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Fast Food



Table of contents:
2.Main part
2.1. Fast food in pre-modern Europe
2.2. Fast food in United Kingdom
2.3. Fast food in the United States
3.The best fast food brands
4.Obesity from fast food

Fast food is the term given to food that is prepared and served
very quickly, first popularized in the 1950s in the United States.
While any meal with low preparation time can be considered
fast food, typically the term refers to food sold in a restaurant
or store with preheated or precooked ingredients, and served to
the customer in a packaged form for take-out/take-away. Fast
food restaurants are traditionally separated by their ability to
serve food via a drive-through. The term "fast food" was
recognized in a dictionary by MerriamWebster in 1951.
Outlets may be stands or kiosks, which may provide no shelter
or seating, or fast food restaurants (also known as quick service
restaurants). Franchise operations that are part of restaurant
chains have standardized foodstuffs shipped to each restaurant
from central locations.

Fast food in pre-modern Europe

In the cities of Roman antiquity, much of the urban population
living in insulae, multi-story apartment blocks, depended on
food vendors for much of their meals. In the mornings, bread
soaked in wine was eaten as a quick snack and cooked
vegetables and stews later in popina, a simple type of eating
establishment. In the Middle Ages, large towns and major urban
areas such as London and Paris supported numerous vendors
that sold dishes such as pies, pasties, flans, waffles, wafers,
pancakes and cooked meats. As in Roman cities during
antiquity, many of these establishments catered to those who
did not have means to cook their own food, particularly single
households. Unlike richer town dwellers, many often could not
afford housing with kitchen facilities and thus relied on fast
food. Travellers, as well, such as pilgrims on route to a holy site,
were among the customers.

Fast food in United Kingdom

In areas with access to coastal or tidal waters, 'fast food'
frequently included local shellfish or seafood, such as oysters
or, as in London, eels. Often this seafood was cooked directly
on the quay or close by. The development of trawler fishing in
the mid-nineteenth century led to the development of a British
favourite, fish and chips, and the first shop in 1860. A blue
plaque at Oldham's Tommyfield Market marks the origin of the
fish and chip shop and fast food industries in Britain.
British fast food had considerable regional variation. Sometimes
the regionality of a dish became part of the culture of its
respective area; examples include among other the Cornish
pasty and deep-fried Mars bar.
The content of fast food pies has varied, with poultry (such as
chickens) or wildfowl commonly being used. Since the Second
World War, turkey has been used more frequently in fast food.
The UK has adopted fast food from other cultures as well, such
as pizza, kebab, and curry. More recently, healthier alternatives
to conventional fast food have also emerged.

Fast food in the United States

As automobiles became popular and more affordable following
World War I, drive-in restaurants were introduced. The
American company White Castle, founded by Billy Ingram and
Walter Anderson in Wichita, Kansas in 1921, is generally
credited with opening the second fast food outlet and first
hamburger chain, selling hamburgers for five cents each.
Walter Anderson had built the first White Castle restaurant in
Wichita in 1916, introducing the limited menu, high-volume,
low-cost, high-speed hamburger restaurant.Among its
innovations, the company allowed customers to see the food
being prepared. White Castle was successful from its inception
and spawned numerous competitors.
Franchising was introduced in 1921 by A&W Root Beer, which
franchised its distinctive syrup. Howard Johnson's first
franchised the restaurant concept in the mid-1930s, formally
standardizing menus, signage and advertising.
Curb service was introduced in the late 1920s and was
mobilized in the 1940s when carhops strapped on roller skates.

The United States has the largest fast food industry in the
world, and American fast food restaurants are located in over
100 countries. Approximately 4.1 million U.S. workers are
employed in the areas of food preparation and food servicing,
including fast food in the USA. Worries of an obesity epidemic
and its related illnesses have inspired many local government
officials in the United States to propose to limit or regulate fastfood restaurants. However, some areas are more affected than
others. In Los Angeles County, for example, about 45% of the
restaurants in South Central Los Angeles are fast-food chains or
restaurants with minimal seating. By comparison, only 16% of
those on the Westside are such restaurants.

The best fast food brands

McDonald's added just 212 eateries overseas last year, but its
commanding lead left it still tops in international presence
amongst American-based fast-food-chains
The Yum! Brands division has more than 4,200 restaurants in
China, where a poultry-feed scandal caused sales to decline last
Subway operates in more than 100 countries now, having
added Suriname and Russia last year.
-Pizza Hut
Pizza Hut -- a sister company to Yum! Brands' KFC -- build 367
new international stores in 2012. The pizza chain also sold all
its corporate-owned foreign restaurants to independent
franchise owners last year.
-Burger King

America's number-three burger chain is well-known abroad -it's available in 73 countries. The chain ended the year with 170
more restaurants overseas.
-Dominos Pizza
Domino's now delivers in over 60 countries around the globe.
The company's overseas restaurant count grew by 350 last
-Dunkin Donuts
As you can see from the Russian storefront above, Dunkin' is a
familiar name the world over. The U.S. donut leader operates in
more than 30 countries and is on a huge international push,
growing its overseas presence by more than 900 stores last
year alone.
-Dairy Queen
DQs hot eats and cool treats are familiar in 18 countries,
including China -- which got its 500th Dairy Queen last year and
Mexico, where the chain opened its 100th unit. The chain's
overseas store count rose by over 150 last year, including the
opening of its 100th restaurant in Mexico and 500th Chinese
store. Dairy Queen is also bringing Orange Julius to more
countries with its initiative to begin offering the juice and
smoothie brand, which it owns, in its own Dairy Queen stores.
-Papa Johns
Papa John's positioning in the marketplace -- offering 'better
pizza' for the masses -- paid off last year as the chain added 86
new overseas stores. Per-unit revenue is low compared to some
other fast-food chains, though: Papa John's is #10 in number of
units, but #20 in foreign revenue.

Obesity from fast food

There has been an exponential rise in the number of obese
individuals especially in developed nations like United States
and United Kingdom. Now obesity has become a public health
problem in most nations.
Obesity is linked to several long term health conditions,
premature death and illness including diabetes, heart disease,
stroke, gall bladder disease, fatty liver, arthritis and joint
disorders and some cancers.
Studies have shown that this rise of obesity among the world
population could be attributed to an increase in calorie intake
coupled with lack of adequate physical activity.

Results from the analysis of data from the National Health and
Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) indicate increases in
quantity and energy density of foods consumed in the United
States from 1976 through 1980 and 1999 through 2002 .
Studies have shown that in the US per capita calorie intake
increased by more than 300 kilocalories (kcal) among the entire
population from 1985 through 2002. The numbers have only
risen over the past decade.
Studies have shown that over the past four decades,
consumption of food eaten away from home has also risen
alarmingly. It is well known that eating out may lead to excess
calorie intake and increases the risk of obesity because of large
portion sizes and increased energy density of foods.

Is fast food to blame for obesity in America?
Yes and no.
Fast food is part to blame for this epidemic. Fast food
dominates in the food industry allowing our society to think it is
okay to eat such unhealthy food. Fast food contains foods that
are high in gluten, sodium, sugars, and fats. Consuming too

much of it can lead to obesity and cause other diseases which

are damaging to ones health.
Also, the food portions that are standardized by fast food
companies are to attribute for obesity as well. Places like
McDonalds, Chik-fil-a and Taco Bell make it seem normal to
ingest such large portion sizes which can lead to obesity.
On the other hand, some say fast food is not the cause of
Consuming more calories than one can get rid of causes
obesity. A sedentary lifestyle is most to blame for this. Eating
fast food every now and then will not make one obese. It is not
leading an active lifestyle that will eventually make one pack on
the pounds.
Another reason that some say fast food is not the cause of
obesity is that there are smarter choices on the menu that one
can choose from. When going to a fast food restaurant, one
does not have to order a BigMac and a large fry. One can just as
easily order a chicken salad.
It all comes down to the choices we make everyday. The
temptation of fast food will always be present. But what will
you choose?
The apple or the burger?