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Information and communications technology

Information and communications technology (ICT)

is an extended term for information technology (IT)
which stresses the role of unied communications[1] and
the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines
and wireless signals), computers as well as necessary
enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audiovisual systems, which enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information.[2]

the United Nations creating a "United Nations Information and Communication Technologies Task Force" and
an internal Oce of Information and Communications

2 Monetization of ICT

The term ICT is also used to refer to the convergence of

audio-visual and telephone networks with computer networks through a single cabling or link system. There are
large economic incentives (huge cost savings due to elimination of the telephone network) to merge the telephone
network with the computer network system using a single
unied system of cabling, signal distribution and management.

The money spent on IT worldwide has been most recently

estimated as US $3.5 trillion and is currently growing at
6% per year doubling every 15 years. The 2014 IT budget of US federal government is nearly $82 billion.[11] IT
costs, as a percentage of corporate revenue, have grown
50% since 2002, putting a strain on IT budgets. When
looking at current companies IT budgets, 75% are recurrent costs, used to keep the lights on in the IT departare cost of new initiatives for technology
However, ICT has no universal denition, as the con- ment, and 25%
cepts, methods and applications involved in ICT are constantly evolving on an almost daily basis.[3] The broad- The average IT budget has the following breakdown:[12]
ness of ICT covers any product that will store, retrieve,
manipulate, transmit or receive information electroni 31% personnel costs (internal)
cally in a digital form, e.g. personal computers, dig 29% software costs (external/purchasing category)
ital television, email, robots. For clarity, Zuppo provided an ICT hierarchy where all levels of the hierar 26% hardware costs (external/purchasing category)
chy contain some degree of commonality in that they
14% costs of external service providers (exterare related to technologies that facilitate the transfer of
information and various types of electronically mediated
communications.. Skills Framework for the Information Age is one of many models for describing and managing competencies for ICT professionals for the 21st 3 ICT sector in the OECD
The following is a list of OECD countries by share of ICT
sector in total value added in 2013.[13]

4 ICT Development Index

The phrase information and communication technology

has been used by academic researchers since the 1980s,[6]
and the abbreviation ICT became popular after it was
used in a report to the UK government by Dennis Stevenson in 1997,[7] and in the revised National Curriculum
for England, Wales and Northern Ireland in 2000. But in
2012, the Royal Society recommended that ICT should
no longer be used in British schools as it has attracted
too many negative connotations,[8] and with eect from
2014 the National Curriculum uses the word computing,
which reects the addition of computer programming
into the curriculum.[9]

The ICT Development Index ranks and compares the

level of ICT use and access across the various countries
around the world.[14] In 2014 ITU (International Communications Union) released the latest rankings of the
IDI, with Denmark attaining the top spot, followed by
South Korea. The top 30 countries in the rankings include
most high-income countries where quality of life is higher
than average, which includes countries from Europe and
other regions such as Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Japan,
Macao (China), New Zealand, Singapore and the United
States; almost all countries surveyed improved their IDI
Variations of the phrase have spread worldwide, with ranking this year.[15]


The WSIS process and ICT de- 7 ICT today

velopment goals

On 21 December 2001, the United Nations General Assembly approved Resolution 56/183, endorsing the holding of the World Summit on the Information Society
(WSIS) to discuss the opportunities and challenges facing todays information society.[16] According to this resolution, the General Assembly related the Summit to
the United Nations Millennium Declaration's goal of
implementing ICT to achieve Millennium Development
Goals. It also emphasized a multi-stakeholder approach
to achieve these goals, using all stakeholders including
civil society and the private sector, in addition to governments.

In modern society ICT is ever-present, with over three

billion people having access to the Internet.[19] With approximately 8 out of 10 Internet users owning a smartphone, information and data are increasing by leaps and
bounds.[20] This rapid growth, especially in developing
countries, has led ICT to become a keystone of everyday life, in which life without some facet of technology
renders most of clerical, work and routine tasks dysfunctional. The most recent authoritative data, released in
2014, shows that Internet use continues to grow steadily,
at 6.6% globally in 2014 (3.3% in developed countries,
8.7% in the developing world); the number of Internet
users in developing countries has doubled in ve years
(2009-2014), with two thirds of all people online now living in the developing world.[15]

To help anchor and expand ICT to every habitable part

of the world, 2015 is the deadline for achievements of However, hurdles are still at large. Of the 4.3 billion
the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which people not yet using the Internet, 90% live in developing
global leaders agreed upon in the year 2000.[17]
countries. In the worlds 42 Least Connected Countries
(LCCs), which are home to 2.5 billion people, access to
ICTs remains largely out of reach, particularly for these
countries large rural populations.[21] ICT has yet to pen6 ICT in education
etrate the remote areas of some countries, with many developing countries dearth of any type of Internet. This
also includes the availability of telephone lines, particularly the availability of cellular coverage, and other forms
of electronic transmission of data. The latest Measuring
the Information Society Report cautiously stated that the
increase in the aforementioned cellular data coverage is
ostensible, as many users have multiple subscriptions,
with global growth gures sometimes translating into little real improvement in the level of connectivity of those
at the very bottom of the pyramid; an estimated 450 million people worldwide live in places which are still out of
reach of mobile cellular service.[19]

Todays society shows the ever-growing computer-centric

lifestyle, which includes the rapid inux of computers in the
modern classroom.

Information and Communication Technology can contribute to universal access to education, equity in education, the delivery of
quality learning and teaching, teachers professional development and more ecient education management, governance and administration. UNESCO takes a holistic and comprehensive approach to promoting ICT in education. Access, inclusion and quality are among
the main challenges they can address. The Organizations Intersectral Platform for ICT in
education focuses on these issues through the
joint work of three of its sectors: Communication & Information, Education and Science.[18]

Favorably, the gap between the access to the Internet

and mobile coverage has decreased substantially in the
last fteen years, in which 2015 is the deadline for
achievements of the UN Millennium Development Goals
(MDGs), which global leaders agreed upon in the year
2000, and the new data show ICT progress and highlight
remaining gaps deadline for achievements of the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which global leaders agreed upon in the year 2000, and the new data show
ICT progress and highlight remaining gaps.[17] ICT continues to take on new form, with nanotechnology set to
usher in a new wave of ICT electronics and gadgets. ICT
newest editions into the modern electronic world include
smart watches, such as the Apple Watch, smart wristbands such as the Nike+ FuelBand, and smart TVs such
as Google TV. With desktops soon becoming part of a
bygone era, and laptops becoming the preferred method
of computing, ICT continues to insinuate and alter itself
in the ever-changing globe.
Information communication technologies play a role in
facilitating accelerated pluralism in new social move-

ments today. The internet according to Bruce Bimber
is accelerating the process of issue group formation and
action[22] and coined the term accelerated pluralism to
explain this new phenomena. ICTs are tools for enabling
social movement leaders and empowering dictators[23]
in eect promoting societal change. ICTs can be used to
garner grassroots support for a cause due to the internet
allowing for political discourse and direct interventions
with state policy[24] as well as change the way complaints
from the populace are handled by governments.

See also
Cloud computing
Cognitive infocommunications
Digital divide
Example of Information and communication technologies for education
Global e-Schools and Communities Initiative
Hospital information system
ICT Development Index
Information Age
Information and communication technologies for
Information and communication technologies for
environmental sustainability
Market information systems
Mobile Web
Picture archiving and communication system
21st century skills


[1] Murray, James (2011-12-18). Cloud network architecture and ICT - Modern Network Architecture. ITKnowledgeExchange. TechTarget. Retrieved 2013-08-18.
[2] Information and Communication Technology from.
FOLDOC. 2008-09-19.

[5] https://www.computer.org/web/pressroom/framework
[6] William Melody et al., Information and Communication
Technology: Social Sciences Research and Training: A Report by the ESRC Programme on Information and Communication Technologies, ISBN 0-86226-179-1, 1986.
Roger Silverstone et al., Listening to a long conversation:
an ethnographic approach to the study of information and
communication technologies in the home, Cultural Studies, 5(2), pages 204-227, 1991.
[7] The Independent ICT in Schools Commission,
Information and Communications Technology in UK
Schools: An Independent Inquiry, 1997. Impact noted in
Jim Kelly, What the Web is Doing for Schools, Financial
Times, 2000.
[8] Royal Society, Shut down or restart? The way forward for
computing in UK schools, 2012, page 18.
[9] Department for Education, National curriculum in England: computing programmes of study.
[10] United Nations Oce of Information and Communications Technology, About
[11] http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/
[12] IT Costs The Costs, Growth And Financial Risk Of
Software Assets. OMT-CO Operations Management
Technology Consulting GmbH. Retrieved 26 June 2011.
[13] http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/888933224163
[14] Measuring the Information Society (PDF). International
Telecommunication Union. 2011. Retrieved 25 July
[15] ITU releases annual global ICT data and ICT Development Index country rankings - librarylearningspace.com.
Retrieved 2015-09-01.
[16] Basic information : about wsis. International Telecommunication Union. 17 January 2006. Retrieved 26 May
[17] ICT Facts and Figures The world in 2015. ITU. Retrieved 2015-09-01.
[18] ICT in Education. Unesco. Unesco. Retrieved 10
March 2016.
[19] ITU releases annual global ICT data and ICT Development Index country rankings. www.itu.int. Retrieved
[20] Survey: 1 In 6 Internet Users Own A Smartwatch Or
Fitness Tracker. ARC. Retrieved 2015-09-01.

[3] ICT - What is it?". www.tutor2u.net. Retrieved 201509-01.

[21] ITU releases annual global ICT data and ICT Development Index country rankings. www.itu.int. Retrieved

[4] Zuppo, Colrain M. Dening ICT in a Boundaryless

World: The Development of a Working Hierarchy
(PDF). International Journal of Managing Information
Technology (IJMIT). p. 19. Retrieved 2016-02-13.

[22] Bimber, Bruce (1998-01-01). The Internet and Political Transformation: Populism, Community, and
Polity 31 (1): 133160.
Accelerated Pluralism.


[23] Hussain, Muzammil M.; Howard, Philip N. (201303-01). What Best Explains Successful Protest Cascades?
ICTs and the Fuzzy Causes of the Arab
Spring. International Studies Review 15 (1): 4866.
doi:10.1111/misr.12020. ISSN 1521-9488.
[24] Kirsh, David (2001). The Context of Work. Human
Computer Interaction.


Further reading

Cantoni, L., & Danowski, J. A. (Eds.). (2015).

Communication and Technology. Berlin: De
Gruyter Mouton.
Caperna A., Integrating ICT into Sustainable Local
Policies. ISBN 9781615209293
Carnoy, Martin. "ICT in Education: Possibilities
and Challenges. Universitat Oberta de Catalunya,
"Good Practice in Information and Communication Technology for Education. Asian Development Bank, 2009.
Grossman, G. and E. Helpman (2005), Outsourcing in a global economy, Review of Economic
Studies 72: 135-159.
Mete Feridun and Stelios Karagiannis (2009)
Growth Eects of Information and Communication Technologies: Empirical Evidence from the Enlarged EU, Transformations in Business and Economics, 8(2), 86-99.
Oliver, Ron. "The Role of ICT in Higher Education
for the 21st Century: ICT as a Change Agent for
Education. University, Perth, Western Australia,
Walter Ong, Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word (London, UK: Routledge, 1988), in
particular Chapter 4
Measuring the Information Society: The ICT Development Index (PDF). International Telecommunication Union. 2013. p. 254.
Measuring the Information Society Report: 2014.
International Telecommuncation Union.


External links

ITS Home Page

ICT Literacy
Women in ICT
ICT Facts and Figures

Device Ownership



Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses


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Jeremy Butler, Mjroots, SmackBot, McGeddon, Baldie, Gilliam, Ohnoitsjamie, Skizzik, Marc Kupper, Jprg1966, Octahedron80, Hallenrm,
Wine Guy, Nakon, Valenciano, Derek R Bullamore, Barry m, Kuru, Semeiotike, IronGargoyle, Deepak D'Souza, Vashtihorvat, Warp9wb,
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Taranet, Starlemusique, Qwfp, Johnuniq, Apparition11, Mitch Ames, Skarebo, WikHead, PL290, Zirguezi, Jojhutton, V3rbum, Raywil,
Fgnievinski, Kattmamma, Leszek Jaczuk, Fluernutter, MrOllie, Download, PranksterTurtle, Kasjanek21, Tide rolls, MuZemike, -iNu-,
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MelbourneStar, Gilderien, Satellizer, Adamovicky, SalimJah, O.Koslowski, AseemGuptaDxb, Joshua Gyam, Widr, Santoshbhatt.nepal,
Meneer B, Pluma, MerlIwBot, Mightymights, Helpful Pixie Bot, Electriccatsh2, Cseanburns, BZTMPS, Preeti kumari, BG19bot, BendelacBOT, Shaysom09, MusikAnimal, Cchase0405, Aengland2, Mcarroll4, Informationist1, Joydeep, Liampa, Sapphire82, Robangel,
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Wywin, Faizan, Epicgenius, Enock4seth, Michipedian, EvergreenFir, Starsoly, Aiko1031, Zenibus, My name is not dave, Quenhitran,
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