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AQA Core 4 Parametric equations

Section 2: Parametric differentiation


Solutions to Exercise
1. (i)

dx
3
dt
dy
y t 3 1
3t 2
dt
dy dy dt 3t 2

t 2
dx
dx dt
3

x 3t 2

dx
2 3cos 2 sin 6 sin cos 2
d
dy
y 3 sin 3
3 3 sin 2 cos 9sin 2 cos
d
dy dy d
9sin 2 cos

23 tan
2
dx
dx d 6 sin cos

(ii) x 2 cos 3

(iii) x

t 2

y 1 t
dy
dx

dx dt

dy
dx

dy dt
dx dt

When t = 1,

dy dt

2. x t 3 2t

y 5t 2

dy
dt

dx
2
2t 3 3
dt
t
1

1
21 t 3
2 / t 3

dx
3t 2 2
dt

5 t 2 t 1

10t t
3t 2 2

dy
dx

dy dt
dx dt

dy
dt

10t t 2

10 1
9
32

When t = 1, x 1 3 2 1 1
1
y 5 12 6
1
Tangent has gradient 9 and passes through (-1, 6)
Equation of tangent is y 6 9( x ( 1))
y 6 9x 9
y 9 x 15

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AQA C4 Parametric equations 2 Exercise solutions


Normal has gradient 19 and passes through (-1, 6)
Equation of normal is y 6 19 ( x ( 1))

9( y 6) ( x 1)
9 y 54 x 1
9 y x 53

3. When curve crosses x-axis, y = 0 so t 2 1 0

(t 1)(t 1) 0
t 1 or t 1

x t (t 2 1) t 3 t
y t 2 1
dy
dx

dy dt
dx dt

dy
dt

dx
3t 2 1
dt

2t

2t
3t 2 1

dy

2
21
dx 3 1
When t = 1, x 1(1 2 1) 2
So the tangent has gradient 21 and passes through the point (2, 0)
Equation of tangent is y 21 ( x 2)
2y x 2
When t = 1,

dy

2
21
dx 3 1
When t = -1, x 1(( 1)2 1) 2
So the tangent has gradient 21 and passes through the point (-2, 0)
Equation of tangent is y 21 ( x ( 2))
2y x 2
2y x 2 0
When t = -1,

dx
2t
dt
dy
y 2t
2
dt
dy dy dt
2
1

dx
dx dt
2t t

4. x t 2

Tangent has gradient

1
and passes through the point t 2 , 2t .
t
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AQA C4 Parametric equations 2 Exercise solutions


1
Equation of tangent is y 2t ( x t 2 )

ty 2t x t 2
2

ty x t 2
At point A, y 0 x t 2 0 x t 2
At point B, x 0 ty t 2 y t
The coordinates of A are t 2 ,0 and the coordinates of B are 0,t .

dx
4
dt
dy
4
y 4t 1
4t 2
t
dt
dy dy dt 4t 2
1

2
dx
dx dt
4
t
At the point P (8, 2), t = 2
Gradient at P 41 .
Gradient of normal at P = 4
Normal has gradient 4 and passes through (8, 2)
Gradient of normal is y 2 4( x 8)
y 2 4 x 32
y 4 x 30

5. x 4t

To find the point where the normal meets the curve again, substitute the
parametric equations for x and y into the equation of the normal.
y 4 x 30
4
4 4t 30

4 16t 2 30t
8t 2 15 t 2 0
(8t 1)(t 2) 0

t 81 or t 2

Since t 2 at point P, then at Q t 81 .


At Q, x 4 81 21
4
y 1 32
8
The coordinates of Q are 21 , 32 .

6. (i) At intersections with x-axis, y 0 3 sin 0 0 or


When 0, x 2 cos 0 2

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AQA C4 Parametric equations 2 Exercise solutions


When 0,

x 2 cos 2

At intersections with y-axis, x 0 2 cos 0 2 or


When 2 , y 3 sin 2 3
When 32 , y 3 sin 32 3

3
2

The points of intersection with the axes are (2, 0), (-2, 0), (0, 3), (0, -3)

dx
2 sin
dt
dy
y 3 sin
3cos
dt
dy dy d
3cos

dx
dx d 2 sin

(ii) x 2 cos

3cos
x 2 cos
2 sin
Tangent passes through the point (4, 0)
3 cos
3 sin
4 2 cos
2 sin
2 sin 2 cos (4 2 cos )
Equation of tangent is y 3 sin

2 sin 2 4cos 2 cos 2


sin 2 cos 2 2 cos
cos

1
2

3 or

5
3

When 3 , x 2 cos 3 2 21 1

y 3 sin 3 3 21 3 23 3
When 53 , x 2 cos 53 2 21 1

y 3 sin 53 3 21 3 23 3

The points are 1, 23 3 and 1, 23 3 .

dx
2 2 cos
d
dy
y 2(1 cos )
2 sin
d
dy dy d
2 sin
sin

dx
dx d 2 2 cos 1 cos

7. (i) x 2( sin )

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AQA C4 Parametric equations 2 Exercise solutions


(ii) When 21 , gradient

sin 2
1

1 cos 2 1 0

Gradient of normal = -1
When 21 , x 2( 2 1) 2

y 2(1 0) 2
Equation of normal is y 2 1( x ( 2))
y 2 x 2
y x
When normal meets x-axis, y 0 x .
Coordinates of A are ,0 .
(iii) x
Gradient of tangent at P is 1
Tangent at P is y 2 1( x ( 2))
y 2 x 2
y x 4
At point of intersection with x
y 4 4
so the point of intersection is , 4 .

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