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# COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS

## Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics

Institute of Space Technology

Nida Ahsan

nida.ahsan@ist.edu.pk
nida.ahsaan@gmail.com

02/17/2016

BOOK

## Computational Fluid Dynamics: A Practical Approach by

Jiyuan Tu, Guan Heng Yeoh, Chaoqun Liu

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## Three Main Elements within CFD Analysis

1- Pre-Processing
Creation of Geometry
Creation of Mesh / Grid
Define Material Properties
Define Boundary Conditions

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## Three Main Elements within CFD Analysis

2- Solver
(Obtain Solution of Governing Equations on Mesh)
Transport Equations

Mass
Momentum
Energy
Physical Model

Physical Models

Combustion
Turbulence
Other Processes

Solver Setting
Initialization
Solution control
Solution
Monitoring
Convergence

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## Three Main Elements within CFD Analysis

3- Post-Processing
Graph
Contour Plots
Stream lines
Velocity Vectors
Animation

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Figure: 4.2
(Page 127)
Part II (Basics of
Numeric)
Chapter 4
Basic Aspect of
Discretization
Computational Fluid
Dynamics: The
Basics with
Applications by John
D. Anderson

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BOOK
Computational Fluid Dynamics, Volume I by Klaus A. Hoffmann, Steve
T. Chiang
Chapter 1
Classification of Partial Differential Equations
Chapter 2
Finite Difference Formulations
Chapter 3
Parabolic Partial Differential Equations
Con

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## Example 1.1: Classify the steady two-dimensional velocity potential equation

1 2 + = 0
Compare with 2nd order partial differential equation (1-1) in two
independent variables & .
+ + + + + + = 0
Assume (, ) is solution of PDE.
Solution describes a surface in space on which space curves may be
drawn and known as characteristic curves.
Depending on value of expression 2 4, characteristic curves can
be real or imaginary and Equation (1-1) is classified according to sign
of this expression.
According to the notation in Equation (1-1)
= (1 )2 ; = 0; = 1
2 4 = 4(1 )2

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## Example 1.1: Classify the steady two-dimensional velocity potential equation

1 2 + = 0
If < 1 then 2 4 < 0
Steady 2D velocity potential equation is Elliptic.
If = 1 then 2 4 = 0
Steady 2D velocity potential equation is Parabolic.
If > 1 then 2 4 > 0
Steady 2D velocity potential equation is Hyperbolic.
Assume a body is moving with velocity in an inviscid fluid and
creating disturbances in fluid which propagates with speed of sound .
M is Mach Number representing ratio of flow velocity with respect to
boundaries to the speed of sound in medium.

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## Example 1.1: Classify the steady two-dimensional velocity potential equation

1 2 + = 0
For < 1 , < ; Flow is
subsonic
Speed of body will remain less
than speed of sound.
Disturbance is felt every where in
the flow field.

## This is what happens for an

elliptic PDE;
Where the domain of solution of
elliptic PDE is a closed region R.
Providing the boundary conditions
on the closed boundary, uniquely
yields the solution within the
domain

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## Example 1.1: Classify the steady two-dimensional velocity potential equation

1 2 + = 0
For = 1, = ; Flow is sonic
Speed of body approaches to
speed of sound.
A front is developed with a region
ahead of it which does not feel the
presence of disturbance known as
Zone of Silence.
Disturbance is felt only behind the
front known as Zone of Action.

## This is what happens for a

parabolic PDE;
Where the domain of solution of
parabolic PDE is an open region.
The
solution
marches
downstream within the domain,
from the initial plane of data
satisfying the specified boundary
conditions.

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## Example 1.1: Classify the steady two-dimensional velocity potential equation

1 2 + = 0
For > 1 , > ; Flow is
supersonic
Speed of body exceed the speed
of sound.
A conical front (in 3D analysis) is
formed.
Disturbance is felt only within this
cone.

## This is what happens for an

hyperbolic PDE;
Classical method of solving
hyperbolic
PDE
with
two
independent variables is the
Method of Characteristic. Along
the characteristic line, the PDE
reduces to ODE, which can be
integrated to obtain the desired
solution.

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## 1.11 Nomenclature of Computational Space

Consider a rectangular domain is divided into equal increments.
Increments in direction may differ form increments in direction.

: Increments in direction
: Increments in direction
: Mesh points in direction
: Mesh points in direction
: Maximum No. of points in direction
: Maximum No. of points in direction

## Increments also known as mesh size / grid size / step size

Mesh points also known as grid points / nodes

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## 1.11 Solution of PDE through Numerical

Methods
We wish to solve a Partial Difference Equation (PDE) within a rectangular
domain subjected to initial and boundary conditions.
PDE is approximated through Algebraic Finite Difference Equation
(FDE).
FDE is written for each point of grid.
Solution of FDE provides the value of dependent variable at each grid
point.
There are different Numerical Schemes to approximate PDE by FDE.
There are different Numerical Techniques to solve approximate FDE.

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## 2.2 Taylor Series Expansion

Given an analytical function ()
The function ( + ) can be expanded in a Taylor series about

## Summing all terms with factors of and higher

Represent them as ()

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## 2.2 Forward Difference Approximation for

First Derivative
First forward difference approximation of first order partial
derivative of () with respect to of order

## Graphically, this approximation is interpreted as the slope

of function at point B using the values of function at points
B and C.

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## 2.2 Taylor Series Expansion

Given an analytical function ()
The function ( ) can be expanded in a Taylor series about

## Solving for first order partial derivative of () with respect to

Summing all terms with factors of and higher
Represent them as ()

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## 2.2 Backward Difference Approximation for

First Derivative
First backward difference approximation of first order
partial derivative of () with respect to of order

## Graphically, this approximation is interpreted as the slope

of function at point B using the values of function at points
A and B.

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## 2.2 Taylor Series Expansion

Subtracting equation (2-5) from equation (2-2)

## Solving for first order partial derivative of () with respect to

Summing all terms with factors of 2 and higher
Represent them as ()2

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## 2.2 Central Difference Approximation for First

Derivative
Central difference approximation of first order partial
derivative of () with respect to of order ()2

## Graphically, this approximation is interpreted as the slope

of function at point B using the values of function at points
A and C.

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## 2.2 Forward Difference Approximation for

Second Derivative
Given an analytical function ()
The function ( + 2) can be expanded in a Taylor series about

## Solving for second order partial derivative of () with respect to .

Summing all terms with factors of and higher and represent them as
()

## Forward difference approximation of second order partial derivative of ()

with respect to of order

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Take Home
Q:1 Determine backward difference approximation for second
order derivative, using Taylor Series expansion of ( )
and ( 2)

## Q:2 Determine central difference approximation for second

order derivative, using Taylor Series expansion of ( + )
and ( )

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## 2.2 Second Order Accurate FDE

By considering additional terms in Taylor Series expansions,
a more accurate approximation of derivatives is produced.
Substitute a forward difference expression of equation 2-14
into equation 2-1

## Second order accurate finite difference approximation for

OR
Forward difference approximation of first order partial
derivative of () with respect to of order ()2

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Take Home
Q:3 Determine backward difference approximation of first
order partial derivative of () with respect to of order
()2 by substituting a backward difference expression of
equation 2-15 into equation 2-5.
(Submission due date : 24-02-2016)

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Note
As step size decreases, the error term is reduced and

## therefore the accuracy of the approximation is increased.

A good approximation with a more reasonable
computation time can be obtained with second-order
differencing ()2 .
In practice, approximations of order three ()3 or more
are rarely used because they require greater computation
time.