in terms of per capita Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission.

2. Aim of the study:


The study aims to examining the current practices of buildings constructions in United Arab
Emirates and their impact on the environment, the study will investigate the level of sustainable
implementation in U.A.E especially in Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Sharjah, and Ajman, which witnessed a
huge constructions projects. This data will help to assess the buildings performance in U.A.E and
highlighted the main obstacles to achieve sustainability in constructions field. The main motivation of the study is about U.A.E is a developing country that represents a motivating case study
because of the rapid growth in economic and the booming in construction projects.

3. Methodology
In order to evaluate the sustainability practices in U.A.E, a survey structured to look in the following key area:

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The level of sustainable awareness and implementation in current practices in constructions


sectors.
The challenges that facing the sustainability achievement in construction industry.
The questionnaire distributed to a 40 random samples of practitioners including, architects, engineers, projects managers, health and safety environment, finance and other professionals. A total
of 25 response were received which presents around 63% while the rest have been neglected. In
fact 4 of the response is uncompleted which could not be under consideration .However the 21
responds were not satisfied to the researcher but it were enough to provide outline for investigate the data. Consequently the research should depend on the reality not on the assumption.
The survey contains three major sections, the first one investigated information about the participants while the second sector including questions that addressing the level of the involvement
in sustainability practices and the sustainable awareness of the practitioners. The third section
highlighted the major challenges that facing the sustainability achievement
3.1 Participant profile
This part of the survey focuses on the gender, the job classification, company type, in addition
to, period time and the location of the experiences in U.A.E in order to comparing between levels
of sustainability implementation from emirate to another. Meanwhile the participants nationality and companys profile as (international or local) can compare the variety of the sustainability
knowledge.
3.2 Current practices:
This section designed to achieve full concept about the current practices of construction in order
address the awareness of the participants and the level of sustainability update in the context of
United Arab Emirates. It contains 20 questions with multiple choices ranging from always (which
mean maximum score) till I dont know (which mean lack of awareness)
The table below shows the scoring system from 5- 1 to give the participant answers levels of score
for example choosing of always score 5 which is the maximum for measuring the sustainability levels while dont know scored 0 which means breakdown in understanding and knowledge
about sustainability.
Table 1 explain the scoring system
Always

Almost Always

Sometimes

Almost Never

Never

Dont know

In order to evaluate the Sustainability achievement The questions covered the following key area:
The integrated design
The flexibility in design
Passive design
The use of renewable energy,
The building lifespan,
The used of local materials
The awareness and knowledge of sustainability
3.3 Challenges
The last section of the survey highlighted the challenges which facing the sustainability in U.A.E
context, it contains 10 statements with multiple choices ranging from (strongly agree, moderate
agree, undecided, moderately disagree, strongly disagree and dont know).The choices of strongly agree scored 5 while dont know scored 0 which measuring the misunderstanding and lack of

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183

awareness about the questionnaire


To identify the challenges this section covered the following aspects:
The lack of knowledge about sustainability principles
The comparison between performance and the rapid benefit of the building.
The lack of professionals and skilled workers.
The lack of education in the public sector and the academic institutions.
Absents of recycling and reused principles.
When the results are classified and then it analysed according to the main aspects which are the
professional background and experiences, the current practices according to building efficiency,
design integration and sustainability awareness of staff and public. The challenges analysed in
term of building performance and lifestyle .Once these analysis complete, obstacles becomes
very clear and increase the level of ability to achieve solutions.

4. Results and Discussion


As mentioned before, 21 responses considered which represents 52% of total number surveys
distribution. Numbers of respondents are not satisfying but the percentage provide outline for
the main purpose of the study.
4.1 Participant profile:
The result from this section including the number of male and female, as shown in Figure 1 that
the 86% of the participants from male while the rest from female. Its very clear that the sector of
construction running by the male decisions.

Figure 1 shows the percentage of male and female of the participant profile and shows the majority
of experiences location
Most of participants are architects 62% while the less one is the health and safety environment
which presents 4% from the total as shown in Figure 2 Its absolutely clear that the professionals
who support the environmental issues are very limited in spite of the architects have big part of
the responsibility to achieved sustainability in design phase but it is vitally important to linked
and integrated between all the staff of the construction projects.

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Participants of sustainability in design phase

Figure 2 shows the domination of the architects for the participants.


The information about experiences gives indication about the period of time that participant
spend it in construction sector in U.A.E, as clear from the Figure 3 that most participant have more
than 10 years in U.A.E which represents 53% of the total. While the range from 2-5 years have the
less percentage 14%, it is very clear the last 10 years witnessed the rapid growth in construction,
which attracted many people to have their opportunity to have jobs in U.A.E while the financial
crises in 2008 affect the rate of constructions, which reduce the number of labour. This will have
disadvantages that the level of experience construction sector has been improved during the
last 10 years. In the other hand the mix of nationality have advantage and disadvantage because
it could be strong point as a background experiences and feeble point because sometime this
background not matching the U.A.E climate and culture. As shown in Figure 4 that the major nationality in construction field is the Middle east 38% from the total, which including Iraq, Egypt,
Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and others.
Experience construction sector

Figure 3 shows the experiences period in U.A.E

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185

Nationality of construction
section in UA.E

Figure 4 shows the mix of nationality in construction sector in U.A.E


In fact, this variety in nationality provide the construction sector with different background this
becomes as disadvantage especially in terms of design rhythm which sometimes directed away
from the local climate and the culture value .while it becomes an advantage when it provide the
city with unique design such as the tallest building in the world (Burj khalifa) or (Burj Al Arab)
which is the most luxury hotel in the world ,these icon buildings attracted the tourism and placed
U.A.E as one of the most important architectural city in the world. As shows in Figure 5 its clear
that majority of experiences are located in Dubai 57% and then Abu Dhabi 29% , Ajman 14%
while the other emirates totally neglected, this represents an evidence that the construction in
Abu Dhabi deliberate and planned with slowly rhythm than Dubai.
Locations of experiences in construction sector U.A.E

Figure 5 shows the experiences locations in U.A.E


4.2 Current Construction practices
As known that the projects going through stages to be ready for occupants, these stages classified to three major area: design phase, construction phase and occupancy evaluation. Each one of

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these stages should integrate with the two others in order to enhance buildings performance and
sustainability. Sustainability achievement required to involved with, Ecologists (concern about
preserving the natural system), Economists (which deal with the growth efficiency and the uses
of resources, Sociologists (which focuses on human needs and culture identify) (Wright.R2008)
Totally 65% of the questions in this section investigate about the design phase to highlight the
significant important of sustainability to be achieved from the beginning of the project. One
of the general question about the ability to achieved sustainability in design have 48% of the
answers are(sometime )which mean that the principle of the sustainability may consider or not
while the 20% of the answers are (almost never) that gives full image about the current practices
in U.A.E in term of sustainability.
However the site assessment before the design is a major step weather through the software
evaluation analysis, the answer of this question 52% (sometime) while the 33% of the answers
(almost always). Its very clear from these percentages that site evaluation not basic requirement
in current practices while in fact it should be.
As the building the main consumption of energy through operating of cooling, heating and lighting, the questions about the use of renewable energy such as solar panel, photovoltaic, wind
turbine..) 47% of the total answers are (sometime) while the 29% of the answers are (never) and
19% (almost never) this result analysis as it begun to take place in the current practices but not
widely because of the absence of motivation and encouragement from the government, On the
other hand, in spite of lack of energy in some emirates such as Ajman and Sharjah which are both
of them suffering from this problem but still without regulations forced or alternative renewable
energy have been followed to reduce consumptions. Hence, the building consumes energy, so
the design and construction of buildings should increase operating efficiency, durability and reduce the energy consumptions (AboulNaga & Elshehtawy 2001).
The durability means the increase of the lifespan and evaluated the cost of maintenances during
the design phase, the questions about the consideration of lifespan for the building,38% of the
total answers are ( almost always ) while 20% are (always) and 9%( sometimes) ,that gives indication that the durability of the buildings considered in current practices in U.A.E which provide
opportunity to reduce the energy and materials used to achieved sustainability .Meanwhile the
question about evaluated the cost of maintenances during the design phase, the answers coming 53% (almost always) and 24% (always) this situation gives an evidence that maintenance of
the building consider in current practices in U.A.E .
The culture value one of the important components of sustainability as it means the respect of
human needs and requirement and the cultural background, as the question about the considered of local culture value in project design .The answers are 35% (sometimes) while 29% ( almost
always) and 19% (always) these data give evidence that not all the time the culture value considered in current practices because many of architects and designers belong to another societies
and different background. This is exactly what causes the loss of identity. During the last years
U.A.E witnessed an improvement of awareness of sustainability which still need further enhancement in order create sustainable culture
The main part of the lifestyle depend on culture knowledge and education, the question about
the ability of provide funding in order to support researches on environment and sustainability
issues, the answers are 4% (always), 9% (almost always), 29% ( sometimes) and 34% (never), its
very clear that the funding of researches very limited and unregulated by the government.
other question about the education is about the offering of sustainability training or courses for
employees of the companies, the answers are 23% (sometime), 28% (almost never) and 34% (never) these data shows the lack of sustainability knowledge in the professionals field but many organization and academic institutions begun to manage courses and conferences such as Ajman
University in order to improve the professionals awareness.

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4.3 The challenges


The result of the challenges ranging between (strongly agree) and (moderately agree) .62% of the
total choices are (strongly agree) that in developing countries the lack of sustainability knowledge lead to the absence of sustainable design.49% of the total participants (strongly agree) that
the initial cost of sustainability might turn people away from it without consider the saving during the projects operating, while 38% (moderately agree)
Meanwhile, 34% of the total choices (strongly agree) with the lack of skilled professionals lead to
reduce the sustainability practices while 24% (moderately agree). 9% (strongly agree) about the
rapid rhythm of constructions in U.A.E minimize the ability of evaluated the building performance
.24% (strongly agree) and 23% (strongly disagree) that the lifestyle of U.A.E limited the ability of
used recycling or reused materials, 20% (strongly agree) 43% (moderately agree) about the preferring the profit from the building rather that the building performance. 48% (strongly agree)
and 42% (moderately agree) about the significant important of public involvement in sustainable
projects in order to create sense of responsibility towards their environment. 20% (strongly agree)
and 43% (moderately agree) about the lack of local manufactured materials in the market reduces
the use of materials that suitable for U.A.E climate. 29% (strongly agree) while 38% (moderately
agree) about the missing data from the monitoring and reporting for occupied buildings lead
to absence of rating system for constructions in U.A.E .According to the result above, its very
clear that most of the participants recognize the challenges and considered the constraints which
facing the sustainability achievement. This awareness about the obstacles can be accounted as
advantage because the first step in finding solutions is to recognize the problems first. It seems
that the next period of time will witness many improvements in adopting sustainability as a consequence of the knowledge improvements.
4.4 The impact on the sustainability and performance of building
The efficient design is the main component to measure sustainability, while energy used, population growth, resources efficiency and the waste are the others components. The improved in
building performance leads automatically to achieve sustainability. The failure in building performance will lead to change the direction away from the sustainability achievement. One of the
important factor to increase the ability of improving building performance is the site analysis
whether by software analysis or by simulation methods to recognize the best orientation and
how can be used to reduce energy or harness the site conditions to provide energy for instance
the use of solar panels or photovoltaic in order to reduce energy consumption .It shows from
the survey that 52% of the vote going to sometime while 5% choose never and 33% choose almost always as shown in Figure 6 normally this will affect the building performance in terms of
ignore the indoor air quality which depend on natural ventilation. In the other hand it affects
the achievement of sustainability by increasing the energy consumption and used of electricity
though the cooling system.

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Figure 6 shows the percentage of site assessment


The best way to improve building performance is the used of integrated design which means the
inclusiveness efficiency, the integrated should be considered in design phase and implemented in
constructions period and monitoring in operation time in order to achieve high level of efficiency.
Meanwhile this integration include all the professionals who involved in design, constructed, and
operating the building .one of result analysis shows in Figure 7 that the respond about the use
of integrated design in order to improve the building performance is 43% of participants choose
sometime while 9% choose never and between them 29% almost always. This result shows that
the integration in design not all the time part of the project processing, for example if the design
not consider the local climate, this will lead to reduce the mechanical system efficiency by over
exceed the used of cooling system the energy consumption increased also. All these impacts
related to each other, as consequences the absence of integration design affect the building performance which impacts the level of sustainability achievement

Figure 7 shows the percentage of achieve integrated design

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189

5. Conclusion
Due to the rapid growth of economies and population, energy consumption has increased globally. GCC countries had the fastest rate of increase at 12.4% during to 2005 -2009 representing
3.15% annually. The average consumptions of GCC countries watt per person reached 1149, this
figure is dramatically higher than the world average which is about (297 W per person). Many
countries in the region are realizing that depending on sustainability and renewable energy will
be the primary solution due to a depletion of natural resources and environmental impact ( Al
Naser 2011) therefore, sustainability implementation are needed to meet the increase demand of
energy.
Its very clear from the result analysis that the current practices lacks of sustainability achievement which lead to limited the improvement of building performance .On the other hand the
positive side is the growing awareness of sustainability which absolutely lead to improve the future of sustainability achievement .In fact Emirates Green Building Council (EGBC) associated with
Emirates Environment Group (EEG) are guiding the construction sector towards the sustainability
achievement. EGBC was establish in July 2006 and become a member of the World Green Building
Council in the same year , meanwhile U.A.E becomes the eight country in the world to establish
such a council.
The study concludes that the lack of professionals which lead to weaken the level of building
performance especially during the design phase. One of the important conclusions that the architects are leading the constructions sector through the design or the constructed period, usually
the architects have low awareness about the mechanisms and systems which reduce the ability
of improve the performance of the building
The main recommendation is to increase the awareness of sustainability in constructions sector
and the academic field through courses and conferences in order to be sure that the new generation of architects and engineers have background to support their practices and implementations. The other recommendation is to increase the regulations and managing the constructions
sector. The aim of the regulations is not only to managing the process of the buildings but to encourage the developer to utilizing environmentally friendly technologies, techniques which can
enhance buildings performance and protect environment. Furthermore, the used of motivation
system to push the developer to find alternative of energy such as using solar panels.
Many principles such as 2 R which are recycled and reused should be part of the lifestyle and
culture knowledge. Many project designed in U.A.E to be as guide for sustainability as Masdar
City which created with limited Carbon emission to be as full sustainable project educating the
public and provide an academic institution. Abu Dhabi creates an organization which is Estidama
that offer education and exam to authorize professional staff in order to increase the awareness
and regulate the construction sector. In addition Municipality of Dubai sill follow LEED, the building rating system is very important to collect data from the occupied building by reporting and
monitoring the building performance. This will create competition between the professionals to
achieve the sustainability.
The government should support researches about sustainability and environmental issues which
lead to improve the academic and construction fields. In addition to involve the public in sustainability activities to create their responsibility about the environment
There are many advantages not mentioned, the major one is construction sector measures the
level of country development and economic improvement .but it should be control by regulation
and organization.

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Acknowledgements

Great thanks for Prof. Dr. Moshood Olawale Fadeyi for supporting this research British University in Dubai, National University of Singapore

References
AboulNega,M. & Elsheshtawy,Y(.2001) Environmental sustainability assessment of buildings in hot climate: the case of
the U.A.E. Renewable Energy 24 (2001) 55-563
Al Naser, W. &Allnsser N (2011) The Statues of Renewable Energy in the GCC Countries Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 (2011) 3074-3098
Carter,T.(2006) Dubai City Guid
Asif, M. (2015) Growth and sustainability trends in the buildings sector in the GCC region with particular reference to
the KSA and UAE, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews avalibale online through
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S136403211500502X
Salama,M & Hana,A.(2010) Green Building And Sustainable Construction in the U.A.E. School of Management and Languages, Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh, UK
Wheeler,S. & Beatley,T. (2004). The SUSTAINABLE URBAN DEVELOPMENT 2 ed USA and Canada by Routledge.

Wright, R. (2008)Environmental science: toward a sustainable future(10th ed.).

Sustainability assessment and building performance on construction practices in the UAE

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International Conference | Bari - Lecce, Italy

Session III

A CLOSER LOOK AT SUSTAINABILITY PRACTICES:


LESSONS FROM THE UK
Yumn Nanaa1 & Hasim Altan1
1 Sustainable Design of the Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering & IT, British University in Dubai, UAE,
yumn@live.com / hasim.altan@buid.ac.ae

Abstract
Sustainable development is becoming an increasingly rising topic all around the world. The
more developed countries contribute, the greatest share to innovations and solutions, as they
are more aware of such global issues, and have more mitigations and legislative abilities to
propose solutions. The study is a closer look at the United Kingdom as a case study, and the
environmental issues the country has faced, with a look from the environmental perspective. The major challenges are about energy, waste disposal, water scarcity, climate change,
and other challenges like employing sustainable codes on buildings since there is a substantial amount of the UKs emissions that come from existing buildings, which are responsible
for 44% of the countrys CO2 emissions. Moreover, the paper analyses its current standing in
terms of past and current environmental practices and the impact on its local and global future sustainability. The UK was selected as a case study due to being one of the pioneers in the
field and a leading country in the field of science, architecture, and urban planning, a history
of success and world records. In this paper, the current problems, causes, and challenges have
been identified, reviewed and discussed. Furthermore, energy security is also examined as a
country that is dependent on imported gas relies on political situations, and renewable energy proposes its own challenges of application in such a cold climate. As planners and sustainable designers, when assessing sustainable practices and setting standards for any climate/
country, looking around for similar situations, or ones that are more advanced, and analysing
the parameters of the sustainability matrix will always be of utmost help to build up new regulations, and learn the lessons from previous experiences.

Keywords
Existing Buildings, Energy Performance, Sustainable Built Environment, Sustainability,
UK, Policies and Regulations.

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Introduction
Great Britain, also known as the United Kingdom (UK), was a leader in the industrial revolution
and that was due to the abundance in key resources, population, labour, natural resources in the
North such as coal, iron, copper, which all led to the development of industry (Fig.1) (Kennedy
1989)

Figure 1:Relative Shares of World Manufacturing Output, 1750-1900 (Kennedy 1989)

All of the progress on the industrial side came at a price, where the environment of the UK started
to change, and excess of coal use in the first half of the 20th century in England led to the great
smog incident in 1952, where for 5 days London gasped for fresh air (Fig.2). Following a government investigation, however, Parliament passed the Clean Air Act of 1956, which restricted the
burning of coal in urban areas and authorized local councils to set up smoke-free zones. Homeowners received grants to convert from coal to alternative heating systems (Klein 2012).

Figure 2: Smog in London (Getty Images 2014)

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When coal was overused, and has proved not eco-efficient, gas substituted it, and the local gas
resources were exploited, whereas now the UK imports most of its gas consumption. To highlight
the most important factors; the UK has a cold climate for most of the year, with heating being
the main energy requirement of most buildings. Sunny months are not sufficient to provide solar
energy; hence its applications are quite minimal. However, in 2006, the UK had installed 12.5 MWp
of photovoltaic capacity; by 2011 this had increased to 750 MWp. While for wind power, it is one of
the best locations in Europe, the UK consisting of 5,276 wind turbines with a total installed capacity of over 10 GW. The UK is ranked as Europes third largest producer of wind power (GWEC 2014).
A substantial amount of the UKs emissions come from buildings which are responsible for 44%
of CO2 emissions: 26 per cent of the UKs emissions come from homes, 18% from non-residential buildings (Inside Housing 2014). At the Rio summit in 1992, several governments agreed to
sustainable development. However, the UK government was pioneer by setting out its national
strategy in 1994. In 1999, the UK government then outlined how it proposed to deliver sustainable development in A Better Quality of Life. This set out a vision of simultaneously delivering
economic, social and environmental outcomes as measured by a series of headline indicators
(HM Government 2005). Accordingly, being one of the pioneers in this field, and a leading country
in the field of science, architecture, and urban planning, a history of success and world records; it
is important for the study to analyse and discuss the country and its current standing in terms of
past and current environmental practices, and the impact on its local and global future sustainability.
This paper presents the environmental issues that the UK has faced, with a look from the environmental perspective. The major issues are about energy, waste disposal, water scarcity, climate
change, and challenge of implying sustainable codes on buildings.

Discussion and Analysis


The Built Environment and Associated Emissions
After the global warming crisis occurred, attention was given to CO2 emissions and the serious
need to cut them down to stabilize the worlds climate. This procedure does not come at a cheap
price, but measures have to be taken. The latest estimates from the Tyndall Centre (Bows et al.
2006) are that a reduction of 70% from the current levels of emissions is needed to stabilise the
temperature at 0.58C above the present level. The built environment accounts for a large proportion of emissions, and within that sector housing in 2004 accounted for about 27% of the UKs total
CO2 emissions of 152.5 MtC (DEFRA 2006). The main energy use at an average UK home in such a
cold climate is heating: space heating, and water heating. While any action to improve buildings
should be applied on both new build or existing housing, but implementing standards for new
buildings is a more realistic approach, and the UK government has enforced some.
The UK government justies this focus on new build by asserting that making every possible
cost-effective energy improvement to existing homes would reduce the annual CO2 emissions in
2050 by only 25% of what is necessary: the rest must be achieved in new homes (DCLG 2006a). According to a report by the Department of Business Innovation and Skills (BIS) (2010); The amount
of CO2 emissions that construction can influence is significant, accounting for almost 47% of total
CO2 emissions of the UK. In-use building emissions accounts for the largest proportion, over 80%,
of total CO2 emissions that construction can influence. Manufacture (of construction products
and materials) accounts for the largest amount of emissions within the process of construction
(Fig.3).

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Figure 3: Amount of emissions by buildings (BIS 2010)


Actions to reduce the impact of buildings on the surrounding environment have varied and from
gov.uk, we can clearly read the main actions taken which can be summarized as follows:
The government requires local planning authorities to ensure that new developments are energy efficient.
The plan is to make sure all new homes to be zero carbon from 2016 and this extends to include
all other buildings from 2019.
The government has initiated the green deal to enable people to pay for home improvements
over time using savings on their regular energy bills.
As a result to this legislative framework, there are many case studies which show that citizens
have been able to cut down their energy bills to keep their homes warm in the long cold winter in
England, by some home improvements that was financed by the green deal, (total 60.76 million)
and in the same time help reduce the carbon footprint of their homes. It is worth noting that one
of the methods of assessing and rating the sustainability of buildings was initiated in the UK,
which is BREEAM (Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Methodology), in
1990, more than 250,000 buildings have been BREEAM certified in the UK and another 50 countries around the world. BREEAM sets the standard for best practice in sustainable building design,
construction and operation (BREEAM 2014).
A new national standard for the sustainable design and construction of new homes all over the
UK was initiated. This code helps reduce carbon emissions and make all buildings more sustainable in design, more than what is set by just building regulations.
The aspects for this standardisation as mentioned in the publication by the UK government (CfSH
2006) are; energy/CO2, water, materials, surface water runoff (flooding and flood prevention),
waste, pollution, health and well-being, management, ecology. For the assessment, a star system
is used to rate the sustainability performance, where 6 is the maximum. This code up till now is
still voluntary, unlike regulations, and is separate from the zero carbon policy and the 2016 zero

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carbon target. In certain cases, the code could be applied mandatory:


Local councils require developers to comply with the code by including a requirement in their
planning policy.
Affordable housing is funded by the homes and community agency that requires homes to be
built to code level 3.
The level 3 energy standard is now incorporated in the building regulations (CfSH 2006).
This awareness to the issue after global warming and temperatures rise, has led to less consumption and a better quality of air in the UK. SO2 emissions were reduced because of two main reasons: the decline in the use of fuel oil in power generation, as well as industry, and the transfer in
power generation from coal to natural gas since 1992 (Fig.4) (Ekins 2000).

Figure 4: SO2 emissions by fuel use, UK (Ekins 2000)


As can be seen in Figure 4, from Economic Growth and Environmental Sustainability the thousands of tonnes disposed yearly in the UK have significantly dropped, in a comparison between
1970s and 1995.
Energy Security
A look at the current break down of energy resources (Fig.5) used in the UK would clearly show
dependence on gas as a main energy resource. A percentage of this gas is produced in northern
England, but this resource is declining, and most of the gas consumption today is imported from
other gas rich countries mainly depending on Russia for a large percentage of the coal. Pipelines
already exist between the UK and Russia, but Ireland is the furthest consumer. As a result, any
disputes between Russia and other user nations along the pipeline and there have been disputes where Russia has cut off the gas every year for the last three years could affect the UK. It
is estimated that by 2020 90% of natural gas used in the UK will be imported, but, additionally,
the decline of coal-red and nuclear-powered electricity generation is likely to lead to increased
dependence on gas over the same period. Price uctuations in the general gas market over the
last couple years have led to sudden increases in house- hold gas and electricity prices (Banfill
and Peacock 2007).

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People in the UK are already suffering of extremely high prices of electricity that mainstream people could not afford. In BBCs (Energy Crisis in the UK 2013) documentary, some people in Blackpool, which is a rather small town and suffers a high rate of unemployment, people are trying to
provide proper insulation for their own homes, and are living and sleeping in one room to cut
down the cost of heating (YouTube 2014). Natural gas imports are shown in Figure 5, over 60% of
the UKs coal is already imported, principally from Russia, followed by South Africa and Colombia
(Day 2007).

Figure 5: UK Natural Gas Imports (Day 2007)


The UKs latest proposals are two documents, released for consultation by the Department of
Communities and Local Government (DCLG) in December 2006, which had three admirable main
goals; to achieve zero-carbon new homes by 2016; to increase the UKs energy security by reducing reliance on imported gas; and to help to meet the UKs Kyoto commitments.
Potentials of renewable energy resources such as wind, wave, tidal and solar are alluring; there
are quite a few limitations to them. For instance, intermittence availability only when the wind
blows, the tide flows or the sun shines since storage of significant quantities is not yet widely
available, figure 6. In the UK, wind power is available only about 20-25% of the time, whereas base
load electricity demand is constant 24/7 (Day 2007).

Figure 6: UK total primary energy consumption by source 2001-2012 (US Energy Information 2012)

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There is a gap between Englands future energy needs, and the existing supply. The government
intends to improve the security of the UKs energy supply by boosting imports from a more various collection of fuel supplies, by generating more of the needs of the UK using renewable energy sources such as wind power or solar, and by relying on nuclear energy for a more dependable
type on energy production.
Waste
Since this study is about a highly developed nation, the problems of waste and consumption are
serious. The more people progress towards a more developed and industrial country, the more
they consume, and the more waste they produce. On average, each person in the UK throws
away seven times their body weight in rubbish every year (Stuart 2014). About 177 million tonnes
of waste every year is generated in England alone. This is a poor use of resources and costs businesses and households money. Waste sent to landfill produces methane, a powerful greenhouse
gas, hence there are also environmental consequences of such waste. Waste generation by sector
is shown in Figure 7. The irrigation water used globally to grow food that is wasted would be
enough for the domestic needs (at 200 litres per person per day) of 9 billion people the number expected on the planet by 2050 (Staurt, 2014) thus even the UKs water footprint is rising.
Although much has been done about waste in the past decades, the UK is still behind several
European countries in managing this issue, and reducing landfills and the amount of waste.
Recycling/reuse together with composting have become the dominant methods of waste management in the UK, accounting for 42.2% of the total MSW (Municipal Solid Waste). In 2012 a total
of 13.1 million tonnes of MSW was recycled or composted in the UK, representing an increase of
27.3% since 2002. The generation of MSW is predicted to continue to decrease over the next 20
years from 32.3 million tonnes in 2010 to 29.5 million tonnes in 2030. This forecast is based on the
Bogner and Matthews model, which shows a linear relationship between the energy consumption of a nation and its generation of MSW, as well as on an energy consumption forecast published by the UK governments Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) (Bourtsalas
and Themelis 2013).
Recycling
The UK in general is doing a relatively good job when it comes to recycling, with an increased
share of municipal waste recycling from 12 to 39% between 2001 and 2010 (DEFRA 2010) but other European Union (EU) member countries have already reached 50% which is the target set by
EU for all countries by 2020, this way, the UK has to follow up with Austria, Germany and Belgium, which are already above 60% (EEA 2014). According to the latest figures from DEFRA, 37%
of household waste was recycled in 2008/09. There was a 235% increase in household recycling in
England between 2000/01 and 2009/10. In 2009/10, compost was the largest component of recycled waste, comprising 40% of the total (Wikipedia 2014).

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Figure 7: Total waste generation by sector, UK 2004-2008 (Gov.uk 2014)


Climate Change
The effects of climate change are already evident in the UK and around the globe. UK temperatures have risen. Globally, the weather is becoming more extreme, and will have a negative impact on humans, animals and plants (Clark 2013). The high temperatures in Europe in recent years
have cost the agricultural sector 13 billion. The economic consequences of changing climate
are serious and affect peoples lives directly (Banfill and Peacock 2007). The effects on the UK are
shown in Figure 8.
The UK governments latest climate change risk assessment identifies multiple climate threats
such as flood risk, summers becoming hotter and prolonging, heat waves, severe snowfalls, rising sea levels (around 40 cm by the end of the century) (Bradford.gov.uk 2014) stresses on water
resources, biodiversity threatened, loss of natural habitats, and the aftermaths for the UK from
climate change waves abroad (Clark 2013).

Figure 8: Effect of climate change to 2030 on the climate of London and South East England (Energy
Efficient Housing 2014)
This challenge/issue is more global than local, and the treatment available is quite limited to a
climate policy cutting global greenhouse gas emissions which could have a tangible effect on
future climate impacts.
Water Scarcity
The 1976 United Kingdom heat wave led to the hottest summer average temperature in the UK
since records began. At the same time, the country suffered a severe drought. It was easily the

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driest, sunniest and warmest summer in the 20th century. Rainfall was way below average. Again
in 2012, England and Wales experienced one of the 10 worst droughts of the last 100 years, according to the Met Office. According to the EEA (European Environment Agency), the UK is amongst
the 9 countries considered as water stressed, meaning that 46% of the regions population lives in
places which are water-stressed. (EEA 2014).
From the figure below (Fig.10), it is evident that water scarcity in the UK is geographically distributed; the more serious case is in the south east, while the north and west suffer less than the other
areas. In a publication by Environment Agency (Water Stressed Qualification 2013) the regulation
suggested that areas classified as serious water stressed have to evaluate metering and all other
options available when preparing water resource management plans. Climate change has affected the UK water case badly, where rainfall is abundant in the summer, when most of that will
evaporate, and less occurring in winter, when the aquifers should be topped up. In figure below
(Fig.9), it can be seen how the rainfall has changed relative to monthly average over the past few
years.

Figure 9: Monthly rainfall levels, southern England, Dec 09 - Jan 14 (Met Office 2014)
The problem with drought is not a minor one especially that the weather has become unpredictable, 2012 was dry, then 2014 witnessed abundant rainfall, and with all the mitigations and water
metering, hosepipe banning, the worst-case scenario, according to the EA, is that total water demand in England and Wales could increase 35% by the 2050s. Water metering has already taken
effect, all homes built since 1990 have water meters, and in 2008 1/3 of houses and apartments in
England and Wales are also fitted with water meters. Water UK suggests that this estimate will rise
in water stressed regions to 80% by 2020. Government is currently encouraging water companies
to build reservoirs, which is a quite huge investment, and it is hard to predict how things will
change and whether they will able to use them.

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In 2011, London Mayor Boris Johnson called for the resurrection of a 1942 plan to build a canal from
the Scottish borders to the South East in the Daily Telegraph. Since Scotland and Wales are on
the whole higher up than England, it is surely time to do the obvious; use the principle of gravity
to bring surplus rain from the mountains to irrigate and refresh the breadbasket of the country
in the South and East, he writes. After considering such an option, so far the cost is way too high.
For an island country, one obvious suggestion is desalination, which means drinking water would
come from salt water, after being processed. There is an example that has opened in London
(2010); the Thames Water has initiated this large desalination plant. It was first initiated to safeguard against water shortages, after 2005 and 2006, and it can supply 400,000 homes or 1 million
people with water. Water stress areas are shown in Figure 10.

Figure 10: Areas of relative water stress (EA 2007)


Desalination remains a very expensive, very power hungry process, (Barford and Everitt 2012).
Furthermore, all the salt and brine resulting from such a process would become an increasing
burden. Another suggested solution is stabilizing population, to limit the growth in demand on
water, reducing immigration, especially to the south east of England, and encouraging long-term
population transfer from parts of the UK like the South East of England that suffer shortages to
other parts, like the North West or Scotland, that are less vulnerable.
Transportation
Private vehicles are the main concern contributing the largest share of air pollution from transport, and causing the most congestion and inconvenience in the streets, there is a plan to build
some infrastructure that will support green electrical cars in the UK, and that has been backed
with a government grant of up to 5000 towards electric vehicles that achieve certain protection
and performance criteria (Clarke 2010).
Highlighting the role of public transport, especially buses, the Department for Transport is sup-

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porting sustainable transport through its Green Bus Fund the first three rounds of which have
helped to fund the introduction of nearly 1,000 new carbon-cutting green buses by the end of
March 2013. More than 680 of these buses can now be seen operating on public bus services in
many of our English towns and cities. Using the latest green technology, these new buses are
quieter and, in the case of hybrid- electric buses, use less diesel than conventional buses. Many
of the buses have also been manufactured in the UK, sustaining jobs and bringing green growth
(DEFRA 2013). To ensure the design and management of the interchange facility is thoughtful
of the environment and energy efficiency. New interchange facilities meet with national carbon
emission, water and waste objectives, and lessen their energy supplies. Maximising on-site energy generation, and use local materials. For instance:
Substitute artificial lighting with natural.
Ensure insulation is efficient to minimize energy use.
Renewable energy to be generated on the site.
Minimizing the need to air conditioning by using natural ventilation.
Providing enough recyclable waste containers.
Communication
To move towards a sustainable future communication at all levels is a must between legislative
authorities, people, politicians, and the new generation. That will help sustainability evolve from
the mainstreams point of view, when so much of the carbon emissions are directly related to humans daily activities, and require enough knowledge and commitment to the cause to be solved.

Sustainable Development Strategy


The UK Sustainable Development Strategy suggested that this development has four key objectives which include social progress and equality, environmental protection, conservation of natural resources and stable economic growth. These objectives reflect the concept of sustainable
development and support the principles of Agenda 21.(Gov.uk, 2013)
UK Strategy for Change
After defining sustainable development, the UK Government began to incorporate it into national policies. This acknowledges the need for the nation to progress, whilst maintaining its economic, social and environmental objectives. The necessity of environmentally comprehensive
methods is recognized, especially concerning transport and energy. The Government aspires to
allow economic development to prosper, in a sustainable way, and not compromise the existing
natural environment or cause social discrimination. In 1999, there has been a modification of this
policy into a more comprehensive one, which contained construction policy documents, and recommended key action themes to start-off the undertaking of sustainable practices. It was titled:
building a better quality of life, a strategy for more sustainable construction. Again in April 2004,
there has been an update on the policy titled; Indicators for a Strategy for Sustainable Development for the United Kingdom a baseline assessment which looked into details of indicators to
define benchmarks.
Ecotowns
According to The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) (2014), in 2009 the UK Government
named four towns as ecotowns. The towns received some government funding and are granted
ecotown status on the basis of the latent for attaining sustainability. The government funding
purposes to afford:
Affordable housing.
Sustainable living.

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203

Carbon neutral developments.


Creative use of waste and more recycling.
Employment that is local.
Locals have a say in the development.
Local services and schools, less demand for use of private vehicles.

Whitehill Bordon is an example of an ecotown and was given the status in 2009. To reduce the use
of private vehicles and in the long term depend more on public transport or bicycles as shown in
Figure 11 (Whitehill and Bordon 2012).

Figure 11: Whitehill and Bordon proposed masterplan (Whitehill and Bordon 2012)
Positive Initiatives
London as an exemplary city in the UK, despite being one of the cities most polluted with high
rates of particles and air pollution, a huge population and a lot of business, it has gone a long way
in sustainability. The City of London Corporation has an 800 year-long history of looking to the
welfare of generations and is acutely aware that a clean environment and a prosperous economy
go hand in hand with a good quality of life. The City of London Sustainability Review reports on
the following areas (Von Gunten 2010):

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Promoting a positive and sustainable workplace.


Supporting communities and working for a sustainable World Class City.
Contributing to society and supporting socio-economic development.
Addressing climate change, energy and resource use.
Enhancing biodiversity.
Promoting sustainable travel options.

The City of London will be a full participant in the Carbon Reduction Commitment (CRC) Energy
Efficiency Scheme, a mandatory national climate and energy scheme, which started in April 2010.
The City Corporation supports the aim of a low-carbon future and seeks to maximize its contribution to the national effort of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Again, in 2009, the City of London Corporation was the first local authority in the UK to be awarded the Carbon Trust Standard
by the Carbon Trust for its exemplary work in carbon management. (Von Gunten 2010).
The City of London relies on the advanced Citigen Combined Heat & Power (CHP) system to supply 23,000 MWh of heating and 5,300 MWh of cooling a year to a number of its properties. The system was established in 1993 and is one of the largest CHP community energy schemes in the UK.
Heat, which is normally wasted in electricity generation, is captured and supplied to the local heat
distribution network. The heat is also used to produce chilled water for air conditioning (sometimes referred to as tri-generation). The CHP represents a more sustainable option to supply
energy as it is up to 70% energy efficient compared to 40%% for a conventional power generator.
Given the limited potential for renewable energy generation in the Square Mile, using the heat
and cooling supplied by the CHP is a useful step for the City Corporation in reducing its carbon
intensity. The estimated CO2 savings achieved at the City properties supplied by the CHP amount
to about 3,700 CO2 tonnes avoided each year (Von Gunten 2010).
London has also released its new Climate Change Adaptation Strategy that ensures infrastructure
of London as well as services is prepared to meet the challenges predicted by climate change.
London has been able to monitor and coordinate the air quality within the Square Mile, by 13 air
quality monitoring points, which are used to monitor air pollutants including nitrogen dioxide
(NO2), fine particulates (PM10), very fine particulates (PM2.5) and ozone (O3). 4 continuous analyser sites report data to the London Air Quality Network which then coordinates and advances
air pollution monitoring. Some initiatives to facilitate more sustainable forms of transport and
encourage healthy lifestyles like The European Mobility Week and offered a range of activities including bike-to-work and walk-to-work helping raise awareness of the issue. The City of Londons
European Mobility Week events were shortlisted for the official EU Mobility Awards. The City of
London was one of 11 cities shortlisted out of 2,181 cities participating across Europe.
In 2009, an enhancement project was completed at Grants Quay on the River Thames. The project involved opening up the Thames Path and creating new landscaping and paving to develop
accessibility and safety, as well as new planting to promote biodiversity and support wildlife in
the area.
Challenges of Sustainable Development
Although it is sometimes possible to identify the threshold where development and the effect
on the environment are unacceptable, the UK government has identified five objectives that will
encourage the UK to become more sustainable:
Although the UK economy is one of the most developed in the world, it is a necessity that the
economy continues to relish, because that will help maintain the high standard of living that

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they are used to.


It is a must that the future growth exceeds the one in the past, and must be achieved whilst
reducing pollution and resource exploitation.
An equal distribution of wealth across the nation is a must.
Towns and the countryside contribute significantly to our quality of life. Landscape and wildlife must be protected.
The UK has a responsibility to contribute to global sustainable development, in particular to
aid those in extreme poverty.

Conclusion
Looking at the UK from the sustainability point of view, shows that the more developed a country is, the more challenging the bet to remain sustainable, while maintaining the development,
corporate revenues, public contentment with a wide variety of services, and natural surroundings
which is the literal soil for all of that to be up and running. The main picture is quite optimistic,
though some of the challenges e.g, the water scarcity and energy security, only get more complicated with time, much development has and is still happening in this field in a country that was
a pioneer and leader in sustainability issues from the 1990s. However, for this country or another,
no progress is the limit, and the need for constant research for the current limitations, challenges,
and the appropriate solutions, is the way to ensure planners are doing their due diligence, and
resources are at best use, to enhance the environment, and deliver it in the best manner possible
to the and future generations.

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KLEIN, CHRISTOPHER, 2012. The Killer Fog That Blanketed London, 60 Years Ago History.com
LONDONSDC.ORG, 2014.Making London an exemplary sustainable world city London Sustainable Development
Commission | LSDC. <http://www.londonsdc.org/> retrieved on 16 May 2014.
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uk/20110223093550/http://defra.gov.uk/sustainable/government/progress/national/2.htm> retrieved on 16 May
2014.
P.F.G.BANFILL and A.D.PEACOCK, 2007. Energy-effcient new housing the UK reaches for sustainability. BUILDING
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SMITH, C., CLAYDEN, A. and DUNNETT, N. 2009. An exploration of the effect of housing unit density on aspects of
residential landscape sustainability in England.Journal of Urban Design, 14(2), pp.163--187.
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2014
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16 May 2014
VON GUNTEN, CHIARA, 2010. City of London Sustainability Review 2009/10.
WHITEHILL AND BORDON ECO TOWN, 2012. Growing a greener future. Whitehill and Bordon print.
WIKIPEDIA, 2014Industrial Revolution <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_Revolution> retrieved on 20 Aug. 2014.
YOUTUBE, 2014.BBC Panorama Energy Crisis 2013 <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TGCok0bUia0> retrieved on
20 Aug. 2014.

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Session IV

VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF SOUTH OF IRAN,


EVAZ: DEVELOPING A SOLUTION FOR FUTURE
DESIGNS
Fatima Mirahmadi1 & Hasim Altan1
1 Sustainable Design of the Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering & IT, British University in Dubai, UAE, Fatima.
mirahmadi@gmail.com / hasim.altan@buid.ac.ae

Abstract
Nowadays in modern life, every technology and technique for comfortable life is available.
People with low income, in other words, with low levels of economic power, can also have
those facilities to stay warm in winter and stay cool in summer. Many years back when there
were no updated systems for human needs, passive strategies played a big role in peoples
life at the time. This paper concentrates on a small city in Iran that had used special strategies
to solve peoples environmental problems. The city is called Evaz, which is located in the Fars
region of Iran and with distance about 20 km from Gerash city and 370 km from south east
of Shiraz. Evaz receives minimum rainfall, which is the reason why water is restricted in this
area and therefore, cisterns (water storage) had been used for many years that will be studied
in more detail in this paper. In summers, the climate is hot and dry, sometimes temperatures
reaching around 46C during the day. Although the winters are typically cold and likewise dry,
moderate climate is available in Evaz during autumn and spring. This research identifies some
of the past/used strategies and describes them in detail with analysis for transformation and
connections with the modern and traditional fundamentals. Furthermore, the study develops
some solutions utilizing a combination of both modern and traditional techniques in design
to suggest better and more effective ways to save energy, and at the same time to remain
sustainable for the future.

Keywords
Sustainable Development, Vernacular Architecture, Passive Strategies, Traditional
Techniques, Modern Solutions, Iran.

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Introduction
Nowadays in modern life, every technology and technique for comfortable life is available. People
with low-income levels or economic power can also have those facilities to stay warm in winter and
stay cool in summer. Many years back when there were no modernized systems for human needs,
passive strategies played a big role in peoples life at the time. This paper focuses on a small city in
Iran where vernacular architecture had played a key role for sustaining certain needs in life for people through special strategies that have been used to solve peoples environmental and architectural issues, not only during those days but also even until today. The city is called Evaz and located
in the Fars region of Iran with distance about 20 km from Gerash city and 370 km from south east of
Shiraz. Evaz receives minimum rainfall, which is the reason why water is restricted in this area, and
traditionally, vernacular architecture provided solution for many years. Therefore, cisterns (water
storage) are used and the focus of this study is in more detail on this element in this paper.
The reason of selecting Evaz is the special climate and urban criteria this city has, which is extremely challenging for urban planners, architects and designers in general, and for addressing
sustainability issues for the future. This city has a very limited resource, such as water and electricity power. These problems have generated another sociability issue; many of residents migrated
to different cities and are out of the country. The research identifies the architectural strategies
of vernacular architecture in Evaz in order to generate ideas for transformation plus connections
with the modern and traditional fundamentals. Furthermore, the study aims to develop some
solutions utilizing a combination from modern and traditional designs in order to suggest better
and more useful ways to save energy, and at the same time, sustainable design performance.

Methodology
The methodology used in this research is the qualitative method. Intensive literature review has
been carried out to identify as much information as possible from existing literature. To collect
further information on local level, field studies were undertaken involving interviews with local
people and data collection through observation. Studying photographs of current situation in
the city of Evaz, involving cultural personalities of Evaz for their consultancy and online surveys
with Evazi people are some of the other methods used in the research to further enhance the
study and the investigation intended on the vernacular techniques of Evaz.

The City of Evaz


Evaz sites at 54 degrees southeast 53 minutes east longitude, north latitude and longitude from
Greenwich meridian, 27 degrees 34 minutes. It receives minimum rainfall, which is the reason
why water is restricted in this area (IAU 2015). In summers, the climate is hot and dry, sometimes
temperatures reaching around 46C during the day. Although the winters are typically cold and
likewise dry, moderate climate is available in Evaz during autumn and spring.
From the climatic conditions, the areas climate is hot and dry, with average rainfall of 220-180 mm
per year, which is more influenced by the Mediterranean air masses in autumn and winter. Maximum temperature 48-46 degrees for the months of July and August, and a minimum temperature
of zero degrees, is related to the months of December and January. There is limited agricultural
area in this city, the famous tree and landscape includes citrus trees, palm trees and planting
vegetables. The average relative humidity of this area is maximum 58% and minimum 29%. The
number of frost days; 51 days has been reported (IAU 2015) (Fig.1). The most important reason behind this is the lack of water resources, extreme heat, irregular rainfall annually, and cheap lands.

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Figure 1: Evaz plain in March 2011


The citys population is around 23000 people (IAU 2015; EPNU 2015). On holidays and summer, it
increases because a considerable amount of Evazi people has shifted to other cities and countries
around Persian Gulf and others. Evazi people who has immigrated to Persian Gulfs countries, usually they consider a part of their income to help their hometown especially for the places such as
construction areas, hospitals, schools and universities. At present, a considerable number of those
who were living abroad have returned to Evaz and some of them were invested their income over
there.

Architecture in Evaz
History of Evaz goes back to pre-Islam era (IAU 2015).In terms of the important factors of formation of the Architecture in south of Iran and Evaz, different buildings have been constructed, old/
vernacular architecture have focused on important factors such as climate and weather for each
area. Observing these factors causes the influence of comfort ability and comforting in the space
with balance and beauty that is the reason how they became center of the attention. To reduce
the heat, architecture were using different methods through passive strategies. Evaz is also included in hot and dry climatic conditions. They designed the buildings in a way of narrow streets
and winding, high walls for houses to decrease direct sun light and assist to build a shade (Kamal
1999:51).
Forms of monuments were two types introverted or extroverted. Introverted is noun for houses
with yards inside the building and extroverted is the building which looks like cage and yard is designed out of it (Pirnia 1990:32). In order to provide a good atmosphere in warm and cold seasons,
the methods which has been used by architecture of this region also included, under the ground
in homes, mosques, double shell roofs and selecting suitable materials, such as mud and brick
was the other principles to keep the house cold in a summer warm in the winter (Kamal 1999:51).
Wind tower is one of the developed factors of Iranian architecture; it has a huge usage in hot,
humid and dry areas. Wind tower is used especially on the top of the houses to direct the air flow
into the space to create a fresh and cool air. Creating openings on the four sides of the tower as-

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sists the wind flow to enter more without difficulty. At this point, there are some simple and some
with more beautiful works on it. A wind tower, which is located in Evaz, is shown on the top of the
houses and four sided designs at the past where it was used in luxury houses (Fig.2).

Figure 2: Wind tower in a historic house in Evaz in November 2010


Factors Affecting Architecture Styles
After the climatic conditions, political and security issues are the factors of creation of regions.
When the country was unrest, Evaz as other cities of Iran became like a castle. The city was enclosed within a fence fortified with towers and ramparts. To ensure the security of the city, the
wall had been put up with several gates and guards with special defenses. Moreover, in order to
further strengthen the two fences surrounding ditch and water was launched between the ditches (Karamati 1953:32-22).
Economic factors are another reason of formation of structures in architecture of ancient cities. In
any society, political peace with the support of craftsmen and artists, i.e. talented people, will lead
to economic growth. Creation of Gheisarie Bazar, shopping centers, caravanserais inside and out
of the city and develops of pathways has straight impacts on creation of contexture of old city.
Impact of religion is obvious in observing tombs and holy shrines, which has been developed duration of time. These tombs are belonging to outstanding spiritual personalities; in the past time
of history, it was an attractive place for people to visit and observe religious ceremony. Taste of
Board of Governors and Influential personalities is another impact on architecture and structure
of old textures in each place (Kamal 1999:54).
Architecture of Evaz have inspired by many factors as mentioned earlier. During the history, some
changes occurred that affected the city. Evazi people who are living in the Gulf region and who
are interested in righteous support most of the peoples needs.

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Overview of Traditional Architecture in Houses


Traditional architecture of hot and dry cities has been divided into two styles of Introvert and Eccentric. Evaz has introvert style. In this style, yard is located in the middle of the house and rooms
are located around the courtyard, which is almost square shape (Fig.4).

Figure 4: courtyard from the top view, Alipour house, in south of Iran (Nobahar 2015)
Because of the hot weather conditions and strong radiation of sun, lighting design was in a way to
have shades and indirect natural light for interior spaces (EPNU 2010). Most of the skylights were
made from rock and plaster. In addition to add a beauty and shine to the room, glass door were
designed with colorful glass pieces to adjust the interior light (Fig.5).

Figure 5: Historic house of Sodagar in Evaz


Ceiling of the ancient houses were flat and built with wooden beams. The beams were made
from Tamarisk and palm tree, which are popular and grow well in the warm climate. In the middle
of the ceiling, there was design of diamond, geometric shapes with paintings and colors, which
made the design special and beautiful (Fig.6 and Fig.7).

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Figure 6: More than 100 years old two storey residential building in Evaz; Esmaili Home

Figure 7: Traditional ceiling design, Evaz, Mirahmadi house, July 2015


One of the purposes in traditional home style was to make the home look animator and pleasant.
Thats the reason small garden is always a major key of the traditional architecture which was
famous in Evaz .Variety of trees which are suitable for hot and dry climate was available in these
gardens specially palm tree, Because of its high productivity and matching with the dry climate of
the region Palm tree were more in attention of the people. Rock pools were used in some luxury
houses, which assist the view to look more attractive. For occupants daily water need, wells were
drilled in houses (Fig.8).

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Figure 8: Wells in houses for daily water use in Evaz museum

History of Water Cistern (Berka) in Evaz


Hot and dry climate conditions and lack of adequate rainfall in more than six months in a year and
seasonal rivers were the reason to motivate architecture to create new ideas of the cisterns, bands
and canals. Cisterns were made to save water in rainy days. Water cisterns are important not only
as one of the most important structures of water, in fact, it were guidance for passengers and caravans in the past for whom were passing the way in the desert and plain (Fig.9).

Figure 9: Evaz cisterns, July 2011


Accordingly, the cisterns are a symbol for architecture of rural in Iran. The oldest water resource
in Iran belongs to Eilami Dorantash in Chaghazanbil of Khuzestan state (province). This water cistern is build 1250 years before BC. There are many water cisterns located in the south of Iran and
islands in Persian Gulf, which prove the value and importance of human to secure a vital element,
water (Kamal 1999:154). In Islamic duration, water cistern had increased rapidly and today there
are many historic places from those periods. Water cistern usually divided in two categories; the
water cisterns which are used generally by everyone in the area and region (more public), and the
second one more private water cistern for inside the houses.

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Criteria of Evaz Cistern:


Evaz cisterns are one of the most famous cisterns in the region. Generally, the original plan of the
cistern is available in two designs.

1. Circular plan and domes roof (Fig.10)


2. Rectangle plan

Figure 10: Circular plan and domes roof, July 2011


The design of water resources are the common ones in the south of Iran. The resource of the water
in these cisterns comes in the cylinder shape, which has been constructed in the middle of the
ground. Ratio of diameter in the source depended on the size of the pond. Domes were used for
circular pond designs and it were calculated on acquire mathematic calculations with the best
materials that is the reason they lasted for long time and stayed beautiful.
Construction Methodology of the Cistern:
People in the past were using traditional ways to build this vital element; there were different
ways of construction for these famous cisterns. The device, which they were using, called Pargar
(compass); this was used to create the dome shape. Pargar made from a board and from four
sides of that board were ropes, which were connected to four sides of the pond. Therefore, the
architecture of the pond became from moving around the pound with the ropes until it reached
the require size of the dome, and this was the way to create an accurate environment of the pond.
On the top of the pond there is a stone element called Kakol when it appears, it means that
the work is completed. The dome was installed on the wall, which has been called Ghors which
means strong and fit. In addition, it gave height to the cistern. The base (Ghors) helps cisterns
height to be higher and it helps to the movement of airflow, which is affected on the water to be
fresh and cold (Kamal 1999:156).
Shape of the Dome:
To make the shape of the dome, the architecture was picking and sticking the stones row by
row and each new row were organizing the stones more forward. That was the way as it goes
higher the stones size was becoming smaller. Usually after building four rows, ceiling should get
one-meter slope to achieve the shape of the dome. In the huge sizes of cisterns, two Ghors (base)
were required to stay the dome on it (Fig.12). After building the dome, outline were covered by
mortar, to protect the mortar from the cracks resulted by water and strong heat in this area they

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were covering it by plaster and clay.

Figure 12: Circular plan and domes roof, July 2011


On the top of the pond there is a stone element (Kakol) when it appearances means that the work
is completed. The dome was installed on the wall, which has been called (Ghors) which means
strong and fit. In addition, it gave height to the cistern. The base (Ghors) helps cisterns height to
be higher and it assist the movement of the airflow, which is effected on the water to be fresh and
cold. To attract less sun with heat transfer, they had made the cover of the cistern with plaster. In
addition, the white color of the plaster helps passengers to aware of water from the far view.
Air Conditioning in the Cisterns:
In Evazs cisterns, they use the holes around the cistern with the specific distances instead of the
wind tower (Fig.13).

Figure 13: Holes around the cistern, July 2011

Materials used in the Cistern:


Certain materials used in the construction of the pond. They used stone and mortar in the floor
(source) of the ponds and in building stone tablets .They made the mortar soft, hardly with shovel. Unlike plaster, mortar can be very resistant and durable in an environment where there is lack
of water. The plaster in dry and away from water can be more durable based on the experiences
and human resources over time, Homeira Kamal has mentioned in his book (2004:158). According-

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ly, mortar used for floors and walls which in directly connected to the water and plaster used for
dome and the top which is in dry area and under the sun.
Nowadays, because of the difficulties in making mortar material, architecture is using cement
instead of mortar, which does not have the same value of mortar. In addition to the design of the
cistern in the past, they were building two shelters with stone platform attached to the cistern
for passengers and caravans whom were passing that way, but in nowadays, they do not apply
it anymore. The way to the access of water source was stone stairs, which has been made inside
the cistern periodically. The amount of the stairs was depending on the size of the cistern. In the
front of the cistern in direction of water flow were small, hence pond this part protects water from
waste and suspended things.
This specification was applied in cisterns out of the city as well with a small difference. In cisterns
out of the city there were platform in the direction of Qebla (Muslims pray direction) for passengers who want to pray in the comfortable place. Mostly the cisterns belonged to Safavie Empire
(1502 - 1736) which has been repaired after.

Figure 14: Holes around the cistern (SEEIRAN 2011)


Current Water and Climate Situation in Evaz
Lack of water and hot climate has created the reason for native people to immigrate. Since long
time back Evaz faced with a problem of drinking water. In the past, the citys tap water was salty, it
was only for use of washing, and watering the plants, however in January 2008, they have started
to use fresh water piping network of the city of Salman Farsi Dam. Although Evaz is still facing
with the same problem of water and using the water from cisterns to supply its water demand
became an issue because the abundance of fresh water that is subject to sufficient rainfall to fill
the Salman Farsi Dam. In the past and today, the main source of drinking water and of this city
were large stocks of the cisterns inside and outside of the city. According to the latest statistics,
about 750 large and small cisterns (water reservoirs) to supply drinking water in the city made by
the people of the region (IAU 2015).
Problems of Cisterns:
The first problem, which has been mentioned in the research, was lack of rainfall, which is related to the climate conditions; some other problem has been created in these years and was the
reason to stop using some of the cisterns. The quality of water after drought reduces because for

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long time water is moveless and some people does not use the water through healthy ways so
the place will have a contamination. That is why people stopped using them. On the other hand,
the study proposes some sustainable design solutions for these problems, which can solve this
issue and people, can continue using the rainwater in a face of fresh and healthy way. As soon as
most of the water requirements are supported by cisterns, it is necessary to solve human health
hazards in cisterns.
Sustainable Solution:
The best way to protect the water from microbe and bacteria is water filtration idea. Water filter
machine can create movement in the water in addition to kill the bacteria and hazards inside
the water. To activate the filter electricity is the major element, which is required but the lack of
power, is another problem, which also requires another solution. As mentioned before, Evaz has a
strong solar power, which has not been used until today. Using solar panel to produce electricity
for those water cisterns will be great idea. As per the research on different kind of solar panels, it
has been discovered that with installation of a solar panel on one cistern can produce electricity
power to nine other cisterns as well. Radiation of sun in the south orientation is more powerful
than any other orientation (Fig.15).

Figure 15: Radiation of sun in Iran (1999-2011) (GeoModel Solar 2015)

Vernacular architecture of south of Iran, Evaz: developing a solution for future designs

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Figure 16: Specification of the climate data in different month of the year (NASA 2015)
Solar based on 10 numbers of 740W load for 12 hours with 1-day autonomy. The filter will work
with electricity generated from the solar panel and each solar panel will be enough for 10 cisterns.
From the panel, electricity will be transferring to another cistern and all of the generators will
proceed with filtering water for more safety and healthy environment. Details of the solar plan
are shown in Figure 17.

Figure 17: Process of the solar panel (Apex Power Concepts 2015)

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Outline:
Panels are used to power the load. Charge controllers are used to control the charging of the
batteries, which enhances the life of the batteries. Batteries are used to store charge and power
the load when the sun is not shining. The batteries are designed to operate for 1-day of no-sun
back-up. An inverter is provided to convert DC power form the battery to AC power so that the
loads can be operated. Cables and connectors are provided to wire the system completely. A solar
mounting stand is provided to place the panels. Because of the dome shape in water cistern, it has
been decided to design the solar panels in with the dome shape. After analyzing both quotations
for two different panels, there was a huge price difference. Therefore, the decision was to choose
the normal shape of solar panel, the specification of the panel is mentioned in Figures 18 and 19.

Figure 18: Dome shape solar panel idea/concept


In the dome shape solar panel design, cistern looks more beautiful but the price increased a lot.
In the city similar to Evaz, investing for this amount of money needs management that is more
precise. With the experience of being in cultural and city development meetings of Evaz city,
discovered that Evazi people are interested to invest and develop their small city of less natural
resources. Although this idea and concept is looking beautiful and useable, the cost is not reasonable. Therefore, the second option will give same process and good amount of power to filtrate
the water for peoples daily water use.

Vernacular architecture of south of Iran, Evaz: developing a solution for future designs

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Figure 19: Price list of solar panel for dome shape solar design for 10-cistern power generator (Apex
Power Concepts 2015)

Figure 20: Rectangle shape of the solar panel idea/concept

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Figure 21: Price list of solar panel for rectangle solar design for 10-cistern power generator (Apex Power Concepts 2015)

Conclusions
In sustainable solutions, all the matters should be considered carefully and precisely. Especially
when the product is cost is high. In the first stage, designer should consider who is going to pay
for the product and how it is going to help the city and the people living in it. Evaz had built universities, schools and hospitals on the support of the people and they are highly looking forward
to improve the city. Therefore, applying this solution is not far from what has been suggested and
proposed within this paper with the support of this study. Some related research have already
shown the benefits can be achieved from applications of solar panels; how effective solar panels
can be and extensive amount of electricity that can be generated from the sun, because of Irans
geographical position and the gaining amount in solar radiation. Therefore, the considerable
amount in cost and energy can be saved for the future of the Evaz city in Iran.

References
APEX POWER CONCEPTS, 2015, DUSOL PV modules, PV Design for Specific Element, [Online]. Available at: http://www.
apexpowerconcepts.com/.
EPNU, 2010, Geographical Background of Evaz, Geographical Position and Reason of the Weather, [Online]. Available
at: http: //www.epnu.ir/.
EPNU, 2015, Population of Evaz City, 2010, Current Population of Evaz, [Online]. Available at: http://www.epnu.ir/.
GEOMODEL SOLAR, 2015, Average Annual Sun of Iran, 1999-2011, Situation of Solar Radiation power in Iran, [Online].
Available at: http://solargis.info/doc/_pics/freemaps/1000px/ghi/SolarGIS-Solar-map-Iran-en.png.
ISLAMIC AZAD UNIVERSITY (IAU), 2015, History of Evaz information, [Online]. Available at: http://www.iauevaz.
ac.ir/?page_id=366.

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KARAMATI, M.H., 1953, History of Pleasing Evaz, Tehran.


KAMAL, H., 1990, Historical and Architectural Background about the City of Evaz, Historical and Artistic Effects of Evaz,
Iran.
NOBAHAR, M.A., 2015, Architecture of Courtyard in South of Iran, [Online]. Available at: http://gerash.info/post/124.
PIRNIA M.K., 1990, Architecture Styles of Houses in South of Iran (Evaz), Methods of Iranian Architecture, Iran.
SEEIRAN, 2011, Holes around the Cistern, Evaz, Iran, [Online]. Available at: http://seeiran.ir/.

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Session IV

EVALUATION AND VISUALISATION OF THERMAL


PERFORMANCE OF INDUSTRIALISED HOUSING
CONSTRUCTION IN CENTRAL MEXICO
Habid Becerra-Santacruz1, Panagiotis Patlakas2 & Hasim Altan3
1 Environmental Design, Faculty of Architecture, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo (UMSNH), Mexico,
hbecerra@umich.mx
2 Built Environment Group, Southampton Solent University, UK, Panagiotis.Patlakas@solent.ac.uk
3 Sustainable Design of the Build Environment, Faculty of Engineering & IT, British University in Dubai, UAE, hasim.
altan@buid.ac.ae

Abstract
Mass industrialised low-income housing is a building typology that is common in Mexico
and possesses characteristics that differentiate it, in scale and social impact, to similar developments in other parts of the world. The business needs and socioeconomic factors behind
these initiatives mean that the environmental performance is typically of low or no importance to developers, who instead are primarily concerned with speed of erection and profit
margins. However, such developments present particular interest to the environmental design researcher, as the large number of identically constructed buildings, occupied by users
with similar socioeconomic conditions and usage patterns, allowing for comparative studies
that isolate specific aspects. This paper presents initial results from an extensive Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE) field surveys conducted over a period of 2 years in Morelia, Mexico.
The monitoring phase encompassed 12 dwellings with four different orientations (North, East,
South, West), measuring internal temperature and relative humidity levels at 10-minute intervals over the two distinct seasons of the climate of the area (Cool and Warm).The results are
commented upon and initial conclusions are drawn that aspire to guide research and practice future developments in this type of construction. In addition, an important aspect of the
work is the presentation and communication of the collected data for different stakeholders
involved in design, construction, and operation phases. The monitoring results are presented
not only in the standard graph formats, but also via 4d interactive visualisation approaches,
relying on a proprietary research software prototype. Observations on the use of the software
are made as well as comments on the potential of visualisation methodologies to communicating building performance data to non-expert stakeholders.

Keywords
Post Occupancy Evaluation, Industrialised Housing, Visualisation, Thermal Performance,
Mexico.

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Introduction
Background
The accelerated growth of the population in Mexico during the 1960s brought consequently a
large housing deficit, particularly in the major metropolitan areas. According to Boils (2006), in
order to cover the housing deficit in the country, it is necessary to build an average of 1 million
houses per year for period of 10 years. A major Real Estate Investment business states that an average of 850,000 new homes per year are required until 2020 when the rate of household formation will start to decrease (Gomes, 2004). The National Population Council (CONAPO) estimated
that in 2010 there would be nearly 30 million homes in Mexico and by 2030 a total of 45.6 million
households (CONAPO, 2012) which involves an average growth of 780,000 new homes per year.
These figures clearly show the countries big housing demand. As a result, during the last decade
different federal agencies, international aid associations, as well as private and public organisations have been taking some actions to promote the housing sector. In 2007 the State set a goal
to provide 1,000,000 new homes per year between 2007 and 2012 (Federal, 2007).
The strong need for great quantities of low income housing, together with an advanced construction sector headed by big consortiums, have led to innovative construction solutions based
on a mass industrialised housing production (MIHP), which allow the rapid delivery of significant
volumes.
Mass Industrialised Housing Developments in Mexico
Today because of different federal actions taken towards housing development, Mexico is one
of the hotbeds of mass industrialised housing production (MIHP) worldwide. Two of the largest mega housing developments of Latin America are located in the metropolitan zone of Valle
de Mexico, in the municipality of Ixtapaluca; Los Heroes with 20 thousand dwellings, and San
Buenaventura with 23 thousand homes (Miranda, 2012). Figure 1 illustrates the urbanisation model and the monotony of developments where the same housing design has been constructed
repeatedly.

Figure 1: Aerial views from the 23 thousand homes development San Buenaventura located in Ixtapaluca, Mexico state - (a) Photography by Artist Livia Corona, (b) Google Maps (2015) (c and d) Oscar Ruiz

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The vast majority of the housing developments are located far from the centre of the city, in
the periphery, where land is cheaper. Typically, these developments are fitted with minimal infrastructure, lack the provision of urban and community services and have not been integrated into
the transport or infrastructure networks. Mass housing developments are commonly shaped by
dwellings of one and two levels, covering large areas of land with very low-density housing with
low numbers of inhabitants per hectare (Snchez, 2012). These developments, have little variety in
their design, and are developed from clusters of about 50 homes, opening the possibility of gated
sections within the development (Hernndez et al., 2005; Peralta and Hofer, 2006; Coulomb et al.,
2009; Lopez-Silva et al., 2011; Lpez Estrada and Leal Iga, 2012; Gilbert, 2014).
Furthermore, these developments are constructed in areas where the climate conditions can be
challenging, the environmental and energy performance of those is rarely a primary consideration, as factors such as erection speed and cost minimisation typically take priority. In this context,
there is evidence indicating that a significant number of new housing construction has serious
problems of comfort that are relatively reflected in high consumption of energy (Coulomb and
Schteingart, 2006).
Industrialised Building Systems (IBSs)
Many of the mass housing developments in Mexico have been achieved by using industrialised
building systems (IBSs) through the production of repetitive prototypes. Trikha (1999), has defined industrialised building system as a building system in which all building components such
as wall, floor, slab, beam and staircase are mass produced either in a factory or at the site under
strict quality control and minimal onsite activities. Under the category of mass produced in site,
large housing developers in Mexico have widely adopted the IBSs also known as Concrete Formwork System.
The Concrete Formwork System uses two main components: concrete and steel; this characteristic allows accurate calculations of inputs and consequently, zero waste. Working in this way,
significant savings can be achieved and higher profits can be earned by companies (Hernndez
et al., 2005).
In the construction process, all elements of the house are cast simultaneously by pouring the
concrete in the formwork, which is previously placed to form walls and ceilings; the prefabricated
details are added in a final stage (Fig.2). This systematic process of identical and repetitive actions
is a linear method that can be easily replicated, allowing total control of housing production. In
this way, companies manage to make considerable savings regarding monitoring costs, construction management and production.

Figure 2: Dwellings constructed via industrialized building system of Concrete Formwork

Thermal performance of industrialised housing construction in Centra

227

Presentation of the case study


The present study has been carried out in the city of Morelia, which has a warm-temperate climate and is located in the central part of Mexico (Fig.3). During the last decade, the city of Morelia
and neighbouring municipalities have also presented a fast urbanisation grow where many mass
industrialised housing developments were built. Table 1 presents the 10 largest housing developments built after the year 2000, which all-together accounts to nearly 40 thousand homes and 50
thousand Inhabitants.

Figure 3: Location of Morelia


Table 1: Low-income housing developments located in the city of Morelia (INEGI, 2011; Matus R.
M. and Ramrez A. R., 2013).
Name of the Hosing Development

Number of Dwelling

Number of Inhabitants

Conjunto Habitacional Villas del Pedregal

14000

10934

Fraccionamiento Misin del Valle

5484

8663

Villa Magna

3175

4577

Fraccionamiento Galaxia Tarmbaro

3009

5989

Fraccionamiento Metrpolis II

2998

5973

Lomas de la Maestranza

2572

2432

Villas de la Loma

2057

4336

Conjunto Habitacional la Hacienda

1720

1848

Campestre Tarmbaro

1655

2774

10

Fraccionamiento Hacienda del Sol

1591

1848

38261

49374

Total

The largest housing development in Morelia called Villas del Pedregal, which today has around
14,000 dwellings, has been built using the described industrialised system, based on reinforced
concrete formwork. All elements, including both load-bearing and non-load bearing, are poured
in place, using lightweight formwork panels. The development is particularly suited for environmental design research as it consists of identical housing designs. The modularity and repeatability of the construction process, together with the extremely large available sample, provide an

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opportunity to study the performance of a specific building typology under a variety of orientations and environmental conditions. Figures 4 and 5 present the housing development and the
housing design under study.

Figure 4: Development studied; Villas del Pedregal

Figure 5: House model studied

Thermal performance of industrialised housing construction in Centra

229

Methodology
A Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE) has been carried out as a main methodology using the case
study Villas del Pedregal development from Morelia. The thermal performance assessment involved a long-term seasonal monitoring of the indoor climatic conditions (air temperature and
relative humidity levels) of 12 selected houses, where three dwellings per orientation were chosen; facade facing North, East, South and West. All monitored dwellings were occupied by families
and none of them have air conditioning or any type of space heating systems.
HOBO U10-003 data loggers (Fig.6) were used as a monitoring instrumentation, complying with
the ranges and accuracy levels specified on Table 2 of Standard ISO 7726 (1998) for measuring the
physical variables of the environment. The operating ranges of these data loggers are -20 to 70C
for temperature, with a resolution of 0.02C, and a 0 to 95% for Relative Humidity, with a resolution of 0.1%. Accuracy for temperature is 0.4C from 0C to 40C, and for RH 3.5% from 25% to
85% over the range of 15C to 45C, 5% from 25% to 95% over the range of 5C to 55C. The time
accuracy is 1 minute per month at 25C (HOBO, 2010).

Figure 6: Data-logger Onset HOBO U10-003 used for monitoring


The monitoring was carried out during 42 consecutive days (six weeks) in two seasons: the cold
period from the 17th of December 2008 to the 27th of January 2009 and the warm period from the
11th of May to the 21st of June 2009. The chosen periods were determined by the weather analyses of the region identifying the months that presented the most extreme conditions during the
year. Two data loggers were used on each house, collecting data from the bedroom and the living
spaces (kitchen, dining and living room) where the residents spend most time. Figure 7 shows the
design and distribution of the house, and location where the instrumentation was installed. The
recordings of air temperature and relative humidity were set at 10-minute intervals. As a result,
the housing monitoring generated a detailed database of the indoor environment with a total
number of 580,608 readings from both seasons.

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B ackyard

B ackyard

B edroom

B edroom

K itchen

K itchen

F acade

B ackyard
Dining Area

Living Area

Living Area

B edroom

B athroom B athroom

F loor P lan
1.00

B edroom

S ection

Metres

G R AP HIC S C ALE
0.00

B ackyard

Dining Area

2.00

3.00

4.00

5.00

Figure 7: Floor plan, facade and section of the house model studied and location of the data-loggers

Results
Thermal Performance Assessment
Occupants in residential buildings have a comprehensive flexibility to adjust their clothing and
activities, as well as carrying out actions such as opening and closing windows to regulate natural
ventilation, which allow them to feel comfortable. In this context and also aiming to promote energy conservation, the Adaptive Comfort Standard (ACS) from ASHRAE-55 was used to establish
the neutral temperature and comfort limits for the region under this study. Results from a field
study (Figueroa-Villamar et al. 2014) conducted in a very similar context and similar buildings, validated the use of the Adaptive Comfort Standard (ACS). The neutral temperature (Tn) and comfort
zone for each monitored season were calculated using ACS, the thermal boundaries were defined
for 90% of occupant acceptability at 5 K (2.5C on either side of the neutral temperature) and for
80% of occupant acceptability at 7 K (3.5C on either side of the neutral temperature). For relative
humidity a range between 30% and 80% is still acceptable (ASHRAE-55, 2004; CIBSE, 2006; Szokolay and Docherty, 1999; ISO-7730, 1994).
Table 2 presents the comfort temperatures and thermal boundaries for 90% and 80% of occupant
acceptability on each season. Tn was calculated using the formula from ACS, the average outdoor
temperatures, provided by a local meteorological station were calculated over the 42 monitored
days of each season. Once the boundaries were established, the measurements were compared
against the comfort zone to evaluate the thermal performance. The nomenclature established in
Table 3 has been used in the analysis of this study to identify the rooms and its orientation.

Thermal performance of industrialised housing construction in Centra

231

Table 2: Comfort temperatures and thermal boundaries of Morelia over the two seasons under
this study
90% acceptability

80% acceptability

42 days period
measurement

T out

Tn

Tn max

Tn min

Tn max

Tn min

Cool season

15.4

22.6

25.1

20.1

26.1

19.1

Warm season

21.6

24.5

27.0

22.0

28.0

21.0

Table 3 Nomenclature for the houses and spaces analysed


Orientation
Room

North

Common space

1A

2A

3A

4A

East
5A

6A

7A

South
8A

9A

10A

West
11A

12A

Bedroom

1B

2B

3B

4B

5B

6B

7B

8B

9B

10B

11B

12B

Cool Season
Figure 8 shows external and internal air temperatures for the 12 monitored houses, on which it is
possible to notice an outdoor great daily fluctuation, reaching up to 20C difference throughout
the same day. During this season, the lowest outdoor temperature registered was 5C and the
highest was 26.40C. The indoor temperature followed the outdoor temperature fluctuations but
these were less pronounced; the average maximum temperature of all rooms was 23.32C and
the average minimum was 15.97C. Week Five registered the lowest outdoor temperatures, which
has an impact in the indoor climate where the average temperature was 18.40C. The average
maximum temperature was 22.22C and the average minimum was 15.47C. However, from these
graphs it is difficult to judge in which degree the houses offered or failed to provide comfortable
conditions to the occupants.

Figure 8 Outdoor and indoor air temperatures for 12 houses common rooms and bedrooms over the
cool season

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Indoor relative humidity levels were found to follow, in some proportion, the fluctuations of outdoor relative humidity. Figure 9 shows the outdoor and indoor relative humidity of all monitored
rooms plotted against the relative humidity comfort zone (30% < RH < 80%). This season presented maximum outdoor relative humidity of 96%, minimum of 14% and average of 60%. In comparison to the outdoor, the indoor presented lower amplitude in the fluctuations, the average maximum indoor relative humidity of the 24 monitored rooms was 85%, average indoor was 35% and
total average was 62%. Another important observation from these figures is the fact that indoor
relative humidity levels did not follow the same or similar pattern in all rooms, like the case of air
temperatures. In this case, it is suggested that indoor relative humidity was influenced by the lifestyle of the occupants, assuming that operation of openings as well as occupants activities such
as cooking, ironing, and showering have influenced the relative humidity levels indoors. These
graphs also highlight that although indoor relative humidity levels vary with the time; these levels were within the comfort range (30% < RH < 80%) most of the time. The 24 monitored rooms
were 97% of the time inside this range; therefore, no further analysis was required in terms of
relative humidity during this season.

Figure 9: Outdoor and indoor relative humidity for 12 houses common rooms and bedrooms against
the comfort range (RH <30% >80%) over the cool season

Figure 10 exemplifies the outdoor and indoor temperature profiles against the 90% and 80% acceptability comfort zone along week five, for rooms 1A, 2A, 3A facing North. In most of the rooms,
indoor air temperature followed the same fluctuations patter with minimal air temperature differences. Despite that, outdoor air temperatures reached their lowest temperature of 6.0C, indoor
temperatures never fell below 14.2C during this week. However, as can be seen from the figures,
these temperatures are still well below the comfort zone and all the houses failed to offer comfortable conditions.

Thermal performance of industrialised housing construction in Centra

233

Temperature in degrees centigrade

32
30
28
26
24
22
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4

14/01/09
00:00

14/01/09
12:00

15/01/09
00:00

15/01/09
12:00

16/01/09
00:00

16/01/09
12:00

17/01/09
00:00

17/01/09
12:00

18/01/09
00:00

18/01/09
12:00

19/01/09
00:00

19/01/09
12:00

20/01/09
00:00

20/01/09
12:00

Week 5
Cmf zone 80%

Cmf zone 90%

Out Temp

1A

2A

3A

Figure 10: Outdoor and indoor air temperatures for North facing common spaces against the comfort
zone for 80 and 90% acceptance during week five
In order to evaluate the degree to which the houses failed to provide comfortable conditions to
the occupants, the number of discomfort hours (DH) and the percentage of discomfort hours
(PDH) per room outside the wider comfort zone (7K) for 80% acceptability were calculated. From
this calculation, none of the rooms reached temperatures above the upper comfort limit. By contrast, all rooms significantly felt below the lower comfort limit, table 4 presents the results from
this calculation. From here it is possible to observe that rooms of faade facing south (7A, 8A, 9A
and 7B, 8B, 9B) presented lower percentage of discomfort (compared to other rooms of faades
facing different orientations) during the entire monitored season. In six weeks period, the average
discomfort percentage for A rooms on the North orientation was 55%, on the East was 44%, on
the West was 56% and on the South was 27%. Average discomfort percentage for B rooms on the
North orientation was 50%, on the East was 42%, on the West was 47% and on the South was 25%.
This indicates that all rooms on the North, East, and West orientations require heating 50% of the
time to achieve comfortable conditions.
Table 4: Number of discomfort hours (DH) and the percentage of discomfort hours (PDH) per
room outside the wider comfort zone (7K) for 80% acceptability along the cool season
Common rooms
1A

2A

3A

4A

5A

6A

7A

8A

9A

10A

11A

12A

DH

464

642

553

479

380

450

212

278

313

652

545

508

PDH

46%

64%

55%

48%

38%

45%

21%

28%

31%

65%

54%

50%

Bedrooms
1B

2B

3B

4B

5B

6B

7B

8B

9B

10B

11B

12B

DH

418

537

549

462

313

495

102

311

342

540

546

338

PDH

41%

53%

54%

46%

31%

49%

10%

31%

34%

54%

54%

34%

Warm season
Figure 11 presents an overview of the thermal performance of the houses over the warm season.
In general, all the houses performed in the same way, following a similar pattern of temperature
fluctuations. This season also presented a great outdoor daily fluctuation, reaching up to 16C difference throughout the same day. During this period of measurement, the lowest outdoor temperature registered was 12.91C and the highest was 32.15C. The indoor temperature also followed
by the outdoor temperature fluctuations with a smaller difference, however, it is highlighted that

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during this season, indoor temperatures exceeded outdoor temperatures. The average maximum
temperature was 32.07C and the average minimum was 23.42C. Week five was the warmest week
in this season where the average maximum temperature was 34.39C and the average minimum
was 26.18C.

Figure 11: Outdoor and indoor air temperatures for 12 houses common rooms and bedrooms over the
warm season

Figure 12 shows the indoor relative humidity levels from the monitored 12 houses against the
comfort range (RH 30%< <80%) over the warm season. This period presented the maximum outdoor relative humidity of 90%, the minimum of 19% and the average relative humidity of 56%. In
comparison to the outdoor, the indoor presented lower amplitudes in the fluctuations, the average maximum indoor relative humidity of the 24 rooms monitored was 71%, the average indoor
was 23%, and the total average was 48%. In comparison to the cool season, indoor relative humidity in this season presented closer and more consistent relation with the outdoor relative humidity. In this case, it is suggested that this was influenced by the operation of openings allowing
greater natural ventilation, and therefore, following a very similar pattern to the outdoor relative
humidity. Most importantly, this figure (Fig.12) highlights that although indoor relative humidity
levels vary with the time, these levels were most of the time within the comfort range (RH 30%<
<80%). The 24 monitored rooms were 97% (same as the cool season) of the time inside this range;
therefore, no further analysis was required in terms of relative humidity during this season.

Thermal performance of industrialised housing construction in Centra

235

Figure 12: Outdoor and indoor relative humidity for 12 houses common rooms and bedrooms against
the comfort range (RH 30%< <80%) over the warm season

Temperature in degrees centigrade

Figure 13 illustrate both the outdoor and indoor temperature profiles against the 90% and 80%
acceptability comfort zone along the warmest week (week five), for rooms 10A, 11A, 12A facing
West. These rooms presented the most critical conditions concerning thermal performance, indoor temperatures reaching just above 36C. This figure (Fig.13) also highlights that the indoor air
temperatures were usually outside the comfort zone and all the houses failed to offer comfortable conditions.
38
36
34
32
30
28
26
24
22
20
18
16
14
12
10

08/06/09
00:00

08/06/09
12:00

09/06/09
00:00

09/06/09
12:00

Cmf zone 80%

10/06/09
00:00

10/06/09
12:00

11/06/09
00:00

Cmf zone 90%

11/06/09
12:00

12/06/09
00:00

Week 5
Out Temp

12/06/09
12:00

10A

13/06/09
00:00

11A

13/06/09
12:00

14/06/09
00:00

14/06/09
12:00

12A

Figure 13: Outdoor and indoor air temperatures for West facing common spaces against the comfort
zone for 80 and 90% acceptance during week five
Table 5 shows the number of discomfort hours and the percentage of discomfort hours per room
outside the comfort zone for 80% acceptability. In this analysis, it is possible to observe that the
difference of percentage of discomfort between different orientations was less pronounced in

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comparison with the cool season. However the rooms of faade facing west (10A, 11A, 12A and 10B,
11B, 12B) presented slightly higher percentages of discomfort during the entire monitored season.
The six weeks period average discomfort percentage for A rooms on north orientation was 37%,
on east was 45%, on south 37%, and on west 48%. Average discomfort percentage for B rooms on
north was 37%; on east was 41%, on south 41%, and on west 44%. The total average discomfort
percentage for all rooms was 41%.
Table 5: Number of discomfort hours (DH) and the percentage of discomfort hours (PDH) per
room outside the wider comfort zone (7K) for 80% acceptability along the warm season
Common rooms
1A

2A

3A

4A

5A

6A

7A

8A

9A

10A

11A

12A

DH

404

409

315

421

479

456

394

412

302

494

510

383

PDH

40%

41%

31%

42%

48%

45%

39%

41%

30%

51%

53%

40%

8B

9B

10B

11B

12B

Bedrooms
1B

2B

3B

4B

5B

6B

7B

DH

369

410

338

346

451

447

509

356

372

426

505

329

PDH

37%

41%

34%

34%

45%

44%

50%

35%

37%

44%

53%

34%

The Importance of Novel Visualisation Methods


As can be evidenced from the above, the process of environmental data logging typically results
in significant amounts of data. The standard presentation of this data in 2D graphs is common in
many scientific and engineering disciplines, and researchers are generally highly adept at interpreting those.
However, this does not necessarily mean that other stakeholders are equally conversant with such
approaches, or equally committed to investing the time and effort required in interpreting such
graphs. This can be particularly important as designers, clients, facilities managers, users, and
decision makers would all benefit from having a better understanding of building performance
in-context.
The benefits of visualisation in general are well-established; visualisation enables better comprehension of data, it facilitates hypothesis formation, and allows for multi-scale evaluation (Ware
2012). The latter is particularly important for projects such as the one presented here, where a large
number of buildings was logged and the comparison of different buildings via graphs becomes
complex very quickly. Lai et al. (2010) review a number of benefits of 3D visualisation discussed in
the literature, such as contribution to a users learning process, intuitive and natural appearance,
sense of immersion in the environment, in the context of Environmental Impact Assessment.
Visualising the output in EnViz
The collected datasets were visualised in EnViz, a research software application for the visualisation of environmental data. The software is developed in Java SE 7, utilizing the OpenGL programming interface for the 3D graphics, as implemented via the Lightweight Java Game Library. The
3D models are imported in the COLLADA format via a custom-built parser, and the data logger
output in the Excel format, using standard freely available libraries.
Approximately 250,000 measurements were parsed for the purposes of this study. The models
were built in SketchUp; each building was separated in three distinct volumes: Living Area (Data
logger 1), Bedroom (Data logger 2), and other areas (not logged). The visualisation used was both

Thermal performance of industrialised housing construction in Centra

237

static 3D (Fig.11) and dynamic 4D (Fig.12). In addition, there is support for the setting up of thermal
comfort criteria, with an immediate inspection of which models pass or fail.

Figure 11: Zoom-in of the collected volumetric models

Figure 12: Visualisation of relative humidity data


The source data was also used in workshops that aimed to measure the efficiency of the visualisation process. These were carried out in three workshops at a university in Mexico, and the results
have been documented in an academic paper (Patlakas et al. 2014).

Conclusions
The use of industrialised building systems for low-income housing in Mxico has been a success
in terms of delivering mass quantities of housing to cope with the high demand. From an environmental point of view, the current IBSs have failed to provide desirable indoor thermal conditions.

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The results from the extensive POE have demonstrated that even using the adaptive comfort
criteria, the concrete formwork system demands the use of mechanical ventilation around 50%
of the time (in both warm and cold seasons) in order to provide suitable indoor thermal comfort
conditions.
The wide applicability, engineering advantages, and significant financial and socioeconomic benefits derived from MIHP mean that this approach is highly likely to continue and expand in the
future. In this context, it is essential that designers, developers and decision-makers implement
common sense practices to overcome easily avoidable problems, especially during the early
stages of the design process. The current paper provides a clear picture of the overall thermal
behaviour of the studied industrialised building system and can function as an indication of the
weaknesses of such systems to designers, researchers, and other stakeholders to the further development of MIHP.
More generally, and with regard to the general discipline of environmental design research, the
4D visualisation exercise contributed to a better understanding of the data, especially with regard
to comparing different buildings. It also highlighted the potential of novel presentation methods
to communicate the results to non-expert stakeholders. The importance of POE surveys can be
realised by the wider community only if the logging output is easily understood and not viewed
as the domain of the specialist. The integration of such datasets in the wider context of Building Information Modelling can enhance this further and allow the whole life-cycle monitoring of
buildings to become a routine part of the design process.

Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank Grupo Herso for providing the monitoring equipment for this
study. This research project was funded by the National Council for Science and Technology
(CONACYT) of Mexico. The developer of the case study was not involved in the writing of this
paper.

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International Conference | Bari - Lecce, Italy

Session IV

MODELLING OCCUPANT ACTIVITY PATTERNS FOR


ENERGY SAVING IN BUIDINGS USING MACHINELEARNING APPROACHES
Jose Luis Gomez Ortega1 & Liangxiu Han1
1School Of Computing, Mathematics & Digital Technology, Manchester Metropolitan University, UK,
jose.l.gomez@mmu.ac.uk
2School Of Computing, Mathematics & Digital Technology, Manchester Metropolitan University, UK,
l.han@.mmu.ac.uk

Abstract
Since occupants play an important role in the energy consumption in buildings, it is crucial
to develop accurate models of occupant behaviour patterns for the automation of building
management systems. With the advancement in information and communication technology
(ICT), machine-learning technologies have been used for accurately modelling and learning
occupant behaviour patterns based on environment sensing. In this work, we have developed
a pattern recognition model based on non-linear multiclass Support Vector Machine classification approach, to accurately detect occupant behaviour patterns by modelling human activities of daily living (ADL). To evaluate the proposed model, we have selected multiple public
datasets collected by different teams from diverse ambient sensors (i.e. motion, contact or
pressure sensors). Two different data pre-processing techniques (i.e. Timeslice approach (TA)
and chunk data (CDA)) have been developed for facilitating the construction of the models.
Furthermore, we have also compared our model with other machine learning techniques (i.e.
Hidden-Markov Model (HMM) and k-Nearest Neighbours (KNN)). The experimental results
have shown that the proposed SVM-based model outperforms the other methods in terms
of accuracy in three different scenarios for Dataset1 using the TA method and for the second
dataset evaluated, combining CDA data pre-processing and SVM approaches, the accuracy is
higher than other methods such as HMM and KNN.

Keywords
machine learning, SVM, mathematical modelling, energy efficiency, sensors.

241

1 Introduction
Different studies and organisations claim that buildings are one of the major sources of carbon
emissions. In fact, it is been estimated that the energy consumptions from buildings in the UK
reaches values over 40%(de Wilde et al., 2013). In order to comply with the national and international CO2 reduction targets set, various solutions have been adopted for energy saving in buildings in recent years, such as improvements in the thermal insulation or renovation of windows,
boilers etc. In addition to this, recent studies (Haldi and Robinson, 2009)(Azar and Menassa, 2012)
show that occupants have a large impact on energy consumption in building. Occupants not only
generate heat and moisture through their natural metabolism, but also their behaviour patterns
will determine the use of the different building systems and consequently the final energy (Teixeira et al., 2010).
Due to all these considerations, we must try to find the best ways to automate BMS such as lighting or heating efficiently, so as to maintain the real user needs, but using only those resources that
are strictly essential for the actual occupation of the building.
It is evident that the indoor parameters such as ventilation rates, indoor temperature or lighting
will be different depending on the occupant activity performed (e.g. sleeping will require little
lighting while shower will require high rates of ventilation to eliminate moisture). Therefore, by
knowing at all times the current activities being performed, we will be able to use that information to regulate systems adequately.
To carry out these tasks we will need to collect information from users and indoor parameters and
also we will need to learn from that data to identify the patterns that occur for each activity. For
the former, we can collect information through ambient sensor readings (sensors such as motion,
temperature or contact sensors are ubiquitous, inexpensive and easy to deploy and handle). For
the latter, machine-learning (ML) based modelling approaches have shown a great potential to
learn patterns from sensor data and recognise daily activities.
In this work, we propose a new activity pattern recognition model using machine-learning approaches to accurately identify occupant activities. We train the model based on two public available datasets (Kasteren, 2011)(Cook et al., 2013). We constructed our model using a multi-class support vector (Burges, 1998) and compared its accuracy against other existing approaches namely
HMM (Rabiner, 1989) and kNN (Indyk, 1998).
The rest of the paper is organised as follows: Section 2 reviews the previous related work in the
field. Section 3 explains the methodologies used in our experiments by firstly introducing the
modelling techniques, the datasets used for model training and validations. Section 4 presents
and discusses the results of the experimental evaluation. Finally, Section 5 concludes the work
and highlights the future works.

2 Previous related works


Occupant behaviour and activity modelling has been developed lately with the introduction of
multiple models to capture human patterns in order to create novel adaptive systems to regulate
BMSs accordingly. Different machine learning approaches have been used as in Pages model (Page
et al., 2008) where an HMM based algorithm simulated presence and absence of people in an office building using motion sensors. Other models attempted to simulate occupancy by modelling

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not just presence, but also inferring the number of occupants inside a space through multi-sensor
readings. As in Mamidis work (Mamidi et al., 2012) where a combination of multiple sensors (i.e.
motion, temperature, humidity and CO2) readings was fed into different machine-learning approaches such as SVM reporting high standard results from the models evaluated.
One important research objective in the human pattern modelling in buildings is the development of activity pattern recognition (APR) models, which are mainly focused on the modelling of
occupant activities (ADL classification) in domestic scenarios. User activities are estimated from
sequences of sensor readings by identifying sensor event patterns to infer which activity occupants are conducting. The ultimate goal for activity models would be the creation of ambient
intelligence environments to adapt the systems in place to real user needs. These include diverse
applications such as digital houses or healthcare systems which try to monitor patients or elderly
people and discover any abnormal behaviour that could represent a symptom of illness or accident. It is normal therefore for these scenarios to incorporate a high sensor density and diversity
(the latter depending of the complexity of the activities intended to model). From the TV to media
devices, appliances, communications, security or the mentioned healthcare issues, all of them are
common applications for APR models. Existing Approaches of Activity Recognition Smart home
is a concept frequently related to APR, since the main goal of these models is to regulate and automate different equipment at home, seeking the ultimate user satisfaction. One of the pioneering works was proposed in (Si et al., 2005) where the authors used data from RFID and wireless
sensors (temperature, light and PIR) and contacts to detect phone calls. By means of fuzzy sets to
integrate them, they used HMM to run the model limited to 3 scenarios in which lights, music and
TV where regulated. In (Aipperspach et al., 2006) they also used Markov models but with datasets
from Georgia Aware Project and MIT House which consisted of piezo sensors (floor pressure) data
to detect movement patterns at home.

3 Methodology
In this work, we propose a new model to identify and detect occupant daily activities in buildings
more accurately using publicly available datasets based on non-linear multiclass SVM-based approach. We have developed two new data-pre-processing approaches and have compared the
accuracy performance of our proposed methods with existing approaches (HMM and KNN) with
two data pre-processing approaches.
3.1 Activity Recognition Data Description
Activities of daily living might be of a very diverse nature. The number of activities and the nature
of the activities labelled will depend on the scenario and the sensors available. For example, in
this work, the data contains activities such as sleeping, leave home, having breakfast, etc.
Two datasets have been selected (denoted as D1 and D2) from previous human behaviour detection studies: D1 was in (Kasteren, 2011) to be used for ADL recognition purposes, and D2 was made
publicly available by WSU CASAS (Cook et al., 2013) and also used for ADL recognition. These two
datasets have been selected for our experiments in this work because, alongside the datasets,
both projects provided their own baseline recognition performance experiments. These are extremely helpful since, by using the same data, the performance of the models proposed in our
project can be compared and evaluated under similar conditions. Other important consideration
for the choice of these datasets was their substantial length (D1 contains over 42k sensor readings
and more that 800 activity occurrences and D2 has over 600k readings including 600 activity annotations).

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Finally, the variety about sensor nature found in the two datasets (D1 is based on 5 various types
of sensors while D2 is mainly based on just motion sensors) will help to contrast the performance
of the models when fed with data from different sensor nature.
3.1.1 Dataset 1
Data was collected from three scenarios presenting different characteristics: House A, House B
and House C. D1 consists of data divided in days and collected by means of sensors deployed
in the three house scenarios. The types of sensors used are motion passive infra-red (PIR), reed
switches, pressure mats, mercury contact sensors and float sensors. For example, House A has a
total of 14 sensors and the labels were annotated by the occupants using a Bluetooth voice detector device rather than other scenarios in which the activities were just written down on paper.
Further information can also be found in https://sites.google.com/site/tim0306/datasets.
The D1 data used two sets of annotations. The first set refers to sensor events which were recorded
using 4 columns stating the start time, the ending time, the sensor ID and the value of the sensor.
Note that, as all the sensors included in this dataset are binary, the state is always 1(ON) since it
only reflects the time the sensor has been active. The second set also indicates starting and ending time but for the activity performed in that interval, therefore indicating the ID for the activity
being performed. The numbers of activities go from 10 in House A, 13 in House B and 16 in House
C. Figure 1 contains a section of this dataset.

Figure 1: Example of annotation for Dataset 1. The first rows are the sensor annotations and the latter
ones are the activities labelling.
3.1.2 Dataset 2
This dataset was collected from 27 motion sensors deployed in a domestic scenario through 56
days. However, many sensor events were not associated to any activity and subsequently they
cannot be used to train and test our models. In spite of this, the data available for supervised
learning is still of quality enough to be used for model performance evaluation. Unlike D1, this
dataset contains only motion sensors events. Nonetheless, as discussed in future sections, this
motion sensor data proves to have the potential to provide information enough to accurately
perform activity recognition under certain considerations.
This dataset has only one set on annotations (including sensor readings and labels), which contains 7 columns stating the time, the sensor ID and the value of the sensor as in D1, which in this
case can be either ON or OFF. In addition to the sensor event, in the same line we can also find
when an activity starts (denoted by the activity label plus begin) or ends (denoted by end). This
dataset has a total of 10 activities. For further information visit: http://ailab.wsu.edu/casas/datasets/. An example would be as follows:

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Figure 2: Example of annotation for Dataset 2


3.2 Activity Pattern Modelling Based On Machine Learning Approaches
The purpose of this work is to accurately model and detect daily activities in two datasets D1 and
D2 as described in Section 3.1.
3.2.1 Feature Extraction
In the feature extraction process, we built two different matrices: a feature matrix and a label matrix. The feature matrix presents sensor firings timeseries. The rows represent each sensor and the
columns a moment in time (sample). As we are only working with binary sensors, each feature cell
fxy must contain either a 0 or a 1 depending on the state of the sensor sx at the time ty. The label
matrix has only just one row corresponding to ADL labels and again one column for each moment
in time. Each label cell ly will consist on a number representing a class, therefore the range will
be between 1 and the maximum number of activities (1-num_act) found in the activity or label
matrix. Table I has a representation for both matrices.
Table I: Feature and Label Matrices. fxy represent the features while ay contain the labels. Sensors
range from s1 to sn, activities from 1 to num_act and samples are distributed from t1 to tm, which
represent each unit of time, timeslice or sampling time.
fxy

t1

t2

t3

tm

s1

0/1

0/1

0/1

0/1

s2

0/1

0/1

0/1

0/1

s3

0/1

0/1

0/1

0/1

sn

0/1

0/1

0/1

0/1

1-num_act

1-num_act

1-num_act

1-num_act

Features
ay
Labels

3.2.2 The Proposed Approach based on a Non-linear Multi-class SVM


We modelled activity patterns using a one vs. one (Pal, 2005) approach multi-class SVM classifier
to perform supervised learning from labelled data as explained above. Due to non-linear unbalanced data, a non-linear SVM have been used for this purpose, which uses different kernels to
separate different labelled points using hyperplanes. By using multidimensional planes, non-linear problems can be solved as linear ones, therefore allowing creating functions that maximize
the separation between points of different classes. We evaluated the SVM performance using the
most popular kernels: linear, polynomial, radial basis and sigmoid. For parameter estimation, we
followed the guidelines published by the libsvm creator (Chang and Lin, 2011).The mathematical
representation can be described as follows:

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or

where x are the training samples represents the bias and corresponds to the vector of weights for
each sample. Mathematically we need to solve the weights maximize the distance all the training
points x into two possible class values +1 or -1.
Regarding the kernel functions used, we included the most common approaches namely
Linear:

Polynomial:

and Radial Basis Function RBF:

Furthermore, the SVM one vs one approach (which has proven to perform better than its counterpart one vs all) enhances this naturally binary classification algorithm, giving it the possibility to
perform multi-class classification. The essence of this approach consists in classifying each new
point against two possible classes for each pair of classes possible. The class of choice at that first
stage will be used against the next class and so on.
3.2.3 KNN and HMM Approaches
We have compared the proposed approach against two other classification algorithms including
KNN and HMM.
In the case of the kNN prediction, apart from the popular euclidean, other measurements for distance where considered (i.e. mahalanobis and correlation), yet the variations were too small to be
significant achieving the best overall performances when using the typical euclidean approach.
The kNN model was evaluated using different number of neighbours for each scenario, including
each odd number from 3 to 101 and selecting the most accurate.
For the parameter estimation of the HMM algorithm, a Maximum Likelihood approach is used.
Therefore, when there is no specific observation or state transition in the training data, the HMM
algorithm is prone to errors due to 0 probability of transmission or emission. When this happens

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the Viterbi algorithm is not able to calculate all the possible paths and cannot give a sequence
with certainty. To prevent this, we applied a smoothing technique to give a small probability to
every transmission and emission even if it never happened through the whole dataset. In this
experiment we used the Pseudoemissions and Pseudotransitions parameters in the MATLABs
HMM function.
3.3 Data Pre-processing
Let be our model and the training data extracted from our datasets is , where each y is the training label and each x in the sensor reading sample. If we consider that occurred at time t=1, and
at time t=n, which is when the last annotation in the dataset, we need to specify the time in
between each time step t=1,2,3 This is what we call timeslices. As the dataset has a resolution
of miliseconds, we could assign a timeslice as small as that value. However, if we opt to do that
we would be creating 1000msx60sx60mx24h=86.4x106 samples per day, which is computationally
unmanageable. Timeslices from a second long might be considered but previous works as well
as our own experiments suggest that this length is too costly in terms of computation times and
dont really give a real improvement in terms of model accuracy.
As discussed in previous sections, D1 dataset is divided into three different scenarios named
House A, House B and House C; comprising 25, 14 and 19 days of data respectively. We have evaluated the models using different sample lengths. We evaluated the three models for timeslices
ranging from 30 seconds per sample to 10 minutes. We evaluated each scenario independently
performing a cross validation dividing the data into days, testing one of them while leaving the
rest for training (leave one out), and then calculating the average on the results.
In the case of Dataset 2, two different setups were considered: Timeslice Approach (TA) and Chunk
Data Approach (CDA).
3.3.1 Timeslice Approach (TA):
As with D1, for the second dataset timeslices of 60 seconds were also the length of choice for the
data hashing. Therefore, for 56 days with 1440 secods per day, a total of N=80600 samples were
initially generated. However, the datasets we are using for our experiments are not fully labelled.
This means that not every xn has yn label associated. This issue can be addressed in two different
ways. The first solution would be to create an idle activity and consider it as another different
class, assigning every empy yn to that label. The other option would be simply removing those
samples from the training data.
In a previous experiment using D1, the absence of activity associated with sensor firings was considered as activity idle, and the preliminary results suggested yielded similarities between including this data or not. We decided to keep this samples in order to maximize the use of the readings
in D1. However, for D2 this approach was not advisable based on the fort attempts to include idle
in this dataset. The amount of unlabelled data for D1 was just of 12%, 7%, and 19% for House A, B
and C respectively. Nevertheless, for D2, the amount of information from sensors unassociated to
any activity (the frequency of empty yns) accounted for more than the 80% of the total samples.
Due to this, the classifiers trained with D2 data predicted just class idle for all the test points due
to the massive imbalance of this new class idle in addition to the fact that any sensor firing combination could have an idle label associated since we dont know what activities were actually
occurring during those blank timesteps.
To solve this, all the information from sensors events that was not related to any label was just removed from the feature array, thus the label idle was not considered. Ultimately, the TA approach

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for D2 contained a total of 9606 samples over the 56 days instead of the initial 80600 (See Figure
3 and Figure 4).
3.3.2 Chunk Data Approach (CDA):
All the initial results obtained when training the models using the D2 and the TA approach, were
really bad in terms of accuracy levels (40%-50% of accuracy). Comparing our results with the ones
reported in publications associated with the dataset, we noted they achieved much higher accuracies even when using similar methodologies (e.g HMM). That made us think that the real
difference was on the preprocessing of the data rather that in the algorithm of choice. Therefore,
we also followed the preprocessing techniques they suggested. Under this scope, the data was
processed in chunks instead of timeslices. Each chunk of data contained all the sensors events
happened while an activity was active. The CDA approach also implied removing all the unlabelled data from the D2 and the final number of samples was a total of 600, which is the number
of any activity occurrence through the whole dataset.

Figure 3: Dataset 2 Activity occurrence. In the over 80000 samples generated by the TA approach,
more than 70000 (white area) are unlabelled or idle. The coloured portion was the only information
processed for this dataset.

Figure 4: In this case, the unlabelled region corresponds to the red region, and is not as big as in D2
(between 7% and 12% of the total for any scenario). Therefore, for this dataset we can include the
activity idle to get as much information without incurring in classification failure as happened with
the other dataset.

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This method consequently reflects that there is a relationship between all the firings happening
when an activity in occurring as a whole. TA approach computed each firing as an independent
sample and based its classification on just only timestep sensor event. Conversely, CDA assumes
that a single firing doesnt contain enough information standalone, and has to be considered as a
part of a bigger event, which we called chunk. In this case, the features include the sum of all the
firings for each sensor, the time the activity started, the time the activity ended and the duration.
In Table II we can observe the different processing of 5 timeslices of data using TA and CDA approaches. While TA represents the data in 5 samples of 4 sensors as inputs and 5 labels as outputs,
CDA will group the data into just two samples including the entire sensor readings occurred while
one activity was continued in time. CDA also includes start time, end time and duration of the
chunk.

Table II: Differences between processing the same information using TA and CDA approaches.
Timeslice Approach

t=1

t=2

t=3

t=4

t=5

Sensor1

Sensor2

Sensor3

Sensor4

Label

Sample

Chunk Data Approach


Time Start

3pm

5pm

Time End

4pm

8pm

Duration

20 min

190 min

Sensor1

Sensor2

Sensor3

Sensor4

Label

Sample

4 Experimental results
Dataset 1 has been evaluated using only the timeslice approach using a variation of the timeslice
duration to study how the different values affect the final model performance. For the dataset
2 we also included the CDA approach since the initial values of the timeslice approach method
were alarmingly lower compared to those reported in the publications by the team who made
this dataset publicly available.
4.1 Model Performance Based On Timeslice Variation
We evaluated the models to each scenario and observed how the accuracy changed for different
timeslices. Despite the loss of information due to the increase of the TS duration, the SVM model showed to be a robust solution since it barely changed its performance while increasing the
timeslice. The other models also maintained the values within certain levels, yet showing some

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variations. However, none of them indicate any significant change except in the case of House C,
in which SVM boosted its performance from around 40% for 30sec timeslices up to over 60% for
the bigger timeslices of 10 minutes. This is also an indication of the adaptability of the support
vectors to different input spaces.
Figures 5 to 7 show these variations for each of the scenarios included in this dataset; using all
three models (SVM, HMM and kNN).

Figure 5: TA approach with timeslice variations from 30 seconds to 10 minutes. Dataset1 House A.

Figure 6: TA approach with timeslice variations from 30 seconds to 10 minutes.


Dataset1 House B.

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Figure 7: TA approach with timeslice variations from 30 seconds to 10 minutes.


Dataset1 House C.
This might seem contradictory with the fact that the longer the timeslice, the more information
about real sensors readings is lost. However, as we are working with unbalanced datasets, there is
a chance that the samples which are going to be lost earlier (as we increment timeslice duration),
are those labelled as the less frequent activities. Consequently, fewer classes are to be classified
and the models perform better with less infrequent states.
Regarding overall model performance, the experimental results show that the SVM approach
yields the most accurate performance among the three models evaluated, reaching values above
80% accuracy in two out of three scenarios. We tried different kernels using several values for
the kernel parameter, following the suggestions given by the libsvm developer (Chang and Lin,
2011). However, when introducing value variations within reasonable limits, the results do not
present large variations. The overall SVM best parameters were the RFB as kernel with gamma=1/
num_features.
For House A and B the results are over the 80% of accuracy. However, results from House C were
significantly less accurate. All of our experiments, in addition to the results reported by this dataset team, are always under 50% of accuracy in House C. The poor accuracies suggest that this data
does not contain representative enough information, or there could have been issues with labelling or sensor deployment. Another different factor from this House C scenario is that it contains
a larger area from all three, thus it has the less sensor density and it performs up to 16 activities (3
more that House B and 6 more than House A.) All this factors seem to have had a negative impact
on the performance of the classifiers for that scenario as all the results for the other scenarios are
much more consistent.
Moreover, results show that the multiclass SVM-based approach outperforms other approaches.
As we can see in Table III, SVM outperforms HMM and kNN significantly in all scenarios and SVM
results are better than all the previous generative models proposed (NB, HMM and HSMM); and
also above the discriminative one (CRF) in House B scenario. The averaged accuracy for the three
scenarios shows that our SVM approach outperforms all the previous models proposed, with a
71.64%.

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TabIe III: TA accuracies for all scenarios using Dataset 1.

4.2 Model Performance Based on Data Pre-processing Approach


For this dataset we made an initial experiment using the TA approach in which the results were
well below those from CASAS experiments. They used a baseline of three different models, Naive
Bayes, HMM and CRF, getting accuracies of 80.33%, 75.55% and 90.76% respectively. The accuracy
for our SVM combined with the TA approach was of only 51%, which indicated that the TA preprocessing was not the appropriate choice for this dataset. Following the procedures used by the
CASAS researchers, we applied the CDA preprocessing to the dataset, and the accuracy of our
SVM model increased to 91.77%, better than any other result so far.
Table IV: The results using Dataset 2 and TA approach showed a poor performance. However, the
same data combined with the CDA approach, showed high performance specially when using
discriminative models. The multi-class SVM model achieved the best performance of 91.67%.

As happened with Dataset 1 results, SVM again outperforms all other models considered for CDA
processing approach, that is, both models we proposed (HMM and KNN) and the results obtained
by CASAS algorithm which best result was 90.77% with a CRF approach. Although when using the
TA (60 seconds timeslice) approach HMM performs better (51.60% vs. 59.85%) than SVM, it is clear
that, regardless the algorithm used, this TA is not the best approach to process this data, which is
clearly meant to be processed using CDA.

5 Conclusion
In this work, we have presented an activity pattern recognition model using a non-linear multi-class SVM approach for detecting daily activities based on two public available datasets. We
have compared our methods with other state of the art machine learning approaches using the
same datasets. The result demonstrates the proposed method outperforms other methods. We
have developed two data preprocessing techniques including TA (time slice) and CDA (chunk
data). It is noted that appropriate data preprocessing techniques can significantly improve the
accuracy of the model.
Future work will be to test the models using a wider variety of datasets, data processing approaches and new mathematical modelling approaches to establish more comprehensive model
performance baselines.

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International Conference | Bari - Lecce, Italy

Session IV

AN OVERVIEW OF BUILDING SUSTAINABILITY


RATING SYSTEMS IN THE MIDDLE EAST
Sundus L. Shareef1&Hasim Altan1
1Architecture and Sustainable Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering & IT, British University in Dubai, UAE,sundus_
shariff@yahoo.com / hasim.altan@buid.ac.ae

Abstract
The globe shares common concerns namely global warming, pollution, limited resources, carbon footprint and greenhouse gas emissions-GHG, all of which are major elements that affect
the future of people on the planet. Buildings play a considerable role in these environmental problems, and the challenge of human wellbeing could be resolved through the unique
solution; Sustainability which could be considered as a method of life. Sustainability is the
way to plan and manage the present and the future generations life, this work explores the
definition of the widely used term; and highlights the most used tools, rating systems, and
practices that could be adopted to archive the sustainable developments. However, green
building specifications and rating tools became a mandatory requirement for each city in
order to provide the guidelines of the green design and performance that reduce the negative environmental impact from one side and to evaluate the buildings sustainability from
the other side. This study conducted a comparison between the International and the Middle
East Local Green Building Rating Systems, and concluded that the implementation of regulatory framework and mandatory regulations for sustainable design will serve more in building
performance towards sustainability. Furthermore, the locally designed systems would serve
much better for achieving targets than employing the international ones.

Keywords
Green Building Rating Systems, LEED,BREEAM, PEARL, Environmental Sustainability.

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Introduction
Sustainability the widely used term defined by the United States Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) as what we need for our survival from surrounding natural environment, either
directly or indirectly, it creates a kind of harmony and maintains between humans and nature
(EPA 2012).Sustainability as a concept has three poles; Economy, Society, and Environment, where
ESTIDAMA Pearl rating system developed by Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Centre added Culture as
a fourth pole of sustainability concept (ADUC 2010).

Figure 1:Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions from buildings (US DOE 2012)
As the main causes of global warming and climate change are largely chemical, the urgent human act today is reducing the fossil fuels burning, industrial emissions and other human activities
with the negative environmental impact. This requires significant efforts especially with the rapid
increase of world population and the consequence need for energy as a power of life and economic growth.
Sustainable Buildings
Sustainable Buildings, High Performance Buildings or Green Buildings, all of which are interchangeably terms refers to comprehensively address the ecological, social and economic issues
of building and community. In the same content, Sustainable Building term could be defined as
a healthy facilities designed and built using ecological based principle and taking in to consideration efficient manners (Kibert 2009).The term Sustainable Building refers to the structure that is
designed, built, renovated, operated, or reused in an ecological and resources efficient manner.
For well-designed green buildings, no additional cost may require implementing Green Building
specifications, and it should be noted that many green building measures can be incorporated
with minimal or zero increased in capital cost.
On the other hand, the sustainable construction may have a higher capital cost, but saves through
lower operating costs over the life of the building, and in order to reach the high level of effec-

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tiveness commercially, socially and environmentally the sustainable design has to afford measurable benefits, spatially in commercial and educational design. Some of the reported benefits of
the sustainable buildings are; energy and water efficiency, better occupant health, high level of
comfort, high productivity, less pollution and landfill waste (Bradshaw 2006).However, in order
to convince the private developer to approach new trend and use a sustainable technology, the
design should maximize the benefits and minimize the expenses further to increase the efforts
of illustrating the economies in fuel bill, market advantage, long term exposure to environment
problems and the enhancement in productivity of workforce.
From another point of view, there are some challenges that the designer may face and questions
may rise like: Will the building perform as predicted? Are the green cost affordable and the technology is reliable? Edward (2003) mentioned that such questions required more attention to all
technologies, options, solutions that could be followed to achieve the desired level of building
sustainability.
Green Building Rating Systems
Green Building Rating Systems and practices mainly developed to reduce or eliminate negative
environmental impacts through high performance in aspects of design, construction, operations
and demolition, through covering the main systems categories namely; site selection, energy
and water efficiency, operating and management, material recourses and occupants productivity. The main categories and indicators are various between the existing rating systems, which are
also providing an evaluation of sustainability or greenness level of any development, in additional to the opportunity that provided to the stakeholders to enhance or upgrade the development
performance toward greener attitude or higher sustainable levels. Furthermore, each rating system can be an ideal practice guide for sustainable design, operation and management.
In addition to the International Rating Systems, world countries including Middle East countries
tend to develop their own regulations and rating systems which is to comply with the local contents and characteristics. Roderick(2009) stated that Internationally, the most famous rating systems used all over the world are the United States Green Building Council (USGBC)s Leadership
in Energy and Environmental Development (LEED)and the UK Building Research Establishment
(BRE)s Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM), as both the USA and the UK have the leadership in this domain.
Locally and complying with Abu Dhabis 2030 vision of being one of the world sustainable cities,
the capital of the UAE developed the local green rating tool Pearl Rating System(PRS) in order
to drive the sustainable developments towards World Sustainable Capital (WSC). Another local
regulations which will be outlined in this paper is Green Building Regulations and Specifications
developed by Dubai Municipality (DM) as an implementation of Dubai Strategic Plan 2015, and
the aim is to keep Dubai as a model of sustainable city that follows the highest standards of sustainable developments which adapted to local conditions of the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
Jordan has started steady pace towards sustainability and green buildings design. The Ministry
of Public Work and Housing (MPWH) released Jordan Green Building Guide and Regulations as a
reference guide for more efficient and high performance design that comply with international
standards and local content(MPWH 2013).Moreover, Hikmat and Saba(2009) conducted a research
to develop new rating tool to assess and evaluate buildings greenness level in Jordan, and the researchers had published their work explaining that the Jordanian local green building tool SABA.

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257

Comparative Analysis
The sixth mentioned rating systems and regulations are outlined and reviewed from the aspects
of Structure, Categories, Levels and Certification Process. Furthermore, a comparison between
these systems from the mentioned aspects are illustrated and analyzed.
LEED - Leadership in Energy and Environment Design
The environmental assessment system has been administrated by the USGBC since 2000. LEED
(v.3, 2009) is the current version of the LEED and USGBC is working on improving LEED rating
systems in the new version (v.4). The system based on earning points for evaluating on a scale
ranging between two values. LEED consist of set of codes and study guides for Sustainable Buildings Design, and LEED certification is available for all building types including: New Construction
(NC), Existing Buildings(EB): Existing Buildings Operations & Maintenance (EB: O&M), Commercial Interiors (CI), Core & Shell (CS), Schools (SCH), Retail, Healthcare (HC),Homes, Neighborhood
Development (ND). Towards sustainable buildings, LEED design and construction project should
cover the five essential categories; Site Selection (SS), Water Efficiency (WE),Energy & Atmosphere
(EA), Materials &Resources (MR), Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) and two additional categories; Innovation in Design (IDO) and Regional Priority (RP)(Fig.2).
LEED certification for New Construction (LEED 2009) (NC) awarded due to the general scale:
Certified 4049 points
Silver 5059 points
Gold 6079 points
Platinum 80 points and above, within 100 base points, additional credits awarded as;6 for Innovation in Design and Operation (IDO), and 4 Regional Priority (RP) points
According to the USGBC, LEED certificate could be obtained online, where project teams can
manage project details, complete documentation requirements for LEED credits and prerequisites requirements, upload supporting files, submit applications for review, receive reviewer feedback, and ultimately earn LEED certification (USGBC 2012).The certification process covering five
stages; determination & preparing application, registration, submission for reviewing, a wait for
the application review and issuing the certification.
BREEAM- Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method
BREEAM is developed by Building Research Establishment (BRE) in the United Kingdom (UK), in
1990, ten years before the LEED. BREEAM could be defined as sets the standard for best practice
in sustainable building design, construction and operation. It also used as Scoring system that is
transparent, flexible, and easy to understand, supported by evidence-based science and research.
BREEAM codes cover different types of buildings, it is available in (BREEAM New Construction)
which includes; Courts, Healthcare, Data Centers, Education, Industrial, Multi-residential, Offices,
Prisons and Retails. In addition to above categories, there are the following versions; BREEAM
Communities, BREEAM In-Use, BREEAM Eco Homes, BREEAM Refurbishment and Code for Sustainable Homes (BREEAM 2012).BREEAM covers the essential categories through in which sustainable project can be achieved, in addition to more sub-categories: Site Selection & Ecology, Water,
Energy, Materials, Indoor Environmental Quality, Waste, Pollution, Transportation, Management,
Innovation (Additional)(Fig.2).

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Depending on overall score of collected points, BREEAM Rating System can certify the building
under one of five levels;
Pass
Good
Very Good
Excellent
Outstanding
OR Star rating from 1 to 5 stars
BREEAM Certification process depends on appointing an assessor. The assessor should be trained
under a United Kingdom Accreditation Service (UKAS) to become accredited competent person
who will be able to interpret the requirements of the system and communicate them to project team as well as collating the evidence required to be submitted with the assessment report
(BREEAM 2012).
The main objective of the qualified independent assessor is to promote the discussion between
the project team, appointing the assessor earlier will insure smooth, uncomplicated process. Furthermore, assigning BREEAM Accredited Professional (AP) who is an architect, engineer or a person with design skills and responsibilities combined with a high level of capability in the BREEAM
assessment process, will add sustainability and environmental design skill to project team, further to a benefit of (AP) knowledge in BREEAM assessment process and requirements to proceed
with the certification professionally and easily (BREEAM 2012).The certification process stages are;
Registration, Appointing the Assessor, Assessment Report Submission and Releasing the Certification.
ESTIDAMA - Pearl Rating System (PRS)
The Pearl Rating System which could be defined as Estidama Tool, developed by Urban Planning
Council (UPC) of Abu Dhabi and launched in April 2010.Pearl is a combination of most international systems in use (LEED and BREEAM) but more importantly a combination that locally suited
system with local priorities. Pearl system is a hybrid between BREEAM and LEED(Elgendy 2010).
Pearl (version 1.0) is the one in use, a second version (version 2.0) of PRS has been developed and
it is available for stakeholders reviewing only.PRS started with three types of development codes;
Pearl for Villas (PVRS),Pearl for Buildings (PBRS), and Pearl for Community (PCRS). Pearl for Operation and Maintenance is in process for releasing as an existing building code and specifications.
The (PBRS) can be applied to all building types and functions including: Hotels, Hospitals, Industrial buildings, Laboratories and warehouses.
PRS consists of six categories; Site Selection & Natural System, Water, Energy, Materials, Indoor
Environmental Quality, Integrated Design Process(Fig.2). The PRS designed to cover all building
stages; Design, Construction and Operation to assure sustainability through the building life cycle. It defines stages as a transition of responsibility from a design team to construction team and
operation / management team (PRS 2010). Pearl Design Stage Rating starts from pre design and
valid only until construction is completed, and all specifications and supporting documents of
the operations and the used materials required to be kept and submitted upon the request of
final Pearl certificate.
Pearl Construction Rating Stage approves the achievement of design stage requirements submitted upon construction completion; it requires the same design stage requirements that identify

An overview of building sustainability rating systems in the Middle East

259

the project as a Pearl Construction Rated project. Pearl Operational Rating ensures the existing
building performance and operates sustainably; it can be achieved only with a minimum occupancy of 80% and two years after construction completion (Pearl Operational Rating is currently
under development).
The Certification Process starts with appointing Pearl Qualified Professional (PQP) and Registration followed by Preparing and Submitting the application to Urban Planning Center(UPC) or Abu
Dhabi Municipality (ADM) for reviewing. UPC/ADM assessor is appointed to review the project
first for the documents completion, the 2 days process results acceptance of documents or a notification of incompleteness. The PQP is responsible to proceed with documents completion, upon
documents completion, reviewing process by PQP starts; it takes from 5to 15 days (5 for1 pearl and
15 days for 2-5 pearls) (PRS v.1 2011). Finally, the Certification as Notification of Pearl Compliance
(NOPC) will be issued as approval of completion with Pearls Design Stage requirements, another
submission for Pearl Stage certification with same procedure is required for construction stage
(Estidama 2010).
Dubai Green Building Guide and Specifications
As an alternative to the Rating System, Dubai Green Building Guide and Regulations is a Regulatory Framework through which to achieve a sustainable city. It is founded in 2011,no credits or
points awarded towards a certification level of achievement. Dubai Municipality obligate all developers, consultants, designers and all industry stakeholders to follow the Green Building Regulations and Specifications as a condition for Building Permit, the implementation of (Regulatory
Framework) will serve the emirate long term goal of having a leadership in building performance
and sustainability. Dubai Practice Guide is organized according to the main categories of sustainable design; Ecology & Planning, Building Vitality, Resource Effectiveness: Energy, Resource
Effectiveness: Water and Resource Effectiveness: Materials & Waste.
Jordan Green Building Guide
The Jordanian Green Building Guide (JGBG) shares other codes the same target of increasing
buildings and resources efficiency, enhancing occupants productivity and reducing environmental impact. The code designed by Ministry of Public Work and Housing (MPWH) and covered most
of building types except factories, warehouses, hospitals and health centers. The green requirements divided in to three types of credits; obligate, mandatory and optional in order to assure
a minimum level of buildings sustainability and give the same importance for both design and
construction stages.
The guide depends on the main categories that common between other systems and regulations
with different weight for each category depending on local priorities, these categories are; Building Management, Sustainable Site, Water Efficiency, Energy Efficiency, Materials& Resources(Fig.2). The number of points collected for each type of buildings indicates the degree of building
sustainability which is divided into four levels; A, B, C, and D(JGBG 2010).
The number of points required for each level;
50-59 Points for level D
60-69 Points for level C
70-79 Points for level B
80 Points for level A

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For each category requirements, indicators, documents and plans required to be submitted as
an improvement of complying with the detailed and required specifications. The certification or
green declaration and the process of the green building guide are in process.
The Jordanian Developed Tool -SABA Green Building Rating System
The study published in 2008 by Hikmat and Saba stated that the Jordanian developed tool - SABA
is a computer based program providing a rating tool for green buildings taking the Jordanian local
content in to consideration. It is directed to the Residential Buildings only and based on some of
famous and widely used international Green Building Rating Systems like; LEED, BREEAM, GB Tool,
CASBEE.SABA covers the common categories: Site Selection, Water Efficiency, Energy Efficiency,
Materials & Resources, Indoor Environmental Quality, Waste & Pollution and Economics(Fig.2).

Figure 2: Green Building Rating Systems categories and weights

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This system assigning points to classify the sustainability of buildings, and the scale ranging
among three levels: fully satisfied, not fully satisfied, and not satisfied. Although there is a similarity in categories between different systems, including developed and developing countries, there
are differences in weighting of each category depending on local contents and priorities. For
SABA, a maximum of 100 points is available, the collected points is multiplied by the weighting
coefficient developed according to Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)(a mathematical technique
for decision making) for each category, the certification of greenness according to percentage
results is within these ranges:
Very Green (100-80%);
Green (79-50%);
Not Green (less than 50%);
No official certification requirements or process are available for this tool.

Methodology
Comparing the international and local systems, a literature review method was used in addition to reviewing official documents and published studies. The comparison of the international
systems and local green building systems focused on the general aspects; Vision and Structure,
Categories, Weightings, Levels and Certification Process. LEED and BREEAM, the mostly used systems around the world, have been chosen in this study for comparison with the other three local
Middle East systems; ESTIDAMA Pearl Rating System of Abu Dhabi, Dubai Green Building Guide
and Regulations, Jordan Green Building Guide, and SABA. It should be noted that since LEED and
other codes have deferent versions for all building types, the one used in this study is the New
Construction (NC) code for residential buildings.

Results and Discussion


Generally, all of the outlined systems are seeking one target; Sustainability, which could be
achieved mainly through recourses efficiency (Energy, Water, and Materials).In addition to reducing or eliminating environmental impact and carbon emissions, enhancing human health, productivity and efficiency, develop and drive up economy are some of the green system objectives.
The comparison conducted between the illustrated systems from different aspects as listed below.
Vision and Structure
Some differences between all the mentioned systems could be noticed, while LEED and BREEAM
are voluntary systems of the developed countries. Dubais government decided to apply the
green tool and regulation as a (Regularity Framework) which is mandatory for all governmental
and public buildings in the emirates in order to comply with Dubais vision of seeking uniqueness
and leadership in sustainable developments and communities.
Furthermore, Abu Dhabis vision of being one of the Word Sustainable Capitals (WSC) by 2030,
inspire Urban Planning Centre (UPC)of Abu Dhabi to find the local characterized system Pearl
Rating System (PRS)to be implemented in all developments in Abu Dhabi. Although all the systems shared most of their aims and main sustainable categories, there are some differences in
categories weighting according to the local requirements, properties and characteristics of their
countries and regions, some categories have slight differences in the covered indicators as well.

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Figures (Fig.3 and Fig.4)show the disparity in categories between the five systems. LEED, PRS,
JGBG, and SABA consist of seven categories, but BREEAM has ten categories as Management,
Transport, Pollution and Waste are individual categories, while it is grouped under main categories in other systems .In all systems energy efficiency appreciated highly with more than 20%, it is
the major category in LEED, Jordan Green Building Guide, BREEAM and Pearl, while SABAs major
category is water according to Jordan local contents and priority. With respect to points allocated
for total score; LEED and BREEAM assign 110 points while Jordan Green Building Guide assigns
higher number of (253) points, on the other hand, Pearl and Saba limited the total score with 100
points.
Categories and Weights
Sustainable Sites
The five systems compared varies in the total number of points that allocated, comparison between the systems shows that LEED allocates more than Jordan Guide, BREEAM (PRS) and SABAs.
Furthermore, the coefficient weight of each category is various as well, Sustainable Site in LEED,
Jordan Guide and Saba represented by 23.6%, 12.65%, and 10.3% respectively, while it is 10% in
BREEAM and 9% in Pearl for site selection category. The variation is obvious within this category, this deference between LEED and the other systems related to the individual sub categories
which are grouped under this category in LEED (Fig.3 and Fig.4).
Water
Among the studied systems, SABA assigns the majority to water category, as Jordan suffer from
limitation of water recourses, water represents 27.7% of the total, while it is 24% in Pearls, 15.81%
in Jordan Guide, 9.1% in LEED and 6% in BREEAM. This low reprehensive of water in LEED and
BREEAM reflects the fact that water is not concerned as a major issue in UK and US as in the Middle East where Emirates ranks third in the world in terms of sea desalinated water (Fig.3 and Fig.4).
Energy
In all systems, Energy Efficiency occupies the major representativeness, this category represented
in the highest level in Jordan Green Building Guide, LEED, BREEAM and Pearl with 38.73%, 31.9%,
19% and 24% respectively, and it is 23% in Saba as a second major category (Fig.3 and Fig.4).
Materials
BREEAM and LEED dedicate almost the same percentage for this category 12.7%, 12.5% respectively and it is higher in Pearls and Jordan Guide with 16%, 14.23 and the lowest in SABA with 10.8%
(Fig.3 and Fig.4).
Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ)
The highest weight for this category could be observed in Pearl with 21% of the total, while LEED,
BREEAM and SABA dedicate different percentages 13.6%, 15% and 11.8% respectively, Jordan Guide
allocates the lowest percentage of 8.70%for (IEO) category (Fig.3 and Fig.4).
Innovation
The highest percentage for this category assigned in BREEAM with 10%, while it is 5.5% in LEED.
Pearl added this category as a buns category; on the other hand the Jordan Green Building Guide
and SABA didnt give this category any credit.

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In addition to the basic and common categories, each system has it is individual categories like;
Regional Priority (3.6%) in LEED, Building Management (9.88%) in Jordan Green Building Guide,
Integrated Design Process (6%) in Pearl. BREEAM has more four separated categories that are covered within the other systems main categories like; waste (7.5%), pollution (10%), transportation
(8%) and management (12%), SABA tool merges waste and pollution in one category with (6.4%)
and economics (10%) is represented as one more separated and additional category(Fig.3 and
Fig.4).
Certification Levels
Comparison in Certification Rating Levels between the systems shows that the certification criteria for all studied systems based on the collecting of points under a number of general categories. These credits are divided into mandatory requirements and optional credits; the mandatory
requirements insure that the project in compliance with sustainable and green building requirements, while LEED and PRS award any point to the prerequisite requirements, BREEAM and Jordan Green Building Guide award points for both mandatory and optional credits, optional credits
calculated by project team according to the desire level of certification.
Collected points lead to the final rating level, in LEED they are four levels (Certified, Silver, Gold
and Platinum) comparing with five levels in PRS (One to Five Pearls), BREEAM has also five levels (Pass. Good, Very Good, Excellent, and Outstanding), while it is four in Jordan Green Building
Guide (A, B, C and D), and it is limited to three levels in Saba (very green, green, not green) (Fig.5).
Certification Process
Some differences indicated in the Certification Submission Process of the rating systems, while
LEED submitted directly online for review without any oral discussions, BREEAM and PRS required
assigning an assessor to enhance sustainable targets achievements and proceed easily with certificate submission.
When it is related to Dubai Municipality, the submission for green certificate coincides with the
building permit submission and completion certificate, no certificate awarded, as all buildings
should follow the Green Building Regulations as a condition for obtaining the Building Permit
and the Completion Certificate, a green building regulation declaration should be submitted at
each submission stage, an alternative documentation or international certification may be accepted relating to the authority satisfaction of complying with green building standards. On the
other hand, the green building guide in Jordan is in process, certification process submission and
details for each category requirements will be organized and published in two appendices A and
B attached to this guide.

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Figure3: Systems comparisons with respect to the number of allocated points

Figure 4: Systems comparison with respect to the categories weight

Figure 5: System comparisons with respect to the rating levels

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265

Figure 6:Comparison between the five systems according to categories weight

Conclusions
The summarize, developing a Local Green building Code, System or Regulation is mandatory for
each country to achieve the desired degree of greenness according to the local priorities, and
implementation (Regulatory Framework) for sustainable practices that will serve more in building
performance and sustainability and expected to perform much better when using local regulations. However, main categories for sustainable design are common between all systems; each
local code or system should address these categories and indicators accordingly and in line with
the local content. In addition to the local green regulations required, green regulation for existing
buildings with minimum renovations and practices to be implemented is also required in order to
integrate the total image towards sustainability. Furthermore, concentrating on both design and
construction stages is one of the important aspects to reach the sustainability goals.
Obligating some green practices toward energy and water efficiency (water irrigation system,
insulation materials, rainwater collection, materials separation for recycling) as part of building
permit conditions would ensure achieving some of sustainable practices and requirements. Many
research and studies addressed that to enhance building thermal performance in Jordan towards
energy efficiency, still the strict regulations followed by regular construction inspection required
to implement the efficient practices recommended by these studies.
Based on the review and analyses undertaken in this study, through comparison and evaluation
of both the international rating and local systems, the following more specific conclusions can be
drawn:
Each one of the compared systems assigns the majority to the local priorities. Energy efficiency
has the highest percentage in categories weight of the fourth systems (LEED, BREEAM, PEARL and
Jordan Green Building Guide), while SABA tool gives the majority to water efficiency tacking in to
consideration that Jordan is one of the world poorest countries with respect to water resources.
In contrast, Jordan Green Building Guide assigns (38.73%) to energy efficiency comparing with

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(15.81%) to water efficiency. In spite of the fact that this percentage indicates the importance of
energy resources in this code , the discrepancy in majority with respect to category between this
code and SABA should be investigated in deep, as SABA tool gives the majority to water category and assigns (27.7%) and (23%) for water and energy efficiency respectively (Fig.3 and Fig.4).
The Jordan Green Building Guide is distinct from the rest of the codes that divides the sustainable
and green requirements into three types; oblige, mandatory and optional requirements, the obligate requirements is to insure the minimum achievement of sustainable design.
Although LEED is the most followed and used system all over the world and it is the base that
the local systems depends on, it is not totally suited our region properties and requirements, and
it could not be the perfect standard that comply with local content in terms of some indicators,
credits, details and categories weight.
The two other local systems; Pearl Rating System (PRS) and the (Green Building Regulations and
Specifications) of Dubai Municipality, are more proper systems than LEED to be followed for sustainable performance in buildings and constructions sector in the UAE as it is in line with our
region characteristics.
Pearl rating system promoting the sustainability in two directions; firstly its the most balanced
system in terms of indicators, categories and weight of each category with respect to the region
content. On the other direction, it ensures sustainability through the mandatory of implementing
the minimum sustainable requirements on all buildings in the city by providing the (One Pearl
Building Consultant Guide) to be followed by designers and consultants as a reference guide
towards sustainable design and practices.
Pearl Rating System is the only system that added Culture as a fourth pole of sustainability and
dedicated points complying with specific requirements within this matter. Further to certifying
all new buildings with Green Building Certificate, which is important if there is a tendency in any
city to be one of the World Sustainable Capitals -WSC, and seeking a positive impact on market
and economy.
Although no official or international document awarded for green and sustainable buildings, Dubai has a strict and detailed specifications and regulations guide with the respect of sustainable
developments.
The detailed practice guide of Dubai Municipality could be a good example in aspects of some
categories like; (Ecology and Planning) with regards to the (Enabled) access and services as it provides the (Responsibility Matrix) for each compliance and an Environmental Building Assessment
(EBA)which is mandatory for design approval and building permit submission.
This research had some limitations; one of which is the number of investigated systems, as only
three systems in the Middle East region were examined. Increasing the number of the explored
systems or including more Middle East countries in this research would provide a wider picture
and indicate new facts and figures about the sustainability goals in both construction and building sectors for sustainable development in the region.

References
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International Conference | Bari - Lecce, Italy

Session IV

SOFTWARE FOR THE HEAT FLOW EVALUATION OF


THE NEARLY-ZERO HOUSES
Antonio De Vecchi1, Simona Colajanni1, Elsa Sanfilippo1,
Luigi Alessandro Licalsi1, Angela DAraio1, Marianna Di Salvo1
1PADesign srl Spin-off Accademico dellUniversit degli Studi di Palermo Italy

antonio.devecchi@unipa.it, simona.colajanni@unipa.it, alessandro.licalsi@unipa.it, elsa.sanfilippo@unipa.it


angela.daraio@padesignsrl.com, marianna.disalvo@padesignsrl.com

Abstract
The windows in a building are the weakest part for energy saving and reduced consumption.
In particular, the choice of window frames and glazing systems directly influences the amount
of heat loss through a houses envelope. The paper will show the results of a work developed
by PADesign srl company (Accademic Spin off of the Universit degli Studi di Palermo). This
is a software tool that allows a rapid comparison about the windows thermal performances,
by calculating the global thermal transmittance and by showing the trend of the heat flow.
The tool has a simple graphical interface that allows the users to select the climate data, the
window typologies, the geometric features and the materials of window frames and glazing
system. The tool calculates the global thermal transmittance and checks the compatibility
with the limits set by Italian law. The possibility of immediately view the heat flow through an
envelope of the selected combination allows you to identify the possible thermal bridges. It
also allows to try out other combinations of the envelope stratigraphy, in order to optimize
the choice of components providing the most suitable thermal performance.
The tool can be implemented for all typologies of frames and glazing systems. Moreover, the
software tools for evaluating energy efficiency and sustainability in buildings are very important to meet the restrictive requirements of thermal transmittance, provided by national and
international regulations, and according to the Europa 2020 goals. It was developed in Java
language to ensure portability across platforms. It uses a software library split that implements a self-contained, server less transactional SQL database engine. To generate outputs,
the tool uses data and results provided by LBNL WINDOW and LBNL THERM software, for
which we hold the commercial license. The software is aimed at a wide audience cause it does
not require specific technical skills.

Keywords
Energy-efficiency, sustainability, U-value, heat flow, energy savings, envelope.

269

Introduction
To achieve energy efficient buildings for a low-carbon energy system, is essential that the structures that mark its volume are properly insulated. The shell is the most sensitive part of the building in order to calculate the heat load and can be thought of as a dynamic system that, separates
and connects the interior from the exterior. The efficiency of the building envelope is given by the
ability to react flexibly to the variability of environmental conditions and the choice of its components - frames and coating systems - affects the energy performance of the construction and the
internal environmental comfort.
In order to reduce heat loss and increase the efficiency of the building-service system, it is necessary to have instruments which are support to the optimal choices of the construction elements
to be used in new buildings and in existing ones to improve thermal insulation. To choose the
window frames and glazing systems its important to evaluate some features on the thermal behavior as the global transmittance of both individual elements and of the window system, as the
thermal transmittance and the heat flow, which shows the energy performance in specific points.
Currently there are software that allow you to make the rigorous calculation of isotherms, but the
use needs technical skills and the processing time is not short. PADesign srl Company has developed a tool that could allow the easy calculation of the thermal transmittance, showing the heat
flow in order to facilitate the choice between several possible technological solutions.
This tool will appeal to a wide audience, because it does not require specific professional skills. It
is an user-friendly tool that can be useful for designers, customers, employees to view the thermal
behavior and take advantage of the incentives provided by the law.

Innovation of the system


To accurately assess the effect of thermal bridges in the vertical window frames, there are commonly in use specific software for finite element calculations. This involves the application of specific skills, as well as long times for the computation and for the changing, from time to time, of
the flow diagram of the selected combination.
The proposed solution, however, is able to quickly view and compare the values of thermal transmittance and the isotherms of the heat flow of the chosen solutions, to compare the output data
and to change the combinations so as to facilitate the choice of the best combination even by
those who not have high skills in the use of specific software (Fig.1).

Figure 1: Demonstrative image of the flows calculated by the tool in the perimeter and in the central
node of two-wing window

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Many industries that produce windows systems provide tools that allow users to determine the
overall transmittance of the selected component. Our tool, in addition to the above, displays the
heat flow and the isothermal diagram, providing a tool that measures the transmittance with a
certain rigor to assess the quality of the different choices unresectable, by using the best way to
mitigate the effects of the thermal bridges.
The software, through a simple graphical interface, enables to select the climate data, the external frame typologies, the geometric features, the materials and the glass typologies. By starting
the calculation, the instrument determines the thermal transmittance and checks the compatibility with the national regulations. The originality of this tool is that you can view the status of
progress of the characteristics of the heat flow in a specific section, and immediately identify the
possible points of heat loss (thermal bridges). In this way, the user can change the parameters to
generate another solution that implements the overall performance of the exterior frame.

User interface
This tool is designed to be used by wide specialized users. After implementing the features of
frame, the tool automatically generates the overall thermal transmittance and heat flow through
THERM, a calculation software developed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL),
which analyzes the two-dimensional heat flows through different building components.
A mesh automatic generator, processing the calculations according to the Finite Element Method,
defines the section. The results obtained are consistent with the evaluation process developed by
the NFRC (National Fenestration Rating Council), a non-profit organization that manages the consistency of assessment and labeling system for the energy performance of building components.
The transmittance of the window is then calculated according to the following formula:

Uc, Ac: Thermal transmittance and projection of central glass area


Ufr, Afr: Thermal transmittance and projection of frame area
Ue, Ae: Thermal transmittance and projection of glass edge area
Ud, Ad: Thermal transmittance and projection of divider area
Ude, Ade: Thermal transmittance and projection of divider edge area
This method of calculation is considerably more detailed than the requirements of the UNI 100772, because are considered the mode of transfer of edge effects from the glass to the frame without
resorting to tabulated values, often overestimated (Fig.2). As shown by the following formula (UNI
10077-2), in fact, the thermal transmittance of the glass edge is identified with the parameter ,
the linear thermal transmittance, whose value, provided by the same law, is selected from a limited
number of examples not always representing the real situation to be evaluated.

Climate data are set through a first drop-down menu that allows you to choose the region and a
second one in which to select the city. The information is downloaded directly from the database
file insqllite.

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Figure 2: In the diagram a) are highlighted various portions of the window (area frame, edge of glass,
centre of glass and divider edge) that are considered in the calculation of the overall thermal transmittance, unlike the format b) in which are considered only the frame and glass portions and the edge
line of the glass
The width and height of the window system are required by law to verify compliance with the
limits of Uw for the standard frame. The setting is made through the required fields where to set
the width and height of the compartment of the window (Fig.3).

Figure 3: In the a) screen are set climatic and dimensional parameters while in b) are set the type of
frame and glass

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Through the next screen (Fig.4), you can check your input and start the calculation of transmittance, withdrawing from the database the information necessary to display the heat flow developed through the program THERM.

Figure 4: The screen c) shows a summary of the input. The screen d) shows the heat flow and the
thermal transmittance value
Subsequently appears the image of the heat flow with the relative temperature data. It also appears a red or green field depending on the compatibility of transmittance value achievable with
the requirements of European legislation for the limit values of the transparent elements.

Figure 5: Comparison between two combinations where the second provides better performance
than the other one

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273

Is possible also allows a larger view of the profile and of the heat flow to provide better detail
understanding of the temperature values obtainable.
To make a new search, or if the transmittance values are unsatisfied, you can reselect the main
window, leaving open the output window previously generated, and change the combination of
one or more elements rerunning CALCULATE THE TRANSMISSION.
In this way, the tool will open a new output window and you can compare the results generated
by combinations selected (Fig.5).

System operation
The tool has been designed using the software LBNL WINDOW and LBNL THERM. It was acquired
authorization for the use of such software by asking the acceptance of their license by the user.
This option was included in the startup screen of the program. The tool can be downloaded to
your computer from the www.padesignsrl.com website.
The application was developed in Java and uses the Swing library to create graphical components
(windows, panels, frames, buttons, labels, text boxes etc.) which are used in the GUIs. UpadMain
is the class that contains the main method that starts the application and instantiates the class
InfoLicenzaJFrame (which extends the superclass JFrame) .This class creates a window that displays the text of the license terms and the buttons to accept (I Agree) or refuse (I Disagree)
such conditions in order to be able to perform or not the application. If you accept the terms, it is
instantiated class StartJFrame. This class has the task to display the main program window.
The default constructor StartJFrame first initializes the GUI components. Later calls initDatiTabelle
that takes care of instantiating the class DBManager. DBManager manages the database containing the data used by the software. A SQLite library is used to integrate a relational database within
the application.
A SQLite file contains the data of climatic zones, profiles of frames, glasses and the type of fixtures
(Fig.6).

Figure 6: Profiles_glasses table datastored in thedatabase (SQLite file)

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The database consists of the following tables:


profili (id, nome, descrizione, spessore_up, spessore_fc);
profili_vetri(id, nodo_sigla, id_tipologia, id_profilo, id_vetro, ue, uf, ufc, nodo_img, nodo_img_
base, nodo_img_flusso);
regioni(id, regione);
tipologie(id, nome, img_tipologia, numero_sezioni);
vetri(id, nome, descrizione, spessore, tipo, gas, ug);
zone_climatiche(id, codice_regione, codice_provincia, codice_comune, sigla_provincia, comune, altitudine_slm, gradi-giorni, zona_climatica, uw);

Figure 7: Profiles_glasses table data stored in the database (SQLite file)


The class DBManager then manages the connections and queries to the SQLite database file.
When you start the program the method initDatiTabelle instantiates DBManager to call the get
methods needed populate the tables displayed in the main GUI StartJFrame. Tables are populated
in the following order: Climatic Zones, Regions, Type of the frame, Frame profiles, Glazing.
It is also populated the table Nodes, not visible in the GUI, containing the data of the sections of
interest for the combination calculation is currently selected. Table rows Nodes are obtained by
querying the frames_glasses table stored in the SQLite file.
At startup it will already be selected all the elements needed to define a complete combination
of calculation: climate data, type and size of the fixture, type of frame profile, glazing. A check is
made to see whether the selected combination is allowable.
This check is also made during the selection phase of the elements (eg. glass selected may have a
thickness greater than that allowed by the profile).
If the combination is possible, it is retrieved the list of the sections of interest in relation to the
selected fixture type.
Each list item is associated with a pair of images: an image with the elements seen in cross-section
and an image showing the evolution of heat flow.
This element is represented by an object from the class NodoInfisso. This is characterized by the
attributes related to the constituent components of the selected combination.
For example in the case of two-wing window, the constructor for the class NodoInfisso has the

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following list of parameters:


String nodo_sigla, // alphanumeric code assigned to the node
int id_tipologia, // id of the selected type
int id_profilo, //id of the selected profile
int id_vetro,// id of the selected glazing
double ue, // transmittance of the edge
double uf, // transmittance of the side frame
double ufc, // transmittance of the side frame
String nodo_img, // name of the 3D preview section image
String nodo_img_base, // name of the 2D section image
String nodo_img_flusso // name of the 2D flow image
The panels of the main GUI are grouped so as to allow you to select items without necessarily
follow a fixed order.
The event of the mouse click on this button executes the instruction sequence according to
the following order:
performs the query necessary to retrieve the data of building elements selected (profile frame,
glazing);
these data are stored in objects instantiated from classes Profilo_Infisso and Vetro_Infisso;
depending on the type of the frame selected (one door window or two doors window) it is
retrieved the list of nodes that represent the characteristic sections of calculation for the type
of frames associated;
the following values are calculated: the overall transmittance Uw of the frame built with the
selected items and the total standard transmittance of the corresponding fixture UwStandard
(current legislation assigns the values of standard width equal to 1230 mm and standard height
of 1480 mm);
an output window displays processing results.
The object of InfissoCalcolo class calculates the transmission value. In the case of window with
one door , it is used the formula:
trasmittanza_totale=
((frame_trasmittanza*frame_area)+
(edge_trasmittanza*edge_area)+
(glass_trasmittanza*glass_area))/
(frame_area+
edge_area+
glass_area);
While in the case of window with two doors it is taken into account the presence of the middle
frame and its contribution transmittance:
trasmittanza_totale=
((frame_trasmittanza*frame_area)+
(frame_centrale_area*frame_centrale_trasmittanza)+
(edge_trasmittanza*edge_area)+
(glass_trasmittanza*glass_area))/
(frame_area+
frame_centrale_area+
edge_area+
glass_area);

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At the end of the calculations, the window displays OutputJFrame:


a summary of the values of
the selected items (type, size, frame profile, glass, climate zone) in
the main GUI StartJFrame;
the value of the global transmittance for the selected geometric dimensions;
the value of the global transmittance for the standard geometric dimensions;
a message shows if you respect the limit of transmittance depending on the climatic zone
selected;preview of 2D images of the sections of interest to the selected type of frame;
a button to show the heat flow in sections of interest;
a button that lets you adjust the zoom feature images;
The controls in the window object OutputJFrame and layout of the output window are managed
using the class ImageControls.
Changing several times the combination of the selected items in the main GUI and starting the
calculation again with the button JButton calcola_UwActionPerformed, you can simultaneously
view OutputJFrame windows corresponding to different combinations in order to allow a comparison of the results of processing.

Conclusion: future developments


This tool has been currently developed for some types of door and window frames in combination with different types of glass.
Furthermore, the tool is designed to provide to the manufacturers of window frames an useful
tool for the choice of the most effective components.
The research is still under development, to extend the processing of the heat flow to parts of shell
containing also opaque elements.
To better understand the energy performance of a building the first step consists in the assessment of the features of the building envelope, both transparent and opaque, in order to obtain
the global energy needs, useful to the choice of the action to carry out on the construction.
Another important result could be the development of a plugin that allows to evaluate the economic advantages associated to the better choice, through a cost-benefit analysis that takes into
account both the initial costs and the obtainable energy savings.

References
ALLEN, E., and LANO, J., 2009, Fundamentals of Building Construction: materials and methods. Hoboken, NJ: John
Wiley & Sons.
ATZENI, P., CERI, S., PARABOSCHI, S., TORLONE, R., 2009, Basi di dati: modelli e linguaggi di interrogazione, McGrawHill Italia, terza edizione.
BINGGELI, C., 2010, Building Systems for Interior Designers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
BRUEGGE, B., DUTOIT, A.H., 2009, Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns and Java. Terza
edizione, Prentice Hall.
CHRISTOPHER, A., and JOHNSTON, D., 2012, Thermal bridge, Oxford Dictionary of Construction, Surveying, and Civil
Engineering. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford UP.
CHU, R.C., 1982, Conduction Cooling for an LSI Package: A One-Dimensional Approach. IBM Journal of Research and
Development.
ECKEL, B., 2006, Thinking in Java, Prentice Hall, quarta edizione.
HARVEY, M., DEITEL, P.J., 2006, Java -. Tecniche avanzate di programmazione, Apogeo, terza edizione.

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KREIBICH, J.A., 2010, USING SQLITE, OReilly Media.


THEODOSIOU, T.G.; PAPADOPOULOS, A.M., 2008. The impact of thermal bridges on the energy demand of buildings
with double brick wall constructions. Energy and Buildings.
TOTTEN, P.E.; OBRIEN S.M., 2008, The Effects of Thermal Bridging at Interface Conditions. Building Enclosure Science
& Technology.
URMA, R.G., FUSCO, M., MYCROFT, A., 2014, Java 8 in Action: Lambdas, Streams, and functional-style programming,
Manning Publications.

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International Conference | Bari - Lecce, Italy

Session IV

USING 4D BIM IN THE RETROFIT PROCESS OF


SOCIAL HOUSING
Fernanda J. Chaves1, Patrcia Tzortzopoulos2,
Carlos T. Formoso3 & Jeferson Shigaki4
1 NORIE, School of Engineering, University Federal of Rio Grande Sul, Brazil, nandajc_ufrgs@hotmail.com
2 Department of Architecture and 3D Design, School of Art, Design and Architecture, University of Huddersfield,
United Kingdom, p.tzortzopoulos@hud.ac.uk
3 NORIE, School of Engineering, University Federal of Rio Grande Sul, Brazil, formoso@ufrgs.br
4 NORIE, School of Engineering, University Federal of Rio Grande Sul, Brazil, js_shigaki@yahoo.com.br

Abstract
There is a large stock of solid wall homes in the UK presenting poor thermal insulation and
low energy performance. Although the UK Government has supported improvement efforts
in the area, the identification of appropriate technical solutions that effectively improve the
existing stock remains a challenge. BIM offers opportunities for building performance optimisation, through improved design and simulation. This research investigates how BIM could
improve the retrofit process for social housing. This paper describes a research project looking
into the use of BIM to develop what-if scenarios for retrofitting existing no-fines solid wall
homes. The scenarios enable the analysis of alternative solutions considering costs, energy
performance and user disruption. More specifically, this paper focuses on the use of 4D models to evaluate disruption for end users. The research process includes simulations, meetings,
interviews, documents, and observations. Results indicate that the development of 4D BIM
models supports a better understanding of the retrofitting process on site, enabling the definition of production processes with as minimal disruption as possible for users, whilst still
delivering energy-oriented and cost effective solutions.

Keywords
BIM, 4D, retrofit, social housing.

279

Introduction
The UK has one of the oldest housing stocks in Europe, which has a strong identity and cultural significance. Such housing stock has approximately 13 million homes built before 1960 (RIBA
2013). These houses were built when the issue of greenhouse gases and climate changes were
not a global concern. Thus, their design was not conceived to ensure energy efficiency or thermal
comfort for its occupants. As a result, such housing requires high-energy input to achieve thermal
comfort levels, which in the context of social housing may lead to fuel poverty.
The UK government is committed to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases by 80% by 2050. The
DECC (Department of Energy and Climate Change), responsible for implementing actions to ensure the achievement of the aforementioned goals, conducted extensive research and identified
that the existing homes are responsible for 27% out of the total of carbon dioxide emissions in the
UK (TBS 2014). Furthermore, it is known that three quarters of the existing houses will still stand
in 2050. Therefore, quality improvements are needed on the existing housing stock (HM Government 2010).
The work presented in this paper is part of a wider research project entitled Solid Wall Innovative Insulation and Monitoring Processes using Lean Energy Efficient Retrofit (S-IMPLER), funded
through Innovate UK (http://www.s-impler.com). S-IMPLER aims to investigate the retrofit of solid
wall housing, to achieve a 60% reduction in monitored energy costs, with less disruption, at least
10% faster, without reductions in quality & safety. The research is a joint initiative with a housing
association, two SMEs, a contractor, academic institutions, a lean consultant, and a construction
organisation. Several innovations derived from S-IMPLER project will be combined into a single
proposition:
an innovative surveying tool;
a Building Information Modelling tool to allow client modelling of different retrofit options considering costs and benefits;
a whole house monitoring system to assess real energy performance;
a new solid wall retrofit Certification scheme to transfer knowledge and assure quality
The outcomes of S-IMPLER will be relevant to many of 6.9m UKs solid walled homes. BIM is one
element of the SIMPLER collaborative research project, and the University of Huddersfield leads
its development, which involves a team of researchers. The BIM work package aims to devise a
BIM Retrofit Protocol, which incorporates the use of what if scenario testing for retrofit solutions,
addressing the complexity of solid wall housing. BIM is therefore utilised for predictive and evaluative energy analysis, 4D BIM scheduling, and BIM cost analysis. The what-if retrofit scenarios
will deliver an integrated solution that deals with the issues of high energy consumption due to
poor thermal performance; reductions in the carbon footprint; internal mould and condensation
issues, using constructive solutions that offer reduced disruption to the housing occupier. This paper focuses on the utilisation of 4D BIM models to create what-if scenarios based on minimizing
disruption for tenants, which is part of the BIM element in S-IMPLER. The investigation explores
the utilisation of 4D BIM models to support the decision-making process when analysing alternative retrofit scenarios for solid wall homes with the aim of reducing occupiers disruption.

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BIM in Retrofit
In recent years, an increasing number of studies indicate the importance of retrofitting the existing housing stock in order to improve sustainability. Retrofit has received greater attention within
the current research agenda given that it has a crucial role to meet sustainable targets (Kemmer;
Koskela 2012). Given that a large share of the buildings that influence climate currently and in
the future have already been built, efficient actions regarding retrofitting and renovation are demanded. Gholami et al. (2013) state that one of the challenging issues during the retrofit process
is to find an approach that improves collaboration and integration during works.
Building Information Modelling (BIM) is an approach for managing construction project information, which includes functions needed to model the lifecycle of a building. BIM provides the basis
for new designs and construction capabilities, and changes roles and relationships in the project
team (Eastman et al. 2011). BIM tools enable stakeholders to manage project information across its
several stages in a virtual environment and can be used for many purposes in new construction
or in retrofits (Sheth et al. 2010). Thus, there is a potential to use BIM tools to assist the process of
retrofitting, such as 4D BIM.
According to Kymmell (2008), 4D BIM simulates the construction process in a virtual environment.
The main benefit of having the project in its virtual form is the possibility of experimenting construction activities and making appropriate adjustments before execution. Graphical simulations
can reveal potential problems in their origins, and opportunities for their improvement in terms
of construction works, equipment involved, spatial conflicts (logistics), security issues, among
others (Eastman et al. 2011). Thus, simulation supports decision-making from the very early construction stages and facilitates the development of solutions (Capeluto; Ochoa 2014).
The simulation of constructions sequence is based on a preliminary programme, schedule of
works and a BIM model. What-if scenarios can be visualized in 4D sequences to help communicate the advantages and disadvantages of various scheduling options (Kymmell 2008). Early 4D
BIM simulation can provide to stakeholders a better understanding of the related processes and
constraints that can affect construction operations.
Ultimately, 4D BIM simulation enables the understanding of potential disruption to occupants,
which supports a better decision-process and mitigates the impact of construction activities on
home environment. The 4D BIM simulations can be used as a visual management tool, given that
images representing the different stages of the construction process can be displayed on site to
workers. Dave et al. (2013) argue that collaborative planning can be enhanced with the support of
4D BIM, where the team visually gains deeper understanding of the project when compared to
traditional approaches (i.e. meetings discussing the schedule of works).
In the context of project delivery in the retrofit of existing housing, an optimal solution is the
one with the capacity to cope with compressed lead-times and to cause minimum disruption to
occupiers. Site layout, temporary accommodations, site facilities and storage, logistics and the
construction programme and time-scales might affect not only the residing family but also the
neighbourhood. The effects on occupiers depend on the family profile and on the need for temporary relocation of the family for the duration of the works. In order to determine appropriate
scenarios that are effective for saving cost and time, early stage simulation methods are likely to
be helpful to overcome uncertainty, to evaluate the performance of different design strategies,

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281

and to and aid decision-making. One of the key elements highlighted by Sacks et al. (2009) about
BIM is the rapid generation and evaluation of multiple construction plan alternatives through 4D
visualization of construction schedules.

Research approach
The research approach adopted in this study is constructive research, also known as design science research. This approach aims to build an innovative solution, or an artefact, to solve a real
problem. Such problem should be relevant to current practice, and the solution should provide
theoretical contributions (Lukka 2003; Van Aken 2004; Holmstrm et al. 2009). Van Aken (2004) explains design science research as an approach used to develop valid and reliable research, which
creatively solves a construction problem.
This study encompasses three sequential and interdependent stages: understanding the problem, development of a solution, and consolidation. This paper reports on partial results of a masters study, focusing on the development of a method to create, analyse, and select what-if scenarios for housing refurbishment focused on disruption for tenants. It is noteworthy that this
masters research is inserted into the context of S-IMPLER project.
The S-IMPLER project includes the retrofit of 7 houses. House 6 is the prototype house and is void.
In addition, all houses are two-story, except the house 50 which is a bungalow. Figure 1 shows
houses 44 and 45 before retrofit work started.

Figure 1: House 44-45 before retrofit works

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These houses are located in Northern Ireland, and require a number of interventions for improving their energy performance with minimal disruption through cost oriented solutions. The retrofit work will be carried out in 4 different phases to enable analysis, learning and improvement
between phases: Phase 1-A (House 6), Phase 1-B (houses 44 e 45), Phase 2 (houses 46 e 47), Phase 3
(houses 49 e 50), and Phase 4 (house 48), as illustrated in Figure 2.

Figure 2: Planned retrofit construction sequence


The retrofit work consists of:
replacing the old external windows and doors made of wood and single glass by openings
made of PVC and double glass;
strengthening of the existing loft insulation layer, and
insulation of external walls using insulation dynamic boards and rendering;
This paper reports the use of 4D modelling in Phase 1A (House 6), which started on February 2015
and were completed by April 2015, and cycle 1, which corresponds to the period between the
completion of Phase 1A and the end of July 2015.

Development and Results


House 6 (Phase 1A)
Initially, a 3D model was developed for each house typology, based on existing plans (i.e. *.dwg
files) and site visits. In addition, new insulation elements were modelled and added to the initial
3D model for House 6 (i.e. insulation boards, first-base coat, fibre glass reinforcing mesh) according to the building technology defined as part of the overall S-IMPLER project. By having these
elements in 3D, the task of cross-referencing information from the 3D model and the schedule of
retrofit works prior to 4D simulation was facilitated. Synchro Pro was used to simulate the construction phases. The inputs required for this simulation were the 3D model, construction schedule, list of equipment to be used, and location of inventory of materials. Some of this information
was based on the experience of practitioners involved in the project. The different trades were
organised into task groups and identified by colour coding in the 4D model, so that their tasks
were easily visualised in the simulation.

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Collaborative planning meetings were carried out with the participation of the research team and
project stakeholders to create an execution plan for each phase. The aim of those weekly meetings was to review and update the schedule of the retrofit process. Figure 3 illustrates a visual plan
that was collaboratively produced at the site office.

Figure 3: High-level construction schedule


Three 4D models were devised in Phase 1A. The first model was developed as a starting point for
the execution of Phase 1A and was based on initial collaborative planning meetings and on guidelines provided by suppliers. The original plan was affected by restrictions found on site, such as
delays in the delivery of the windows and absence of design details. As changes in the construction schedule occurred, these were incorporated and simulated in the second 4D model, taking
into consideration the constraints and interferences found in the execution of House 6 (Phase 1A).
Screenshots were generated from the second 4D model of House 6, were presented to site manager, and were displayed as a panel on site, as presented in Figure 4.

Figure 4: Retrofit work plan produced from screenshots of a 4D model


The role of those visual devices was to support the site manager to devise and update production
plans at the collaborative planning meetings. Later, the third 4D model was developed considering the how the retrofit process was effectively undertaken in practice.

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Cycle 1 (between Phase 1A and Phase 1B)


Cycle 1 has produced four main outcomes: (a) a set of categories of disruption for tenants, based
on the literature review, (b) 4D models of the Phase 1B, (c) characterization of disruption for tenants from the perspective of stakeholders, and (d) a method for creating what-if scenarios focused on disruption for tenants using 4D BIM.
a. A set of categories of disruption extracted from the literature
A literature review about disruption for tenants was conducted and a set of categories of disruption was identified. Figure 5 summarizes the types of disruption found in the literature review.
Factors affecting end users

References

Disruption of gas provision: it happens when retrofit


works affect the continuity of gas supply

(Whiteman and Irwig 1988; Wallace 1986)

Disruption of electricity provision: it happens when


retrofit works affect the continuity of electricity supply

(Whitema and Irwig 1988; Wallace 1986)

Disruption of water provision: it happens when retrofit


works affect the continuity of water supply

(Whitemanand Irwig 1988; Wallace 1986)

Disruption of access to the building: it happens when


retrofit works block or limit the access of dwellers in their
homes

(Whiteman and Irwig 1988; Jones 2013)

Disruption of everyday life: it happens when retrofit


works disrupt the daily activities of residents, such as
studying, cooking, taking a nap, etc., because spaces are
being shared between dwellers and workers

(Wallace 1986; Vadodaria 2010; Ho 2009; Haines and Mitchell


2014; Fawcett 2014; Lee 2011)

Move out of home: it happens when retrofit works


induce the dwellers to move out of their homes to avoid any
inconvenient

(Wallace 1986; Vadodaria 2010; Ho 2009; Haines and Mitchell


2014; Fawcett 2014; Lee 2011)

Disruption by noise: it happens when retrofit works


generate different levels of noise pollution provided by the
use of tools such as hammers, mallets, etc.

(Whiteman and Irwig 1988; Miller and Buys 2011; Jones 2009)

Disruption by dirt: it happens when retrofit works generate (Whiteman and Irwig 1988; Miller and Buys 2011)
different levels of physical waste such as dust, debris, etc.

Figure 5: Table with factors affecting end users


b. 4D models of Phase 1B
The first 4D model of houses 44 and 45 in Phase 1B was developed based on a previous schedule
of the retrofit process, on the set of categories of disruption, and on the third version of the 4D
model of House 6 in Phase 1A. For example, the tasks located at the front entrance and at the back
entrance were not scheduled at the same time, in order to maintain access to the households. This
4D model was presented to client, site manager, foreman, designer, and suppliers of insulation of
external wall. Considering the feedback from these stakeholders and the new schedule for Phase
1B, which was devised by the site manager and foreman, the 4D model was updated. The second
version of the model was then developed and will be compared with future models at the end of
this phase.
c. Characterization of disruption for tenants from the perspective of stakeholders
Furthermore, the proposed set of categories of disruption for tenants was submitted to criticism
by a client representative, project manager, site manager, foreman, designer, and suppliers of
insulation of external wall, through a questionnaire which was sent by email. From the question-

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naire, the set of categories of disruption was revised and extended, and an assessment of their
importance was made from the stakeholders perspective. Based on those categories, disruptions
for tenants can be highlighted and characterized in 4D simulations to assist the creation of scenarios and to facilitate the comparison between them. At this stage, new factors of disruption
were added: disruption of external environment (e.g., when the tenant performs some improvement out in the backyard such as a wood deck and it needs to be removed); and disruption in the
parking spaces (e.g., when there is a reduction in parking facilities for residents by skips, vehicles
of tradespeople and storage facilities for works). In order to obtain a deeper understanding of
disruption for tenants, a new questionnaire was developed, and this will be applied to tenants.
d. Method for creating what-if scenarios focused on disruption for tenants using 4D BIM
Considering the outcomes from the empirical study Phase 1A and cycle 1 - a method for creating
what-if scenarios with minimal disruption for tenants in social housing retrofit projects was developed. This method uses 4D BIM simulation to create what-if scenarios and seeks to understand
how the disruption for occupiers can be minimized and avoided while the retrofit process is carried out. Also, this method enables the choice of an appropriate execution process to be used in
further retrofits.
This method provides a wide support to the user when understanding, visualizing, and improving
the production process in social housing retrofit projects, as well as in identifying and minimizing
disruption for tenants. A schematic representation of the proposed method is shown in Figure 7.

Figure 7: Method for creating what-if scenarios focused on disruption for tenants using 4D BIM
The method is divided into two main stages: developing what-if scenarios and decision-making.
The stages comprise the following steps:
1. Development of a 3D BIM model of existing building: What-if scenarios are developed from 4D
BIM models, therefore it is essential to have the 3D BIM model of the existing building. In most
cases, the building that will be refurbished does not have an up to date documentation. Thus,

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it is necessary to make a detailed survey of the building comprising current measurements,


and to identify technologies and construction materials used. This information is important
for generating 3D BIM models.
2. Identification and capture of requirements: As this study refers to social housing, there are
two main clients: the dwellings owner and the dwellings user. By knowing the main clients,
relevant requirements for both of them are used in the development of the final product (refurbished building).
3. Identification and characterization of disruption: A characterization of disruption for tenants
has been developed, and it comprises a set of factors. In this step, the types of disruption
affecting tenants and the intensity in which they occur are investigated. This step influences
directly step 5.
4. Definition of the construction technology: A set of alternatives in technology for executing
works in the existing building should be investigated and defined. The client may consider
other factors in the selection of these technologies, such as experience, time, cost, among
others.
5. Definition of tasks sequence: This step depends exclusively on the previously selected execution process. Each process might have a set of basic execution guidelines (e.g. items need to
be installed before the insulation boards in the external walls in order to avoid future rework).
Each execution process could generate several tasks sequences. The number of sequences
must be defined by the client who must consider minimizing disruption to tenants during
retrofit works. This input is considered in the 4D BIM modelling.
6. Construction of a 3D BIM model LOD 300/350: Considering that the 3D BIM model of existing
building has been developed, the type of execution process has been set, and clients requirements have been understood, a 3D BIM model with the level of detail 300/350 must be developed. Also, in this step, several 3D BIM models could be modelled according to the defined
process in step 4. This input should now be considered in the 4D BIM modelling.
7. Development of 4D BIM models: Each execution sequence added to its respective 3D BIM
model, which has elements of the existing building and the building to be refurbished, will
generate a 4D BIM model. In addition, each 4D model can create a what-if scenario. As changes
in the sequence of activities occur, a new simulation scenario is created.
8. Creation of what-if scenarios: This step corresponds to creating several potential alternatives
of retrofitting for a specific execution process. The number of what-if scenarios should be established by the client in order to proceed to the next step.
9. Elaboration of a scenarios matrix: After the number of what-if scenarios has been defined,
they should be compared against each other through a scenarios matrix. A set of parameters
should be used to assist the process of analysing and selecting the best scenario as part of the
decision-making process performed by the client.
10. Analysis of what-if scenarios by the client: Based on the abovementioned matrix, the client is
able to choose the best scenario for conducting retrofitting works.
11. Execution of the best scenario: After the best scenario has been chosen by client, a contractor,
which has been defined by client, should execute it. The information derived from the execution of the chosen scenario will provide feedback the process and should be considered as an
input for further developments. As an example, a survey with tenants can be performed to
investigate whether the foreseen disruptions at the beginning of the process happened or if
new disruptions emerged.
12. Comparison between scenarios: a comparison between the simulated and performed scenarios is recommended, in order to obtain additional information as a feedback for the process.

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Discussion
The study developed in Phase 1A was important to explore 4D modeling and simulation, especially when presenting the retrofit planning process to the site manager and to the foreman. Furthermore, this stage reinforced the needed of creating what-if scenarios in order to minimize
disruption for end users.
Currently, the retrofit execution plan on the S-IMPLER is performed by using stick notes on a
board. This is relatively fast and straight-forward, but it can hide some execution issues, bringing
possible rework and increased costs during the project. The retrofit execution plan requires the
support of management and visualization tools to assist in carrying out the work. So there is a
great potential for use of BIM 4D tool in this project. Although a visual device containing screenshots has been used on site in Phase 1A, its applicability has not achieved its central objective.
A new attempt will be made in Phase 1B, as previous studies have proven that in new buildings
the use of visual devices facilitates the application of the model 4D on sites (Sacks; Treckmann;
Rozenfeld 2009; Bortolini 2015).
There are opportunities in terms of training in 4D modelling and simulation, as the site manager
and foreman had limited knowledge about the topic. It was agreed with participants that it is
more difficult to visualize the 4D simulation in retrofit projects than in new construction because
some elements are already existing parts of the building.
The study developed in Cycle 1 was important to understand what disruption for tenants is, and
how the use of 4D BIM models can minimize it. Some studies point to the difficulty to conduct
refurbishment in buildings where users remain in the site during works, but very few of them indicate what are the disruptions that can be found in these works. Thus, it was important to create
a set of categories of disruption based on literature review.
Although the method was devised, steps 1 to 7 have been partially used. So far, the critical points
of the method are: to identify and capture clients requirements, to assess the influence of a dwellings owner and/or a dwellings user as main clients, and to define the construction technology
without clients support. Consequently, it is necessary to collect more information with external
suppliers in order to fine tune the tasks sequencing.

Conclusion
This paper described how 4D models are explored in the improvement of construction planning,
particularly in the reduction of occupiers disruption in retrofit projects. The findings presented in
this paper are part of an ongoing study.
First main finding of this paper is the identification and characterization of disruption for tenants
when the retrofit works are carried out. It is highlighted the need to identify and to characterize
disruption for tenants using three sources of evidence: literature review, stakeholders perspective, and tenants point of view. Thus, a survey assessing tenants perception about disruption can
gather relevant inputs to refine and build what-if scenarios. An accurate definition of disruption
would enable the creation of alternatives for executing works on site.
Second main finding is the method for creating what-if scenarios using BIM 4D. This proposed

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method was devised to guide public or private companies retrofitting social housing. This method will support the decision making process when choosing the most appropriate solution from
a users disruption perspective.
In the retrofit context, 4D modelling should be increasingly used by contractors and subcontractors to make collaborative decisions concerning occupiers and neighbours disruption. As different scenarios considering a wide range of factors affecting tenants (i.e. noise, pollution) will be
simulated, it is expected that reduced disruption is achieved.

Acknowledgments
The authors would like to thank Innovate UK, CAPES/Brazil and CNPq/Brazil for the financial support received. In addition, they would like to thank the wider S-IMPLER project team for their
direct contributions in this investigation.

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International Conference | Bari - Lecce, Italy

Session IV

EXPLORATION OF THE ZEMCH WORKSHOP


USP 2015
Karin Chvatal1, Kelen Dornelles1, Bruno Damineli1, Akemi Ino1, Lcia Shimbo1 &
Masa Noguchi2
1 Institute of Architecture and Urbanism, University of So Paulo, Brazil, kelend@sc.usp.br
2 EDBI Research Group, Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, The University of Melbourne, Australia,
masa.noguchi@unimelb.edu.au

Abstract
This paper addresses a discussion on architectural design development methods, mass customization and energy efficiency in the production of housing. More specifically, it evaluates
the experience of the Zero Energy Mass Custom Home (ZEMCH) Workshop held in 2015 at
the University of So Paulo (USP), in Brazil. The workshop was organized for the acquisition
of enough knowledge in a short period of time (5 days) and obtaining of a zero energy mass
custom social home in the Brazilian context. It included five main phases: 1) Theoretical Basis,
2) Function Analysis, 3) Design Development and Energy Analysis, 4) Final Presentation Finalization, and 5) Final Individual Presentation (with the development of the final product, i.e., a
zero energy mass custom social home). They were divided into Pre-workshop, Workshop and
Post-workshop activities. Its structure and content are analysed regarding the four final projects and the way the main goals were achieved. Based on the concept of flexibility, all groups
proposed housing units that would attend a diversity of family compositions and their life
dynamics. The project solutions included renovation, extra bedrooms or commercial space
and options of facade with different colours, materials and design. The experience of ZEMCH
workshop USP held in So Carlos was successful and contributed to the introduction of the
ZEMCH concept to the social housing Brazilian context, according to climate conditions of
the city. Suggestions for future ZEMCH Workshops are proposed, so that continuous improvement is guaranteed.

Keywords
Mass customisation, social housing, zero energy buildings, workshop, design education.

291

1 Introduction
Due to the new carbon dioxide (CO2) constraints and regulations caused by the global warming
increase, the development of zero energy and CO2 emission sustainable houses has become crucial for the future of the building construction (Noguchi 2013). However, the common concept
of social housing is usually linked to mass production for the achievement of low cost on a large
scale, which disregards important social issues.
Some Latin American countries have followed the tendency of mass-produced housing since the
1990s, based on public investment with the decisive participation of the private sector. In Brazil,
a series of regulatory, institutional and productive mechanisms might favour and expand the
role of private actors in the housing policy. The private sector participation empirically outlines
a blurred boundary between production forms for the construction of social housing and those
destined to the housing market, creating a hybrid intermediate zone the social housing market (Shimbo 2012).
Based on this new arrangement market, institutional mechanisms, investment funds and sources Brazil has taken on the large-scale production housing, specifically with the My House, My
Life Program (Programa Minha Casa, Minha Vida - PMCMV), producing 3.4 million housing units in
only five years (2009-2014). The Program, still in operation, is organized in Tracks defined according to household income ranges. Track 1 is applied to social housing for low-income households
(monthly incomes of up to R$ 1,600.00 or approximately 700 USD - January / 2014), whereas the
other two tracks (Track 2, up to R$ 3,100.00 or 1,300 USD and Track 3, up to R$ 5,000.00 or 2,000
USD) refer to the housing market destined for middle-income families.
Track 1 absorbs the social housing programs that have operated in Brazil since President Lulas first
term (2003-2006), with some significant changes, especially regarding the amount of resources
and role of promoter agents. Tracks 2 and 3 clearly evidence the encouragement of public authorities to the housing production by private actors for low-income and middle-income sectors. In
both cases, construction companies gain relevance because they are actors of the program no
longer restricted to government biddings and quotation requisitions, and real estate agents who
intermediate landowners, fiscal agents and consumers.
The production of the PMCMV is characterized by a large scale and standardization of the housing product, which is mostly large housing estates composed of three basic patterns: vertical
buildings (most of them with up to five floors and no elevator), horizontal developments (single
houses and often double-houses) and a combination of both in the same land. The low architectural and urban planning quality is a frequent criticism of the housing development of PMCMV
(Ferreira 2012, Cardoso 2013). Recent studies have clearly pointed the design of such houses does
not take thermal comfort and energy efficiency into consideration (Lopes & Shimbo 2015).
As a critical perspective, the concept of mass customization could improve the housing quality
in the Brazilian context considering the large scale and individual dynamic needs and desires with
no increase in costs. Such a concept dates from 1950s, explicated in the book Scope of Total Architecture (Gropius 1956), where the author emphasizes the need of standardizing and mass-producing not entire houses, but only some components to be disposed in a customized way, considering not only the decrease in operational cost and time (by mass-producing elements), but
also quality (customization).

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Despite the apparent paradox and opposite relation between mass and customization, the term
Mass customization appeared in the books entitled Future Shock (Toffler 1970), Future Perfect
(Davis 1987), Mass Customization (Pine II 1993) and Handbook of Research in Mass Customization
and Personalization (Piller & Tseng 2009). The latter includes one of the practical mass customization approaches and is applied to the housing industryi.e. modularization of building components (Noguchi & Hadjri 2009).
Noguchi and Friedman (2002) developed a mathematical model that quantifies the possible ordered pairs (or combinations) made from given standard housing components. The model also
enables the integration of fundamental design service factors (location, personnel and tool), as
well as the three different building components (volume, exterior and interior). Volume components configure the internal space that determines the size and location of each room, whereas
interior and exterior components determine the decorative and functional elements that customize the building. Optional features, such as security systems and renewable energy technologies are also available. Ventilation and heat losses are associated with the building volume and
envelope exposures, while thermal transmittance is associated with materials applied to the components.
This paper addresses a discussion on architectural design development methods, mass customization and energy efficiency in the housing production. More specifically, it evaluates the experience of the Zero Energy Mass Custom Homes (ZEMCH) Workshop held in 2015 at the University
of So Paulo (USP) in Brazil.

2 Principles, foundation and workshops of ZEMCH Network


The achievement of individuals dynamic needs and demands in social housing design developments is considered a challenge of social and economic sustainability for improvements in
the product quality with no sacrifice to production costs. Moreover, the prolongation of global
warming issues should be avoided in any housing development today for the achievement of
environmental sustainability.
Accordingly, a zero energy mass custom home research group, called ZEMCH Network, was established in 2010 to accelerate both research and development of socially, economically and environmentally sustainable homes in global contexts. The emerging concept of mass customization
has been reviewed and regarded as an essential element of ZEMCH delivery, which requires a
strategic balance between optional and standard design features (Noguchi, 2003). Presently, the
network consists of 450 partners from over 40 countries.
In 2006, the ZEMCH Mission to Japan initiative was carried out in Canada to provide Canadian
construction companies with opportunities to explore the state-of-the-art production and sales
facilities of the net zero energy cost housing manufacturers in Japan. The event was successful,
therefore it was reorganized in the following years. In 2010, it welcomed 20 international delegates
invited to join a panel of discussions held at the Renewable Energy 2010 International Conference
in Japan. The event also helped form the ZEMCH Networks ambition. In 2012 the first academic
conference was organized by the ZEMCH Network for continuous information exchange and discussion, and since then it has been organized annually.
Moreover, a ZEMCH design workshop was organized to complement ZEMCH 2014 International

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Conference held in Londrina, Brazil. The 4-day technical design knowledge transfer event was
called ZEMCH Workshop UEL 2014. It welcomed 20 participants and encompassed a series of essential learning and demonstration activities run by 5 international academics from Australia, Brazil and the United Arab Emirates. In 2015, the design workshop was resumed and hosted by the
University of So Paulo (USP), So Carlos, Brazil. The ZEMCH Workshop USP 2015 extended the
operation time to 5 days (13 to 17 April, 2015). Nineteen postgraduate students from several universities (UniMelb, USP, UEL and UNICAMP) participated, while 6 tutors (Akemi Ino, Karin Chvatal,
Kelen Dornelles, Lucia Shimbo, and Bruno Damineli from USP and Masa Noguchi from UniMelb)
steered the teaching operation.

3 Workshop Methods
Overall scheme
The ZEMCH Workshop at USP was designed to transfer technical design knowledge required
for the delivery of zero energy mass custom social homes in developing countries. It included
five main phases (Figure 1): 1) Theoretical Basis, 2) Function Analysis, 3) Design Development and
Energy Analysis, 4) Final Presentation Finalization, and 5) Final Individual Presentation (with the
development of the final product, i.e., a zero energy mass custom social home). They were divided into Pre-workshop, Workshop and Post-workshop activities and aimed at providing enough
knowledge in a short period of time (5 days) for the obtaining of a final product considering the
aspects of a ZEMCH.

Figure 1: Main phases and corresponding activities of the workshop.

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Theoretical basis
The theoretical basis included several activities before and during the workshop. Preparation
classes were conducted as Pre-workshop activities, with classes in Melbourne for the UniMelb students and in So Carlos for the students from Brazil. In Melbourne, students attended six classes
with Prof. Masa Noguchi, which included a ZEMCH introductory lecture, the Code for Sustainable
Homes (UK Code, BRE Global, 2010) lecture and exercises, and the demonstration and training of
simulation tools for energy analyses. In Brazil, a preparation class was given by tutors Akemi Ino,
Karin Chvatal, Kelen Dornelles and Lucia Shimbo to Brazilian students. The classes comprehended
an introduction about the ZEMCH subject and the energy analysis programs.
The first day of the workshop included an introduction as part of the Theoretical Basis. The main
subjects discussed were ZEMCH concept, Social housing production system in Brazil (PMCMV),
and different construction systems for social housing in Brazil. The students from UniMelb presented the Code for Sustainable Homes (CSH) and Prof. Noguchi explained the environmental
simulation tools for the energy analysis.
The second day was devoted to the Site and Function Analysis. The Site analysis was based on a
site visit in So Carlos, as part of the Theoretical Basis. Students and tutors visited the Abdelnur
Residential, with 1032 houses constructed with Cast-in-place concrete walls (Figures 2 and 3). The
visit was part of the theoretical knowledge for the identification of needs and lacks regarding the
housing design development adapted to the Brazilian reality.

Figure 2: Visit to Abdelnur Residential in So Carlos.

Figure 3: Site analysis from group D.

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Function analysis
The function analysis was based on aspects observed during the site visit and the way of achieving the ZEMCH concepts adapted to the Brazilian reality. The Functional Analysis System Technique (FAST) creates a graphical representation to show the logical relationships between the
functions of a project, product, process or service based on the questions How and Why. It
enables participants to think about the problem objectively, identify both the scope of the project, by showing the logical relationships between functions, and all the required functions and
verify if a proposed solution has achieved the design needs. It also enables the identification of
unnecessary, duplicated or missing functions.
The following questions should be approached for the creation of a FAST Diagram: How can this
function be obtained?, Why have you adopted this function? and What other functions should
you adopt? (Fig. 4).

Figure 4: Function Analysis.


The FAST Diagram was developed in two hours and according to aspects of social housing production observed by the students during the site visit, the ZEMCH concepts and some categories
of sustainable design from the CSH. An example of a FAST diagram, developed by group A, is
showed in Figure 5.

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Figure 5: Example of a FAST Diagram - Group A.


After the FAST diagram creation, the most important criteria were established and punctuated
according to levels of importance. This procedure was conducted with an evaluation criteria scoring matrix. Each evaluation criterion was compared to each other and punctuated, as showed
in figure 6. The scoring matrix was constructed according to the criteria indicated by the FAST
diagram, with the following order of importance: 3-High; 2-Average; 1-Low. The total score and
equivalent weight were calculated for each function. This phase of the workshop lasted approximately 2 hours.

Figure 6: Example of an Evaluation Criteria Score Matrix - Group A.

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Design development and Energy analysis


The next two days were dedicated to the design development and energy analysis, and the students considered both the mass customization concepts and the main priorities of each group.
They selected a construction system, developed a new master plan and designed solutions to
achieve the ZEMCH concepts. The design development was based on the priorities established by
the FAST Diagram and the scoring matrix. The energy analysis helped the students to achieve the
best solutions with lower building energy consumptions through 3 programs, namely Ecotect,
Hot 2000 and RetScreen, explained in the afternoon of the first day. However, both Brazilian and
Australian students had a short contact with them during the preparation classes.
Ecotect is a Sustainable Building Design Software, which is actually being integrated in the Revit
family. It shows an iterative display where the building can be designed since the early stage, and
several analyses can be performed, including energy and day lighting, among others. It was the
first tool used by the participants for their evaluation of only daylighting and the necessary complement from artificial lighting. Hot2000 was developed by CanmetENERGY, Canada, and used
for the energy consumption calculation. It is based on a steady-state algorithm, which considers
monthly external and internal temperatures are constant. Its input data includes envelope construction and its thermal properties, information about thermal bridges, internal gains, characteristics of heating and cooling systems and building air tightness. RetScreen was also developed
by CanmetENERGY and other collaborators from Canada. It evaluates the energy production and
savings, costs, emission reductions, financial viability and risk for various types of Renewable-energy and Energy-efficient Technologies. However, the focus of its use in the workshop was on the
calculation of the solar panel area for the supply of hot water.
Final presentation finalization
The last day of the workshop included the Design Portfolio Development, with ZEMCH design
finalization and presentation of the material developed during the workshop. Each group prepared a poster and an oral presentation on the ZEMCH proposed for So Carlos, according to
theoretical basis input and function analysis exercises. The poster included the main scope of the
project with details about Site Analysis, Function Analysis and Score Matrix, Design Process, Energy Analysis, and Mass Customization, and other details (Fig. 7). Groups A, B, C and D presented the
scope of the project orally and were evaluated by the tutors from USP and UniMelb.

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Figure 7: Final posters with design development - groups A, B, C and D.


Final individual presentation
After the workshop, the students were evaluated individually through a final individual presentation to be developed in approximately 40 days. Students from Brazil prepared a Monograph and
presented it orally for the USP tutors. It should concern a subject of interest related to the ZEMCH
design concepts. The students from UniMelb produced a research paper on a subject of their
choice related to the low-incoming social housing developments in Brazilian contexts. The outcomes were assessed locally.

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4 Workshop discussion
Nineteen students (seven from Australia and thirteen from Brazil) participated of the workshop.
The Brazilian students were enrolled on Masters or PhD Architecture and Urbanism programs
at USP, UNICAMP and UEL. The Australian students were cross-cultural postgraduates mostly of
Urban Planning or Design backgrounds (only one student was enrolled on the Architecture program). They were divided into four groups: one with four students (named group A) and three
with five students (B, C and D). The sole criterion for the group formation was the mingling between Brazilian and Australian students. Each group had three students from Brazil and two from
Australia, except the smallest group, which had only one student from UniMelb. The groups were
formed on the second day of the workshop, before the site visit. Students were freely allowed to
decide on which group to participate. On the one hand, this decision enabled them to choose
their same-country-colleagues of affinity, which improved their communication during the quick
phase of designing. On the other hand, Brazilian students grouped themselves according to the
same supervisor/main research subject, which made their final product inadequate regarding
aspects they usually do not deal with. Figure 8 shows the final results for the main house design
of all groups.

Group A

Group B


Group C
Figure 8 - House design overview - Groups A, B, C and D.

Group D

Theoretical basis
The phase of theoretical basis included several activities, as previously explained in the Methods.
Considerations about some of those activities and their positive and negative aspects are addressed below.
The UK Code for Sustainable Homes was presented for the students learning activities and considered an important parameter of aspects that influence the building energy efficiency (and
sustainability as a whole). However, as Brazilian climates are quite different than those of the UK,
it did not bring any special design ideas to be used in the project.

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A visit to the project site was one of the activities conducted prior to the design development. It
was very profitable, mainly to the UniMelb students, as it provided them with the reality of the
project and production of the PMCMV. The participants were in contact with My Home My Life
Program production site, where they could observe some negative aspects, such as monotony
of the implantation, same pattern of house units, long blocks, insufficient public infrastructure,
few connections to the city, no commercial service, little interaction between residential lots and
green area and no public transportation in the vicinity. The negative aspects were significantly
reflected on their project proposal, as observed in the result of 4 projects developed. All groups
implemented solutions in the project for the negative aspects pointed out in the site visit, such
as green areas among the blocks, small dimension of blocks, area of public gathering and entertainment with nursery, hospital, elementary school and public greening space. Regarding the
mobility system, they proposed different modalities considering low-income people, as priority
to pedestrians and bicycles rather than to public transportation and automobiles. Another suggestion was a green common area among lots destined to food production without pesticides
(fruits and vegetables). This idea would provide healthy food and may also be a commercial activity for families. All projects considered some lots for mixed functions (living and commercial)
and the housing unit was proposed to be flexible with enough space for working and commercial
activities. As an example, the mass plan of Group A is shown in Figure 9.

Figure 9 - Mass plan of Group A.


Four different constructive systems were proposed for the workshop activities: Wood-Light-Frame
(group A), Structural Masonry (B), Cast-in-place Concrete Walls (C) and CLT - Cross Laminated Timber (D). Such systems were adopted for comparison of costs involved, CO2 emission impacts and
energy levels incorporated in each material, as well as possibilities of constructive solutions. Indeed, a five-day-workshop is a very short time for the design of affordable social housing with the
ZEMCH concept and technical specifications of each system in the Brazilian context. The result
of 4 projects did not highlight the technical aspects involved in the production chain of each
system. Likewise, environmental impact indicators associated with construction materials and
systems may not be considered.

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Group A, formed by Brazilian students who had already worked with constructive systems in their
Master or PhD research, brought a better solution to the definition of the constructive system
they worked with (Fig. 10).

Figure 10 - Group A - prefabricated system components.


Function analysis
The time devoted to the function analysis was enough for each group to brainstorm their ideas,
structure the diagram, construct the evaluation criteria scoring matrix and present the results.
During the brainstorming process, the tutors and assistants visited each group to encourage them
and clarify doubts. The function analysis guided the students during the design stage and helped
them to be more efficient during this process. The priorities established were clearly reflected in
their final design (an example is shown in Fig. 11). As one of the priorities was reductions in the
house purchase costs, they performed a cost analysis of roof solutions that led to the cheapest
solution without compromising energy efficiency.

Figure 11 - Analysis of the cost of different roof solutions (group B).

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Energy analysis
Energy analysis programs Ecotect, Hot2000 and RetScreen were used by the students for the calculation of the indicators mentioned in the Methods. Due to the short period for their learning
and complexity of input data (even in simpler programs, like those), some problems were raised.
The calculation of building energy consumption and its systems is not an easy task (the achievement of zero or net zero energy buildings is even more challenging). The students faced difficulties and did not understand the connection between them in the design process completely.
They could not compare distinct design alternatives. The main energy program (HOT 2000) was
developed for Canada, where energy demands and design strategies for zero energy buildings
are completely different from those in Brazil. In Brazilian climates, the main issue is the avoidance
of heat loss during winter through the use of a highly insulated and air tightened envelope. In
So Carlos, (and most Brazilian cities), operable windows and natural ventilation, at least during
summer, are important strategies for the achievement of thermal comfort. Most houses (social
housing or not) do not use air conditioning and the electric shower is the main contributor to
the energy consumption. Chvatal; Corvacho, 2009; and Chvatal, 2014 discussed whether a highly
insulated envelope would impact on the thermal performance in less cold climates, with warm
summers. Moreover, evaluating the impact of natural ventilation on the building thermal consumption is much more complex than using the steady-state programs mentioned and unviable
during a workshop. Figure 12 shows the thermal comfort analysis of Group C. This group included
students that addressed building energy efficiency as their research topic, therefore, their thermal comfort analysis was conducted in a more detailed way.

Figure 12 Group C - thermal comfort analysis

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Mass Customisation
Based on the concept of flexibility, all groups proposed housing units that would attend a diversity of family compositions and their life dynamics. The project solutions included renovation, extra
bedrooms or commercial space and options of facade with different colors, materials and design. Despite the limited scale and time, some groups considered the concept and provided mass
custom design options to accommodate the social demographical challenges of social housing
developments (Figure 13).

Figure 13 - Mass customization options presented by Group D

5 Conclusions
The experience of ZEMCH workshop USP held in So Carlos was successful and contributed to the
introduction of the ZEMCH concept to the social housing Brazilian context, according to climate
conditions of the city. The 5-day workshop program was also very productive.
The first step of the workshop, which consisted in the presentation of theoretical data and software training, was well conducted. However, it would have been better if pre-workshop activities
focused on ZEMCH concept for social housing in the Brazilian context had been included. Another suggestion for future workshops is the introduction of Brazilian Thermal and Energy Efficiency
codes for helping the students to find more appropriate design solutions to the local climate.
The number of constructive systems to be considered in the house design could have been reduced, for a better preparation of in-depth preparatory classes on the constructive systems chosen and more detailed specifications.
The site could have been visited at the end of the first day and some extra time devoted to discussions on the students impressions. Regarding group formation, students with the same supervisor/research subject should not be placed in the same group.
The Function analysis proved important to help and guide the participants to develop the designs in such a short period of time. More time should be reserved for the design development (at
least three entire days) for the obtaining of better solutions to the project and more possibilities
for mass customization.

Acknowledgements
The authors acknowledge the universities involved in the organization of ZEMCH Workshop USP
2015 for their financial and facility support, as well as their encouragement of students in this new
ZEMCH design education initiative carried out at global levels.

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References
BRE GLOBAL, 2010, Code for Sustainable Homes: Technical Guide. http://www.planningportal.gov.uk/uploads/code_
for_sustainable_homes_techguide.pdf
CARDOSO, A. L., 2013, O Programa Minha Casa, Minha Vida e seus efeitos territoriais. Rio de Janeiro: Letra Capital (in
Portuguese).
CHVATAL, K. M. S., CORVACHO, M. H. P., 2009, The impact of increasing the building envelope insulation upon the risk
of overheating in summer and an increased energy consumption. Journal of Building Performance Simulation, v.
2, p. 267-282.
CHVATAL, K. M. S., 2014, Avaliao do procedimento simplificado da NBR 15575 para determinao do nvel de desempenho trmico de habitaes. Ambiente Construdo (Online), v. 14, p. 119-134 (in Portuguese).
DAVIS, M. S., 1987, Future Perfect, New York: Addison-Wesley.
FERREIRA, J. S. W. (coord.), 2012, Produzir casas ou construir cidades? Desafios para um novo Brasil urbano. Parmetros
de qualidade para a implementao de projetos habitacionais e urbanos. So Paulo: LABHAB ; FUPAM (in Portuguese).
GROUPIUS, W., 1956, Scope of Total Architecture, London: George Allen & Unwin.
LOPES, J. M. A., SHIMBO, L. Z., 2015, Projeto e produo da habitao na regio central do estado de So Paulo: condies e contradies do PMCMV. In: Caio Santo Amores; Lucia Zanin Shimbo; Maria Beatriz Cruz Rufino. (Org.).
Minha casa... e a cidade? Avaliao do programa minha casa minha vida em seis estados brasileiros. 1ed.Rio de
Janeiro: Letra Capital, v. 1, p. 229-254 (in Portuguese).
NOGUCHI, M., 2003, The Effect of the Quality-Oriented Production Approach for the Delivery of Prefabricated Housing
in Japan, Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, Vol. 18, No. 4: pp. 353-364.
NOGUCHI, M., 2013, Editorial, Open House International, Vol. 38, No. 3: pp. 5-6.
NOGUCHI, M., FRIEDMAN, A., 2002, Mass Custom Design System Model for the Delivery of Quality Homes-Learning
from Japans Prefabricated Housing Industry, Proceedings of the International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction W060-096 Syllabus Joint Conference: Measurement and Management of
Architectural Value in Performance-Based Building. Hong Kong, pp. 229-243.
NOGUCHI, M., HADJRI, K, 2009, Mass Custom Design for Sustainable Housing Development, In: Piller, F. T. and Tseng,
M. M., Research Handbook in Mass Customization and Personalization, Hackensack: World Scientific Publishing,
pp. 892 - 910.
PILLER, F. T., TSENG, M. M., 2009, Handbook of research in Mass Customization and Personalization, New Jersey: World
Scientific Publishing.
PINE II, B. J., 1993, Mass Customization: the New Frontier in Business Competition. Massachusetts: Harvard Business
School.
SHIMBO, L. Z., 2012, Habitao social de mercado: a confluncia entre Estado, empresas construtoras e capital financeiro. 1. ed. Belo Horizonte: C/Arte, 224p (in Portuguese).
TOFFLER, A., 1970, Future Shock. New York: Random House.

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Session IV

THE GREEN SPACE EXPLORED IN DIFFERENT


INDIVIDUAL HOUSING TYPOLOGY, ALGERIA
Kheira A. Tabet Aoul1, Wessal Keddah2
1 Architectural Engineering Department, United Arab Emirates University, UAE, kheira.anissa@uaeu.ac.ae
2 Universit des Sciences et de la Technologie dOran, Dpartement dArchitecture, Oran, Algeria

Abstract
It is widely recognized that vegetation carries many benefits with environmental and aesthetic contributions to the built environment as well as to peoples comfort and well-being.
However, the contemporary built environment of many Algerian cities, in both city center and
suburban housing developments in particular, is characterized by a shyly represented if not
totally absent vegetation, creating barren urban landscapes. The scarce vegetation, particularly in individual homes, leads to a number of interrogations, including the impact of houses plot size, typology and occupants attitudes and practices towards greenery in the open
space of the house and its perceived role and value in everyday environment. This paper presents parts of a broader investigation that explores the spatial configuration and vegetation
content within the open space of residential dwellings of different typologies, namely the
detached, semi-detached and attached house in a representative neighborhood in the city
of Oran, Algeria. A qualitative exploratory approach using site observations, architectural surveys, photographic repertory and semi-structured interviews with occupants were the basis
of the research methodology. The results revealed that the spatial configuration of the green
space is presented in a stereotypical model, in a rectilinear form along the property walls,
independently of the housing typology considered. Furthermore, the size of the plot in the
range considered was also found to yield no impact on the degree of presence of vegetation
in the open space.

Keywords
Green space, Individual housing, Housing typology, Vegetation, Spatial configuration,
Algeria

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Introduction
A large body of literature corroborates the multidimensional contribution of vegetation, in its
various scales, to the environment, human health and well-being. The environmental and ecological benefits of vegetation in urban settings include urban heat island and soil erosion mitigation as well as air and water purification (US EPA 2013; Hudson 2000; Nuruzzaman 2015), and
a recognised contribution of private gardens to the urban biodiversity (Rudd 2002; Gaston et al.
2007; Riboulot-Chetrit 2015). In a rapidly urbanising world, opportunities for interaction with nature may be limited despite the credible evidences demonstrating human health and well-being
promoting qualities of natural environments rich in vegetation content (Berman et al. 2008; De
Vries et al. 2003; Van den Berg et al. 2010, Bowler et al. 2010; Irvine & Warber 2013; Pretty 2004).
Increasing empirical indications assert that interaction with nature contributes to human quality
of life (Fuller & Irvine 2010; Irvine et al. 2010), including positive effects on physical health (Ulrich,
1984; Maas et al, 2006), psychological well-being (Kaplan 2001; Fuller et al. 2007; Shin et al. 2010),
cognitive ability (Han 2009) and societal benefits such as social cohesion and interaction (Shinew
et al. 2004; Mitchell & Popham 2008; Sullivan et al. 2004), reductions in health spending (Hansem
et al. 2009) or crime rates (Kuo & Sullivan 2001).
Despite the well-recognized benefits of vegetation in urban settings, the contemporary built environment in Algerian towns in general, and in suburban housing developments in particular, is
characterized by a shyly represented or almost totally absent greenery, thus contributing to the
creation of a barren and hostile urban landscape. Although required by regulation, the public
green space (squares, plazas, planted streets, parks, etc.) hardly materializes, and remains often
limited to simple design projections on paper. In the last four decades, Algeria has witnessed
a proliferation of residential developments that lacked public spaces. Areas allocated to green
space in particular, have often been diverted to respond to an ever-increasing demand in residential programs, unchallenged by inadequate central government policies. These urban forms
are the most widespread in the composite landscape of current Algerian cities and occupy large
tracks of urban land, a large share of which is taken by individual housing developments with
varying plot sizes. Although residential developments are controlled by strict building codes and
regulations, in setting the building layout, footprint and height to maintain a harmonious urban
setting, there are no specific provisions for the green space within individual plots (ONCTC 2013).
In theory, everything suggests that private properties and individual homes design in particular,
should be more receptive to vegetation than the public spaces. The inhospitality of the residential
neighborhoods suggests the occupants withdrawal to the interior of their homes to compensate
and recreate the comfort and pleasure naturally derived from vegetation. An individual house
with a garden is often preferred to the apartment as it allows both the outdoor extension of the
domestic space and the much sought intimate contact with nature through the private garden
(Dubost 1997; Frileux 2013). However, a visit to most residential areas in Oran, the second largest
city in Algeria, quickly reveals their poverty in vegetation, engendering a cause to effect interrogations on the impact of houses plot size, typology and occupants attitudes and practices towards
vegetation and its perceived role and value in everyday environment. In this regard, a broad investigation was initiated to explore the situation and relied on two complementary objectives.
On the one hand, it aimed to document the physical and spatial materialization of vegetation in
individual housing, assessing the impact of plot size, housing typology and building extension
on the green space. On the other hand, it explored the occupants attitude and behavior towards
greenery through their practical and symbolic representations of vegetation in their own house

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and their usage of the outdoor space.


This paper presents the first part of the field investigation, namely the materialization of greenery
within the open space of three different individual housing typologies; detached, semi-attached
and attached, detailing its spatial configurations (size, layout, proportion to the mineral space
and location within the plot) and content (vegetation types and location) as well as assessed the
impact on greenery of various plot sizes and building extension over time.

Objectives, Methodology and Context of Study


The detailed objectives addressed in this paper aim to:
document and compare the size, proportion, form, location and the treatment of the vegetation within the open space of the house in the three common housing typologies i.e. detached, semi-detached and attached,
record the type of plants, location and density of the existing vegetation,
evaluate the impact over time of the built areas alterations (extension, addition, modification)
on the original green spaces; and
examine the impact of the plot size on the size of greenery.
A qualitative exploratory approach was used to investigate the stated objectives through field
observations in the form of architectural surveys of the current building footprint and greenery
layout, while photographic surveys documented the type of vegetation and treatment of the
open space. Prior to the field work, the original plans of the considered homes were retrieved
from the archives of the municipal town planning department. These plans served to compare
the current building with its original layout and evaluate the extent of alterations, if any, and their
potential impact on green spaces.
The Es-Senia municipality was chosen as the study context for two reasons; first, because of the
various typologies of individual dwellings it contains, second, it is the residence of one of the
authors, which facilitated interactions with householders. Located at the southern outskirts of
the main western city of Algeria, Oran, Es-Senia is particularly vital in urban research as it was
among its first municipalities to experience the building of large individual residential areas since
the French occupation (1830-1962), a residential growth tendency maintained after the 1962 independence. The current study covered three housing developments built in the 80s and 90s. This
period is considered sufficiently old enough to allow mature vegetation growth and building
transformations to take place and subsequently allowing a good analysis of their impact on the
green space over time.
Three main models of implementation on the plot based on existing urban housing typology,
namely the detached, semi-attached and attached house, were considered. Each type generates
a different open space configuration which in turn may affect the areas allocated to green spaces.
The detached house sitting away from the plots limits creates a square or rectangular open space
ring around the house. The semi-attached unit, with one side attached to the adjacent unit presents a U-shaped open space, while the attached house adjoined on lateral sides allows two but
separate open space areas (Fig. 1). The three developments considered in this study, consisted of
the Marhaba Cooperative, with detached houses on a typical 400m2 plot sizes. The second, named
CNEP Cooperative, has plots of 300m2 and contains semi-detached houses, while the third, located
further to the east, named Amar-Bahi includes attached houses with plot sizes varying between
240 and 250m2. Each development consisted of the same respective plot sizes. These ranges of
plot sizes are representative of most housing developments in the city of Oran as well as other Al-

The green space explored in different individual housing typology, Algeria

309

gerian cities. It is important to indicate that all of the three developments are originally designed
using a standard unit type.

Figure 1: Housing typology: detached, semi-attached and attached units and their resulting open
space (relative scale).

Study Procedure
A pilot study was first carried out within six houses in order to test the adequacy and pertinence
of the research tools and highlighted a number of non-exploitable parameters. First, non-owners occupants were excluded as their interaction with the open space and vegetation is often
limited to basic maintenance. Second, houses undergoing any form of construction (completion
or extension), where the open space is often used as construction materials storage, were also
omitted from the study. Finally, optimum visit and interview time was found to be between 4:00
and 5:00pm on weekdays, when occupants are home and willing to participate. The latter limited
the field investigation to one unit per day.
The main study was conducted from April to June, corresponding to the spring season where
vegetation density and quality may be assessed at its optimal bloom condition. Thirty five homes
out of the fifty targeted were accessible, but only thirty units had a complete evaluation including
architectural surveys, pictures taken and interviews with the owners. The final corpus consisted
of ten houses for each spatial layout typology. The house footprint, the open space and the green
space were accurately measured, pictures of the green spaces and the open space were taken
and annotated on the original site layout. Each surveyed unit was fully documented on a pre-prepared form that included the original house layout as retrieved from the municipal archives, the
surveyed house footprint, thus highlighting any building addition as well as the green space and
its vegetation content. Figure 2 illustrates the documented format of each surveyed unit.

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Figure 2: Detailed sample survey of a detached house (D2) with the initial house layout and the current status of the building and greenery

Results and Discussion


The greenery within the open space of the house was investigated in terms of its physical and
spatial characteristics. The spatial distribution of the green space in relation to the paved or mineral space and to the building footprint was checked, alongside the intrinsic quality of the forms,
content and treatment of the green and mineral spaces. The analysis of the results was threefold;
first the green and open space is assessed and compared between the three different typologies
in terms of its spatial and physical characteristics. Second, the impact of any building extension
on the green space is evaluated and finally, the impact of the plot size on the amount of greenery
is checked.

Green space design in the different typologies


The first general observation relative to the spatial organization of greenery is that the green
spaces form and location present striking similarities in all three housing typologies. However, the
dimensions and the type of plants differ from one unit to another. The green space is exclusively
rectilinear, located along the property walls and is sometimes punctuated by trees as illustrated
in Table 1, presenting a sample of five units per typology. The setback width does not appear to
impact the green space design. It should be noted that all units have at least a 1.5 meter-high
perimeter wall regardless of the building layout, and may ultimately have influenced the linearity
of the green spaces.

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Table1: Form, location and size of green areas in the different houses typology

Green space is most of the time designed by the occupants. However, even when specialists intervened to design the open areas (Units S3 and S5), the result was not different than the rest in
terms of forms, location, design and finishing materials. Probably facing the same issue of limited
space to work with, the specialists also reverted to rectilinear forms in their design.

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Figure 3: Similar green spaces form and location across the three typologies; rectilinear, following the
property walls and predominance of a mineral outdoor space over greenery
In terms of dimensions and proportion of dedicated green space in relation to the total outdoor
space, in each of the three house typologies, the surveyed green spaces vary depending on the
unit, but remain modest by comparison to the paved areas (Tab. 2 & Fig. 3), indicating a dominant
residents preference for a mineral outdoor space.
Table 2: Area and ratios of greenery in the three housing typology
Plot Size

Detached

Semi-attached

Attached

400m2

300m2

240m2

Built
Regulatory areas 120m2

Initial areas

Outdoor

Built

Outdoor

Built

Outdoor

280m2

150m2

150m2

144 m2

96 m2

30%

70%

50%

50%

60%

40%

Built

Outdoor

Built

Outdoor

Built

Outdoor

174m2

Paved

Green

150m2

Paved

Green

155m2

Paved

Green

153m2

73m2

96m2

52m2

57m2

28m2

42%

38%

18%

50%

32%

18%

64%

24%

12%

Built

Outdoor

Built

Outdoor

Built

Outdoor

176m2

Paved

Green

161m2

Paved

Green

85m2

39m2

55m2

24m2

28%

13%

23%

10%

Current areas

Paved

Green

210m2

130 m2

60 m2

53%

32%

15%

59%

67%

The content and composition of the green spaces were evaluated in spring (April to June), a favourable season to witness the existing vegetation in full bloom. Characteristically, fruit trees
and vines like plants emerge as dominant types of plant materials, followed by decorative plants.
Without exception, all residents planted one or more fruit trees, the most common being lemon,
then orange, apricot, pomegranate and fig tree. The trees are usually planted in large numbers at
the back and side of the house for detached and semi-attached units, but few can be found at the
front of the unit, with a depth of up to two trees depending on the unit front setback. The vegetable garden on the other hand is almost virtually absent, encountered in only one house out
of the thirty units surveyed, and was only maintained during the fasting month of Ramadan, to
provide fresh herbs. The survey showed that almost 90% of residents prefer scattered plants to a
vegetable garden regardless of their social origin as best expressed by one resident (Unit D3) My
wife loves flowers, when we moved in this house, she insisted on having the garden filled with
flowers and not vegetables. It is a little rural (Fig. 4). This attitude is probably related to peoples
perception in the assumed dichotomy between rural and urban realms.

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Figure 4: Flowers and ornamental plants are typically at the front of the house
Another general observation found in all units, is that the green areas are delineated around the
paved areas. The scattered vegetation leaves a large area of uncovered ground, which was systematically demarcated from the clean and well maintained paved area. The treatment of the
green space physical delineation is strongly connected to the personal aesthetic appreciation of
the residents. Some use wrought iron or erected low decorated walls, but the majority installed
either a brick border or more commonly a low concrete curb (Fig. 5).

Maison type isol MI6

Figure 5: Delimitation of the green and paved spaces with decorative elements
This aesthetic interest was not limited to the green spaces border and did extend to the open
space, including addition of attractive elements such as fountains, pergolas for shade and privacy, and more commonly decorative treatment of the floor and walls. The floors are covered with
terrazzo or with the more expensive ceramic slab tiles. The walls, meanwhile, are covered in some
cases with colorful mosaics faience, a distinct sign of financial affluence. These elements are most
likely reminiscent of the traditional houses in North Africa where most of the residents grew up. A
female resident (Unit D8) resumes the general sentiment I think that every Muslim needs a courtyard in his home. We do use a lot of water in our daily life and rituals and the courtyard is well indicated
for these functions. If we would like a bit of visual and emotional pleasure, we just have to remember
our traditional homes, where the courtyard was beautifully covered with ceramics and ornamented
with a fountain in the center. I think it was a pleasant space to live in.

Figure 6: Treatment of the open space with an added fountain, tiles or a pergola

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Historical Evolution of the house and impact on greenery


A detailed examination of the current units footprint compared to the specified building area
to plot area ratios reveals non-conformity, indicating substantial modifications and violation of
standards. The research exposed that the ring open space originally intended for the detached
and U-shaped open space envisioned for the semi-attached units in particular, have been severely transformed. For instance, in the case of the Marhaba Cooperative, the detached units indicate
an average of 43% with a range of 35 to 52% lot coverage ratio, whereas the standards set it at
30% (Table 2). This was done in spite of an existing standard plan prepared by an architectural
firm using the prescribed standards. This phenomenon is most likely due to the dissolution of the
cooperative housing association, leaving each owner in charge of the construction of his house
and and the total absence of control by governing regulatory agencies. Comparatively, in the
semi-attached typology, the 50% building footprint standard was largely respected at construction because this development was owned by a government entity, thus explaining the initial full
respect of the building norms. The conformity however was not sustained over time as it reached
an average of building to lot ratio of 59%. A similar tendency was found in the attached units in
Bahi-Amar Cooperative with an average range of 67% (vary