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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Noodles are a staple food in many cultures made from

unleavened dough which is stretched, extruded, or rolled
flat and cut into one of a variety of shapes. A single
noodle can be made, eaten, or extracted from a serving of
noodles, but it is far more common to serve and eat many
at once, and thus more common to see the plural form of
the word.


While long, thin strips may be the most common, many

varieties of noodles are cut into waves, helices, tubes,
strings, or shells, or folded over, or cut into other shapes.
Noodles are usually cooked in boiling water, sometimes
with cooking oil or salt added. They are often pan-fried or
deep-fried. Noodles are often served with an
accompanying sauce or in a soup. Noodles can be
refrigerated for short-term storage, or dried and stored for
future use. The material composition or geocultural origin
must be specified when discussing noodles. The word




Attributed to people of Qijia culture,

Arabian and/or Mediterranean origin

derives from the German word Nudel.[2] The oldest

evidence of noodle consumption, from 4,000 years ago,

Unleavened dough

has been found in China.[3]

Misua noodle making in Lukang, Taiwan




Cookbook: Noodle

1 History
1.1 Asia
1.2 Europe and the Near East
2 Types by primary ingredient
2.1 Wheat
2.2 Rice
2.3 Buckwheat
2.4 Others
3 Types of dishes
4 Preservation
5 See also

Media: Noodle

6 References
7 Bibliography

The origin of noodles is ambiguous. Claims have been made that the
noodle was invented by people of Qijia culture, of Arabian and of
Mediterranean origin.[1] Given the scarcity of physical evidence, it is
unlikely that the question of origin can even be answered with
In 2005, a team of archaeologists working in the People's Republic
of China reported finding an earthenware bowl that contained foxtail
millet and broomcorn millet.[4] noodles at the Lajia archaeological
site, arguably hailing from the late neolithic period. But this claim
was disputed by later research,[5] which suggested that noodles
simply cannot be produced from millet, a cereal that lacks gluten, a
necessary protein.[6]
The earliest written record of noodles is found in a book dated to the
Eastern Han period (25220).[3] Noodles, often made from wheat
dough, became a staple food for people of the Han Dynasty (206
BCE - 220 CE).[7] During the Tang Dynasty, the noodles were first
cut into strips, and in the Yuan Dynasty, the making of dried noodles

Vermeer van Utrecht's painting of a

man eating noodles (National
Museum, Warsaw).

Wheat noodles in Japan (udon) were adapted from a Chinese recipe by a Buddhist monk as early as the 9th
century. Reshteh noodles were eaten by the people of Persia by the 13th century. Innovations continued, as
for example, noodles made from kudzu (naengmyeon) were developed in the Joseon Dynasty of Korea
(13921897). Ramen noodles, based on Chinese noodles, became popular in Japan by 1900.
Instant noodles were invented by Momofuku Ando and first
marketed in Japan in 1958.[8] According to Ando's method, a bundle
of fresh noodles is flash-fried, which dries them out and provides for
a long shelf life.

Europe and the Near East

In the 1st century BCE, Horace wrote of fried sheets of dough called
lagana.[9] However, the method of cooking these sheets of dough,
lagana, does not correspond to the current definition of either a fresh
or dry pasta product, which only had similar basic ingredients and

A bowl of roasted beef noodles.

perhaps the shape.[10] In the 2nd century CE, the Greek physician Galen mentioned itrion, referring to all

homogenous mixtures from flour and water.[11] The Latinized itrium was used as a reference to a kind of
boiled dough.[11] The Jerusalem Talmud records that itrium was common in the Byzantine Provinces of
Palaestina Prima and Palaestina Secunda from the 3rd to 5th centuries CE.[12] Arabs adapted noodles for
long journeys in the 5th century, the first written record of dry pasta. The 9th-century Arab physician Isho
bar Ali defines itriyya, the Arabic cognate of the Greek word, as string-like shapes made of semolina and
dried before cooking.[13] Muhammad al-Idrisi wrote in 1154 that itriyya was manufactured and exported
from Norman Sicily. Itriya was also known by the Aramaic speakers under the Persian sphere and during the
Islamic rule referred to a small soup noodle prepared by twisting bits of kneaded dough into shape.[14]
The first concrete information on pasta products in Italy dates to the 13th or 14th centuries.[15] Pasta has
taken on a variety of shapes, often based on regional specializations. Since at least the 20th century, pasta
has become a staple in North America and elsewhere.
In the area that would become Germany, written mention of Sptzle has been found in documents dating
from 1725, although medieval illustrations are believed to place this noodle at an even earlier date.[16]

Types by primary ingredient



Bakmi: Southeast Asian

Makguksu (): local
Chinese yellow wheat noodles
The different types of noodles
specialty of Gangwon
with meat, usually chicken
Province in South Korea
commonly found in south-east
Memil naengmyeon (
Chka men ():
): Korean noodles
Japanese for "Chinese
made of buckwheat, slightly
noodles", used for ramen,
more chewy than soba
champon, and yakisoba
Kesme: flat, yellow or reddish
Soba (): Japanese
brown Central Asian wheat
buckwheat noodles
Pizzoccheri: Italian
Kalguksu (): knife-cut
buckwheat tagliatelle from
Korean noodles
Valtellina, usually served
with a melted cheese sauce
Lamian (): hand-pulled
Chinese noodles
Wide, uncooked egg noodles.
Mee pok (): flat, yellow Others
Chinese noodles, popular in
Southeast Asia
Acorn noodles, also known
Reshte: Central Asian, flat
as dotori guksu (
noodle, very pale in colour
) in Korean, are made of
(almost white) used in Persian
acorn meal, wheat flour,
and Afghani cuisine
wheat germ, and salt.
Olchaeng-chi guksu,
Smen (): thin
meaning tadpole noodles,
variety of Japanese wheat
are made of corn soup put
noodles, often coated with
through a noodle maker
vegetable oil
Idiyappam, Indian rice noodles.
right into cold water. It was
Sptzle: a Swabian type of
named for its features.
noodle made of wheat and
These Korean noodles are mostly eaten in Gangwon-do.

Thukpa (Tibetan: u
, Wylie: thug pa): flat
Tibetan noodles
Udon (): thicker
variety of Japanese wheat
Kishimen (): flat
variety of Japanese wheat

Cellophane noodles are made from mung bean. These can also
be made from potato starch, canna starch or various starches of
the same genre.
Chilk naengmyeon ( ): Korean noodles made of starch
from kudzu root, known as kuzuko in Japanese, chewy and
Shirataki noodles (): Japanese noodles made of
konjac(devil's tongue)
Kelp noodles, made from seaweed

Flat or thick rice noodles, also
known as h fn or ho fun (
), kway teow or sen yai (
Rice vermicelli: thin rice
noodles, also known as mfn
() or bee hoon or sen mee
Idiyappam is an Indian rice
Khanom chin is a fermented
rice noodle used in Thai

Types of dishes
Basic noodles: These are cooked in water or broth, then drained. Other foods can be added or the
noodles are added to other foods (see fried noodles) or the noodles can be served plain with a dipping
sauce or oil to be added at the table. In general, noodles are soft and absorb flavors.
Chilled noodles: noodles that are served cold, sometimes in a salad. Examples include Thai glass
noodle salad and cold udon.
Fried noodles: dishes made of noodles stir fried with various meats, seafood, vegetables, and dairy
products. Typical examples include chow mein, lo mein, mie goreng, hokkien mee, some varieties of
pancit, yakisoba, Curry Noodles (http://kamalkitchen.com/curry-noodles-recipe/), and pad thai.
Noodle soup: noodles served in broth. Examples are ph, beef noodle soup, chicken noodle soup,
ramen, laksa, saimin, and batchoy.

Instant noodles
Frozen noodles

See also
Chinese noodles
Japanese noodles

Look up noodle in

Korean noodles
Macaroni art
Filipino pancit
List of noodles
List of noodle restaurants
List of foods
Vietnamese noodles

Wiktionary, the free

Wikimedia Commons has
media related to Noodles.



Serventi & Sabban 2002, pp. 271-344.

Harper, Douglas. "noodle". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 14 October 2009.
Roach, John (12 October 2005). "4,000-Year-Old Noodles Found in China". National Geographic. pp. 12.
Lu, Houyuan; Yang, Xiaoyan; Ye, Maolin; et al. (13 October 2005). "Culinary archaeology: Millet noodles in Late
Neolithic China". Nature 437 (7061): 967. doi:10.1038/437967a.
GE, W., LIU, L., CHEN, X. and JIN, Z. (2011), Can noodles be made from millet? An experimental investigation of
noodle manufacture together with starch grain analyses. Archaeometry, 53: 194204. doi: 10.1111/j.14754754.2010.00539.x
Sabban, Francoise (17 October 2012). "A scientific controversy in China over the origins of noodles". Open Edition.
Retrieved 25 November 2015.
Sinclair & Sinclair 2010, p. 91.
"Momofuku Ando". The Sunday Times (TIMESONLINE). 10 January 2007.(subscription required)
Serventi & Sabban 2002, pp. 1516 & 24.
Serventi & Sabban 2002, pp. 1516.
Serventi & Sabban 2002, p. 17.
Serventi & Sabban 2002, p. 29.
"A medical text in Arabic written by a Jewish doctor living in Tunisia in the early 900s" (Dickie 2008: 21).
Rodinson, Perry & Arberry 2001, p. 253.
Serventi & Sabban 2002, p. 10.
"City Profile: Stuttgart" (PDF). London: Embassy of Germany, London. Retrieved 26 November 2015. "Sptzle is a
city specialty"

Dickie, John (1 October 2010), Delizia! The Epic History of Italians and Their Food (Paper), New York: Atria
Books, ISBN 0743278070, ISBN 978-0743278072
Errington, Frederick et al. eds. The Noodle Narratives: The Global Rise of an Industrial Food into the Twenty-First
Century (U. of California Press; 2013) 216 pages; studies three markets for instant noodles: Japan, the United States,
and Papua New Guinea.
Rodinson, Maxime; Perry, Charles; Arberry, Arthur J. (2001). Medieval Arab Cookery (Hardback). United Kingdom:
Prospect Books. p. 253. ISBN 0907325912. ISBN 9780907325918.
Serventi, Silvano; Sabban, Franoise (2002). Pasta: the Story of a Universal Food. New York: Columbia University
Press. ISBN 0231124422. ISBN 9780231124423.
Sinclair, Thomas R.; Sinclair, Carol Janas (2010). Bread, beer, and the seeds of change: Agriculture's imprint on
world history. Wallingford: CABI. p. 91. ISBN 978-1-84593-704-1.

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Categories: Noodles Staple foods Chinese inventions Ancient dishes
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