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What is a Computer

Meeting-1
What is a Computer
The first use of the word "computer" was
recorded in 1613, referring to a person who
carried out calculations, or computations,
and the word continued with the same
meaning until the middle of the 20th
century.

What is the Computer

A computer is a general purpose


device that can be programmed to
carry out a finite set of arithmetic or
logical operations. Since a sequence
of operations can be readily changed,
the computer can solve more than
one kind of problem.

What is the Computer

Also we can say ..


An electronic device that stores, retrieves, and
processes data, and can be programmed with
instructions. A computer is composed of
hardware and software, and can exist in a
variety of sizes and configurations.

Types of Computers
Mini and Mainframe Computers
Very powerful, used by large organisations
such an banks to control the entire business
operation. Very expensive!

Personal Computers
Cheap and easy to use. Often used as
stand-alone computers or in a network.
May be connected to large mainframe
computers within big companies.

Exercises Meeting-1
1. Do you know the origin of Computer and what it means?
a. An electronic device that stores, retrieves, and processes data, and can be
programmed with instructions.
b. Referring to a person who carried out calculations, or computations
c. General purpose device that can be programmed to carry out a finite set of
arithmetic or logical operations.
d. The answer A,B and C True
e. All answers are false
2. Mention it the type of computer as you know ?
a. Mini Cooper
d. PC-magazine
b. Mainframe
e. Server
c. Compuserve
3. The first use of the word "computer" was recorded in :
a. 1612
d. 1615
b. 1613
e. 1616
c. 1614

Exercises Meeting-1
4. Origin of word Computer is
a. To Compute
d. To Comput
b. To Comp
e. To Com
c. To Pute
5. They are examples of first-generation computing devices :
a. UNIVAC
d. UNIFORM
b. UNIFAC
e. UNION PC
c. UNITED

Exercises Meeting-1
1. What is the meaning Mini Computer ? Give
Example!
2. What is the meaning Mainframe Computer?
Give Example!
3. What is the meaning Personal Computer?

Inside a Computer

Meeting-2

A general purpose computer has four main


components: the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), the
Control Unit, the Memory, and the Input and Output
devices (collectively termed I/O). These parts are
interconnected by busses, often made of groups of
wires.

Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)


The ALU is capable of performing two classes of operations:
arithmetic and logic

Control unit
The control unit (often called a control system or
central controller) manages the computer's
various components; it reads and interprets
(decodes) the program instructions, transforming
them into a series of control signals which
activate other parts of the computer

Memory
A computer's memory can be viewed as a list of cells into which
numbers can be placed or read. Computer main memory comes
in two principal varieties: random-access memory or RAM and
read-only memory or ROM. RAM can be read and written to
anytime the CPU commands it, but ROM is pre-loaded with data
and software that never changes, therefore the CPU can only
read from it.

Input/Output (I/O)
I/O is the means by which a computer exchanges
information with the outside world. Devices that
provide input or output to the computer are called
peripherals. On a typical personal computer,
peripherals include input devices like the keyboard and
mouse, and output devices such as the display and
printer. Hard disk drives, floppy disk drives and optical
disc drives serve as both input and output devices.

Hardware Components
Input Devices
Input Device is any peripheral (piece of computer hardware
equipment) used to provide data and control signals to an
information processing system such as a computer or other
information appliance. Examples of input devices include
keyboards, mice, scanners, digital cameras and joysticks.

Output Devices
An output device is any piece of computer hardware
equipment used to communicate the results of data
processing carried out by an information processing system
(such as a computer) which converts the electronically
generated information into human-readable form.

Input Devices :
The Mouse
A mouse is a pointing device that functions by
detecting two-dimensional motion relative to its
supporting surface. Physically, a mouse consists of an
object held under one of the user's hands, with one
or more buttons.
The Keyboard
The keyboard is still the commonest way of entering
information into a computer
Tracker Balls
an alternative to the traditional mouse and often
used by graphic designers

Input Devices :

Scanners
A scanner allows you to scan printed material
and convert it into a file format that may be
used within the PC
Touch Pads
A device that lays on the desktop and responds to pressure
Light Pens
Used to allow users to point to areas on a screen
Joysticks
Many games require a joystick for playing of the game

Output Devices :
Monitor/LCD
The computer screen is used for outputting information in an
understandable format
Printers
There are many different types of printers. In large
organizations laser printers are most commonly used due to
the fact that they can print very fast and give a very high
quality output.

Output Devices
Plotters
A plotter is an output device similar to a printer, but
normally allows you to print larger images.
Speakers
Enhances the value of educational and presentation
products.
Speech synthesisers
Gives you the ability to not only to display text on a
monitor but also to read the text to you

Storage Device

Storage Devices -- "How it saves data and


programs
Hard disk drives are an internal, higher capacity drive
which also stores the operating system which runs
when you power on the computer.
Flash disk drives allow you to save work on small disks
and take the data with you.

Storage Device
Hard Disks
Speed:
Very fast!
The speed of a hard disk is often quoted as "average
access time" speed, measured in milliseconds. The
smaller this number the faster the disk.

Capacity:
Enormous! Often 1000/5000 Gigabytes. A Gigabyte is
equivalent to 1024 Megabytes.
Cost:
Hard disks costs are falling rapidly and normally represent
the cheapest way of storing data.

Main Parts of Computer


Memory -- "How the processor stores and uses
immediate data
RAM - Random Access Memory
The main 'working' memory used by the computer. When
the operating system loads from disk when you first
switch on the computer, it is copied into RAM.

As a rough rule, a Microsoft Windows based computer


will operate faster if you install more RAM. Data and
programs stored in RAM are volatile (i.e. the information
is lost when you switch off the computer).

How Computer Memory Is Measured

Bit
All computers work on a binary numbering system, i.e. they
process data in one's or zero's. This 1 or 0 level of storage is
called a bit.
Byte
A byte consists of eight bits.
Kilobyte
A kilobyte (KB) consists of 1024 bytes.
Megabyte
A megabyte (MB) consists of 1024 kilobytes.
Gigabyte
A gigabyte (GB) consists of 1024 megabytes.

How Computer Memory is Measured


Microprocessors -- "The brain of the computer
- PCs primarily use microprocessors (sometimes called the chip).
The older Intel versions include the 386, 486 and now the
Pentium line.
The CPU (Central Processing Unit) is normally an Intel
Pentium (or equivalent) and it is one of the most important
components within your computer.
It determines how fast your computer will run and is
measured by its MHz speed.
Thus a 3200 MHz Pentium is much faster than say a 4200
MHz Pentium CPU.
It is the CPU that performs all the calculations within the
computer.

Exercises Meeting-2
1. One of the most important components within your computer
a. CPU
d. RPU
b. ALU
e. TPU
c. RLU
2. There the component of inside a computer, except :
a. Harddisk
d. VGA Card
b. RAM
e. Processor
c. REM
3. The brain of the computer :
a. Microprocessors
d. Microdisk
b. Microchip
e. MicroSD
c. MicroRAM
4. Measurement capacity of hard drive :
a. KiloBytes
d. Gygabytes
b. KiloGrams
e. All Answers are True
c. MegaBytes
5. Examples input device :
a. Mouse and Hard Drive
d. Mouse and Printer
b. Keyboard and Memory
e. Printer and Keyboard
c. Scanner and Mouse

Exercises Meeting-2
1.
2.
3.
4.

What is the meaning of CPU ?


What are the component of inside a computer ?
What is the meaning of ALU ?
Can you exlplain about ROM, RAM ? With your own
words
5. What are some including the hardware computer ?
6. Mentioned examples of Input Device and Output
Device !
7. Mentioned examples of Storage Device !

Meeting-3

Software and Operating System


Software refers to parts of the computer which do not have
a material form, such as programs, data, protocols, etc.
When software is stored in hardware that cannot easily be
modified (such as BIOS ROM in an IBM PC compatible), it is
sometimes called "firmware" to indicate that it falls into an
uncertain area somewhere between hardware and software.

Operating Sytems Software


The operating system is a special type of program
that loads automatically when you start your
computer.
The operating system allows you to use the
advanced features of a modern computer without
having to learn all the details of how the hardware
works The link between the hardware and you, the
user Makes the computer easy to use without
having to understand bits and bytes!

Application software
An application program is the type of program that you
use once the operating system has been loaded.
Examples include word-processing programs,
spreadsheets and databases

Example Operating System :


Windows : Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT,
Windows 2000, Windows Me, Windows XP, Windows
Vista, Windows 7
Linux : Red Hat, Ubuntu, GNOME, KDE

Mac OS : Mac OS Classic, Mac OS X

Example Application

Microsoft Office
Payroll
Presentation tools
Microsoft PowerPoint
Desktop publishing
Adobe Photoshop
Multimedia applications
Microsoft's Encarta CD-ROM based
Encyclopaedias

Example Application
Information worker software
Enterprise resource planning
Accounting software
Data management
Contact management
Spreadsheet
Personal database
Documentation
Document automation/assembly
Word processing
Desktop publishing software

Banking software

Exercises Meeting-3
1. A special type of program that loads automatically when you start your computer
is
a. System
d. System Program
b. Software
e. Application
c. Operating System
2. There are examples of Operating System as you know, except :
a. Windows XP
d. UBUNTU
b. Windows 7
e. Genome
c. Windows Tec
3. There are Open Source Operating System :
a. UBUNTU
d. A and B True
b. RED HAT
e. A and C True
c. Windows NT
4. The type of program that you use once the operating system has been loaded :
a. Operating System
d. Enterprise System
b. System Memory
e. Application Software
c. Word Pad
5. There is the application software for editing image :
a. Power Point
d. Adobe Premier
b. Photoshop
e. Microsoft Excel
c. Acrobat Reader

Exercises Meeting-3
1. The Software is
2. Give 5 examples of Operating System as you
know ..
3. What is the meaning Open Source Operating
System and give examples ..
4. What is Application Software .
5. Give 5 examples of Application Software .

Software, Programming Language, Networking


A programming language is an artificial language designed to
communicate instructions to a machine, particularly a computer.
Programming languages can be used to create programs that
control the behavior of a machine and/or to express algorithms
precisely.
We can find to many programming language :

Pascal
C++
Visual Basic
Visual Foxpro
JAVA

Information Network
LAN
A LAN (Local Area Network) is a system whereby
individual PCs are connected together within a
company or organization
WAN
A WAN (Wide Area Network) as the name implies
allows you to connect to other computers over a
wider area (i.e. the whole world).

Use network
If ten people are working together within an office it
makes sense for them all to be connected.
In this way the office can have a single printer and all
ten people can print to it.
In a similar way other devices such as modems or
scanners can be shared.
Even more useful is the ability to share information
when connected to a network.

Computers in Daily Life

Accounts
Games
Educational
On-line banking
Smart ID cards
Supermarkets
Working from home (Tele-working)
Internet

Computer Virus
Viruses are small programs that hide themselves on your
disks (both flashdisk and your hard disk).
Unless you use virus
detection software the first
time that you know that you
have a virus is when it activates.
Different viruses are
activated in different ways.

How do viruses infect PCs?


Viruses hide on a disk and when you access the
disk (either a diskette or another hard disk over
a network) the virus program will start and
infect your computer.
The worst thing about a computer virus is that
they can spread from one computer to another,
either via use of infected flashdisk, or over a
computer network, including the Internet.

Software Copyright

Be aware on software copyright issues


Freeware
Shareware
What about software that you find on the
Internet?
Software site licenses

Software Copyright
If your computer system holds
information about individuals then you
have a moral and legal duty to treat
that information with respect.
In a free society you have a right to
ensure that information held about
you is not abused.
In many countries this right is
enshrined under data protection laws

Exercises Meeting-4
1. An artificial language designed to communicate instructions to a machine,
particularly a computer is
a. Computer Language
d. Typical Language
b. Programming Language
e. Image Language
c. Software Language
2. The example of Programming Language is
a. Safari
d. Fire Fox
b. Java
e. Internet Explore
c. Microsoft Word
3. A system where by individual PCs are connected together within a company or
organization :
a. WAN
d. LAN
b. GAN
e. BAN
c. TAN

Exercises Meeting-4
4. Small programs that hide themselves on your file/disks :
a. Virus
d. Data
b. Worm
e. Anti Virus
c. Word
5. Example for OOP Programming Language, except :
a. JAVA
d. Visual Basic
b. C++
e. C#
c. Pascal

Exercises Meeting-4
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Programming Language is .
Give the examples of Programming Language.
What is the meaning Networking ?
Mentioned kind of networking ?
How do viruses infect PCs ?
Give the examples of anti virus as you know ?

In computer world, there is also a software


which is created to do something bad and
to perform criminal intension. This kind of
software is called malicious software or
malware. Malicious software can bedivided
into some categories:

a.VIRUS
Virus is a software that can replicate by injecting or infecting its
own code into other file. By its way to infect other file, virus can
be divided into three categories:

1. Overwriting
A type of computer virus that will copy its own code
over the host computer system's file data, which
destroys the original program. After your computer
system has been cleaned using an antivirus
program, users will need to install the original
program again.

2. Appending
A virus that inserts a copy of its malicious
code at the end of the file. The goal of an
appending virus is not to harm the host
program, but to modify it to hold the virus
code and then be able to run itself.

3.Prepending
A virus defines the method it uses of infecting
files by adding their code to the beginning of the
file. By doing this, these viruses ensure that they
are activated when an infected file is used.

b. WORM
Worm is also a kind of malicious software. It is different from
virus which is worm can not inject of infect other files. A worm
is a software which replicates by creating its own copy. And
without infecting other file. Worm actually spreads through a
network or the Internet using email. Below is a sample of worm
called I Love You. Worm I Love You spreads through the
Internet as an email attachment.

Usually worm will do something tricky to cheat email


receiver. The first is using double file extension. At the left
sample, worm I Love You uses two extension, those are
TXT.VBS. The second trick is using social engineering. At
the above sample, the worm uses a name I LOVE YOU
which might interested to every email receiver. Who
doesnt need love? So, the effect of these tricks are any
body the email receiver- will click that attachment which
is actually a worm code.

c. TROJAN HORSE
Trojan horse is derived from ancient Greek. Trojan Horse is
a program that looks like a good program but actually
contains destructive code or destructive feature. Trojan
horse is different from virus and worm, trojan horse can
not replicate and cannot infect other file.

There are many kind of trojan horse. Below are some of


them:
a. Password stealer
e. Remote monitoring
b. Keylogger
f. Remote administrator, etc
c. Fake Program
d. Anonymous emailer

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

A software which is created to do something bad and to perform criminal


intension :
a. Microsoft Software
d. Linux Software
b. Virus Software
e. Pirate Software
c. Malicous Software
A software that can replicate by injecting or infecting its own code into other file :
a.Virus
d. Macro
b.File
e. Cookies
c.Worm
A software which replicates by creating its own copy :
a.Virus
d. Macro
b.File
e. Cookies
c.Worm
Example of Worm :
a.Fall.txt
d. I Love U.txt
b.File.txt
e. Cookies.txt
c.Worm.txt
There are kind of malicious software but not infect files :
a. Virus
d. Ghost
b. Trojan
e. Worm
c. Tracker

1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

6.

What is the meaning Malicious Software ?


What is the meaning Virus ?
According to infect to other file, virus can be divided
into three categories, mentioned that and explain ?
What is the meaning Worm and give the examples ?
What is the meaning Trojan Horse and give the
examples ?
How to clean Virus, Malware, Worm, and Trojan
Horse ! ( with your own words)

Meeting 6

Hardware is physical equipment of computer


system. Hardware can be divided into two
categories:
Input Device and Output Device.

INPUT DEVICE
Input device is computer device that is used to
input data into computer system.
Input device can be divided into some
categories:

1. Text input devices


Such as keyboard, a device to input text and characters by
depressing buttons (referred to as keys), similar to a
typewriter. The most common English-language key layout is
the QWERTY layout. Below is a picture of a keyboard using
QWERTY layout.

2. Pointing devices
The most common pointing device is mouse. In
computing, a mouse (plural mice or mouse devices) is a
pointing device that functions by detecting twodimensional motion relative to its supporting surface.
Physically, a mouse consists of an object held under one
of the user's hands, with one or more buttons, other
elements, such as "wheels", or extra buttons.

Other alternative of pointing device is trackball, a


pointing device consisting of an
exposed protruding ball housed in a socket that
detects rotation about two axes. The trackball
was invented by Tom Cranston and Fred Longstaff
as part of the Royal Canadian Navys DATAR
system in 1952[1], eleven years before the mouse
was invented. Below is a picture of a trackball.

3. Gaming devices
One example of gaming device is a joystick. A
joystick is a general control device that consists of a
handheld stick that pivots around one end, to
detect angles in two or three dimensions.

4. Image, Video input devices


There are two common input devices in this type. First is
Image scanner, a device that provides input by analyzing
images, printed text, handwriting, or an object. Below is a
picture of image scanner.

Second type is a webcam. Webcams are video capturing


devices connected to computers or computer networks, often
using USB or, if they connect to networks, ethernet or Wi-Fi.
They are well-known for their low manufacturing costs and
flexible applications. Below is a picture of a webcam.

5. Audio input devices


One example of audio input device is a microphone.
Microphone sometimes referred to as a mic or mike, is
an acoustic-to-electric transducer or sensor that
converts sound into an electrical signal. Microphones
are used in many applications such as telephones, tape
recorders, hearing aids, motion picture production, live
and recorded audio engineering, in radio and television
broadcasting and in computers for recording voice,
VoIP, and for non-acoustic purposes such as ultrasonic
checking.

1. Image, Video Output Devices


First example is a printer. In computing, a printer is a
peripheral which produces a hard copy (permanent
human readable text and/or graphics) of documents
stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media
such as paper or transparencies. Many printers are
primarily used as local peripherals, and are attached by a
printer cable or, in most newer printers, a USB cable to a
computer which serves as a document source.

2. Audio Output Devices

Speakers. Computer speakers, or multimedia speakers, are


external speakers,
commonly equipped with a low-power internal amplifier.
Headsets. Headphones are a pair of small loudspeakers, or
less commonly a single speaker, with a way of holding them
close to a user's ears and a means of connecting them to a
signal source such as an audio amplifier, radio or CD player.

1. Hardware can be divided into two categories, mentioned that


a. Inside/Outside device
d. Software/Freeware
b. Front/Outside device
e. Shareware/Open Source
c. Input/Output device
2. A set of computer consists of metal, plastic, and other physical devices which is called

a. Software
b. Hardware
c. Program
3. There are input device, except :
a. Mouse
b. Keyboard
c. Microphone

d. Process
e. Instruction

d. HardDrive
e. Scanner

4. Video capturing devices connected to computers or computer networks, often using USB
a. Website
b. Webcam
c. Webnet

d. WebVideo
e. Video Conference

5. A device that provides input by analyzing images, printed text, handwriting, or an object

is :
a. Printer
b. Webcam
c. Plotter

d. Hard Drive
e. Scanner

1. The hardware is .
2. Hardware can be divided into two categories,

mentioned that and explain .


3. Give the examples of Input Devices and Output
Devices .
4. The function for video capturing devices connected
to computers or computer networks is .
5. A device that provides input by analyzing images,
printed text, handwriting, or an object is ..

COMPUTER NETWORK
Meeting 9

Definition of Computer Network


A computer network is a group of
interconnected computers. Networks may be
classified according to a wide variety of
characteristics. The benefit of a computer
network are: Sharing hardware resources
easily and Sharing information easily.

Definition of Computer Network


A network is a collection of computers
connected to each other. The network allows
computers to communicate with each other
and share resources and information. The
Advanced
Research Projects Agency (ARPA) designed
"Advanced Research Projects Agency Network
(ARPANET) for the United States Department of
Defense. It was the first computer network in
the world in late 1960's and early 1970's.

Type of Computer Network


1. Local-area networks (LANs): The computers are
geographically close together (that is, in the same
building).
2. Wide-area networks (WANs): The computers
are farther apart and are connected by telephone
lines or radio waves.

Type of Computer Network


3. Campus-area networks (CANs): The
computers are within a limited geographic area,
such as a campus or military base.
4. Metropolitan-area networks (MANs): A data
network designed for a town or city.
5. Home-area networks (HANs): A network
contained within a user's home that connects a
person's digital devices.

Characteristics Different Type of Network


The following characteristics are used to categorize different types
of networks:\
1. topology: The geometric arrangement of a computer system.
Common topologies include a bus, star, and ring.
2. protocol: The protocol defines a common set of rules and
signals that computers on the network use to communicate. Two
of the most popular protocols for LANs is called Ethernet and the
IBM token-ring network.

Characteristics Different Type of Network


3. architecture: Networks can be broadly classified
as using either a peer-to-peer or client/server
architecture.

Computers on a network are sometimes


called nodes. Computers and devices that
allocate resources for a network are called
servers.

Network Topology

Devices for Computer Network


There are many kinds of devices to create a
computer network. For a basic computer network we
would need:
1. Network Interface Cards
A network card, network adapter or NIC (network interface card)
is a piece of computer hardware designed to allow computers to
communicate over a computer network. NIC can be identified
easily. It has a special port called RJ-45. RJ means Registered
Jack. And also a led to indicate a data is being transferred.

Devices for Computer Network


2. Repeaters
A repeater is an electronic device that receives a
signal and retransmits it at a higher power level, or to
the other side of an obstruction, so that the signal can
cover longer distances without degradation.

Devices for Computer Network


3. Hub
A hub contains multiple ports. When a packet
arrives at one port, it is copied to all the
ports of the hub for transmission. When the packets
are copied, the destination address in the frame
does not change to a broadcast address. Below is a
picture of 5-port ethernet hub.

Devices for Computer Network

4.router
a device that forwards data packets between computer
networks, creating an overlay internetwork. A router is
connected to two or more data lines from different
networks. When a data packet comes in one of the lines,
the router reads the address information in the packet to
determine its ultimate destination. Then, using information
in its routing table or routing policy, it directs the packet
to the next network on its journey. Routers perform the
"traffic directing" functions on the Internet.

References
REFERENCES
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_networks
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Network_hub
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Repeater
http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/N/network.html
http://www.uaf.edu/toolik/Reports/Report03/CommsSlides-SRI.ppt
http://www.cs.ucr.edu/~weesan/cs6/03_basic_computer_network.ppt
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Router_%28computing%29

Exercises Meeting-9
1. The benefit of a computer network are :
a. Sharing hardware resources easily
d. A and B True
b. Sharing information easily
e. A,B and C True
c. Sharing Input easily
2. There are many many types of Computer Network, except :
a. LAN
d. BAN
b. WAN
e. MAN
c. MAN
3. There are many many types of Network Topology, except :
a. Bus and Ring
d. Star and Bus
b. Star and Mesh
e. Bust and Mesht
c. Ring and Star
4. A piece of computer hardware designed to allow computers to communicate over
a computer network is
a. NIC
d. RAN Card
b. LAN Card
e. A and B True
c. NEC
5. There are the devices to create a computer network, except :
a. NIC
d. VGA
b. Repeater
e. Router
c. Hub

Exercises Meeting-9
1.
2.
3.

4.

5.

What is the function of Computer Network


Many types of Computer Network, explain and
mentioned that .
Give the 5 examples of network topology .
A piece of computer hardware designed to allow
computers to communicate over a computer
network is .
Could you mentioned the devices to create a
computer network .

Steganography

What is Steganography
Steganography is the art and science of writing
hidden messages in such a way that no-one apart
from the sender and intended recipient even
realizes there is a hidden message, a form of
security through obscurity.

Continued
Generally, a steganographic message will appear to
be something else: a picture, an article, a shopping
list, or some other message. This apparent message
is the covertext. For instance, a message may be
hidden by using invisible ink between the visible
lines of innocuous documents.

History of Steganography
The word steganography is of Greek origins and means
"covered, or hidden writing". Its ancient origins can be traced
back to 440 BC. Herodotus mentions two examples of
steganograph in The Histories of Herodotus. Demaratus sent
a warning about a forthcoming attack to Greece by writing it
on a wooden panel and covering it in wax. Wax tablets were
in common use then as re-usable writing surfaces.

Some Techniques of Steganography


1. Writing a secret message using invisible ink.

2. Hidden messages on messenger's body: also in ancient


Greece. Herodotus tells the story of a message tattooed
on a slave's shaved head, hidden by the growth of his hair,
and exposed by shaving his head again.
The message allegedly carried a warning to Greece about
Persian invasion plans.

Continued
This method has obvious drawbacks:
a. It is impossible to send a message as quickly as the
slave can travel, because it takes months to grow hair.
b. A slave can only be used once for this purpose. (This is
why slaves were used: they were considered expendable).

Continued
3. A picture of a message in microdots or microfilms.

Continued
4. In computer era, steganography can be done by
inserting a secret document into other document.
Any document can be used as a media, for example
text file, picture file, or multimedia file such as mp3
or video file.

References

References
http://www.dmoz.org/Computers/Security/Products_and_Tools/Cryptography/Steganography//
http://petitcolas.net/fabien/steganography/image_downgrading/index.html
http://www.fbi.gov/hq/lab/fsc/backissu/july2004/research/2004_03_research01.htm
http://www.jjtc.com/Steganography
http://www.citi.umich.edu/techreports/reports/citi-tr-01-11.pdf
http://www.spy-hunter.com/stego.html
http://www.datahide.com/BPCSe/Articles/Ref-6.SPIE98.pdf
http://blog.maxant.co.uk/pebble/2007/07/19/1184876280000.html

Exercises Meeting-10
1. The art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no-one apart from the
sender and intended recipient even realizes there is a hidden message :
a. Stenography
d. Stagenoghrapy
b. Stegraphy
e. All answer are false
c. Steganomy
2. A steganography message will appear to be something else, the examples
a. A picture
d. A and C true
b. An article
e. All Answers false
c. A message
3. There are some technique steganography, except
a. Writing a secret message using invisible ink
b. Hidden messages on messenger's body
c. A picture of a message in microdots or microfilms
d. A copy file to another file.
e. In computer era, steganography can be done by inserting a secret document into other
document
4. The origin of steganography from .
a. Greek
d. America
b. Russia
e. Germany
c. England
5. The steganography usually use for ..
a. Covered
d. Backup
b. Hidden Writing
e. A and B true
c. Copy

Exercises Meeting-10
1. What is Steganography .
2. A steganography message will appear to be something
else, give examples
3. Mentioned that some techniques of steganography

4. The origin of steganography from .


5. The steganography usually use for ..
6. Make example about steganography as you can .

MEETING 11

CRYPTOGRAPHY

What is Cryptography
The term cryptography is derived from Greek,
kryptos means hidden or secret and graphy
means writing. So, cryptography is the
practice and study of creating a secret
information.
Cryptography works by Cryptography is a part of
mathematics and computer science.

Continued

Cryptography is used in applications present in


technologically advanced societies; examples
include the security of ATM cards, computer
passwords, and electronic commerce, which all
depend on cryptography. In short we can say that
cryptography is needed to secure a secret
document. A person who is master in cryptography
is called cryptographer.

How Cryptography Works


For example someone has a secret document to
secure. Any document can be secured using
cryptography. For example we have to secure the
word Read using cryptography. The word Read
in cryptography is called Plain text. Using a set of
rule called algorithm, the plain text is changed into
cipher text. This process is called encryption. The
result of this encryption process is the word Uhdg.
This is the cipher text.

History of Cryptography
Cryptography is already used since ancient
era. Julius Caesar used cryptography to secure
his message from his enemy. He replaced a
character with its next three character. For
example a character A in alphabet will be
replaced by character D. And so on. See the
list below of Julius Caesar algorithm.

Examples :

Plain text : a b c d e f g h I j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
Cipher Text : d e f g h I j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z a b c

Continued History
In the era of World War II, German Nazi was also used
cryptography to secure its message. Nazi used a machine
called Enigma to encrypt and decrypt the messages. In this
way Nazi thought its message would be difficult to break by
US and its allies. Below is a picture of Enigma used by
Nazi. Unfortunately the algorithm of Enigma can be
broken by US army.

Continued History
In computer technology, cryptography is still
used to secure a computer data or document. For
example in ATM machine,computer passwords,
and also in electronic commerce. Using computer
technology someone can use many sophisticated
algorithm for example RSA,DES, and PGP.

Computer Terms
Plain text = a text that can be read by anybody. This
text is not secured yet.
Cipher text = a secret text resulting from encryption
process.
Algorithm = a set of rule to encrypt a document.
Enigma = a machine like typewriter that is used by
Nazi during World War II to secure a document before
transmitted.
Cryptographer = a person who is master in
cryptography.

References
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryptography
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryptography_Classification
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Encyclopedia_of_Cryptography_and_Security
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_cryptology_from_the_1500s_to_Meiji
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_important_publications_in_computer_science#Cryptography
http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/cryptology/
http://www.csrc.nist.gov/publications/fips/fips197/fips-197.pdf
http://www.cesg.gov.uk/site/publications/media/notense.pdf
http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/cache/papers/cs/22094/http:zSzzSzeprint.iacr.orgzSz2001zSz056.pdf/junod01complexity.pdf
http://www.rsasecurity.com/rsalabs/node.asp?id=2152
http://www.ieee-security.org/Cipher/Newsbriefs/1996/960214.zimmerman.html
http://www.schneier.com/crypto-gram-0006.html#DES
http://scholar.google.com/url?sa=U&q=http://www.springerlink.com/index/K54H077NP8714058.pdf
http://www.cacr.math.uwaterloo.ca/hac/
http://www.cryptool.org/download/CrypToolPresentation-en-1_4_20.pdf
http://www.rsasecurity.com/rsalabs/node.asp?id=2152
http://www.pawlan.com/Monica/crypto/
http://www.nsa.gov/kids/

Exercises Meeting-11
1. What is cryptography .
2. What is the different between cryptography and

steganography .
3. How the cryptography works .
4. Give the example of cryptography
5. Give the example using cryptography in computer
technology

Exercises Meeting-11
1. The practice and study of creating a secret information.
a. Stenography
d. Stagenoghrapy
b. Crytography
e. All answer are false
c. Steganomy
2. A cryptography is used in applications present in technologically advanced societies, the examples
a. Security of ATM cards
d. A,B and C true
b. Computer passwords
e. Hidden Mesagge
c. Electronic commerce A message
3. A machine called Enigma to encrypt and decrypt the messages in worl war II used by
a. German
d. Italy
b. America
e. Russia
c. France
4. The example of cryptography
a. Greek
d. Login
b. Enigma
e. A,B and C true
c. Enogmist
5. The a secret text resulting from encryption process is .
a. Hidden Writing
d. A and B true
b. Chiper text
e. No Answer
c. Hidden text

Meeting 12

The INTERNET

Definition
Internet stands for: Internetworked Networks
The Internet is a worldwide connection of millions
of computers connected to thousands of different
networks. These computers "communicate" that is,
share, exchange, and transmit data to another
computer on the same or another network.

A.

Internet Services

1. www (World Wide Web)


Many people use the terms Internet and World Wide
Web, or just the Web. The World Wide Web is a
global set of documents, images and other
resources, logically interrelated by hyperlinks and
referenced with Uniform Resource Identifiers
(URIs).URIs symbolically identify services, servers,
and other databases, and the documents and
resources that they can provide. Hypertext Transfer
Protocol (HTTP) is the main access protocol of the
World Wide Web, but it is only one of the hundreds
of communication protocols used on the Internet.

Continued

2. FTP (File Transfer Protocol) Allows users to


upload and download files from other computers

3. EDI (Electronic Data Interchange)


electronic transfer of data between
companies over
the Internet.

Continued
4. Email Electronic Mail,
allows people to send and receive electronic
messages.

5.Telnet (terminal emulation)


Allows a user on one computer to log onto a
remote computer and run software on that
remote computer as if it were on the user's local
computer.

Continued
6.IRC (Internet Relay Chat)
Allows people connected over the Internet to
participate in discussions. It allows people to
converse in "real time," people may actually see
you type your questions and responses.

Continued
7.search engine
is designed to search for information on the World
Wide Web. The search results are generally
presented in a line of results often referred to as
search engine results pages (SERPs). The
information may be a specialist in web pages,
images, information and other types of files. Some
search engines also mine data available in
databases or open directories. Unlike web
directories, which are maintained only by human
editors, search engines also maintain real-time
information by running an algorithm on a web
crawler.

B. Internet Address Domain


Each computer on the Internet is called an Internet
host or a host machine. Each host machine has a
special Internet protocol address (IP address) that
uniquely identifies that computer. IP addresses were
never designed to be seen by human eyes. They are
an address that is interpreted by a computer. An
example of an IP address is:
192.168.1.1

Continued
Since numbers are easy for a computer to work with
but difficult for humans, most host machines have a
Domain Name Service (DNS) address. For
instance, the domain name service address of the IP
address listed above is:
depts.alverno.edu

C. User
Overall Internet usage has seen tremendous growth. From
2000 to 2009, the number of Internet users globally rose
from 394 million to 1.858 billion. By 2010, 22 percent of
the world's population had access to computers with 1
billion Google searches every day, 300 million Internet
users reading blogs, and 2 billion videos viewed daily on
YouTube.

References
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet#Services
http://www.comptechdoc.org/basic/basictut
http://dragon.ep.usm.edu/~it365/module/Internet/Internet.htm
http://depts.alverno.edu/cil/mod1/webtutorial/internet.html

References

Exercises Meeting 12
1. What is the internet .
a.A worldwide connection of millions of computers connected to thousands of different networks
b.Each computer on the Internet
d. Browsing
c.Server
e. All answer are false
2. Many kind of internet services, mentioned that ..
a.Browser
d. B and C True
b.World Wide web
e. Wireless Network
c.FTP
3. There are the examples of search engine .
a.Google Crhome
d. Opera
b.Mozila Firefox
e. All answers true
c.Internet Explore
4. The examples of search engine .
a.IRC
d. A,B and C true
b.Yahoo Messenger
e. All Answers false
c.Google Talk
5. What is the function Internet address domain .
a.The domain name service address
b.Host machine has a special Internet protocol address (IP address) that uniquely identifies that
computer
c.the domain name service address of the IP address
d.A,B and C true
e.All answers false

Exercises Meeting-12
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

What is the internet .


Many kind of internet services, mentioned that
and explain .
Give the 3 examples of search engine .
Give the 3 examples of chat service ..
What is the function Internet address domain .

E-mail

Electronic mail, often abbreviated as email,email, or


eMail, is any method of creating, transmitting, or
storing
primarily
text-based
human
communications
with
digital
communications
systems. Unlike conventional mail, email is much
faster (conventional mail is sometimes called "snail

mail" by email users).

Email has both similarities and differences with


more conventional postal services. First, messages
are posted electronically to individuals at specific
addresses much like conventional mail. The
address denotes the computer that the individual
employs as a mail server. A mail server is like a
local post office: it is a computer that sends and
receives electronic mail for a specific network.

An email message is made up of several


parts. They include:

header
It contains information about the sender, the routing
and the time of the message. The header always
contains a subject line. This is a very important part of
the message and you should always include a subject
line. Some folks sort their messages by subject, so it is
rude to not include a subject! The subject line indicates
the purpose or content of the Message

message body,
where you write your message

signature,
which identifies the sender.
This part is optional and must be set
up inside of your email software.

The message header usually includes at least the following


fields:
From
: The e-mail address of the sender
To
: The e-mail address of recipient
Subject : Topic of message
Date
: The local time and date when the message was
written
Cc
: carbon copy, adopted from business communication
protocol when typewriters ruled the day

Bcc: Blind Carbon Copy


when recipient does not need to know who
else got a copy of the message. May or
may not appear in sender's file copy
depending on e-mail software used.

REFERENCES
http://depts.alverno.edu/cil/mod2/whatisemail.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E-mail
http://dragon.ep.usm.edu/~it365/module/Basics/Basics.htm

1. Method of creating, transmitting, or storing primarily text-based human communications with digit
communications systems is
a.Server
d. FTP
b.Email
e. WWW
c.Attach File
2. The are several part of Email ..
a.Header
d. A and C True
b.World Wide web
e. Address
c.Message Body
3. There are the examples of Email Address, except .
a.tonny@googles.com
d. budi@basi.ac.id
b.harry@yahoo.co.id
e. All answers true
c.tina@yahoo.com
4. What kinds of document that could attach file to email .
a.Images
d. Music file
b.PDF file
e. All Answers true
c.DOC file
5. What is the meaning of BCc .
a.Bling Carbon Copy
b.Bline Carbon Copy
c.Blink Carbon Copy
d.Blind Carbon Copy
e.All answers false

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

What is Email .
Explain how email works .
Could you explain several parts of email .
Give the 3 examples email address .
Could you explain how to attach file to email .

WEBSITE AND SEARCH ENGINE

a. Website
A website is a site (location) contains a
collection of pages on the World Wide Web.
Each Web site contains a home page, which is
the first document users see when they enter
the site. Home page, as the name suggests, is
the main or opening page of a website. You
will notice that several websites use the word
"Home" or an image of a house to guide surfers
back to the main page.

The URL or Uniform Resource Locator is the


specific
address
of
a
webpage,
like
http://geocities.com/toe6000/www1.html The
site might also contain additional documents
and files. Each site is owned and managed by an
individual, company or organization.

Web page is a document written in Hypertext Mark-up


Language (HTML) code that contains text and links to
other pages, files, or parts of the document. The
earliest Web pages were all-text documents and at
present there are still text-based browsers like Lynx.
Although Tim Berners-Lee also wrote the first
multimedia browser in 1990, graphical user-interface
(GUI), browsers didnt become popular until Mosaic
came along in 1993.

b. Search engine
Search Engine is a program that searches documents for
specified keywords and returns a list of the documents
where the keywords were found. Although search engine
is really a general class of programs, the term is often
used to specifically describe systems like Google, Alta
Vista and Excite that enable users to search for
documents on the World Wide Web and USENET
newsgroups.

In a simpler way, a Web search engine is a tool


designed to search for information on the World Wide
Web. Information may consist of web pages, images,
information and other types of files. Search engines
operate algorithmically or are a mixture of algorithmic
and human input.

There are basically three types of search engines:


Those that are powered by robots (called
crawlers; ants or spiders) and those that are
powered by human submissions; and those that
are a hybrid of the two.
The following description explains how Crawlerbased search engines works.

Typically, a search engine works by sending out a


spider to fetch as many documents as possible.
Another program, called an indexer, then reads
these documents and creates an index based on
the words contained in each document. Each
search engine uses a proprietary algorithm to
create its indices such that, ideally, only
meaningful results are returned for each Query.

references
http://dragon.ep.usm.edu/~it365/module/Internet/Internet.htm
http://www.webopedia.com/DidYouKnow/internet/2003/HowWebSearchEnginesWork.asp
http://www.webopedia.com/quick_ref/Internet_Search_Engines.asp

1. What is the Website .


a. A site (location) contains a collection of pages on the World Wide Web
b. A site for information on the World Wide Web
c. A site for search information
d. a tool designed to search for information on the World Wide Web.
e. All answers true
2. The function of website .
a. Bring information resources to the user
b. Give directions to your place of business
c. Introduction for your profile
d. Searching information
e. A, B and C True
3. A program that searches documents for specified keywords
a. Website
d. Google.com
b. Search Engine
e. All answers true
c. Web Page
4. A document written in Hypertext Mark-up Language (HTML) .
a. Website
d. Google.com
b. Search Engine
e. All answers true
c. Web Page
5. The examples of search engine .
a. Bing
d. Yahoo
b. Google
e. All answers true
c. Ask

1.

2.
3.
4.
5.

What is the Website .


What the function of Website .
Could you explain about HTML .
What the function of Search Engine .
How the way using Search Engine .