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PIR Sensor based Security Alarm System

Generally, in security systems, infrared or laser transmitters and receivers are

used. But these methods are cost effective. This article explains about PIR based
security system in which PIR sensor is used instead of transmitter or receiver. This
saves the power consumption and is low cost. PIR sensor is the short form of Passive
Infrared Sensor.
PIR Sensor based Security Alarm Circuit Principle:
The main principle of the circuit is to provide security. This is based on PIR
sensor with an IC that produces siren. The PIR sensor detects the IR radiations emitted
from the humans and it produces a digital output. This digital output is applied to the UM
3561 siren IC. Thus it produces the sound when any human is detected.
The UM3561 is a ROM IC. It generates multi siren tones like ambulance siren,
fire engine siren, police siren, machine gun sound.
PIR Sensor based Security Alarm Circuit Diagram:

PIR Sensor based Security Alarm Circuit Diagram

Circuit Components:

PIR sensor

UM3561 siren IC

Transistor (NPN)

Resistors R1, R2, R3, R4.

Speaker 8 Ohms


PIR Sensor based Security Alarm Circuit Design:

The proposed system mainly consists of PIR sensor, UM3561 IC, Speaker,
transistors. The UM3516 IC is a Siren generator IC. It has 8 pins. Fifth and sixth pins
are shorted and are connected to the PIR sensor output through a resistor. One end of
the 220K resistor is connected to the seventh pin of the IC and the other end is
connected to the eighth pin of the IC. The first pin and the sixth pin are tone selection
pins and these pins decide the tone to be produced. Output is taken from the third pin of
the IC. It is connected to a speaker through a resistor and transistor. The base of the
transistor is connected to the output of the IC through a resistor of 470 ohms. Emitter
pin is connected to the ground while transistor is connected to the collector. A battery is
connected to the speaker and 470 ohm resistor.
Working of PIR Sensor based Security Alarm System:

Switch on the circuit initially.


The PIR sensor is powered and it detects the IR rays emitted from any human.


This PIR sensor has a range of 5meters. One can adjust the pot provided for the
sensor to vary this distance.


When any human is detected, this PIR sensor outputs a logic high value i.e.
voltage of 3.5v to 5v.


This voltage is applied as input to the siren generator IC.


The siren generator has an oscillator internally, to produce the sound.


The oscillator circuit is tuned to a certain frequency and using a 220K resistor


Then it is passed to the control circuit, which depends on tone selection pins.


These tone selection pins decide one tone from different tones produced by the

10. Thus oscillations along with selected tone are sent to the address counter. The
address counter then sends the data to the ROM.
11. ROM then sends the tone on the output pin 3.
12. The output is given to the NPN transistor to amplify the siren.
13. The base of the transistor gets voltage from output pin of the siren generator.
14. Transistor starts conducting when it gets the cutoff voltage at the base and the
speaker is negative pin and is connected to the ground.
15. Thus sound produced can be heard from the speaker when human is detected.
16. In the present circuit, it produces fire engine sound.
PIR Sensor Based Security Alarm System Applications:

This can be used in the museums to protect the valuable things.

This can also be used as an automatic door bell circuit that rings the bell
when human is detected.

This can be used in defense applications to detect the humans in war field.

This can be used in toy applications that produce sound.

Limitations of this Circuit:

PIR sensor pot should be adjusted in such a way to detect the humans only.

This can detect the human only within its range of 5 meters.


Super Sensitive Intruder Alarm

This circuit is designed to alert the user when an intruder enters into the home. If
there is any obstacle in front of IR sensor, it generates an interrupt signal. This interrupt
signal is given to the speaker to alert the user.
Super Sensitive Intruder Alarm Circuit Principle:
IR transmitter always emits the IR (Infrared) rays which have to be received by IR
receiver. When there is an obstacle in front of IR sensor, the transmitted IR rays are
reflected back to the IR receiver. The output of Op-Amp is high when IR receiver
receives the reflected IR rays. This output of operational amplifier is connected to the
RESET pin of 555 timer.
Related Post: Security Alarm Circuit without using 555 Timer IC
The output of 555 timer is low when input voltage applied at pin 4 of 555 timer is low.
When input voltage at pin 4 is high, then 555 timer produces the frequency which can
be adjusted by the different value combinations of resistors R1, R2 and capacitor C3.

Obstacle Present IR Receiver Receives IR Rays Op-amp Output High

555 RST Pin High Speaker Produces the Sound.

No Obstacle IR Receiver does not Receive the Rays Op-amp Output Low
RST Pin Low No Sound

The output of NE555 is filtered by the 1uF capacitor and fed to the speaker.
Many IR sensors are arranged in house at different locations. The outputs of all these
sensors are given to RESET pin of common 555 timer. When any sensor detects the
intruder, the reset pin of 555 timer becomes high and speaker will produce the sound.
Super Sensitive Intruder Alarm Circuit Diagram:

Super Sensitive Intruder Alarm Circuit Diagram

Circuit Components:

NE555 timer

LM358 op-amp

Pot 10k, 4.7k

IR transmitter

IR receiver

Red led

Ceramic capacitors 0.1uF, 0.01uF

Electrolytic capacitor 1uF, 16v

Resistors 10k, 100, R4,R5

2 resistors 330 ohm



Super Sensitive Intruder Alarm Circuit Design:

555 Timer: Here 555 timer acts as a free running oscillator. It will generate the
frequency when high pulse is applied at RESET pin. The generated frequency of 555
timer varied by varying resistor values R4, R5 or by varying the capacitor value C3.
Here Pin 2 and pin 6 of 555 timer are shorted to allow the triggering after every
timing cycle. In this circuit, capacitor C3 charges through the resistors R4, R5 and
discharges through the resistor R5.
LM358 Op-Amp:

LM358 Op-Amp

IF V1>V2 then OP = HIGH

IF V2>V1 then OP = LOW
LM358 IC consists of two operational amplifiers. Each Op- amp has two inputs
(inverting and non inverting) and one output. The op amp output is high when noninverting voltage is greater than the inverting voltage and it is low when inverting voltage
is greater than non inverting voltage.
IR Transmitter: The operating voltage of transmitter is around 2 to 3V, to drop the
remaining voltage we connect a resistor in series with IR led.
IR Receiver: It is always used in reverse bias. It almost acts as a closed circuit when it
receives IR rays and it has high resistance when it does not receive any IR rays.
How to Operate Super Sensitive Intruder Alarm Circuit?

Give the connections according to the circuit diagram.

Connect 5V supply to the circuit.

Now place the obstacle in front of IR sensor then speaker produces the sound.

Remove the obstacle now you will not get any sound.

Disconnect the battery from the circuit.

Super Sensitive Intruder Alarm Circuit Applications:

This circuit is used in homes and offices for security purpose.

Circuit Limitations:

This circuit produces the sound even if there is any non-living thing in front of IR


Abstract Category: Engineering

Course / Degree: BSc Electronic Engineering
Institution / University: N-W.F.P UET Peshawar Abbotabad Campus, Pakistan
Published in: 2010

Report Abstract / Summary:

With the immense increase in crime rate throughout the world, there is an
intensive need of security. Every individual feels insecure & wants his personal as well
as his surrounding life to be peaceful and secured. A lot of work has been done in this
regard. Very efficient security systems have been designed but peace and security is
still a question that needs to be answered.
Our aim of project is to design a security & surveillance system with maximum
efficiency. Our prototype performs two main tasks; first one is the Surveillance of the
surrounding & second task is to take Security measures in case of any intrusion. There
are also two modes of operation of our system. Day mode in day time while night mode
in the absence of security administrator. The surveillance system operates only in day
mode in which the Security administrator will monitor and control all the system, while
the security portion is enabled to operate both in day mode and night mode.
We implemented the surveillance portion using a web cam instead of high cost
surveillance camera. The camera has the ability to move 1800 and it is monitored by
security administrator at day time through an application developed in Visual Basic.Net.
The security measure system includes Movement sensors, Basic electronics and
microcontroller. The movement sensors implemented on LDRs have the ability to avoid
intrusion. This system alerts the administrator using GSM technology if the administrator
cannot monitor the system 24/7 from the control room.
Our next goal will be to introduce RFIDs in our surveillance system. Using RFID
we will be able to acquire data, process and store all the data regarding every
individual, vehicle and other costly equipments (like in labs and library). As RFID takes
the data of entrance and exit time of every individual, we can also have a record of
attendance and working hours of every student and staff member. We will program a
complete database for all the information regarding registered users, visitors and any

Intrusion Alarm System made by Integraded Security and Automation ,Inc.

Intrusion Alarm System is a system that detects and/or prevent break-in attempts
to any property. Includes sensing devices, which can be located inside and outside the
property premises that sends a signal to a control panel whenever it activates. This can
be integrated with other systems such as Fire Detection, Access Control and CCTV.
This security system has 3 modes namely Home Mode, Sleep Mode and away

Home Mode
Move freely inside your home, knowing protected perimeter doors and windows will
signal an alarm if an intruder opens them.
Sleep Mode
In addition to the protection provided by the home mode, Sleep activates protection
areas inside your home that remain unoccupied throughout the night.
Away Mode
When everyone leaves the home, the away mode fully activates your security system
for complete protection, inside and out!