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THE INFINITIVE

To express purpose:
He reduced his working hours to look after the children.
After adjectives:
We know we are unlikely to have a house with all mod cons.
Women are freer to express their emotions.
Also with too + adjective, and adjective + enough
This tea is too hot ( for me ) to drink.
Are you strong enough to lift that by yourself?
1.- Complete the following sentences, using an infinitive with "to".
a) Hes got to go on a diet...................................................................................................
b) Weve decided to employ an architect............................................................................
c) They telephoned the police..............................................................................................
d) Theres a plumber coming tomorrow..............................................................................
e) I went to the doctors ......................................................................................................
f) We had to call the Fire Brigade.......................................................................................
g) He joined the army..........................................................................................................
h) ......................................the team will have to play extremely well.

2.- To complete the following sentences, choose an adjective from List A and a verb
from List B. Dont forget to use " to " with the infinitive
List A: delighted, certain, simple, important, hard, amazed, anxious, disappointed.
List B: meet, check, know, use, believe, be, hear, see.
a) They told me in the shop that this camera was.........................................but I cant
get used to it at all!
b) I was.......................................................from his mother that he didnt get the job he
wanted so much.
c) Im sure youre all very...........................................what your exam results are.
d) You can wait for him if you like - Hes...................................................home before
6 oclock.
e) Its ....................................................its June when you see all this rain!
f) Ive learned so much about you and Im..................................................you at last.
g) We were all ...........................................your picture in the paper. How on earth did
that come about?
h) Its very .......................................................that the electricity is switched off before
you start.
3.-Complete the following sentences:
a) This case is too heavy for me.............................................................................
b) There arent enough eggs....................................................................................
c) Is the runway long enough for the plane.............................................................
d) The weather is too bad for the ship.....................................................................
e) Hes too short-sighted .........................................................................................
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f) Have you had enough practice............................................................................


After main verbs:
Pam has learnt not to be too concerned about the standard of housework.
They seem to have it all taped.
Other common verbs which take a infinitive with " to " are:
Afford
Agree
Pretend
Intend
Decide
Mean

ask
begin
prepare
promise
appear

expect
fail
arrange
prefer
seem

help
hope
choose
refuse
learn

manage
offer
happen
plan
need

After the object of a verb:


He taught me to play the piano.
Other common verbs which take an object followed by an infinitive with " to " are:
Advise
Allow
Ask
Tell
Wish

encourage
expect
forbid
recommend

force
get
help
remind

intend
invite
leave
want

order
persuade
prefer
warn

4.-Complete the following sentences with suitable verbs from the two lists above. Fill in
an object where necessary.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)

We did everything we could to ....................................come with us, but he refused.


Would you..........................have tea or coffee?
If you.................................see him, please give him my regards.
Could you .....................................set the alarm for 6 a.m. ? It would be terrible if I
overslept.
When I was a child, my parents................................... play in the street, though I
wanted to.
Are you sure you can...................................to buy a new car? Wouldnt a second
hand one be wiser.
He.....................................take a course in typing and said it would be very useful for
me.
When I leave school, I.................................get a job in a television studio.
If you take on an assistant, it will..................................get through your work more
quickly.
I ......................................climb the tree, but you ignored me. Now I dont know how
well get you down.

After some auxiliary verbs:


He has to make an effort
You need to take more care.
Other verbs in this group are: be, ought, used
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THE INFINITIVE WITHOUT " TO " IS USED:


-After modal verbs.
You should come and see us more often.
Other verbs in this group are: will, shall, would, should, can, could, may, might, must.
-After " make " and " let ":
You cant make me do anything!

Let the next patient come in now

-After "would rather", "had better" and "why not...?"


Id rather take a train (than fly)

Youd better stay in bed

Why not come with us?

THE GERUND
The Gerund or -ing form is a verbal noun. Gerunds can:

a) Stand on their own as nouns:


Campings fine for a couple of weeks.

b) Follow certain verbs:


I enjoy camping very much.

c) Follow prepositions:
I like the idea of camping.
1.-GERUNDS AFTER PREPOSITIONS
1.-There have been several examples of gerunds following prepositions in the texts so
far. Choose the correct preposition from the list below to complete the sentences.
While
after
before
without
by
a)They decided to warm up...................cycling on.
b)The horseman rode for over a mile.......................stopping at a large camp in the
mountains.
c)By about 10 am we were back on the road.......................thanking the man for
everything he had done.
d)(The two cyclists reached India). There............................cycling through a small
village on the road, they met a young man.
e)Mat rode straight over.........................even slowing down.
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In fact the gerund may be used after all prepositions. Here is another example.
Its just a case of changing the money as you get into the new country.
2.-Complete the following sentences by adding the correct prepositions and the gerund
form of a suitable verb. (There is a list of the missing prepositions below if you need
help)
a)I left home as soon as I was capable..............................enough money to live on.
b)I would never use your telephone................................your permission first.
c)He explained that the machine was used.............................the bread into thin slices.
d)Im afraid Im awfully bad.........................names. Whats yours again?
e)She insisted...............................her share of the bill.
f)He gave up his job because he was fed up.............................such long hours.
g)My parents did nothing to prevent me...............................a pop music group.
h)I had some difficulty......................................a taxi at the station.
At

for

from

in

of

on

with

without

The gerund also follows "to" when is is used as a preposition. The phrases below are
the most common examples of this use and are well worth remembering!
Look forward to

object to

prefer.......to..........

be used to

3.-Finish the sentences below with a suitable gerund form.


a)Theres a small entrance fee and so far no one has objected to........................................
b)Although hes a champion jockey, he actually prefers breeding dogs to.........................
c)Now Ive got a relly good camera. Im looking forward to.............................................
d)Dont worry about leaving me in charge of the children, Im quite used to....................

2.-GERUNDS AFTER VERBS


We have studied before that verbs showing preference are usually followed by gerunds
(like, hate, prefer), however the list is longer; here you have other common verbs which
are also followed by gerunds:
Admit
Appreciate
Avoid
Consider
Delay
Deny

dislike
enjoy
finish
give up
cant help
imagine

involve
keep
mention
mind
miss
postpone

practise
put off
resist
risk
suggest
cant stand

1.-Match the two halves of the sentences below so that they make sense.
a.He had been considering
b.The smell of the soup put me off
c.In court she strongly denied
d.He looked so funny that I couldnt help
e.If you dont take a map you risk

1.meeting again till September.


2.getting completely lost.
3.starting his own company.
4.being anywhere near the scene of
the crime.
5.wanting to taste it.
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f.Before our holiday we practised


g.As everyone was away we postponed
h.Its so hot, would you mind

6.opening the window.


7.laughing out loud
8.saying a few phrases in Greek

2.-Complete the following sentences with suiltable gerunds.


a)If you seriously want to save money, youd better give up..............................................
b)I dont mind most housework but I cant stand................................................................
c)The puppies looked so sweet that I couldnt resist...........................................................
d)If you want to learn to ride a horse you wont be able to avoid.......................................
e)Must you keep.....................................?Its really annoying.
f)Id hate to be a miner. Can you imagine.............................................?
g)Can I have the newspaper if youve finished..............................................?
h)The man the police caught finally admitted.....................................................................
i)When he said hed forgotten the phone number, I suggested...........................................
j)My job as Tourist Officer for Birmingham involves........................................................
3.GERUNDS AFTER OTHER EXPRESSIONS
Gerunds are also always used after the expressions in the following examples.
Its no use crying about
Its no good complaining to me!
The exam isnt worth worrying

GERUND AND INFINITIVE


1.Some verbs can be followed by either the gerund or infinitive with no difference,
or only a small difference in meaning.
a) like, love, hate, prefer. (Anyway, as we studied before, it is more common to
use them followed by gerunds). For example:
Do you watch much TV? Well, I like watching/ to watch the breakfast show = enjoy (no
difference but the first one is more common)
However, after would, the infinitive is normally used.
-Would you like to go for a walk?
-Id hate to miss the chance.
-Wed love to hear from you.
b) begin, start. For example:
-Its started snowing/ to snow ( no difference although the gerund is more common )
After the continuous form of a verb, only the infinitive is used. For example:
-Its beginning to get dark.
2.Some verbs can be followed by either the gerund or infinitive, but with a
difference of meaning:
a) Remember / forget
Past action ..............I dont remember seeing you at the party. Were you there?
..............Ill never forget flying over the Alps for the first time
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Future action.............Dont forget to feed the cat, will you?


..............Did you remember to post that letter while you were out?
Remind (just remember that the meaning of this verb is recordarle a alguien hacer
algo):
.................Remind me to lock the door before I leave.
.................Remember me to lock the door would be incorrect.

b) Regret
Past action................He regrets stealing the money now
................Ill always regret not going to university
Regret ..........to say........................I regret to say I lost my temper with him.
Regret...........to inform (you)........We regret to inform you that your flight has
been delayed.
Regret...........to tell (you)...............Mr Brown regrets to tell you that he is unable to
see you today.
c) Stop
When stop is followed by a gerund it means to finish an action.
Could you stop shouting?
When stop is followed by an infinitive, it means to interrupt one action in order to
do something else.
We had to stop to walk to look at the map.
d) Try
When try is followed by a gerund it means to test an effect.
Try playing the music softly and you may hear the violins in the background.
When try is followed by an infinitive, it means to strive.
I try to do my best.