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Solution for question 12


(a) Hall Effect The production of an e.m.f on a current-carrying conductor or semiconductor due to the

application of magnetic field in a direction which is perpendicular to the direction of the current. [2]
P
(b) (i)
t
- - FB=Beve
Diagram
[1]
I
E
H
v
V
d
E
F =eE
+

+
Q

B
- The magnetic force Fm acts on electrons by the magnetic field will deflect electrons to the upper side of
the semiconductor whereas the lower surface of the semiconductor is induced positively. [1]
-This result in a potential difference V between the two sides and an electric field occurs across QP. This
electric field will produce an electric force Fe acts on the electrons in the direction against the magnetic
force FB as shown in the diagram.
[1]
- The magnitude of Fe will increase as the electric field E increases due to more electrons deflected to the
upper side of the semiconductor. However ,this deflection process of electrons will stop when FB = Fe and
a steady p.d., VH will produce across PQ.
FB = Fe
[1]
evB = eE
Bv = E
Substitute v = I/Ane and E = VH/d

B(

V
) H
Ane

V
d
ne(td )

BId
H

B
VH I
net

[1]

where A t d

BId

neA

[1]

(ii) Metal has much more number of charges per volume, n than semiconductor. Since VH is inversely
proportional to n according to the above equation, therefore the value of Hall voltage, VH produced in
semiconductor is bigger and more obvious than in the metal.
[2]
(iii) The pointer of the galnanometer will deflect to reverse direction or to the right hand side because the Hall
Effect will produce a reverse p.d across the PQ due to the magnetic force will deflect positive charge carriers
(Holes) to the upper side of the semiconductor whereas the lower surface of the semiconductor is induced
negatively.
[3]

(iv)

Use

BI

BI

nqt
3
(4.5 10 )

VH qt

(2.0)(250 10 )
3

(10.510 )(1.60 10

19

[1]

22

6.6 10 m

[1]

12 (a) two functions of the dielectric in a capacitor.


To increase the storage of charges / energy
To increase the capacitance of capacitor
Can tolerate stronger electric field without break down
(any two) ..2
(b) (i)
Q = CV
VT = V 1 + V 2
1

CT

C1

C2

1
1
1

CT
510
CT = 3.33F

(ii) Energy stored =

1
2
C T VT
2

.. 1

........ 1
.. 1

1
= (3.33F )(10 2 )
2
-4
= 1.67 x 10 J

(c) (i)

. 1
. 1

.. 1

=
c
2fCT =
398

.. 1

Vo
=

.. 1

(ii)
Io

X
c
10
389
= 0.025 A

The current leads the voltage by 90

or

rad
2

. 1

(iii)
For

st

quarter,

capacitor

is

charged,

energy

is

stored

nd

or

in

capacitor

1 2 quarter, capacitor is discharged, energy is returned to the


source 1
rd

For 3 quarter, capacitor is charged, energy is stored in capacitor


th
4 quarter, capacitor is discharged, energy is returned to the
source