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Monday, January 25, 2016

Lecture #1: Atomic Structure


Thomsons atomic model:
PLUM PUDDING
Rutherford, Ernest:
Discovered the atomic nucleus 100 years ago.
Gold foil experiment. So far, it was known that electrons
could be separated from the atom. So by logic, there must
have been positive particles to counteract. Determined that
alpha particles were equivalent of Helium nucleus (mass, no.
of electrons, neutrons). Fired alpha particles into a container,
allowing them to accumulate, placing high charge through and
seeing the spectrum produced.
Showed that the spectrum produced from alpha particles were
same as those from helium.
Fired alpha particles at a thin gold foil (0.5 microns thick).
Most went straight through, hitting a curved detecting screen.
Small amount actually hitting screen: Most particles went
straight through, few deflected, very few greatly deflected.
Like howitzer shells bouncing off of tissue paper
Conclusion: That there must be a lot of empty space between
gold atoms.
Small, dense, positively charged nucleus.
Number of protons didnt always correspond with weight of
atom. Leading to neutrons.
Chadwick:
Discovered Neutron. In 1932, observed that beryllium exposed
to bombardment by alpha particles released an unknown
radiation that ejected protons from nuclei of various
substances. He interpreted this radiation as being of particles
of mass approximately equal to that of the proton but without
electrical charge. I.e. Neutrons.
---------------------- Electron mass: 1/1800
Proton/electron mass: 1 (Charge: +/-1)
Size in atoms:
Atom: 1
Nucleus: 1/10,000
Proton: 1/100,000
Quark/electron: 1/100,000,000
12 <- Mass Number
C
6 <- Atomic Number (Z)

6 protons/electrons, 6 neutrons.
The number of protons defines an element.
Isotopes: Remember that the number of protons defines an
element. Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have
the same number of protons, but a different number of
neutrons.
Regular hydrogen protium has no neutrons. Heavy
hydrogen, deuterium (as in heavy water), has 1 neutron.
Tritium has 2 neutrons.

Calculation of relative atomic mass:


Relative Atomic mass is the average mass of all the isotopes
of that element compared to 1/12 the mass of Carbon-12 12
C, 12.011.

6
Carbon in a lump of coal is a combination of Carbon isotopes.
Mostly Carbon-12, a little Carbon-13, and even less Carbon-14.
12.011 calculated by (98.89 x 12 + __ x 13 + __ x 14)/100
Out of every 100 atoms 90.92 are 10Ne, 0.26 are 21Ne, and
8.82 are 22Ne.
Average = (90.92 x 20 + 0.26 x 21 + 8.82 x 22)/100
= 20.179 = 20.18
Ans is in 3 sig figs = 20.2

Periodic table:
Starting point: Mendeleevs 1869 periodic table, with vertical
periods and horizontal groups. Followed by his 1871 periodic
table.
http://www.ptable.com interactive P.T.
Ionization energy ->
Electron affinity ->
Atomic radius <Atomic radius v
Electron affinity, Ionization energy ^
Nonmetallic character to the top right, metallic to the
bottom left.
Ions
If an atom loses one or more electrons, you will have a
positively charged ion. This is a CATION, BECAUSE IT IS
ATTRACTED TO THE NEGATIVE TERMINAL OF THE SYSTEM,
CALLED THE CATHODE.
IF AN ATOM GAINS ONE OR MORE ELECTRONS, YOU WILL HAVE
A NEGATIVELY CHARGED ION. THIS IS CALLED AN ANION,
BECAUSE IT IS ATTRACTED TO THE NEGATIVE TERMINAL OF
THE SYSTEM, WHICH IS CALLED THE ANODE.

Two ions are isoelectronic if they have the same number of


electrons. Na+ is isoelectronic with Ne, which is also
isoelectronic with F-. They all have the same number of
electrons.

Tutorial #1: Atomic Structure

All elements may lose or gain electrons to achieve the noble


gas configuration, or magic number (such as 10, 18, 36, 54).
Group number: combining capacity
With loss of electrons, an atom becomes a +ve cation.
With gain of electrons, an atom becomes a ve anion.
With electrostatic attraction between cations and anions,
compounds are formed.
E.g. Na+ & Cl- form compound NaCl by an ionic bond (which is
essentially, electrostatic attraction).
Metals lose electrons, Non-metals gain electrons.
Metals -> cations,
Non-metals -> anions
Metalloids/semi-metals
There are no tri-atomic gases. E.g. of tetraatomic: P4. The rest
are known as polyatomic.
Bromine is liquid at room temperature.
Allotropes: Different arrangement of atoms.
E.g. Carbon: diamond, graphite
Properties change with allotropes. E.g. graphite can conduct
electricity but diamond cannot.
Think of atomic number in relation mostly to protons. So
where Oxygen gains 2 electrons, the atomic number of 8 is
thought of to remain the same.
Iso -> same.