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THE VISION

ACADEMY
RZ 36 A/1, RAJ NAGAR PART I, DADA CHHATRI WALA MARG PALAM
COLONY
NEW DELHI 110045
CHEMISTRY CHAPTER - 1
Chemistry
It is the branch of science which deals with the composition, structure and properties of matter. Antoine Laurent
Lavoisier is called the father of chemistry.
Branches of Chemistry

In addition to these biochemistry, war chemistry, nuclear chemistry forensic chemistry, earth chemistry etc., are
other branches of chemistry.
Matter
Anything which occupies some space and have some mass is called matter. It 15 made up of small particles
which have space between them. The matter particles attract each other and are in a state of continuous motion.

Elements

It is the simplest form of pure substance, which can neither be decomposed into nor built from simpler
substances by ordinary physical and chemical methods. It contains only one kind of atoms. The number of
elements known till date is 118.
[Hydrogen IS the most abundant element in the universe. Oxygen (46.6%), a non-metal, is the most abundant
element in the earth crust. AI is the most abundant metal in the earth crust. An element can be a metal, a nonmetal or a metalloid.]
Symbols
A symbol is an abbreviation or shortened form for the full name of an element. The present
system of symbols was introduced by Berzelius.
Symbol and Latin Names for Some Elements

Compounds
It is also the form of matter which can be formed by combining two or more elements in a definite ratio by
mass. It can be decomposed into its constituent elements by suitable chemical methods, e.g., water (H2O) is
made of hydrogen and oxygen in the ratio 1 : 8 by mass. Compounds can be of two types :
(i) Inorganic compounds Previously, it was believed that these compounds are derived from
non-living sources, like rocks and minerals. But these are infact the compounds of all the
elements except hydrides of carbon (hydrocarbons) and their derivatives.
(ii) Organic compounds According to earlier scientists, these compounds are derived from living sources like
plants and animals, or these remain buried under the earth (e.g., petroleum). According to modern concept,
these are the hydrides of carbon and their derivatives.
Mixtures
These are made up of two or more pure substances. They can possess variable composition and can be
separated into their components by some physical methods.
Mixtures may be homogeneous (when composition is uniform throughout) or heterogeneous (when
composition is not uniform throughout). Common methods for the separation of mixtures are
(a) Filtration Filtration is the process of separating solids that are suspended in liquids by pouring the mixture
into a filter funnel. As the liquid passes through the filter, the solid particles are held on the filter.
(b) Distillation Distillation is the process of heating a liquid to form vapours and then cooling the vapours to
get back the liquid. This is a method by which a mixture containing volatile substances can be separated into Its
components.
(c) Sublimation This is the process of conversion of a solid directly into vapours on heating. Substances
showing this property are called sublimate, e.g., iodine, naphthalene, camphor. This method is used to separate
a sublimate from non-sublimate substances.
(d) Crystallisation It is a process of separating solids having different solubilities in a particular solvent.
(e) Magnetic separation Tills process is based upon tbe fact that a magnet attracts magnetic components of a
mixture of magnetic and non-magnetic substances. The non-magnetic substance remains unaffected. Thus. it
can be used to separate magnetic components from nonmagnetic components.
(f) Atmolysis Tills method is based upon rates of diffusion of gases and used for their separation from a
gaseous mixture.
Atoms and Molecules

Atom is the smallest particle of an element which can take part in a chemical reaction. It mayor may not be
capable of independent existence.
Molecule is the simplest particle of matter that has independent existence. It may be homoatomic e.g., H2, CI2,
N2 (diatomic), O3 (triatomic) or heteroatomic, e.g., HCI, NH3, CH3 etc.
Physical Quantities and Their Measurements
Units
To express the measurement of any physical quantity two things are considered:
(i) Its unit,
(ii) The numerical value.
Magnitude of a physical quantity = numerical value * unit
Units are of two types:
(i) Basic units
(ii) Derived units
(i) The basic or fundamental units are those of length (m), ass (kg), time (s), electric current
(A), thermodynamic temperature (K), amount of substance (mol) and luminous intensity (cd).
(ii) Derived units are basically derived from the fundamental units, e.g., unit of density is
derived from units of mass and volume.
The systems used for describing measurements of various physical quantities are
(a) CGS system It is based on centimetre, gram and second as the units of length, mass and
time respectively.
(b) FPS system A British system which used foot(ft). pound (lb) and second (s) as the
fundamental units of length, mass and time.
(c) MRS system Uses metre (m), kilogram (kg) and second (s) respectively for length, mass and time; ampere
(A) was added later on for electric current.
(d) SI system (1960)International system of units and contains following seven basic and two supplementary
units:
Base Physical Quantities and their Corresponding Basic Units

SUpplementary units It includes plane angle in radian and solid angle in steradian.
Prefixes
The SI units of some physical quantities are either too small or too large. To change the order
of magnitude. these are expressed by using prefixes before the name of base units. The various
prefixes are listed as

Dimensional Analysis
Often while calculating, there is a need to convert units from one system to other. The method used to
accomplish this is called factor label method or unit factor method or dimensional analysis. In this, Information
sought = Information given * Conversion Factor
Important Conversion Factor

Scientific Notation
In such notation, all measurements (however large or small) are expressed as a number between 1.000 and
9.999 multiplied or divided by 10. In general as N * 10
Here, N is called digit term (1.000-9.999) and n is known as exponent. e.g., 138.42 cm can be written as 1.3842
* 102 and 0.0002 can be written as 2.0 * 10-4.
precision and Accuracy
Precision refers the closeness of the set of values obtained from identical measurements of a quantity. Precision
is simply a measure of
reproducibility of an experiment.
Precision = individual value arithmetic mean value
Accuracy is a measure of the difference between the experimental value or the mean value of a set of
measurements and the true value.
Accuracy = mean value true value
In physical measurements, accurate results are generally precise but precise results need not be accurate. In
other words good precision does not assure good accuracy.
Significant Figures
Significant figures are the meaningful digits in a measured or calculated quantity. It includes all those digits that
are known with certainty plus one more which is uncertain or estimated. Greater the number of significant
figures in a measurement, smaller the uncertainty. Rules for determining the number of significant figures are:
1. An digits are significant except zeros in the beginning of a number.
2. Zeros to the right of the decimal point are significant. e.g., 0.132, 0.0132 and 15.0, all have three significant
figures.

3. Exact numbers have infinite significant figures.


Calculations Involving Significant Figures
1. In addition or subtraction, the final result should be reported to the same number of decimal places as that of
the term with the least number of decimal places, e.g.,

(Reported sum should have only one decimal point.)


2. In multiplication and division, the result is reported to the same number of significant figures as least precise
term or the term with least number of significant figures, e.g.,
Rounding Off the Numerical Results
When a number is rounded off, the number of significant figures is reduced. the last digit retained is increased
by 1 only if the following digit is 5 and is left as such if the following digit is 4, e.g.,
12.696 can be written as 12.7
18.35 can be written as 18.4
13.93 can be written as 13.9
Laws of Chemical Combinations
The combination of elements to form compounds is governed by the following six basic laws:
1. Law of conservation of mass (Lavoisier, 1774)
This law states that during any physical or chemical change, the total mass of the products is equal to the total
mass of reactants. It does not hold good for nuclear reactions.
2. Law of definite proportions (Proust, 1799)
According to this law, a chemical compound obtained by different sources always contains same percentage of
each constituent element.
3. Law of multiple proportions (Dalton, 1803)
According to this law. if two elements can combine to form more than one compound. The masses of one
element that combine with a fixed mass of the other element, are in the ratio of small whole numbers, e.g., in
NH3 and N2H4, fixed mass of nitrogen requires hydrogen in the ratio 3 : 2.
4. Law of reciprocal proportions (Richter, 1792)
According to this law, when two elements (say A and 13) combine separately with the same weight of a third
element (say C), the ratio in which they do so is the same or simple multiple of the ratio in which they (A and
H) combine with each other. Law of definite proportions, law of multiple proportions and law of reciprocal
proportions do not hold good when same compound is obtained by using different isotopes of the same
element. e.g H2O and D2O
5. Gay Lussacs law of gaseous volumes
It states that under similar conditions of temperature and pressure. whenever gases react together. the volumes
of the reacting gases as well as products (if gases) bear a simple whole number ratio.
6. Avogadros hypothesis
It states that equal volumes of all gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure contain the same
number of molecules.
Daltons Atomic Theory (1803)
This theory was based on laws of chemical combinations. Its basic postulates are
1. All substances are made up of tiny. indivisible particles, called atoms.
2. In each element, the atoms are all alike and have the same mass. The atoms of different elements differ in
mass.
3. Atoms can neither be created nor destroyed during any physical or chemical change.
4. Compounds or molecules result from combination of atoms in some simple numerical ratio.
Mole Concept
Term mole was suggested by Ostwald (Latin word mole = heap)
A mole is defined as the amount of substance which contains same number of elementary
particles (atoms, molecules or ions) as the number of atoms present in 12 g of carbon (C-12).
1 mol = 6.023 * 1023 atoms = one gram-atom = gram atomic mass
1 mol = 6.023 * 1023 molecules = gram molecular mass
In gaseous state at STP (T = 273 K, p = 1 atm)
Gram molecular mass = 1 mol = 22.4 L = 6.022 * 1023molecules

Standard number 6.023x 1023 is called Avogadro number in honour of Avogadro (he did not
give this number) and is denoted by NA.
The volume occupied by one mole molecules of a gaseous substance is called molar volume or
gram molecular volume.
Number of moles = amount of substance (in gram) / molar mass

Number of molecule = number of moles * NA


Number of molecules in Ig compound = NA / g-molar mass
Number of molecules in 1 cm3 (1 mL) of an ideal gas at STP is called Loschmidt number
(2.69x 1019).
[One amu or u (unified mass) is equal to exactly the 1 / 12th of the mass of 12C atom, i.e., 1
amu or u = 1 / 12 * mass of one carbon (C12) atom
1 amu = 1 / NA
= 1 Dalton = 1.66x 10-24 g
One mole of electrons weighs 0.55 mg (5.5x 10-4 g).
Atomic Mass
It is the average relative atomic mass of an atom. It indicates that how many times an atom of that element is
heavier as compared with 1 / 12 of the mass of an atom of carbon-12.
Average atomic mass = average mass of an atom / 1 / 12 * mass of an atom of C12
The word average has been used in the above definition and is very significant because elements occur in nature
as mixture of several isotopes. So. atomic mass can be computed as
Average atomic mass
= RA(1) * at. mass(1) + RA(2) * at. mass (2) / RA(l) + RA(2)
Here, RA is relative abundance of different isotopes.
In case of volatile chlorides. the atomic weight is calculated as At. wt. = Eq. wt. x valency
and valency = 2 * vapour density of chloride / eq. wt. of metal + 35.5
According to Dulong and Petits rule,
Atomic weight * specific heat = 6.4
Gram Atomic Mass (GAM)
Atomic mass of an element expressed in gram is called its gram atomic mass or gram-atom or mole-atom.
Molecular Mass
It is the mass of a molecule, i.e., number of times a molecule is heavier than 1 / 12 th mass of C-12 atom.
Molecular mass of a substance is an additive property and can be calculated by taking algebraic sum of atomic
masses of all the atoms of different elements present in one molecule.
Molecular Mass = average relative mass of one molecule / 1 / 12 th * mass of C-12 atom
[Gram molecular mass or molar mass is molecular mass of a substance expressed in gram.
Molecular mass = 2 * V D ]
Equivalent Mass
It is the mass of an element or a compound which would combine with or displace (by weight)
1 part of hydrogen or 8 parts of oxygen or 35.5 parts of chlorine
Eq. wt. of metal = wt. of metal / wt. of H2 displaced * 1.008
= wt. of metal / volume of H2 (in mL) displaced at STP * 11200
Eq. wt. of metal = wt. of metal / wt. of oxygen combined * 8
= wt. of metal / wt. of chlorine combined * 35.5
In general,
Wt. of substance A / Wt. of substance B = Eq. wt. of A / Eq. wt. of B
or for a compound (I) being converted into another compound (II) of same metal
Wt. of compound I / Wt. of compound II = eq. wt. of metal + eq. wt. of anion of compound I / eq. wt. of metal
+ eq. wt. of anion of compound II

Eq. mass 0f a salt = formula mass / total positive or negative charge


Equivalent mass = atomic mass or Molecular mass / n factor
n factor for various compounds can be obtained as
(i) n factor for acids i.e., basicity
(Number of ionisable H+ per molecule is the basicity of acid.)

(ii) n factor for bases, i.e., acidity.


(Number of ionisable OH- per molecule is the acidity of a base.)

(iii) In case of ions, 11 factor is equal to charge of that ion.


(iv) In redox titrations, 11 factor is equal to change in oxidation number.

Equivalent mass of organic acid (RCOOH) is calculated by the following formula


Eq. wt. of silver salt of acid (RCOOAg) / Eq. wt. of Ag(or 108) = Vt. of silver salt / Wt. of
silver
Stoichiometry
The relative proportions in which the reactants react and the products are formed, is called stoichiometry (from
the Greek word meaning to measure an element.)
Limiting reagent It is the reactant which is completely consumed during the reaction.
Excess reagent It is the reactant which is not completely consumed and remains unreacted during the reaction.
[In a irreversible chemical reaction, the extent of product can be computed on the basis of limiting reagent in
the chemical reaction]
Percent Yield
The actual yield of a product in any reaction is usually less than the theoretical yield because of the occurrence
of certain side reactions.
Percent yield = actual yield / theoretical yield * 100
Empirical and Molecular Formulae
Empirical formula is the simplest formula of a compound giving simplest whole number ratio of atoms
present in one molecule, e.g., CH is empirical formula of benzene (C6H6).
Molecular formula is the actual formula of a compound showing the total number of atoms of constituent
elements, e.g., C6H6 is molecular formula of benzene.
Molecular formula = (Empirical formula)n
where, n is simple whole number having values 1, 2, 3, , etc., and can be calculated as
n = molecular formula mass / empirical formula mass

List of Periodic Table Elements Sorted by Atomic Number


No.

Atomic
Weight

Name

Sym. M.P. B.P. Density* Earth Discovery Group*


(C) (C) (g/cm3) crust
(Year)
(%)*

1.0079

Hydrogen

-259

-253

0.09

4.0026

Helium

He

-272

-269

6.941

Lithium

Li

180

9.0122

Beryllium

10.811

0.14

Electron
configuration

Ionization
energy
(eV)

1776

1s1

13.5984

0.18

1895

18

1s2

24.5874

1347 0.53

1817

[He] 2s1

5.3917

Be

1278 2970 1.85

1797

[He] 2s2

9.3227

Boron

2300 2550 2.34

1808

13

[He] 2s2 2p1

8.298

12.0107

Carbon

3500 4827 2.26

ancient

14

[He] 2s2 2p2

11.2603

14.0067

Nitrogen

-210

-196

1.25

1772

15

[He] 2s2 2p3

14.5341

15.9994

Oxygen

-218

-183

1.43

46.71

1774

16

[He] 2s2 2p4

13.6181

18.9984

Fluorine

-220

-188

1.7

0.029

1886

17

[He] 2s2 2p5

17.4228

10

20.1797

Neon

Ne

-249

-246

0.9

1898

18

[He] 2s2 2p6

21.5645

11

22.9897

Sodium

Na

98

883

0.97

2.75

1807

[Ne] 3s1

5.1391

12

24.305

Magnesium

Mg

639

1090 1.74

2.08

1755

[Ne] 3s2

7.6462

13

26.9815

Aluminum

Al

660

2467 2.7

8.07

1825

13

[Ne] 3s2 3p1

5.9858

14

28.0855

Silicon

Si

1410 2355 2.33

27.69

1824

14

[Ne] 3s2 3p2

8.1517

15

30.9738

Phosphorus

44

280

1.82

0.13

1669

15

[Ne] 3s2 3p3

10.4867

16

32.065

Sulfur

113

445

2.07

0.052

ancient

16

[Ne] 3s2 3p4

10.36

0.094

17

35.453

Chlorine

Cl

-101

-35

3.21

18

39.948

Argon

Ar

-189

-186

1.78

19

39.0983

Potassium

64

774

0.86

20

40.078

Calcium

Ca

839

1484 1.55

21

44.9559

Scandium

Sc

1539 2832 2.99

22

47.867

Titanium

Ti

1660 3287 4.54

23

50.9415

Vanadium

1890 3380 6.11

24

51.9961

Chromium

Cr

1857 2672 7.19

25

54.938

Manganese

Mn

26

55.845

Iron

27

58.9332

28

1774

17

[Ne] 3s2 3p5

12.9676

1894

18

[Ne] 3s2 3p6

15.7596

2.58

1807

[Ar] 4s1

4.3407

3.65

1808

[Ar] 4s2

6.1132

1879

[Ar] 3d1 4s2

6.5615

1791

[Ar] 3d2 4s2

6.8281

1830

[Ar] 3d3 4s2

6.7462

0.035

1797

[Ar] 3d5 4s1

6.7665

1245 1962 7.43

0.09

1774

[Ar] 3d5 4s2

7.434

Fe

1535 2750 7.87

5.05

ancient

[Ar] 3d6 4s2

7.9024

Cobalt

Co

1495 2870 8.9

1735

[Ar] 3d7 4s2

7.881

58.6934

Nickel

Ni

1453 2732 8.9

1751

10

[Ar] 3d8 4s2

7.6398

29

63.546

Copper

Cu

1083 2567 8.96

ancient

11

[Ar] 3d10 4s1

7.7264

30

65.39

Zinc

Zn

420

907

ancient

12

[Ar] 3d10 4s2

9.3942

31

69.723

Gallium

Ga

30

2403 5.91

1875

13

[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1

5.9993

32

72.64

Germanium

Ge

937

2830 5.32

1886

14

[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2

7.8994

33

74.9216

Arsenic

As

81

613

5.72

ancient

15

[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p3

9.7886

34

78.96

Selenium

Se

217

685

4.79

1817

16

[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p4

9.7524

35

79.904

Bromine

Br

-7

59

3.12

1826

17

[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p5

11.8138

36

83.8

Krypton

Kr

-157

-153

3.75

1898

18

[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p6

13.9996

37

85.4678

Rubidium

Rb

39

688

1.63

1861

[Kr] 5s1

4.1771

38

87.62

Strontium

Sr

769

1384 2.54

1790

[Kr] 5s2

5.6949

39

88.9059

Yttrium

1523 3337 4.47

1794

[Kr] 4d1 5s2

6.2173

40

91.224

Zirconium

Zr

1852 4377 6.51

1789

[Kr] 4d2 5s2

6.6339

41

92.9064

Niobium

Nb

2468 4927 8.57

1801

[Kr] 4d4 5s1

6.7589

42

95.94

Molybdenum

Mo

2617 4612 10.22

1781

[Kr] 4d5 5s1

7.0924

Technetium

Tc

2200 4877 11.5

1937

[Kr] 4d5 5s2

7.28

43

* 98

0.045

0.62

0.019

7.13

0.025

44

101.07

45

Ru

2250 3900 12.37

1844

[Kr] 4d7 5s1

7.3605

102.9055 Rhodium

Rh

1966 3727 12.41

1803

[Kr] 4d8 5s1

7.4589

46

106.42

Pd

1552 2927 12.02

1803

10

[Kr] 4d10

8.3369

47

107.8682 Silver

Ag

962

2212 10.5

ancient

11

[Kr] 4d10 5s1

7.5762

48

112.411

Cadmium

Cd

321

765

8.65

1817

12

[Kr] 4d10 5s2

8.9938

49

114.818

Indium

In

157

2000 7.31

1863

13

[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p1

5.7864

50

118.71

Tin

Sn

232

2270 7.31

ancient

14

[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2

7.3439

51

121.76

Antimony

Sb

630

1750 6.68

ancient

15

[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p3

8.6084

52

127.6

Tellurium

Te

449

990

6.24

1783

16

[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p4

9.0096

53

126.9045 Iodine

114

184

4.93

1811

17

[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p5

10.4513

54

131.293

Xe

-112

-108

5.9

1898

18

[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p6

12.1298

55

132.9055 Cesium

Cs

29

678

1.87

1860

[Xe] 6s1

3.8939

56

137.327

Ba

725

1140 3.59

1808

[Xe] 6s2

5.2117

57

138.9055 Lanthanum

La

920

3469 6.15

1839

[Xe] 5d1 6s2

5.5769

58

140.116

Ce

795

3257 6.77

1803

101

[Xe] 4f1 5d1 6s2

5.5387

59

140.9077 Praseodymium

Pr

935

3127 6.77

1885

101

[Xe] 4f3 6s2

5.473

60

144.24

Neodymium

Nd

1010 3127 7.01

1885

101

[Xe] 4f4 6s2

5.525

Promethium

Pm

1100 3000 7.3

1945

101

[Xe] 4f5 6s2

5.582

61

* 145

Ruthenium

Palladium

Xenon

Barium

Cerium

0.05

62

150.36

Samarium

Sm

1072 1900 7.52

1879

101

[Xe] 4f6 6s2

5.6437

63

151.964

Europium

Eu

822

1901

101

[Xe] 4f7 6s2

5.6704

64

157.25

Gadolinium

Gd

1311 3233 7.9

1880

101

[Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2

6.1501

65

158.9253 Terbium

Tb

1360 3041 8.23

1843

101

[Xe] 4f9 6s2

5.8638

66

162.5

Dy

1412 2562 8.55

1886

101

[Xe] 4f10 6s2

5.9389

67

164.9303 Holmium

Ho

1470 2720 8.8

1867

101

[Xe] 4f11 6s2

6.0215

68

167.259

Er

1522 2510 9.07

1842

101

[Xe] 4f12 6s2

6.1077

69

168.9342 Thulium

Tm

1545 1727 9.32

1879

101

[Xe] 4f13 6s2

6.1843

70

173.04

Yb

824

1878

101

[Xe] 4f14 6s2

6.2542

Dysprosium

Erbium

Ytterbium

1597 5.24

1466 6.9

71

174.967

Lutetium

Lu

1656 3315 9.84

1907

101

[Xe] 4f14 5d1 6s2

5.4259

72

178.49

Hafnium

Hf

2150 5400 13.31

1923

[Xe] 4f14 5d2 6s2

6.8251

73

180.9479 Tantalum

Ta

2996 5425 16.65

1802

[Xe] 4f14 5d3 6s2

7.5496

74

183.84

Tungsten

3410 5660 19.35

1783

[Xe] 4f14 5d4 6s2

7.864

75

186.207

Rhenium

Re

3180 5627 21.04

1925

[Xe] 4f14 5d5 6s2

7.8335

76

190.23

Osmium

Os

3045 5027 22.6

1803

[Xe] 4f14 5d6 6s2

8.4382

77

192.217

Iridium

Ir

2410 4527 22.4

1803

[Xe] 4f14 5d7 6s2

8.967

78

195.078

Platinum

Pt

1772 3827 21.45

1735

10

[Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1

8.9587

79

196.9665 Gold

Au

1064 2807 19.32

ancient

11

[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1

9.2255

80

200.59

Hg

-39

357

ancient

12

[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2

10.4375

81

204.3833 Thallium

Tl

303

1457 11.85

1861

13

[Xe]
4f14 5d10 6s2 6p1

6.1082

82

207.2

Pb

327

1740 11.35

ancient

14

[Xe]
4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2

7.4167

83

208.9804 Bismuth

Bi

271

1560 9.75

ancient

15

[Xe]
4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3

7.2856

1898

16

[Xe]
4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4

8.417

1940

17

[Xe]
4f14 5d10 6s2 6p5

9.3

1900

18

[Xe]
4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6

10.7485

Mercury

Lead

13.55

84

* 209

Polonium

Po

254

962

9.3

85

* 210

Astatine

At

302

337

86

* 222

Radon

Rn

-71

-62

87

* 223

Francium

Fr

27

677

1939

[Rn] 7s1

4.0727

88

* 226

Radium

Ra

700

1737 5.5

1898

[Rn] 7s2

5.2784

89

* 227

Actinium

Ac

1050 3200 10.07

1899

[Rn] 6d1 7s2

5.17

90

232.0381 Thorium

Th

1750 4790 11.72

1829

102

[Rn] 6d2 7s2

6.3067

91

231.0359 Protactinium

Pa

1568

1913

102

[Rn] 5f2 6d1 7s2

5.89

92

238.0289 Uranium

1132 3818 18.95

1789

102

[Rn] 5f3 6d1 7s2

6.1941

9.73

15.4

93

* 237

Neptunium

Np

640

3902 20.2

1940

102

[Rn] 5f4 6d1 7s2

6.2657

94

* 244

Plutonium

Pu

640

3235 19.84

1940

102

[Rn] 5f6 7s2

6.0262

95

* 243

Americium

Am

994

2607 13.67

1944

102

[Rn] 5f7 7s2

5.9738

96

* 247

Curium

Cm

1340

13.5

1944

102

5.9915

97

* 247

Berkelium

Bk

986

14.78

1949

102

6.1979

98

* 251

Californium

Cf

900

15.1

1950

102

6.2817

99

* 252

Einsteinium

Es

860

1952

102

6.42

100

* 257

Fermium

Fm

1527

1952

102

6.5

101

* 258

Mendelevium

Md

1955

102

6.58

102

* 259

Nobelium

No

827

1958

102

6.65

103

* 262

Lawrencium

Lr

1627

1961

102

4.9

104

* 261

Rutherfordium

Rf

1964

105

* 262

Dubnium

Db

1967

106

* 266

Seaborgium

Sg

1974

107

* 264

Bohrium

Bh

1981

108

* 277

Hassium

Hs

1984

109

* 268

Meitnerium

Mt

1982