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Council for Research in Music Education

A Study of Instructional Strategies for Teaching Expressive Performance in the Choral


Rehearsal
Author(s): Paul Broomhead
Source: Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, No. 167 (Winter, 2006), pp.
7-20
Published by: University of Illinois Press on behalf of the Council for Research in Music Education
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Broomhead

A Studyof Instructional
Strategies

A StudyofInstructional
forTeachingExpressive
Strategies
in theChoral
Performance
Rehearsal
Paul Broomhead
Brigham Young University
Provo, Utah

ABSTRACT
Thepurposeofthisstudywas to ascertaininstructionaltechniquesused bythreeexemplarychoral
teachersto addressperformanceexpressionin thesecondarychoralrehearsal.Data weregathered
observation,videotaping,and interviews.Seven categoriesofinstruction
throughnon-participant
attendedrehearsals,transcribedvideotapedrehearsals,and interviewed
as
the
researcher
emerged
the threeteachersregardingtheirstrategies
for teachingexpression.Categoriesincludedstudentteacherfeedback,detailinitiatedinput,teacherinquiry,extramusicalreference,
demonstration,
teachers
use
a wide rangeofdiverse
the
the
The
revealed
and
following:(1)
conducting. study
ing,
guiding
performance,(2) thereis a lack offormalprescription
for teachingexpressive
techniques
the observedtechniques,and (3) the commonteacherbehaviorcategorytermsverbal and nonverbal wereincompatiblewithexpressive
strategies manytechniques
performanceinstructional
both.
a
combination
of
being

INTRODUCTION
David Elliottwrote,"Anessentialtaskof musicteachingand learningis to developstudent musicianshipin regardto musicalexpressiveness"
(Elliott,1995, p. 156). Indeed,
if studentsare to develop a well-roundedset of musical skills and understandings,
as one of our mostvalued performance
aspects,mustbe an instructional
expressiveness,
natureof expressive
the
that
address
are
needed
answers
performance
Empirical
priority.
of
is
in
which
the
itself, ways
taught,the effectiveness
expressiveperformance currently
thatmay be made in orderto bring
currentinstructional
practices,and improvements
of students.This reportfocuseson the first
about the independentexpressiveness
two questions.First,it brieflydiscussesthe natureof expressiveperformance:then it
presentsfindingsof a qualitativestudythatexaminedhow expressiveperformanceis
and reccurrently
beingtaughtin some schools.Althoughevaluationsof effectiveness
arenotwithinthepurviewof thisstudy,discussionsof
ommendationsforimprovement
thesefactorsare presentedelsewhere(Broomhead,2001; Broomhead,2005).

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Bulletinof the Council forResearch in Music Education

THE NATURE OF EXPRESSIVE

Winter2006

No. 167

PERFORMANCE

because of its all-inclusivenature.Skills,


Definingexpressiveperformanceis difficult
all
musical
elementscan be seen as factorsin
intuition,
feelings,
imagery virtually
on
expressiveperformance.Writings expressiveperformanceare plentifuland often
richin detail,but stilldo not providea consensusas to how thiscomplexcapability
shouldbe prescribedin instruction.
In writingas well as in practice,different
educators
of
different
of
have
sets
rules
thatthey
Some
emphasize
aspects expression.
proposed
believegovernexpression.However,theserulesvarygreatlyfromconductorto conductor,leavingus farfromhavinga consensualset of governingprinciplesforexpressive
And while it is truethatteacherscan oftenagreein a generalsenseas to
performance.
whethera particularmusicalperformance
is expressiveor not, giventhe same piece to
would
have
varied
perform,
they
likely
widely
expressiveinterpretations.
The complexityof expressiveperformingis clearlydemonstratedby research
its characteristics,
and emotionalnature.Perhapsthe loninvestigating
prescribability,
in
tradition
gest-standing
expressiveperformanceresearchfocuseson the directmeasurementof duration,frequency,
sonance,and intensityin the musicalperformances
of experts,a strategy
pioneeredby Seashore(1934) overhalfa centuryago, and revived
morerecently
byGabrielsson(1974, 1987), Povel(1977), Shaffer(1981), Repp (2000),
and others.A typicalapproach in such studiesis to analyzeexpertperformances
in
termsof how the performance
deviatesfromthewrittenscore.Patternsin thesedeviationshelp researchers
to identify
commonpracticesin expressiveperformance.
Indeed,
some patternshave been identified,but the complexityand inconsistency
have also
remainedapparent.
In a second researcharea, researchershave attemptedto defineexpressiveperformanceforprescriptive
purposesby programming
computersto performa melody
according to various combinations of expressive"rules" (Sundberg et al., 1983;
Thompson et al., 1989). These studiesoriginallyproduceda numberof rulesshown
to relateto one's perceptionof whethera givenperformance
is expressiveor not (for
example, "the higher,the louder"). It was also demonstratedthat many principles
previouslypresumedto be expressiverulesin factdid nothold up undersuch testing,
attestingagain to the evasivenessof consensusregardingexpression.
A thirdapproach to studyingexpressiveperformanceasked expertsto perform
a piece while deliberatelyattemptingto communicateone of severalbasic emotions:
tender,solemn,etc. (Gabrielsson& Linstrom,1995; Dry &
happy,sad, angry,fearful,
that"certainperformers
are able
Gabrielsson,1997). These studieshave demonstrated
to expressemotionssuch thattheyare reliablyperceived"(Gabrielsson,1999, p. 51).
Such resultsindicatethe existenceof common understandings
regardingexpression,
but such agreementhas thusfarbeen foundonlyin reference
to the mostgeneraland
basic of emotions.Furthermore,
even ifmorecomplexemotionswereidentifiable,
any
in
or
would soon be obscuredby
clarity defining prescribingexpressiveperformance
8

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A Studyof Instructional
Strategies

Broomhead

has
namely,
bythequestionofwhatemotional
expression
entanglements,
philosophical
decisions
to do withexpressive
byperformers.
fromall three
have recently
combinedtacticsand findings
researchers
Finally,
Windsor
&
models
in
to
1992;
(Todd,
expressive
approaches attempts developgenerative
etal.,2002).The
2000;Juslin
2000; Clarke& Windsor,
Clarke,1997;Bresin& Fiberg,
ingeneratinthesestudies
havebecomeverysophisticated
modelsproduced
algorithmic
continue
to findenoughpattern
andorderin
andgenerally
performance
ingexpressive
reveal
The
alive
and
well.
same
interest
remains
research
that
studies,
however,
expression
In
of expressive
abundancetheimmensecomplexity
in ever-increasing
performance.
to
nature
of
an
individual's
and
the
individual
addition,
ability perform
expressubjective
modelofanykind.
resists
andmayultimately
bya universal
denycapture
sively
natureof thequestion"Whatis expressive
Giventheveryproblematic
perforneededforan appropriate
itmaybe thatthetypeofknowledge
mance?"
understanding
comesfromwhatRandSpiroet al. (1991, 1995) call the
of performance
expression
domainwheretheconcepts
as a knowledge
domain."Thisis described
"ill-structured
witheach
but are interwoven
involvedare not onlycomplexin-and-of-themselves,
all theconceptsthatareintertwined
otherin complexways.Whenone considers
just
- volume,intensity,
forbasicphraseshaping
rubato,
poeticaccent,pitch,climax,over- theapparent
of "ill-strucand thedesignation
lackofconsensus
all style,and more
tureddomain"arenotsurprising.
thataresuitedto and evendesignedforsuch
of instruction
Thereare theories
of
domains knowledge
(Spiroet al. 1991, 1995), but before
complex,ill-structured
we must
to improvethe stateof expressive
instruction,
performance
attempting
focus
on
that
research
studies
state.
that
to
understand
expresUnfortunately,
attempt
are few.Marchand(1970) comparedtwoinstructional
instruction
siveperformance
ofeachapproachon
theeffect
to determine
and"discovery")
("expository"
approaches
otherresearches
thetwo,andseveral
between
andfoundlittledifference
expressiveness
studies
in generalobservational
as one ofmanycomponents
haveincludedexpression
behavior
ofteacher
Sidoti,
1990;Thurman,
1977).
1988;Menchaca,1988;
(Carpenter,
attention
therehas beenverylittleempirical
Overall,however,
givento thestudyof
instruction,
investigation.
requires
yetitsimportance
performance
expressive

PROCEDURE

forinvestigating
wasno knownresearch
Sincethere
waysinwhichsecondary
precedent
thisstudysoughtto bracket
in rehearsal,
addressexpression
choralteachers
pre-conwereknownaboutthetopic.In orderto
as ifnothing
ceivednotionsand investigate
theresearcher
in thisinitialinvestigation,
to freely
allowinstructional
emerge
strategies
as possible.Controlswerelooseand observations
fetters
as manypotential
removed
couldbe employed
and teachers
theinvestigator
of
intuition
the
that
so
qualitative
9

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Bulletinof the Council forResearch in Music Education

Winter2006

No. 167

wherereal
withina context
to identify
to expressive
performance
strategies
pertaining
offer
for
whilelesstightly
lifecomplexities
areleftin intact.The findings,
established,
In addition,
consideration
one'sowninstruction.
new,waysofanalyzing
many,
perhaps
theseobservations
forfuture
thatemploya
mayproviderawmaterials
investigations
of
focus
and
controls.
narrowing
tighter
choralteachers
and
dataweregathered
threeexemplary
Qualitative
byobserving
instructional
theseteachers
mainlyfor
subsequently
procedures
employed
identifying
thepurposeofteaching
behaviors
and
instructional
expressive
performance.
Emergent
were
were
then
instructor
procedures
Finally,
perspectives soughtthrough
categorized.
interviews
withtheteachers.
The threechoralteachersobservedin thisstudywerechosenbased on their
All threehad recently
forproducing
reputations
expressive
performances.
performed
at a statehighschoolfestival
In addition,
andhad received
theywere
superior
ratings.
in the
identified
as beingparticularly
byone ofthefestival
adjudicators
accomplished
in orderto ensurethattheywouldindeedproviderich
areaofexpressiveness.
Finally,
instructional
material
forthestudy,
all threeteachers
wereobserved
informally
bythe
researcher
the
to
in
the
The
researchers
to
decision
seek
their
prior
participation study.
intent
wastoobserve
normalpractices.
thatwasrepresentative
oftheteachers'
teaching
teachers
werenotovertly
madeawarethatexpressive
Therefore,
performance
strategies
werethesubstance
of focus.Rather,
were
that
the
observations
informed
only
they
forobsercentered
on rehearsal
Therefore,
process."
appointments
during"therefining
vations
werescheduled
at timeswhentheteacher
thata substantial
anticipated
portion
oftherehearsal
wouldbe spentin therefining
stage.
Two rehearsals
in eachsetting.
wereobserved
and videotaped
Sincetheprimary
was
to
observe
instruction-rich
of
bothin terms
goal
expressive
performance
strategies,
and diversity,
a variety
In twoof thethree
of circumstances
was desirable.
frequency
wereobserved
as theyinteracted
withtwodifferent
schools,theteachers
groups.In the
thirdschool,theteacher
wasobserved
twicewiththesamegroupto allowstrategies
to
that
not
have
been
in
the
Ensembles
rehearsal
observations.
emerge may
apparent
single
observed
includedbothlargeandsmallmixedchoruses
anda femalechorus.
Sincethe intentof thestudywas to allowexpressive
instructional
materialto
unfettered
nonessential
the
instruction
definition
of
constraints,
by
emerge
expressive
usedto identify
suchexpressive
was
loose
and
performance
strategies quite
strongly
intuition-based.
The researcher
therehearsals
attended
witha blanknotepadin hand
and withno consciouspre-conceived
notionsregarding
whatkindsof instructional
would
be
observed.
He
then
in writing
outlined
procedures
anyinstructional
simply
that
seemed
to
be
to
achieve
procedures
employed
expressive
purposes.Expressive
werelooselyunderstood
as thosethatwentbeyondthespecific
demandsof
purposes
thescoresuchas phraseshaping,
conwordemphasis,
forward
rubato,
dynamic
energy,
tonecolor,stylearticulation,
facialinvolvement,
etc.Specifically
dictated
musical
trast,
features
suchas pitchandrhythm
basicsinging
balanceandblend
accuracy,
technique,
10

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Broomhead

A Studyof Instructional
Strategies

wereexcludedfromconsideration. Recognizingthattechnicaland expressiveperformance featureswerenot entirelydiscretecategories,the researcher


attemptedto judge
a giveninstructional
strategyas havingan expressiveor technicalfamilyresemblance
These in-personresearcher
ratherthan as meetingany strictcategoricalrequirements.
observationsprovidedthe firstmajorperspectiveforthe study.
Each teacherwas filmedfor approximately100 minutes.As videotapes were
viewed,counterdesignationswere noted foreach of the severaldozen instructional
strategiesidentifiedduring the in-personobservations.These counterdesignations,
based on minutesand seconds,were used to identify15 minutesof instruction(per
teacher)thatcontainedthe highestconcentrationof expressivestrategiesused by the
teachers.The three15 minuterehearsalsegmentsidentifiedduringthisprocesswere
onto computerforanalysis.These transcriptions
transcribed
providedthesecond major

perspectiveforthestudy.
A thirdperspectivewas providedby the teachersthemselvesduringa two-part
The interviewwas the firsttimeteacherswere overtlyaware thatexpressive
interview.
had been thefocusof thestudy.For the firstpartof the interinstruction
performance
the 15-minuteeditedvideotapesof theirown teachingand
were
shown
view,teachers
thatwas takingplace; the
wereasked to freelycommenton any expressiveinstruction
teacherswere
tape was paused foreach comment.For the second partof theinterview,
asked to respondto the followingquestions:"What typesof techniquesor strategies
do you use to teachexpressionto yourstudents?Or, bywhatmeansdo you shareyour
The teachers'responsesand commentswere
knowledgewithyourstudents?"
expressive
videotapedand transcribed.

ANALYSIS
RehearsalObservations

Editingthe video to concentrateon expressiveperformanceinstructionaltechniques


timesand transcribed
greatlyfacilitatedanalysis.Each editedvideo was viewedseveral
eventidentifiedas addressingexpressiveperformance
in detail and each instructional
was
(as describedabove)
given a categoricaldesignation.Justas expressiveteaching
likewisethecategoryconceptsand nameswere
wereallowedto emergefreely,
strategies
terms
allowed to developdirectlyfromthe observationsunfettered
by pre-determined
or expectations.The researchercontinuously"problematized"categories(repeatedly
of thelabel each
the appropriateness
made themintoproblems),therebyreconsidering
in
seven
resulted
was assigned.The analysis
timea strategy
categories,some of which
had gone throughmultiplelabel changesin theprocessof maximizingthe"fit"between
and
strategies.Figure1 is an exampleof the transcription
categoriesand instructional
categoricalanalysis.

11

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Bulletinof the Council forResearch in Music Education

Winter2006 No. 167

T= Teacherquotes CL= Class ST= One student () = Observercomments


madeduringthemusic
(m)=Comment
Transcription:

Categorization:

T: I feela littleawkward.Do youguys


feelawkwardat thatlastthreebars?
CL: variousresponses...
"No, I likeit"
"finewithme" "no" "yeah."
T: I feellikeI'm on my wrongfoot.You know,
demonstrates
offbalance),
just...(Physically
continueto discussamongstthemselves).
(students
T: Startat the"amen."

Inquiry

Interview:
I'm havinga hardtimefiguring
out how to conductthembecausewhenI'm
andI geta responseI don'twantoutofthekids,I don'tblamethekids.I usually
conducting
blamemyself,
themthesignalthattheyneed.
becauseI'm notgetting
(later)
("All ThingsBrightand Beautiful")
(conductsfora while- sitting)
T: Crescendo-ing,
(m)
T: Keep theintensity
level. (m)(standsup)
T: "thelordGod." (m) (suddenlyintensifies
conducting)
T: Thinklegatothinklegato,thinklinear,(m)
(changesconducting
style- bothhandsswaying
from
side
to
side)
gently
to relyon conducting
(continues
T: Crescendo,(m)
T: Watch,(m) (slowsdown)
(Picksup tempoagain)
T: That'sit,that'sit.(m)
T: Keep building,
keepbuilding,
(m)
T: Andtheclimax,(m)
T: Now,pulloutall thestops,(m)

Detailing
Detailing
Gesture
Detailing/Gesture

Detailing
Gesture
TeacherFeedback
Detailing
Detailing
Detailing

Figure 1 . Introductory
Transcription
Example(Teacher3)

TeacherInterviews

The datafromtheinterviews
wereanalyzed
as follows:
1. Anyteachercomments
madeduringtheviewingof theeditedrehearsal
videothatreferred
toprocedures
as "expressive"
classified
wereseenas valuableexplanatory
data.Suchcomments
weretranscribed
and inserted
into
thetranscription
in a textboxat thepointwheretheyoccurred
duringthe
teachers
oftheeditedvideotape(Figure1).
viewing
2. The teachers'
interview
wereexamined
in lightofthecategories,
responses
or "types,"
ofexpressive
instruction
foranyinsights
intohow
performance
theteachers
thinkabouttheirexpressive
strategies.
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A Studyof Instructional
Strategies

Broomhead

whichof theemergent
was madeto determine
3. A comparison
categories
Thiswas donebyquantifying,
werecommonamongthreeteachers.
insoeachteacherusedeachtypeof procedure.
faras possible,howfrequently
weredescribed
Procedures
thatwerenotreadily
quantifiable
separately.

RESULTS

video
are presented
and describedbelow.Representative
The emergent
categories
Internet
at
the
URL:
on
the
are
available
http://cfac.byu.edu/music/
following
examples
Academic_Programs/musicEd.index.php.
havefrethetermsverbaland nonverbal
In previousteacherbehaviorresearch,
were
These
teacher
behavior.
of
as
been
used
designations deemed
categories
quently
oftenincludedbothtypes
since
the
observed
for
this
procedures
study,
inappropriate
verbalornonverbal,
Eachcategory
ofbehaviors
maybe predominantly
simultaneously.
thatsomestrateone or theother.It shouldalsobe recognized
butnoneis exclusively
The categories
or
more
from
two
categories.
employtechniques
giessimultaneously
are
to
of
least
in order
are presented
Transcriptions providedto
frequency greatest.
thevideoexcerpts.
accompany
- Theseprocedures
1. Student-initiated
inputfrom
expressive
represent
input
teacher.
from
the
without
orstudents
a student
impetus
anycorresponding
followed
student-initiated
is
an
bythe
input,
excerpt
featuring
Following
la & lb.)
aboutit.(SeeVideoExcerpts
comments
teachers
Note:Bold=Featuredinstructional
strategy
Transcription:

Categorization:

St: Do you wantvibratoon the,whenthegirlscome


in on "hi" at theverybeginningwhenthegirls
comein?
Otherstudent:
Yeah,yeah,yeah,cause thenit'llsound
likebells.
T: Yeah,no,no,that'sfine,yeah.
Otherstudent:So, youwantvibrato?
T: Yeah,there'stoomuchgoingon. (Makes gestures
orconfusion)
complexity
indicating

Studentinitiated

Detailing
Studentinitiated
Detailing

fromvideoviewing:
Teacher2 comments
AndI usedto stop'em andI'd say,
"It's notchaos.The kidsareactuallydiscussingthings.
to say,let'snothearyouguysgoin'on and on
has something
'WhenI stop,theconductor
andon all thetime,'(as all teenagers
will,youknow).Anditusedtojustdriveme up the
to workwitheachother
started
wall,andthenI finally
acceptingitas, they'rereallytrying
andlet'em go aheadanddo itto a point.And...thenI mightstopsomebodyandask them,
'Well,whatpartwereyouguysdiscussing?Shareitwiththerestofus.'
Input(Teacher3)
Figure 2. Student-Initiated
13

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Bulletinof the Council forResearch in Music Education

Winter2006 No. 167

- This categoryincludesall opportunitiesprovidedby the


2. Teacherinquiry
verbaland is
teacherforstudentresponse.Teacherinquiryis predominantly
used bothas a deviceto teststudents'previousknowledgeand to
frequently
gain studentinputon specificproblems.Followingis an excerptfeaturing
teacherinquiry,followedby the teachers'commentsabout it. (See Video
Excerpts2a & 2b.)
Note:Bold=Featuredinstructional
strategy
Transcription:

Categorization:

T: We've gottafigureouta way,seconds,fortheseguys


to SI andAltos)to continuehangingon to thepart
(pointing
so thatyoucan getyourbreathand singyour"tu"early,right?
How we gonnado that?
T: Let's see, startat "qui" please.
ifwe sangjust"tu"?
St: I was thinking
T: Yes, do youneeda breath?
St: I don't.
T: Do you guysneed a breathbeforethesecond"tu"?

Detailing
TeacherInquiry

Detailing

Teacher1 comments
fromvideoviewing:
"I thinkthat'sreallyimportant
toaskhowaretheygoingtodo that.Forthemtomakesome
decisionsaboutbreathand movement...
(specificcommentsaboutexpressiveconcern)...
Whattheydecidedto do, I mean,whichis, whichis good,becausethat'swhatI wanted
themto do, is to connect,andnotuse thecommaas a breath.Andso thatallowsthedissonanceto showand so, thatwas , um,thatwas good."
Figure 3. TeacherInquiry(Teacher1)

- This categoryrepresents
all procedureswhere extramusical
3. Referential
factorsare used to enhancemusicalexpression.
These proceduresencourage
singersto focusattentionon somethingoutsidetheirimmediateexperience,
and oftenincludemetaphor,imagery,
analogies,and so on. Followingis a
nonverbalexampleof a referential
procedure.(See Video Excerpts3a & 3b.)
Note:Bold=Featuredinstructional
strategy
Transcription:

Categorization:

facialexpression
ofdelight,
teacherholds
(Withan exaggerated
JulieAndrews)(m)
up a SoundofMusicposterfeaturing

Referential

Teacher3 comments
fromvideo-viewing:
"It's a pictureofJulieAndrews,and I...a parentframed
thatpictureforus, andI've keptit
on myblackboard.
in
Juliehas,as youknow,suchbeautiful
articulation
inherexpression,
hersinging.Andso, I havehermodelthatformystudents
on theboardeach day.I really
stressthearticulation
of theconsonants,
it helpsspinthevowelsandjust liventheface.
So she's a constant
reminder."
(Teacher2)
Figure 4. Referential
14

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Broomhead

A Studyof Instructional
Strategies

- This termwas chosen of the term


4. Demonstration
modelingbecause the
latterimpliesstudentimitationas partoftheprocedure,whichis notalways
the case. Oftenthe teacherhas the ensembleecho the demonstrations,
but
sometimeshe or she simplydemonstratesan expressiveeffectand then
goes on with rehearsal.Verbal and nonverbalbehaviorswere frequently
combined in this category.Followingis an excerptfeaturingdemonstration. (Video Excerpt4) This exampleshows not only a combinationof
it also combinesdemonstrationwith the
verbaland nonverbalstrategies,
"referential"
category.
Note:Bold=Featuredinstructional
strategy
Transcription:

Categorization:

withgood productionand open choral


T: "Hey." (demonstrated
vowel,fngertipsroundedand placed lightlyon stomach)
CL: echoes
T: "Hey." (brightand shallow-non-example)
CL: echoes
T: "Hey nonnynonnyhey",Say "nonnynonnyhey."
(shallownon-example)
CL: echoes
in contrasting
T: Say,"nonnynonnyhey."(demonstrated
opennessin throatand ribs)
CL: echoes
T: Someofyouhavegotittoo farbackbecauseofmyexample.
when...everybody
I alwaysexaggerate
putittoo farback
insteadofjustsomeofyouand say,
T: "Nonnynonnyhey."(throaty,
exaggeratedopenness)
CL: echos
T: Now overlybright
(no demonstration)
CL: "nonnynonnyhey"(overlybright)
T: Now in between
CL: "nonnynonnyhey"
T: Good,itjust soundsmaturebutnotfalselyproduced.Good.

Demonstration
Demonstration
Demonstration
Demonstration
TeacherFeedback
Demonstration
Detailing
Detailing
TeacherFeedback

(Teacher2)
Figure 5. Demonstration

- This categoryincludesteacherresponses,both positive


5. TeacherFeedback
and negative,thatare givenin reactionto specificstudentperformances.
These responsescan be verbal, nonverbal,or both at the same time.
Followingare two examplesof teacherfeedback.(See Video Excerpts5a
&5b.)

15

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Bulletinof the Council forResearch in Music Education

Winter2006

No. 167

Note: Bo\d= Featured instructionalstrategy

Transcription;

Categorization:

T: WhoohNice slidealtos,whoowhee,yeah.
Littlebitofsarcasmrightthere,(spokenplayfully)
T: Nice,seconds(m)
(menentergentlyon "touchinme")
T: Oooooh Yeah,yeah.Do itagain.Oh yeah,butI needto
hearitagain.If youcan do ittwice,it'syours.Ifyoucan't
do ittwice,itwas a fluke.
(Triesagain- unsuccessful)
T: It was a fluke.

TeacherFeedback

Figure 6.

TeacherFeedback
TeacherFeedback

TeacherFeedback

Teacher Feedback (Teacher 1 )

- Thistermrepresents
arespein whichthestudents
6. Detailing
procedures
verbaland
toldwhatto do expressively.
cifically
Detailingis predominantly
sectionofmusic.Following
canoccurbefore,
orafter
theimpacted
during,
weremadeduringanyof
comments
is an exampleofdetailing:
no teacher
of
this
thevideo-viewings
6.)
(SeeVideoExcerpt
type
procedure.
regarding
to a symbol
wouldbe pointing
(Note:An exampleofnonverbal
detailing
on theboard.)
Note:Bold=Featuredinstructional
strategy
Transcription:

Categorization:

T: Stress,(m)
(Showsstressesin conducting)
T: Diminuendo,(m)
T: No vibratogirls,(m)
T: No vibratofromanybodynow.(m)
T: Diminuendo,(m)
T: Back to tempo,(m)
T: Take it somewhere,(m)
T: Stress/Release,
(m)
T: Stress,(m)
T: No vibrato,(m)
T: Diminuendo,(m)
T: Let it go away Justkeep yourmouthopen and
let it go away,(m)
(Gestureinformation
giventhroughout)

Detailing
Detailing
Detailing
Detailing
Detailing
Detailing
Detailing
Detailing
Detailing
Detailing
Detailing
Detailing

Figure 7. Detailing(Teacher3)

- Thiscategory
themostcommonformof"gesture"
7. Conducting
represents
stratalsoappearedto be theinstructional
guidanceobserved.
Conducting
reliedmostheavilyin orderto achieve
egyon whichall threeconductors
results.
thereweretimeswhena
expressive
Throughexpressive
conducting,
16

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A Studyof Instructional
Strategies

Broomhead

wasgivenin extremely
inputfromtheconductor
greatamountexpressive
smallsections.Such expressive
concentrated
instructions,
giventhrough
evenoverlapseemedat timesto be constantly
transforming,
conducting,
nonverbal
does
not
other.
This
behavior
each
primarily
appearin a
ping
in thevideoexamplehowmanydifbutnotecarefully
verbaltranscription,
aresentin a smallamountoftime.Ifyoudo notviewthe
ferent
messages
on a typicalrehearsal
it maybe adequateto simplyreflect
videoexcerpts,
the conductor."
and the commonemphasison "following
(See Video
7.)
Excerpt
the typesof techniques
to the interview
Teacherresponses
questionregarding
in
as
to
teachers'
orientations
were
informative
the
general
theyuseto teachexpression
forconsiderdid notyieldanynewcategories
buttheresponses
instruction,
expressive
fortheirexpressive
hadbeenrecognized
all threeteachers
ation.Although
performance
instructional
his/her
nonewas able to identify
achievement,
performance
expressive
know
wife
doesn't
One teachersaid,"My
withanyfluency.
[Rex]
says,'
procedures
mentioned
a fewofthecategowhathe does,hejustdoesit.'"The othertwoteachers
addressed
theissueof
riesidentified
above,buttheydid notappearto haveformally
for
or
in
either
Rather,
preliminaryongoingpreparation teaching.
expression
teaching
instinctive
than
thesestrategies
deliberately
appearedto havebeenmorehabitualand
prescribed.

DISCUSSION

instructhenatureofexpressive
performance
regarding
Byabandoning
preconceptions
There
considered.
thatnotpreviously
wasabletoidentify
tion,theresearcher
categories
thatwouldemergefromsimilarstudyof other
are likelyothertypesof techniques
choralteachers.
exemplary
froma formal,
did notappearto originate
instructional
Theseteachers'
strategies
of
the
teachers'
source
the
methods.
or
set
of
Instead,
strategies
techniques
organized
of beingquiteinstinchad thefeeland appearance
and theirbehaviors
is unknown,
is raisedbythis
versuslearnedbehavior
The questionofinstinct
tiveandspontaneous.
is thatteacher
theimplication
wereprimarily
If thesebehaviors
instinctive,
finding.
withsuchinborntalents
and
individuals
haslittleto do beyondidentifying
education
behaviors
learned
were
these
behaviors
that
The
primarily
propensities. assumption
somecollective
Aretheseteachers
leadstoseveral
image
imitating
questions.
interesting
linked
Aretheinstructional
in theirpastexperience?
teachers
of respected
strategies
and/orlearning
to theteachers'
were,in fact,
style?
Perhapstheteachers
personalities
in
but
the
identified
to usetheparticular
trained
study simplydon'tthink
techniques
Thereareperso automatic.
have
become
becausethebehaviors
aboutthemanymore
Whatever
thereasonmaybe,thisstudyshows
otherpossibleexplanations.
hapsseveral
do notoperatefroma specific
thatthesethreeteachers
planforexpressive
prescribed
area
for
future
informative
a
this
identifies
and
investigation.
potentially
performing,
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Bulletinof the Council forResearch in Music Education

Winter2006

No. 167

in thisstudyappearto encompasstheteaching
The sevencategories
presented
in an environment
behaviors
relatedto expressive
becausetheyemerged
performance
resistant
to oversimplification
and predetermination,
it is hopedthattheypossessan
in additionto providing
a new set of labelsfor
elementof originality.
Specifically,
the
instructional
expressive
by resisting commoncategorical
performance
strategies,
of"verbal"
thefactthatmanyteachand"nonverbal,"
thisstudyhighlights
designations
frompastobservational
studieswas
areclearly
both.Another
deviation
ingprocedures
This
as
a
from
other
communication.
separate
treating
"conducting" category
gestural
be
in
these
teachers'
to
uncommon
the
but
seems
warranted
literature,
appears
given
on itas an expressive
tool.
heavydependence
teaching
of
awareness
The resultsof thisstudymayexpandbothteacherand researcher
their
use
this
to
reevaluate
instruction.
Teachers
expressive
performance
insight
might
ownpractices
inhowtheychooseto teachexpressiveness.
andbecomemorepurposeful
Researchers
as pointsofdeparture
forlarger
scaleobservational
mightusethesefindings
studies.Although
itselfis ill-structured
no such
and illusive,
expressive
performance
methclaimis madeconcerning
there
are
as
valid
itsinstruction.
Presumably,
many
for
for
instruction
as
there
are
performance
studying
odologies studying
expressive
Thesemayincludebothqualitative
suchas
anytypeof teacherbehavior.
approaches
theopen-ended
observation
and interview
usedin thecurrent
and quantitative
study,
suchas counting
andtiming
behaviors
1996).
(Goolsby,
approaches
teaching
The findings
or generhere
do
not
inform
efforts
to
further
define
presented
ate expressive
itselfor to establishrulesthatgovernmusicalexpresperformance
sion. However,
thesevencategories
of instructional
strategies,
alongwithenhanced
from
will
material
forresearchers
valuable
studies,
understandings subsequent
provide
in examining
interested
not onlywhatkindsof instruction
are effective
at producensembleperformance,
but also whatproducesexpressive
ingexpressive
performing
in individualstudents.Broomhead(2001) generated
concernregarding
capability
theassumption
thatgroupexpressive
achievement
indicatedindividual
achievement.
Muchresearch
is neededin orderto revealwhatteaching
approaches
produceor fail
to producesuchexpressive
in individual
abilities
students.
The expressive
performance
instructional
thosein thisstudy,
needqualitative
andquantitative
strategies,
including
observation
andexperimental
inorderto establish
in terms
of
theireffectiveness
testing
individual
student
learning.

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