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CHAPTER 12: THE PRESIDENCY

Multiple Choice Questions


1.

Barack Obama is the ______ president.


a.
34th
b.
44th
c.
54th
d.
64th
e.
74th

2.

The two-term limit was placed on the presidency by


a.
an act of Congress passed after Franklin D. Roosevelts death.
b.
the Twenty-second Amendment.
c.
the Presidential Powers Act of 1951.
d.
the Twenty-fifth Amendment.
e.
Article II of the original Constitution.

3.

In order to convict and remove an impeached president, it takes a


a.
two-thirds vote in the Senate.
b.
majority vote in the Senate.
c.
majority vote in the House of Representatives.
d.
two-thirds vote in the House of Representatives.
e.
majority vote in the Senate AND a two-thirds vote in the House of Representatives.

4.

Today there are _____ secretaries and the attorney general that head the presidents cabinet.
a.
5
b.
10
c.
14
d.
24
e.
34

5.

What does the National Security Council do?


a.
It links the presidents key foreign and military policy advisors.
b.
It is responsible for all elements of national security.
c.
It is principally responsible for the president when hes abroad.
d.
It is in charge of the Secret Service.
e.
It has responsibility for the FBI.

6.

The three-member body appointed by the president to advise the president on economic policy is
the
a.
Office of Management and Budget.
b.
Council of Economic Advisors.
c.
National Security Council.
d.
National Economic Council.
e.
Congressional Budget Office.

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7.

What is the difference between a veto and a pocket-veto?


a.
A veto refers to the constitutional power of the president to send a bill back to Congress
with reasons for rejecting it; a pocket veto occurs when Congress adjourns within 10 days
of submitting a bill and the president simply lets the bill die by neither signing it nor
sending it back.
b.
A pocket veto refers to the constitutional power of the president to send a bill back to
Congress with reasons for rejecting it; a veto occurs when Congress adjourns within 10
days of submitting a bill and the president simply lets the bill die by neither signing it nor
sending it back.
c.
A veto can be overturned by a two-thirds majority vote of both houses of Congress; a
pocket veto requires a two-thirds vote of the Senate only.
d.
A veto refers to the constitutional power of the president to send a bill back to Congress
with reasons for rejecting it; the pocket veto has been declared unconstitutional by the
Supreme Court.
e.
The veto has rarely been exercised by modern presidents; the pocket veto has been
exercised by modern presidents frequently.

8.

What is required of Congress to overturn a presidential veto?


a.
A two-thirds vote in the House
b.
A two-thirds vote in the Senate
c.
A two-thirds vote in both the House and the Senate
d.
A three-fifths vote in both the House and the Senate
e.
A three-fourths vote in both the House and the Senate

9.

The presidents role as chief diplomat includes the power to


a.
negotiate treaties with other nations, subject to approval by the Senate.
b.
negotiate budgetary legislation with the U.S. Senate.
c.
declare war.
d.
mobilize the armed forces into combat.
e.
None of these is correct.

10.

The purposes of the War Powers Resolution, passed in 1973, included


a.
giving Congress a greater voice in committing American troops to armed conflict.
b.
requiring presidents to consult with Congress before using military force.
c.
mandating the withdrawal of troops after 60 days unless Congress declared war or
granted an extension to the conflict.
d.
All of the above are true.
e.
None of the above is true.

11.

A vote in Congress to override a presidential decision is called a


a.
legislative veto.
b.
pocket veto.
c.
resolution.
d.
bully pulpit.
e.
mandate.

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12.

Which president is known as the first television president?


a.
Nixon
b.
Kennedy
c.
Carter
d.
Reagan
e.
Clinton

13.

Which of the following is NOT TRUE of recent presidents presidential approval?


a.
Presidents often do not have widespread public support.
b.
Barack Obama ended the first year of his presidency with an approval rating of barely 50
percent approval.
c.
Of presidents Nixon, Ford, Carter, George W. Bush, and Reagan, only Reagan had an
average approval rating above 50 percent.
d.
Individuals who identify with the presidents party tend to rate the president about 40
more percentage points higher than those identifying with the opposition party.
e.
Partisan differences in presidential approval ratings declined during the presidencies of
George W. Bush and Barack Obama.

14.

The notion that the presidency is a bully pulpit suggests that presidents can
a.
persuade the public to support their policies if they are skilled communicators.
b.
mobilize members of their parties to force legislation through Congress.
c.
control the flow of information between the White House, the press, and the American
public.
d.
craft public speeches that dramatically influence public opinion.
e.
All of the above are true.

15.

Which of the following is TRUE of media coverage of the presidency?


a.
The media exhibit a liberal bias in covering the American presidency.
b.
The media exhibit a conservative bias in covering the American presidency.
c.
The media frequently distort reality in its coverage of the presidency, often by providing
simplified, superficial, and overblown coverage.
d.
The media have almost unrestrained access to the White House and news about the
president.
e.
The media have developed sophisticated tools to prevent the White House from
controlling the flow of information.

True/False Questions
1. Contemporary presidents have more presidential power than the Constitution suggests.
2. Barack Obama is the 44th president of the United States of America.
3. The original Constitution set no limit on the number of terms a president could serve.
4. The House must vote by simple majority in order to impeach a president.
5. Among the constitutional powers of the president is the presidents role as commander in chief of
the armed forces.
6. When Washington was president, there were just three cabinet secretaries; today there are 14
cabinet secretaries and one attorney general.

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7. The First Lady has no official government position.


8. A pocket veto occurs when Congress adjourns within 10 days of submitting a bill to the president
and the president neither signs nor vetoes the bill.
9. The president alone extends diplomatic recognition to foreign governments.
10. The concept of the two presidencies suggests that the president plays different roles when it
comes to economic policy and social policy.
11. It is often the case that presidents fail to garner widespread public support and, instead, lack
majority approval.
12. Supporting an increased role for government is not inherent in the presidency.
Multiple Choice Questions
1. As Richard Neustadt has argued, presidential power is probably best understood as the power to
a. persuade.
b. command.
c. control.
d. harass.
e. veto.
2. By the power to persuade, Richard Neustadt means
a. the power to get other people to do things they would not otherwise do.
b. oratorical skill.
c. media savvy.
d. to command.
e. All of the above are true.
3. According to the Constitution, a president must be at least ________ years of age.
a. 21
b. 25
c. 30
d. 35
e. 40
4. Which amendment limits presidents to two terms?
a. Nineteenth
b. Twentieth
c. Twenty-first
d. Twenty-second
e. Twenty-third
5. Which one of these presidents only served one full term in office?
a. Jimmy Carter
b. George Washington
c. George W. Bush
d. Bill Clinton
e. Thomas Jefferson

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6. The only president to resign his office was


a. Warren Harding.
b. Jimmy Carter.
c. Lyndon Johnson.
d. Spiro Agnew.
e. Richard Nixon.
7. In order to impeach a president, it takes a
a. unanimous vote of the Supreme Court.
b. two-thirds vote in the Senate.
c. majority vote in the House of Representatives.
d. two-thirds vote in the House of Representatives.
e. majority vote in the Senate.
8. Impeachment of a president means that the president is
a. convicted of a crime.
b. indicted by the House.
c. removed from office.
d. tried by the Senate.
e. All of the above are true.
9. The scandal surrounding Richard Nixons administration that led to impeachment hearings was
known as
a. Iran-Contra.
b. the Camp David Affair.
c. Watergate.
d. Checkers.
e. Teapot Dome.
10. The Twenty-fifth Amendment, ratified in 1967,
a. created a means for selecting a new vice president when the office became vacant.
b. granted 18-year-olds the right to vote.
c. limited the president to two terms in office.
d. specifically forced Richard Nixon from office.
e. provided for the direct election of the president by the people.
11. The executive power is discussed in which part of the Constitution?
a. Article I
b. Article II
c. Article III
d. Article IV
e. Tenth Amendment
12. Which of the following is NOT a constitutional power of the president?
a. Serving as commander in chief of the armed forces
b. Making treaties with other nations, subject to agreement of two-thirds of the Senate
c. Recommending legislation to Congress
d. Taking care that the laws be faithfully executed
e. None of the above; all are constitutional powers of the president.

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13. A primary resource available to presidents for controlling the bureaucracy is


a. control of the federal budget.
b. their unlimited power to offer patronage positions in the bureaucracy.
c. the power to appoint top-level administrators.
d. their ability to dismiss or fire most members of the bureaucracy.
e. All of the above are true.
14. The Budget and Accounting Act of 1921
a. gave presidents the power to recommend agency budgets to Congress.
b. took away presidents powers to recommend agency budgets to Congress.
c. mandated the president to submit a balanced budget.
d. permitted the president to submit an unbalanced budget.
e. decentralized budgetary decision making in Washington, D.C.
15. Which of the following is a member of the cabinet?
a. Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation
b. Speaker of the House
c. Secretary of the Navy
d. White House chief of staff
e. None of these is a member of the cabinet.
16. The two oldest cabinet departments are
a. State and Defense.
b. Interior and Justice.
c. Treasury and Justice.
d. State and Treasury.
e. Education and State.
17. The National Security Council
a. links the presidents key foreign and military policy advisors.
b. is composed of the heads of the three branches of the armed services and makes
recommendations to the president on combat strategy.
c. was established by President Roosevelt to manage foreign and domestic intelligence
operations.
d. was created by legislation to keep the president informed on foreign affairs.
e. helps the president make policy on such matters as inflation and unemployment.
18. What is the major responsibility of the Office of Management and Budget?
a. To prepare the presidents budget
b. To prepare the annual Economic Report of the President
c. To link key foreign and military policy advisers to the economy
d. Reviewing regulations proposed by departments and agencies
e. Managing the White House staff
19. The three-member body appointed by the president to advise the president on economic policy is
the
a. Department of State.
b. Department of the Interior.
c. Council of Economic Advisers.
d. Office of Management and Budget.
e. Treasury Department.

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20. The Office of Management and Budget, the National Security Council, and the Council of
Economic Advisors are
a. members of the White House staff.
b. advisory bodies of the Department of State.
c. policymaking bodies of the Executive Office of the President.
d. part of the presidents cabinet.
e. the key liaison agencies between the president and Congress.
21. The agency that reviews legislative proposals for the president is the
a. Council of Economic Advisors.
b. National Security Council.
c. Office of Management and Budget.
d. Legislative Executive Agency.
e. Executive Legislative Agency.
22. The system of White House management employed by President John Kennedy, sometimes
referred to as wheels and spokes,
a. dispersed authority to numerous aides, each of whom had powerful decision-making
power.
b. was unusually closed, with only the president and his two closest aides involved in most
major decisions.
c. created a position from which the president personally took charge of even the minor
details of decision making.
d. involved a chain of command with a chief of staff who controlled almost all access to the
president.
e. involved many aides equally participating in the decision-making process.
23. Which of the following best describes the position of First Lady?
a. It is not an official government position.
b. First Ladies must only advocate one issue at a time.
c. Most First Ladies go on to hold a political office.
d. First Ladies must attend cabinet meetings.
e. The First Lady is in charge of the presidents chief of staff.
24. The pocket veto can only be used
a. when a new president is about to take office.
b. during a presidential election year.
c. when Congress is in session.
d. on appropriations bills.
e. when Congress is adjourned.
25. The constitutional power of the president to send a bill back to Congress with reasons for
objecting to it is the
a. veto.
b. pocket veto.
c. overdraft power.
d. legislative veto.
e. power to persuade.

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26. Which of the following presidents had the greatest number of unsuccessful vetoes?
a. Kennedy
b. Johnson
c. Clinton
d. George W. Bush
e. George H.W. Bush
27. When a president vetoes congressional legislation,
a. Congress must form a joint committee to address the presidents complaints.
b. the Supreme Court determines whether the law will take effect.
c. Congress can override the veto by a two-thirds vote in both houses.
d. there is nothing Congress can do about it.
e. one house of Congress can override the veto if it votes to do so with a two-thirds vote.
28. In 1998, the Supreme Court ruled in Clinton v. City of New York that
a. a 1996 law granting the president the authority to propose rescinding funds in
appropriation bills was unconstitutional.
b. a 1996 law granting the president the authority to propose rescinding funds in
appropriations bills was constitutional.
c. the pocket veto was unconstitutional.
d. the Clinton impeachment vote was unconstitutional.
e. the president could not line-item veto grant monies to urban areas.
29. Presidential coattails refers to
a. a phenomenon resulting when voters who support the president cast their ballots for
congressional candidates of the presidents party.
b. the tendency for the presidents party to lose congressional seats in midterm elections.
c. fundraising parties the president hosts to raise money for congressional candidates.
d. the presidents power to appoint members of his own political party to cabinet posts and
as personal advisors.
e. a phenomenon resulting when members of Congress vote according to the wishes of the
president.
30. Recent election studies show
a. the presidents party usually gains seats in Congress in midterm elections.
b. a diminishing connection between voters presidential and congressional voting.
c. that the party of the winning presidential candidate has been gaining an increasing
number of seats in Congress.
d. that presidential coattails no longer exist.
e. that many congressional races are determined by presidential coattails.
31. A midterm election is
a. one in which the incumbent is running for reelection.
b. a congressional election that is not accompanied by a presidential election.
c. held every two years.
d. a special election that may remove an official from office in the middle of the term.
e. a presidential election that occurs during a session of Congress.

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32. The perception that voters strongly support the presidents character and policies is called a(n)
a. landslide.
b. electoral mandate.
c. confidence vote.
d. veto.
e. pocket veto.
33. The fact that, following FDRs decisive win in 1932, Congress began considering how to react to
the Depression rather than whether to react is an example of the influence of a(n)
a. veto.
b. Supreme Court opinion.
c. electoral mandate.
d. coattails election.
e. reelection contest.
34. Studies have shown that once one takes into account the status of the presidents party in
Congress and his standing with the public, presidents renowned for their legislative skills are
a. twice as successful in winning congressional support than other presidents.
b. most likely to reshape the contours of the political landscape.
c. most likely to be able to create opportunities for political change.
d. no more successful in obtaining congressional support than those considered less adept at
dealing with Congress.
e. much more successful in gaining support for their domestic policies than for their foreign
policies.
35. The War Powers Resolution may be considered unconstitutional because
a. its use of the legislative veto may be considered a violation of the doctrine of separation
of powers.
b. it violates the presidents power to declare war.
c. it violates the presidents power as commander in chief.
d. it was struck down by the Supreme Court.
e. it violates the congressional power to appropriate funds for the military.
36. The War Powers Resolution was passed as a reaction to
a. Americas fighting in Vietnam and Cambodia.
b. Americas fighting in Iraq.
c. Americas inability to keep the peace in Somalia.
d. Americas fighting in Korea.
e. General MacArthurs dismissal by Harry Truman.
37. Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001,
a. the War Powers Resolution was ignored.
b. Congress cut off funding after sixty days.
c. President Bush did not seek congressional support for the war in Iraq.
d. Congress passed a resolution authorizing the president to use force against Iraq.
e. Congress adopted a formal declaration of war against Iraq.

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38. References by commentators on the presidency to there being two presidencies refer to
a. the president as candidate and the president as elected leader.
b. the first term and the second term of a president.
c. what the president originally proposes to accomplish and what the president actually does
accomplish.
d. the differences between public and private presidential actions.
e. national security and domestic policy.
39. Who said, Public sentiment is everything. With public sentiment nothing can fail; without it
nothing can succeed?
a. Bill Clinton
b. Ronald Reagan
c. George Washington
d. Abraham Lincoln
e. George W. Bush
40. Which of the following statements about presidents going public is FALSE?
a. Presidents are not passive followers of public opinion.
b. Presidents appearances are often staged purely to obtain the publics attention.
c. In recent years, presidents have averaged more than one public appearance every
weekday of the year.
d. Dwight Eisenhower was the first president to use presidential speeches to gain policy
support.
e. John F. Kennedy was the first television president.
41. Most analysts believe that the higher the president stands in the polls, the
a. less support he needs in Congress.
b. shorter the presidents coattails.
c. less need there is for presidential public appearances.
d. easier it is to persuade others to support presidential initiatives.
e. less likely he will initiate new policy ventures.
42. Among recent presidents, the average approval ratings in public opinion polls have been
a. higher at the end of the presidents term than at the beginning.
b. over 75 percent.
c. higher at the beginning of the presidents term than at the end.
d. below 40 percent.
e. slowly rising over the course of a presidents term(s).
43. Historically, those who identify with the presidents party give approval more than ________
percentage points higher than do those who identify with the opposition party.
a. 10
b. 20
c. 40
d. 30
e. 50

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44. Which of these presidents was the only one to maintain an average approval rating of higher than
50 percent from the public throughout his administration?
a. Reagan
b. George Bush
c. Nixon
d. Ford
e. Carter
45. The principal intermediary between the president and the public is the
a. Congress.
b. vice president.
c. media.
d. First Lady.
e. Executive Office of the President.
46. Which of the following statements about the relationship between the presidency and the press is
FALSE?
a. The person who most often deals with the press from the White House is the presidents
press secretary.
b. Reporters tend to focus on the most visible layer of the presidents personal and official
activities, also called the body watch.
c. Recent studies of the news media have shown that the news is systematically biased
toward the Democratic Party and toward Democratic presidents.
d. News coverage of the presidency tends to emphasize the negative.
e. The media are an important intermediary helping to interpret and analyze presidential
activities for the public.
47. Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, and Franklin Roosevelt each
a. increased the role of the national government.
b. decreased the role of the national government.
c. championed constraints on the scope of government and limits on domestic policy
spending.
d. were ideologically conservative and operationally liberal.
e. blocked congressional-led government growth.
True/False Questions
1. According to Richard Neustadt, the most powerful power of the president is the power to persuade.
2. Americans tend to both believe in a powerful president and to be unsupportive of concentrated
political power in the institution of the presidency.
3. The Constitution sets age eligibility requirements for the president at 40 years.
4. The Nineteenth Amendment limits presidents to two terms of office.
5. The Twenty-fifth Amendment permits the vice president to become acting president if the vice
president and presidents cabinet determine the president to be disabled.
6. The political equivalent of an indictment in criminal law is impeachment.

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7. Once the House votes to impeach a president, the case moves to the Supreme Court.
8. The House has impeached only one president.
9. Richard Nixon was impeached.
10. The president has the constitutional authority to make treaties with other nations, subject to two-thirds
agreement by the Senate.
11. The responsibilities of the presidents cabinet are described in the Constitution.
12. The main job of the vice president is to serve as the presidents chief of staff.
13. The National Security Council was created in 1947 to coordinate the presidents foreign and military
policy advisors.
14. The Council of Economic Advisors is responsible for raising and spending taxes.
15. The Constitution provides the president with the power of the veto.
16. A two-thirds vote in each house of Congress is required to overturn a veto.
17. The presidential veto is usually not effective; Congress has overridden most vetoed bills since the
nations founding.
18. Recent research suggests that presidential coattails rarely help members of Congress win elections.
19. The perception that the voters strongly support the presidents character and policies is referred to as
an electoral mandate.
20. According to John Kingdon, the foremost agenda setter is the president.
21. The War Powers Resolution was passed following the 1991 invasion of Iraq.
22. Since 1973, all presidents have deemed the War Powers Resolution act unconstitutional.
23. Despite the fact that Ronald Reagan and Bill Clinton were skilled in communications, they generally
saw public opinion moving against them.
24. The bully pulpit refers to the presidents communicative ability to mobilize public opinion in
support of his policies.
25. Most studies of media coverage of news, including news about the presidency, have revealed a
systematic liberal bias.
Short Answer Questions
1.

In what ways did the Twenty-second and Twenty-fifth Amendments alter the original institutional design of the
American presidency?
Learning Objective: 12.1
Page Reference: 389390

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2.

Describe the impeachment process.


Learning Objective: 12.1
Page Reference: 390
Skill: Comprehension

3.

What are the formal constitutional powers of the presidency as found in Article II?
Learning Objective: 12.2
Page Reference: 391392
Skill: Comprehension

4.

Describe the constitutional powers of the presidency and group them in terms of national security powers,
legislative powers, administrative powers, and judicial powers.
Learning Objective: 12.2
Page Reference: 392
Skill: Comprehension

5.

What is the presidents cabinet and what are its purposes? What are the major agencies that make up the
cabinet?
Learning Objective: 12.3
Page Reference: 393395
Skill: Comprehension

6.

What is the National Security Council? Who are its members? What are its purposes?
Learning Objective: 12.3
Page Reference: 396
Skill: Comprehension

7.

What is the role and importance of the Office of Management and Budget?
Learning Objective: 12.3
Page Reference: 397
Skill: Comprehension

8.

Describe what is meant by the president as the chief legislator.


Learning Objective: 12.4
Page Reference: 401402
Skill: Analysis

9.

What is the veto power? How and why do presidents use the veto?
Learning Objective: 12.4
Page Reference: 401402
Skill: Comprehension

10. Compare and contrast the veto, pocket veto, and the line-item veto.
Learning Objective: 12.4
Page Reference: 401402
Skill: Comprehension
11. What is meant by presidential coattails, and how effective are they?
Learning Objective: 12.4
Page Reference: 404406
Skill: Analysis
12. What is the role of the president as the nations chief diplomat?
Learning Objective: 12.5
Page Reference: 410411
Skill: Comprehension

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13. How have national crises impacted the presidency? Describe one such crisis and its effect on a particular
president.
Learning Objective: 12.5
Page Reference: 413414
Skill: Analysis
14. What is going public and how and why do presidents do it?
Learning Objective: 12.6
Page Reference: 415416
Skill: Comprehension
15. What patterns are evident in public approval of presidents throughout the 20th century?
Learning Objective: 12.6
Page Reference: 416418
Skill: Analysis
16. What duties does the presidents press secretary have? How does the press secretarys role shape the
relationship between the presidency and the press?
Learning Objective: 12.7
Page Reference: 420423
Skill: Comprehension
Essay Questions
1.

Describe the constitutional process of removing a president from office. How often has this process been
seriously attempted? With what results? Is this process appropriate or would you recommend changes? Explain.
Learning Objective: 12.1
Page Reference: 390391
Skill: Evaluation

2.

List and briefly describe the constitutional powers of the president. Which are the most important and why?
Learning Objective: 12.2
Page Reference: 391392
Skill: Evaluation

3.

Identify and describe the individuals and organizations that make up the executive branch of government.
Learning Objective: 12.3
Page Reference: 393400
Skill: Comprehension

4.

Describe the major strengths and weaknesses of the president in his role as chief legislator. What factors
strengthen his ability to pass legislation he prefers? What factors weaken his ability to pass legislation?
Learning Objective: 12.4
Page Reference: 400410
Skill: Evaluation

5.

Explain the factors that affect presidential leadership of Congress. Why are some presidents more effective than
others at leading Congress?
Learning Objective: 12.4
Page Reference: 400410
Skill: Evaluation

6.

How important is public support for the president in achieving legislative priorities? How does the president go
about soliciting public support? Do you think the president should avoid such solicitations or not? Explain.
Learning Objective: 12.4; 12.6
Page Reference: 400410; 415420

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7.

Explain the role of the president in national security policy. In particular, what powers does the president have
in times of war and national crisis?
Learning Objective: 12.5
Page Reference: 410415
Skill: Evaluation

8.

Describe the nature of the public presidency. How does public opinion affect the power of the president, and
how can presidents gain and use public support to their advantage?
Learning Objective: 12.6
Page Reference: 415420
Skill: Evaluation

9.

How can it be that public opinion is both a resource for and a potential obstacle to presidential leadership?
Learning Objective: 12.6
Page Reference: 415420
Skill: Synthesis

10. Why is the press important to the president? How can presidents use the press to their advantage, and what
advantages might the press have over the president?
Learning Objective: 12.7
Page Reference: 420423
Skill: Analysis
11. Some Founding Fathers feared that the president might become a monarch if given too many powers. Comment
on the argument that the presidency can be a threat to democracy. What implications might a powerful president
have for the size of government in America?
Learning Objective: 12.8
Page Reference: 423424
Skill: Evaluation
12. To what extent does the office of the presidency enlarge the scope of government? Why or why not? Provide
specific examples from various presidencies to support your answer.
Learning Objective: 12.8
Page Reference: 423424
Skill: Evaluation

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