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ENGINEERING

MANUAL

PREPARED BY

V.BALAJI, M.Tech, (Ph.D), M.I.S.T.E, M.I.A.ENG, M.I.O.J.E

ASSITANTPROFESSOR/EEE DEPARTMENT

DHANALAKSHMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

CHENNAI

Page 1

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

2. Determination of transfer function of AC Servomotor.

3. Analog simulation of Type - 0 and Type 1 systems

4. Determination of transfer function of DC Generator

5. Determination of transfer function of DC Motor

6. Stability analysis of linear systems

7. DC and AC position control systems

8. Stepper motor control system

9. Digital simulation of first systems

10. Digital simulation of second systems

2

Page

EXPT.NO :

DATE

AIM:

To determine the transfer function of the DC servomotor

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No

Range

Type

3

Quantity

Page

THEORY:

Speed can be controlled by varying (i) flux per pole (ii) resistance of armature circuit and

(iii) applied voltage.

It is known that N

Eb.

If applied voltage is kept, Eb = V IaRa will

By decreasing the flux speed can be increased and vice versa. Hence this

method is called field control method. The flux of the DC shunt motor can be

changed by changing field current, Ish with the help of shunt field rheostat. Since

the Ish relatively small, the shunt filed rheostat has to carry only a small current,

2

which means Ish R loss is small. This method is very efficient. In non-interpolar

machines, speed can be increased by this methods up to the ratio 2: 1. In interpolar

machine, a ratio of maximum to minimum speed of 6:1 which is fairly common.

FORMULA:

Armature Control D.C. Servo motor:

It is DC shunt motor designed to satisfy the requirements of the servomotor.

The field excited by a constant DC supply. If the field current is constant then

speed is directly proportional to armature voltage and torque is directly

proportional to armature current.

Transfer Function =

Km

S (1 + TmS)

Km = 1 / Avg Kb

Tm = JRa / Kb Kt

Kt = T / Ia

Eb = V-Ia Ra

Constant Values

J

=

B

=

0.039 Kg m

0.030 N / rpm

4

Page

It is DC shunt motor designed to satisfy the requirements of the servomotor.

In this motor the armature is supplied with constant current or voltage. Torque is

directly proportional to field flux controlling the field current controls the torque of

Kb = E b /

Sl.No

If

Ia

S1

S2

N

V

T

Eb

the motor.

K

Transfer Function =

Js (1 + s)

K = Kt / Rf

2

= Lf / Rf = V

Zf Rf2 / 2 f / Rf

= 2 N / 60

T = r ( S1 S2 ) * 9.81 N-m and r = .075m

CONTROL DC SERVO MOTOR:

Table No. 1 Finding the value of Kb

Page 5

Avg Kb

Table No. 2 To find Ra

Sl.No

Volt Va

Current Ia

Ra = Va / Ia

Avg Ra =

PRECAUTIONS:

At starting,

The field rheostat should be kept in minimum resistance position

PROCEDURE FOR TRANSFER FUNCTION OF ARMATURE CONTROL

DC SERVOMOTOR:

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

Page 6

Finding Kb

1. Keep all switches in OFF position.

2. Initially keep voltage adjustment POT in minimum potential position.

3. Initially keep armature and field voltage adjustment POT in minimum

position.

4. Connect the module armature output A and AA to motor armature terminal

A and AA respectively, and field F and FF to motor field terminal F and FF

respectively.

5. Switch ON the power switch, S1, S2.

6. Set the field voltage 50% of the rated value.

7. Set the field current 50% of the rated value.

8. Tight the belt an take down the necessary readings for the table 1 to find

the value of Kb.

9. Plot the graph Torque as Armature current to find Kt.

Finding Ra

1. Keep all switches in OFF position.

2. Initially keep voltage adjustment POT in minimum position.

3. Initially keep armature and field voltage adjustment POT in minimum

potential position.

4. Connect module armature output A and AA to motor armature terminal A to

AA respectively.

5. Switch ON the power switch and S1.

6. Now armature voltage and armature current are taken by varying the

armature POT with in the rated armature current value.

7. The average resistance value in the table -2 gives the armature resistance.

SERVOMOTOR:

Finding Rf

1. Keep all switches in OFF position.

2. Keep armature field voltage POT in minimum potential position.

3. Initially keep armature and field voltage adjustment POT in minimum

potential position.

4. Connect module filed output F and FF to motor filed terminal F and FF

respectively.

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

7

Page

6. Now filed voltage and filed current are taken by varying the armature POT

with in the rated armature current value.

7. Tabulate the value in the table no 3 average resistance values give the fied

resistance.

Finding Zf

1. Keep all switches in OFF position.

2. Keep armature and field voltage POT in minimum position.

3. Initially keep armature and field voltage adjustment POT in minimum

position.

4. Connect module varaic output P and N to motor filed terminal F and FF

respectively.

5. Switch on the power note down reading for the various AC supply by

adjusting varaic for the table no 4.

l

Finding Kt

1. Keep all switches OFF position.

2. Initially keep voltage adjustment POT in minimum potential position.

3. Initially keep armature and field voltage adjustment POT in minimum

position.

4. Connect the module armature output A and AA to motor armature terminal

and AA respectively, and field F and FF to motor field terminal F and FF

respectively.

5. Switch ON the power switch, S1 and S2.

6. Set the filed voltage at rated value (48V).

7. Adjust the armature voltage using POT on the armature side till it reaches

the 1100 rpm.

l

8. Tight the belt and take down the necessary reading for the table 5 Kt

l

9. Plot the graph Torque as Field current to find Kt

OBSERVATION TABLE FOR TRANSFER FUNCTION OF ARMATURE

CONTROL DC SERVOMOTOR:

Table No:3 To find Rf

Sl.No

If (amp)

Vf (Volt)

Rf (ohm)

8

Page

Avg Rf =

Table No:4 To find Zf

Sl.No

If (amp)

mA

Sl.No

Vf (Volt)

Avg Zf =

l

Kt

If

Zf = Vf / If

Ia

S1

S2

T( N m)

N (rpm)

MODEL GRAPH:

Kt = T / If

Ia

Kt = T / Ia

Page 9

Field Current

Armature Current

VIVA QUESTIONS:

1. What are the main parts of a DC servo motor?

2. What are the two types of servo motor?

3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of a DC servo motor?

4. Give the applications of DC servomotor?

5. What do you mean by servo mechanism?

6. What do you mean by field controlled DC servo motor?

MODEL CALCULATION:

10

Page

Result:

EXPT.NO :

DATE

AIM:

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

11

Page

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No

Range

Type

Quantity

OUTPUT

VOLTAGE

CURRENT

SPEED

:

:

:

:

FUSE RATINGS:

Blocked rotor test: 125% of rated current.

THEORY:

An servo motor is basically a two phase induction type except for certain

special design features. A two phase servomotor differ in the following two ways

from a normal induction motor.

The rotor of the servomotor is built with high resistance. So that its X / R

(Inductive reactance / resistance) ratio is small which result in liner speed torque

characteristics. The excitation voltage applied to two stator winding should have

o

a phase difference of 90

WORKING PRINCIPLE OF AC SERVOMOTOR

o

Voltages of equal rms magnitude and 90 phase difference excite the stator

o

winding. These results in exciting current i1 and i2 that are phase displaced by 90

and have equal rms value. These current are rise to a rotating magnetic field of

constant magnitude. The direction of rotation depends on the phase relationship of

the two current (or voltage).

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

12

Page

The rotating magnetic field sweeps over the rotor conductor. The rotor

conductors experience a change in flux and so voltage are induced in rotor

conductors. This voltage circulates current in the short circuited rotor conductors

and the current creates rotor flux.

Due to the interaction of stator and rotor flux, a mechanical force (or torque)

is developed on the rotor and the rotor starts moving in the same direction as that

of rotating magnetic field.

FORMULA:

Laplace Transform of output

Transfer Function =

Laplace Transform of input

(s) / Es(s) = K1 / sJ + K2 + B = Km / 1 + s ------ (1)

Km = K1 / (K2 + B) ------------------------------- motor gain constant (2)

m

S = applied load in Kg

R = radius of shaft in m = 0.068 m

Constant Values:

2

Table No: 1

OBSERVATION TABLE FOR DETERMINIG MOTOR CONSTANT

K1 :

S.No

Load

(kg)

Control

Voltage (Vc)

Torque

(Nm)

13

Page

Table No: 2

OBSERVATION TABLE FOR DETERMINING MOTOR CONSTANT

K2 :

S.No

Speed (N)

rpm

Load

(kg)

Torque

(Nm)

PRECAUTIONS:

i.

ii.

iii.

Keep the autotransformer in minimum potential position.

In blocked rotor test, block the rotor by tightening the belt around the the

brake drum before starting the experiment.

14

Page

PROCEDURE:

For determining motor constant K1

1. Keep variac in minimum potential position.

2. Connect banana connectors Pout to Pin and Nout to Nin.

3. Connect 9pin D connector from the motor feed back to the input of module

VPET 302.

4. Switch ON the 230V AC supply of the motor setup.

5. Switch ON the power switch.

6. Switch ON the S2 (main winding) and S1 (control winding) switches.

7. Set the rated voltage (230V) to control phase using VARIAC.

8. Apply load to the motor step by step until it reaching 0 rpm.

9. Take necessary readings for the table -1.

10.To calculate K1 plot the graph torque vs control winding.

1. Keep variac in minimum potential position.

2. Connect banana connectors Pout to Pin and Nout to Nin.

3. Connect 9pin D connector from the motor feed back to the input of module

VPET 302.

4. Switch ON the 230V AC supply of the motor setup.

5. Switch ON the power switch.

6. Switch ON the S2 (main winding) and S1 (control winding) switches.

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

15

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8. Apply load to the motor step by step until it reaches 0 rpm.

9. Take necessary readings for the table -2.

10.To calculate K2 plot speed vs torque curve.

MODEL GRAPH

MOTOR CONSTANT K2

MOTOR CONSTANT K1

K2 = T / N

V

N

Speed in rpm

K1= T / V

Speed in rpm

MODEL CALCULATION:

16

Page

VIVA QUESTIONS:

1. Define transfer function?

2. What is A.C servo motor? What are the main parts?

3. What is servo mechanism?

4. Is this a closed loop or open loop system .Explain?

5. What is back EMF?

Result:

AIM:

To study the time response of first and second order type 0 and type- 1 systems.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. Linear system simulator kit

2. CRO

FORMULAE USED:

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

17

Page

2

Where MP is peak percent overshoot obtained from the response graph

2

2. Undamped natural frequency, n = / tp (1 - )

Where tp is peak time obtained from the response graph

3. Closed loop transfer function of type-0 second order system is

C(s) / R(s) = G(s) / 1+G(s)

Where G(s) = K K2 K3 / [(1+sT1) (1 + sT2)]

K is the gain

K2 is the gain of the time constant 1 block =10

K3 is the gain of the time constant 2 block =10

T1 is the time constant time constant 1 block = 1 ms

T2 is the time constant time constant 2 block = 1 ms

4. Closed loop transfer function of type-1 second order system is

C(s) / R(s) = G(s) / 1+G(s)

Where G(s) = K K1 K2 /[s (1 + sT1)]

K is the gain

K1 is the gain of Integrator = 9.6

K2 is the gain of the time constant 1 block =10

T1 is the time constant of time constant 1 block = 1 ms

Theoretical Values of n and can be obtained by comparing the co-efficients of

the denominator of the closed loop transfer function of the second order system

with the standard format of the second order system where the standard format is

2

2

2

C(s) /R(s) = n / s + 2 ns + n

THEORY:

The type number of the system is obtained from the number of poles located at origin in a

given system. Type 0 system means there is no pole at origin. Type 1 system means there is

one pole located at the origin.

The order of the system is obtained from the highest power of s in the denominator of

closed loop transfer function of the system

The first order system is characterized by one pole or a zero. Examples of first order

systems are a pure integrator and a single time constant having transfer function of the form K/s

and K/ (sT+1). The second order system is characterized by two poles and upto two zeros. The

2

2

2

standard form of a second order system is C(s) /R(s) = n / (s + 2 ns + n ) where is

damping ratio and n is undamped natural frequency.

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

1. To find steady state error of type- 1 system

18

Page

19

Page

PROCEDURE:

1. To find the steady state error of type 1 first order system

1. The blocks are connected using the patch cords in the simulator kit.

2. The input triangular wave is set to 1 V peak to peak in the CRO and this is applied

to the REF terminal of error detector block. The input is also connected to the Xchannel of CRO.

3. The output from the system is connected to the Y- channel of CRO.

4. The experiment should be conducted at the lowest frequency so keep the frequency

knob in minimum position to allow enough time for the step response to reach near

steady state.

5. The CRO is kept in X-Y mode and the steady state error is obtained as the vertical

displacement between the two curves.

6. The gain K is varied and different values of steady state errors are noted.

2. To find the steady state error of type 0 first order system

1. The blocks are connected using the patch cords in the simulator kit.

2. The input square wave is set to 1 V peak to peak in the CRO and this is applied

to the REF terminal of error detector block. The input is also connected to the Xchannel of CRO.

3. The output from the system is connected to the Y- channel of CRO.

4. The CRO is kept in X-Y mode and the steady state error is obtained as the vertical

displacement between the two curves.

5. The gain K is varied and different values of steady state errors are noted.

3. To find the closed loop response of type 0 and type- 1 second order system

1. The blocks are connected using the patch cords in the simulator kit.

2. The input square wave is set to 1 V peak to peak in the CRO and this is applied

to the REF terminal of error detector block. The input is also connected to the Xchannel of CRO.

3. The output from the system is connected to the Y- channel of CRO.

4. The output waveform is obtained in the CRO and it is traced on a graph

sheet. From the waveform the peak percent overshoot, settling time, rise time,

peak time are measured. Using these values n and are calculated.

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

20

Page

5. The above procedure is repeated for different values of gain K and the values are

compared with the theoretical values.

TABULAR COLUMN:

1. To find the steady state error of type 1 first order system

S.No. Gain ,K

S.No. Gain ,K

S.No.

Ga Peak

in, percent

K Overshoot,

%MP

Rise

time,

tr

(sec)

Peak

time,

tp

(sec)

Settling

time,ts

(sec)

Graphical

Theoretical

ping natural

ping

ratio frequency, ratio

n (rad/sec)

Undamped

natural

frequency,

n(rad/sec)

Page 21

4. To find the closed loop response of type 1 second order system

S.No. Gain, Peak

K

percent

Overshoot,

%MP

Rise

time,

tr

(sec)

Theoretical

Peak Settling Graphical

time, time,ts Dam Undamped Damping Undamped

tp

(sec)

ping

natural

ratio

natural

(sec)

frequency,

ratio frequency,

n

n(rad/sec)

(rad/sec)

MODEL GRAPH:

MODEL CALCULATION:

RESULT

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

Page 22

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

23

Page

EXPT.NO :

DATE

AIM:

(i)

To obtain the bode plot, Nyquist plot and root locus of the given

transfer function.

(ii)

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

System with MATLAB

THEORY:

Frequency Response:

The frequency response is the steady state response of a system when the

input to the system is a sinusoidal signal.

Frequency response analysis of control system can be carried either

analytically or graphically. The various graphical techniques available for

frequency response analysis are

1. Bode Plot

2. Polar plot (Nyquist plot)

3. Nichols plot

4. M and N circles

5. Nichols chart

Bode plot:

The bode plot is a frequency response plot of the transfer function of a

system. A bode plot consists of two graphs. One is plot of the magnitude of a

sinusoidal transfer function versus log . The other is plot of the phase angle of a

sinusoidal transfer function versus log .

The main advantage of the bode plot is that multiplication of magnitude can

be converted into addition. Also a simple method for sketching an approximate log

magnitude curve is available.

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

24

Page

Polar plot:

The polar plot of a sinusoidal transfer function G (j ) on polar coordinates

as is varied from zero to infinity. Thus the polar plot is the locus of vectors G

(j ) G (j ) as

is varied from zero to infinity. The polar plot is also called

Nyquist plot.

Nyquist Stability Criterion:

If G(s)H(s) contour in the G(s)H(s) plane corresponding to Nyquist contour

in s-plane encircles the point 1+j0 in the anti clockwise direction as many times

as the number of right half s-plain of G(s)H(s). Then the closed loop system is

stable.

Root Locus:

The root locus technique is a powerful tool for adjusting the location of

closed loop poles to achieve the desired system performance by varying one or

more system parameters.

The path taken by the roots of the characteristics equation when open loop

gain K is varied from 0 to are called root loci (or the path taken by a root of

characteristic equation when open loop gain K is varied from 0 to is called root

locus.)

Frequency Domain Specifications:

The performance and characteristics of a system in frequency domain are

measured in term of frequency domain specifications. The requirements of a

system to be designed are usually specified in terms of these specifications.

The frequency domain specifications are

1. Resonant peak, Mr

2. Resonant Frequency, r.

3. Bandwidth.

4. Cut off rate

5. Gain margin

6. Phase margin

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

25

Page

Resonant Peak, Mr

The maximum value of the magnitude of closed loop transfer function is

called the resonant peak, Mr. A large resonant peak corresponds to a large over

shoot in transient response.

Resonant Frequency,

The bandwidth is the range of frequency for which the system gain is more

than -3db. The frequency at which the gain is -3db is called cut off frequency.

Bandwidth is usually defined for closed loop system and it transmits the signals

whose frequencies are less than cut-off frequency. The bandwidth is a measured of

the ability of a feedback system to produce the input signal, noise rejection

characteristics and rise time. A large bandwidth corresponds to a small rise time or

fast response.

Cut-Off Rate:

The slope of the log-magnitude curve near the cut off frequency is called

cut-off rate. The cut-off rate indicates the ability of the system to distinguish the

signal from noise.

Gain Margin, Kg

The gain margin, Kg is defined as the reciprocal of the magnitude of open

loop transfer function at phase cross over frequency. The frequency at witch the

phase of open loop transfer function is 180 is called the phase cross over

frequency, pc.

Phase Margin,

The phase margin , is that amount of additional phase lag at the gain cross

over frequency required to bring the system to the verge of instability, the gain

cross over frequency gc is the frequency at which the magnitude of open loop

transfer function is unity (or it is the frequency at which the db magnitude is zero).

PROCEDURE:

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

26

Page

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Create a new M file by selecting File New M File.

Type and save the program.

Execute the program by either pressing F5 or Debug Run.

View the results.

Analysis the stability of the system for various values of gain.

Problem 1

Obtain the bode diagram for the following system

x1

x

2

y1

y

2

0

25

0

25

1 x1

4 x 2

1 x1

4 x 2

1 1 y 1

0 1 y

MATLAB Program

a = [0 1 ; -25 -4]

b = [1 1 ; 0

1]

c = [1

1 ; 1

1]

d = [0 0 ; 0

0]

bode (a, b, c, d)

grid

title (BODE DIAGRAM)

Problem 2

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D),

1

AP/EsE

(Es, DCE 1 )

Page

27

MATLAB Program

num = [0

0

0]

den = [1

1

0]

nyquist (num,den)

v = [-2,2,-5,5]

axis (v)

grid

title (Nyquist Plot)

Problem 2

Obtain the root focus plot of the given open loop T.F is

G(s) H (s) =

s(

s

K

0 . 5 )( s

2

0.6

s

10 )

MATLAB Program

num = [0 0 0

0

den = [11.1 10.3 5

rlocus (num,den)

grid

title [Root Locus Plot]

1]

0]

Page

28

Result:

29

Page

EXPT.NO :

DATE

AIM:

To study the behavior of closed loop speed control system using

PID controller

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

(i)

(ii)

CRO

THEORY:

Closed loop system

Control system which the output has an effect upon the input quantity in such a

manner as to maintain the desired output value is called closed loop systems.

The open loop system can be modified as closed loop system by providing a

feedback. The provision of feedback automatically corrects the change in output

due disturbances. Hence the closed loop system is also called closed loop system.

The general block diagram of an automatic control system is given below. In

consists of an error detector, a controller, plant (open loop system) and feedback

path element.

The reference signal (or input signal) corresponds to desired output. The

feedback path elements sample the output and convert it to a signal of same type as

that of reference detector. The error signal generated by the error detector is the

difference between reference signal and feedback signal. The controller modifies

and amplifies the error signal to produce better control action. The modified error

signal is fed to the plant to correct its output.

PROCEDURE:

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

30

Page

1.

2.

3.

Set the speed of the motor using set position.

Vary the gain values of P,I, and D controller until to get the set speed to

current speed.

Repeat the above procedure for different values of set speed.

4.

Result:

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

31

Page

EXPT.NO :

DATE

AIM:

To study the operation of AC synchro transmitter and receiver

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No

Quantity

1 Nos

1 Nos

Patch cords

As required

THEORY:

A synchro is an electromagnetic transducer commonly used to

convert an angular position of a shaft into an electric signal. It is commercially

known as a selsyn or an autosyn. The basic synchro unit is usually called a synchro

transmitter. Its construction is similar to that of three phase alternator. The stator is

of laminated silicon steel and is slotted to accommodate a balanced three phase

winding which is usually of concentric coil type and star connected. The rotor is

dumb bell construction and its wound with a concentric coil.

AC voltage is applied to rotor winding through slip rings. Let and

AC voltage

Vr (t) = Vr sin ct be applied to the rotor of the synchro transmitter.

The voltage causes a flow of magnetizing current in rotor coil which produces a

sinusoidally time varying flux directed along its axis and distributed nearly

sinusoidally in the air gap along the stator periphery. Because of transformer

action, voltage is induced in each of the stator coil. As the air gap flux sinusoidally

distributed the flux linking with any stator coil is proportional to the cosine of the

angle between the axes of rotor and stator coil. This flux voltage in each stator coil.

Voltages are in time.

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

32

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phase with each other. Thus the synchro transmitter acts a like a single-phase

transformer in which the rotor coil is the primary and the stator coil is the

secondary.

Let Vs1n, Vs2n, Vs3n, be the voltage induced in the stator coils, S1, S2,

S3 respectively with respect to the neutral. Then for a rotor position of the synchro

transmitter, is the angle made by rotor axis with the stator coil S2.

The various stator voltages are

o

Vs2n = KVr sin ct cos

o

Vs1n = KVr sin ct cos ( + 240 )

The terminal voltages of the stator are

Vs1s2 Vs1n Vs2n

3 KVr sin(

3 KVr sin(

n

o

240 sin

o

120 ) sin

c

t

c

When = 0, Vs1s2 and Vs2 s3 have the maximum voltage and while Vs3s1 has

zero voltage. This position of rotor is defined as ht electrical zero of the transmitter

and is used as reference for specifying the angular position of the rotor.

Thus it is seen that the input to the synchro transmitter is the angular

position of its rotor shaft and the output is a set of three signal phase voltages. The

magnitudes of this voltage are function of the shift position. The output of the

synchro transmitter is applied to stator winding of synchro control transformer.

The control transmitter is similar in construction to a synchro transmitter

except for the fact that rotor of the control transformer in made cylindrical in shape

so that the air gap is practically uniform. The system (transmitter and control

transformer pair) acts an error detector, circulating current to the same phase but of

different magnitudes flow through two stator coils. The result is establishment of

an indentical flux pattern in the air gap of the control transformer as the voltage

drops in resistance and lockage reactances of two sets of stator coils are usually

small.

33

Page

OBSERVATION TABLE:

S.No

Transmitter

(Degree)

Receiver

(Degree)

Vs1 Vs2

Vs2 Vs3

Vs3 Vs1

Error

the synchro transmitter rotor, the voltage induced the control transformer rotor is

proportional to the cosine of the angle between the two rotors given by

E (t) = KVr cos sin

Page 34

The synchro transmitter and control transformer thus act as an error detector giving

a voltage signal at the rotor terminals of the control transformer proportional to the

angular difference between the transmitter control transformer shaft positions.

PROCEDURE:

1. Make the connections as per the patching diagram.

2. Switch ON the supply.

3. Vary the shaft position of the transmitter and observe the corresponding

changes in the shaft position of the receiver.

4. Repeat the above steps for different angles of the transmitter.

5. Tabulated the different voltage at the test points of S1 S2, S3S2, and S3S1.

Result:

CYCLE 2

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

35

Page

8. Digital Simulation of Non-Liner System.

9. Digital Simulation of Liner System.

10. Digital Simulation of Type 0 and Type 1 System.

EXPT.NO :

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

36

Page

DATE

AIM:

To simulate the time response characteristic of liner system with simple

non-linearities like saturation and dead zone.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

System with MATLAB 6.5

THEORY:

Non-Linear Systems:

The non linear system are system witch do not obey the principle of

superposition.

In practical engineering systems, there will be always some non linearity due

to friction, inertia, stiffness, backslash, hysteresis, saturation and dead zone. The

effect of the non linear components can be avoided by restricting the operation of

the component over a narrow limited range.

Classification of non linearities:

The non linearities can be classified as incidental and intentional.

The incidental non linearities are those which are inherently present in

the system. Common examples of incidental non linearities are saturation, dead

zone, coulomb friction, stiction, backlash, etc.

The intentional non linearities are those which are deliberately

inserted in the system to modify system characteristics. The most common

example of this type of non linearity is a relay.

Saturation:

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

37

Page

In this type of non linearity the output proportional to input for limited

range of input signals. When the input exceeds this range, the output tends to

become nearly constant.

All devices when driven by sufficient large signals, exhibit the

phenomenon of saturation due to limitations of their physical capabilities.

Saturation in the output of electronic, rotating and flow amplifiers, speed and

torque saturation in electric and hydraulic motors, saturation in the output of

sensors for measuring position, velocity, temperature, etc. are the well known

examples.

Dead Zone:

The dead zone is the region in witch the output is zero for given input.

Many physical devices do not respond to small signals, i.e., if the input amplitude

is less than some small value, there will be no output. The region in which the

output is zero is called dead zone. When the input is increased beyond this dead

zone value, the output will be linear.

PROCEDURE:

1. Double click on MATLAB 6.5 icon on desktop command window opens.

2. From File Tab, select New Model file.

3. A Simulink model screen opens a untitled.

4. From Simulink library select necessary blocks and place in new model

screen.

Block

Constant

Simulink-Continuous

Simulator

Simulink-Math operator

Transfer function

Simulink-Continuous

38

Page

Scope

Simulink sink

Simulink-Non-linear

5. Select properties for each item and connect them as shown in diagrams.

6. Select simulation Tab and configuration parameters and select ode23tb

model.

7. Save file under work directory.

8. Simulated the system with step and sine inputs with and without dead zone,

saturation non linearities.

9. Name the signals as mentioned in diagram and observe signal names on

scope by right clicking on response curve and by opening axes.

39

Page

40

Page

41

Page

Result:

EXPT.NO :

DATE

42

Page

AIM:

To simulate the time response characteristic of higher-order Multiinput multi output (MIMO) liner system using state variable formulation.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

MATLAB 6.5

THEORY:

Time Domain Specification

The desired performance characteristics of control systems are specified in

terms of time domain specification. System with energy storage elements

cannot respond instantaneously and will exhibit transient responses, whenever

they are subjected to inputs or disturbances.

The desired performance characteristics of a system of any order may be

specified in terms of the transient response to a units step input signal.

The transient response of a system to a unit step input depends on the initial

conditions. Therefore to compare the time response of various systems it is

necessary to start with standard initial conditions. The most practical standard is

to start with the system at rest and output and all time derivatives there of zero.

The transient response of a practical control system often exhibits damped

oscillation before reaching steady state.

The transient response characteristics of a control system to a unit step input

are specified in terms of the following time domain specifications.

1.

Delay time, td

2. Rise time, tr

3. Peak time, tp

4. Maximum overshoot, Mp

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

43

Page

5. Setting time, ts

FORMULA:

Risetime

d

where

tan

PROCEDURE:

7. Enter the command window of the MATLAB.

8. Create a new workspace by selecting new file.

9. Complete your model.

10.Run the model by either pressing F5 or start simulation.

11.View the results.

12.Analysis the stability of the system for various values of gain.

PROBLEM:

Obtain the step response of series RLC circuit with R = 1.3K , L = 26mH and

C=3.3 f using MATLAB M File.

PROGRAM:

num = [ 0 0 1 ]

den = [

1 0.2

1 ]

44

Page

impulse

(num, den)

grid

title ( unit impulse response plot)

MATLAB PROGRAM FOR UNIT STEP PRSPONSE:

PROGRAM:

Format long e

num = [ 0 0 1.6e10

den = [

step

1 50000

1.6e10

(num, den)

grid on

title (step response of series RLC circuit)

Result:

EXPT.NO :

DATE

45

Page

AIM:

To simulate the time response characteristics of first order second

order, type 0 and type 1 system using MATLAB.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

System employed with MATLAB 6.5

THEORY:

The desired performance characteristics of control system are specified in

terms of time domain specification. Systems with energy storage elements cannot

respond instantaneously and will exhibit transient responses, whenever they are

subjected to inputs or disturbances.

The desired performance characteristics of a system pf any order may be

specified in terms of the transient response to a unit step input signal.

The transient response of a system to unit step input depends on the initial

conditions. Therefore to compare the time response of various systems it is

necessary to start with standard initial conditions. The most practical standard is to

start with the system at rest and output and all time derivatives there of zero. The

transient response of a practical control system often exhibits damped oscillations

before reaching steady state.

The transient response characteristics of a control system to a unit step input

are specified in terms of the following time domain specifications.

1. Delay time, td

2. Rise time, tr

3. Peak time, tp

4. Maximum overshoot, Mp

5. Settling time, ts

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

46

Page

1. Delay Time:

It is the taken for response to reach 50% of the final value, for the very first

time.

2. Rise Time:

It is the time taken for response to raise from 0 to 100% for the very first

time. For under damped system, the rise time is calculated from 0 to 100%. But for

over damped system it is the time taken by the response to raise from 10% to 90%.

For critically damped system, it is the time taken for response to raise from 5% to

95%.

Risetime

d

Where

tan

1 s2/s

n 1 s

3. Peak Time:

It is the time taken for the response to reach the peak value for the very first

time. (or) It is the taken for the response to reach the peak overshoot, tp.

Peak time = / d

4. Peak Overshoot (Mp):

It is defined as the ration of the maximum peak value measured from final

value to the final value.

Let final value

c (e)

Maximum vale

c (tp)

Peak Overshoot, Mp =

c(tp )

c(e)

c(e)

47

Page

%M

s

3

x100

5. Settling Time:

It is defined as the time taken by the response to reach and stay within a

specified error. It is usually expressed as % of final value. The usual tolerable error

is 2% or 5% of the final value.

ts

for 2 % erroe

n

ts

for 5 % erroe

n

FORMULA:

%M

ts

s

1

x100

for 2 % erroe

n

ts

for 5 % erroe

n

48

Page

PROCEDURE:

Closed loop response of first order system:

1. Enter the command window of the MATLAB.

2. Create a new workspace by selecting new file.

3. Complete your model.

4. Run the model by either pressing F5 or start simulation.

5. Analysis the stability of the system for various values of gain

Closed loop response of second order system:

1. Enter the command window of the MATLAB.

2. Create a new workspace by selecting new file.

3. Complete your model.

4. Run the model by either pressing F5 or start simulation.

5. View the results.

6. Analysis the stability of the system for various values of gain.

General MATLAB coding for closed loop response for type 0 and type1

system:

PROGRAM:

clear all

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

49

Page

close all

clc

T1 = tf (2.25, [1 0.5 2.25 ])

p=pole (T1)

pre=abs (real (p(1))) pim=abs

(imag (p(1)))

wn=sqrt(pre*pre*+pim*pim)

damping _ratio=(pre/wn)

os=(exp(-1*pre*pi/pim))*100

tp=pi/pim

ts=4/pre

step(T1)

t=[ 0.1:0.1:25]

for x=1:length (t)

c (x)=1-1.01418*(cos (1.47902*t(x)-(9.59*pi/180))*exp(-25*t(x)))

end

figer

plot(t,c)

Result:

LAG COMPENSATOR

EXPT.NO :

DATE

50

Page

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

System employed with MATLAB 6.5

THEORY:

The control systems are designed to perform specific taskes. When

performance specification are given for single input. Single output linear time

invariant systems. Then the system can be designed by using root locus or

frequency response plots.

The first step in design is the adjustment of gain to meet the desired

specifications. In practical system. Adjustment of gain alone will not be sufficient

to meet the given specifications. In many cases, increasing the gain may result poor

stability or instability. In such case, it is necessary to introduce additional devices

or component in the system to alter the behavior and to meet the desired

specifications. Such a redesign or addition of a suitable device is called

compensations. A device inserted into the system for the purpose or satisfying the

specifications is called compensator. The compensator behavior introduces pole &

zero in open loop transfer function to modify the performance of the system.

The different types of electrical or electronic compensators used are lead

compensator and lag compensator.

In control systems compensation required in the following situations.

1. When the system is absolutely unstable then compensation is required

to stabilize the system and to meet the desired performance.

2. When the system is stable. Compensation is provided to obtain the

desired performance.

LAG COMPENSATOR:

A compensator having the characteristics of a lag network is called a lag

compensator. If a sinusoidal signal is applied to a lag network, then in steady state

the output will have a phase lag with respect input.

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

51

Page

result in slower response due to reduced bandwidth. The attenuation due to the lag

compensator will shift the gain crossover frequency to a lower frequency point

where the phase margin is acceptable. Thus the lag compensator will reduce the

bandwidth of the system and will result in slower transient response.

Lag compensator is essentially a low pass filter and high frequency noise

signals are attenuated. If the pore introduce by compensator is cancelled by a zero

in the system, then lag compensator increase the order of the system by one.

FORMULA:

B

A

Gain

y0

x0

20 log( B / A )

Phase

sin ( x 0 / A)

sin

(y /B)

0

PROCEDURE:

With out compensator:

1. Make the connection as per the circuit diagram.

2. Apply the 2V p-p sin wave input and observe the waveform.

3. Very the frequency of the sin wave input and tabulate the values of xo and yo

4. Calculated gain and phase angle.

5. Draw the bode plot.

With lag compensator:

1. From the bode plot find the new gain crossover frequency.

2. Find out values and writ the frequency function. G(s).

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

Page

52

4. Set the amplifier gain at unity.

5. Insert the lag compensator with the help of passive components and

determine the phase margin of the plant.

6. Observe the step response of the compensated system.

MATLAB coding with Compensator:

PROGRAM:

num

= [ 0 0 100

5 ];

den

= [ 400

1 0 ];

sys

= (sys)

margin

202

(sys)

title (BODE PLOT OF COMPENSATED SYSTEM)

MATLAB coding with out lag Compensator:

PROGRAM:

num

= [ 0 0 5 ];

den

= [ 2 1 0 ];

sys

= tf (num, den)

bode

(sys)

Margin (sys)

[ gm, ph, wpc, wgc ] = margin (sys).

title (BODE PLOT OF UNCOMPENSATED SYSTEM);

Page 53

Result:

LEAD COMPENSATOR:

A compensator having the characteristics of a lead network is called a lead

compensator. If sinusoidal signal is applied to a lead network, then in steady state

the output will have a phase lead with respect to input.

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

54

Page

The lead compensator increase the bandwidth, which improves the speed of

response and also reduces the amount of overshoot. Lead compensation

appreciably improves the transient response, whereas there is a small change in

steady state accuracy. Generally lead compensation is provided to make an

unstable system as a stable system. A lead compensator is basically a high pass

filter and so it amplifies high frequency noise signals. If the pole is introduced by

the compensator is not cancelled by a zero in the system, then lead compensator

increases order of the system by one.

FORMULA:

Gain

B

A

y0

x0

20 log( B / A )

Phase

sin ( x 0 / A)

sin

(y /B)

0

PROCEDUR:

1. Enter the command window of MATLAB.

2. Create a New M-File by selecting file New M-File.

3. Type and save the program.

4. Execute the program by pressing F5 or Debug Run.

5. View the results.

6. Analyze the Results.

With lead compensator:

1. Enter the command window of the MATLAB.

2. Create a new M file by selecting File New M-File.

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

Page

55

4. Execute the program by either pressing F5 or Debug Run.

5. View the results.

6. Analysis the result.

MATLAB coding with out Compensator for loop system

PROGRAM:

den=[ 1 0.739 0.921 0 ];

pitch=tf(num, den);

sys_cl=feedback (pitch,1);

de=0.2;

t=0:0.01:10;

figure

step(de*sys_cl, t)

sys_cl=feedback (pitch,10);

de=0.2;

t=0:0.01:10;

bode(sys_cl, t)

grid on

title ( 'BODE PLOT FOR CLOSED LOOP SYSTEM WITHOUT

COMPENSATOR')

PROGRAM:

PREPARED BY V.BALAJI ,M.Tech, (Ph.D), AP/EEE, DCE

56

Page

den=[1 0.739 0.921 0 ];

pitch=tf(num, den);

alead=200;

Tlead=0.0025;

K=0.1;

lead=tf(K*[alead*Tlead 1], [Tlead 1]);

bode(lead*pitch)

sys_cl=feedback(lead*pitch,10);

de=0.2;

t=0:0.01:10;

figure

step (de*sys_cl, t)

title('BODE PLOT FOR CLOSED LOOP SYSTEM WITH

COMPENSATOR')

Result:

57

Page

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