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# Lesson 8 Deformation of Solids

## 8.1 Stress and Strain

At the end of the lesson, students should be able to
Define stress and strain for a stretched wire or elastic string.
A wire of natural length, l fixed at one end and stretched by a longitudinal force, F. The
extension produced is e and A is the cross-sectional area of the wire.

Stress

Longitudinal force, F
Cross sectional area, A

Strain

Extension, e
Original length, l

1. A vertical copper wire of length 2.00 m and cross sectional area 1.5 mm2 supports a load
of 2.5 kg at its lower end. The extension of the wire is 2.48 mm. Calculate
a) the stress
b) the strain

2. A load hangs from a vertical steel wire with diameter d. The stress produced is
5.0 106 N m 2
. The same load hangs from another steel wire of the same length but of
diameter 2d. What is the strain in this wire?

## 8.2 Force-extension Graph and Stress-strain Graph

At the end of the lesson, students should be able to
Sketch force-extension graph and stress-strain for a ductile material.
Identify and explain proportional limit, elastic limit, yield point and tensile strength
Define the Youngs modulus
Solve problems involving Youngs modulus
Distinguish between elastic deformation and plastic deformation
Distinguish the shapes of force-extension graphs for ductile, brittle and polymeric
materials.

Proportional limit
-

## Below point A (proportional limit),

extension force

and

stress strain

Elastic limit
- Below elastic limit, the wire experiences elastic deformation.
- Returns to original length with the removal of the force, along path LAO.
Yield point
- At yield point, plastic deformation starts.
- The wire thin uniformly.
Tensile strength
- Maximum stress that the wire can withstand before breaking.
maximum force
tensile strength
cross-sectional area
Elastic deformation
- Objects returns completely to its original dimensions when the force is removed.
Plastic deformation

Object does not return completely to its original dimensions when the force is
removed. Permanent deformation is produced.

Ductile
- Example: Copper, steel
- Materials which undergo plastic deformation before breaking.
Brittle
- Example: Glass
- Materials which only undergo elastic deformation before breaking.
Polymeric materials
- Example: Rubber
- A small stress produces a large strain.
Youngs Modulus

Stress
Strain

Youngs modulus, E
F ke
Hookes law
where k is Hookes constant
F / A Fl

e/l
eA
Youngs modulus
E
AE

e
ke
l
F
AE
k
l

AE
k
l
Hookes constant of a wire,
which depends on
o E = Youngs modulus
o l = length of the wire
o A = cross sectional area of the wire

## 8.3 Strain energy

At the end of the lesson, students should be able to
Derive and use the formula for strain energy
Calculate strain energy from force-extension graphs or stress-strain graphs

Strain energy
- The energy stored in a stretched wire or spring
- Graph force-extension

0

## Area between the extension-force graph ad the extension axis

-

Graph stress-strain

1
(Stress Strain)
2

1 Fe
(
)
2 Al

1
Fe
2

Al

## 1. Three different wires X, Y and Z have the following properties:

Wire X: undergoes plastic deformation before breaking.
Wire Y: a large stress produces a small strain
Wire Z: breaks immediately after elastic limit
The material of which wire is ductile, rigid and brittle?
Ductile: ___
Rigid: ___
Brittle: ___
2. A rod of length 100.0 cm and negligible weight is suspended horizontally by two wire P
and Q of the same length attached at the ends. The cross-sectional area of wire P is twice
that of wire Q and ratio of the Youngs modulus of P to that of Q is 0.75.

At what distance x from wire P should a weight W be hung so that the rod remains
horizontal?
3.