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THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

3.

INTRODUCTION
The Nervous and Endocrine systems together control and
coordinate functions of all body systems
o Coordinated as an interlocking system termed
the Neuroendocrine system
o Nervous system performs short term crisis
management
o Endocrine system regulates long term ongoing
metabolic activities
THREE OVERLAPPING FUNCTIONS:
1. stimuli: monitor changes gathered by the sensory
input
2. integration: processes and interprets the sensory
input
3. motor output: effects or causes a response by
activating glands and muscles

ORGANIZATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM


Nervous system acts as a coordinated unit, both structurally
and functionally.
Structural Classification all nervous system organs
1. central nervous system
brain + spinal cord
dorsal body cavity
acts as integrating and command centers
2. peripheral nervous system
nerves that extends from the brain and spinal
cord
spinal nerves, cranial nerves
Functional Classification PNS only, activities
1. sensory (afferent) division
to CNS
somatic from skin, muscles, and joints
visceral from visceral organs
2. motor (efferent) division
from CNS to effector organs
2 subdivisions:
a. somatic nervous system (voluntary)
b. autonomic nervous system (involuntary)
o parasympathetic, sympathetic

4.

PNS:
1.

2.

ependymal cells
line the cavities of the brain and spinal cord
circulate the cerebrospinal fluid
cushions CNS
oligodendrocytes
wrap their flat extensions tightly around nerve
fibers
produce myelin sheaths
Schwann cells
form the myelin sheaths around nerve fibers
found in PNS
satellite cells
protective, cushioning cells

Distinctions:
both have cell extensions
neuroglia: do not transmit nerve impulses, always
divide, form gliomas: tumors

NEURONS

neurons:
o transmit messages;
o
primary functional and anatomic unit of the
nervous system;
o sense
changes
in
the
environment,
communicate these changes to other neurons,
and command the bodys responses to these
sensations
o Excitable cells specialized for the reception of
stimuli and conduction of nerve impulse
o Found in the central nervous system (gray
matter) and in the peripheral nervous system
(ganglia)
o Mature neurons are not capable of replication
o Vary in size and shape but each possesses a
cell body (perikaryon) and one to several
branching processes (neurites) of varying
lengths

NERVOUS TISSUE: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION


SUPPORTING CELLS (NEUROGLIA)

neuroglia/glia/glial cells: support, insulate, and


protect the neurons
Types of neuroglia:
CNS:
1. astrocytes
star-shaped cells
most abundant, versatile
anchor to blood capillaries
determine blood permeability
protect from harmful substance
mopping out leaked K ions
recapture leaked neurotransmitters
2. microglia
spiderlike phagocytes that defend CNS cells
monitor health of neurons and dispose debris

ANATOMY
Cell body: metabolic center of the neuron
no centrioles confirms amitotic nature of the neurons
Nissl bodies aka RER
Neurofibrils: intermediate filaments that maintain cell
shape
Processes/fibers:
Dendrites: messages towards the cell body
Axons: conduct away from the cell body
Axon hillock: conelike region of the cell body where
axon arises from
Each neuron has hundreds of dendrite and one axon.
Axon gives off a collateral branch but profuse at the
axon terminal: terminal end which contains tiny

vesicles or membranous sacs that contain chemicals


called neurotransmitters
Synaptic cleft: 20-30nm wide; are the tiny gap
between neurons; separates the presynaptic and
postsynaptic membranes
Synapses:
o functional junction.
o where the neuron communicates with another
cell
o Presynaptic cell has the synaptic terminal and
send the message
o Postsynaptic cell receives the message
Neurons never touch.
Myelin sheaths:
Myelin sheaths: whitish, fatty covering of nerve fibers;
waxy appearance; insulates and protects; increases
transmission of nerve impulses

Its coils are initially loose until the Schwann cell


cytoplasm squeezes between its membrane layers.

Neurilemma: Schwann cell cytoplasm; exposed


membrane; external to the myelin sheath; essential
for fiber regeneration

Nodes of Ranvier: gaps and indentations due to


Schwann cells

Oligodendrocytes: coil around as many as 60


different fibers at the same time; lack neurilemma.

Multiple sclerosis: myelin sheaths are gradually


destroyed and converted to hardened sheaths,
scleroses; autoimmune disease; affect visual,
speech, muscle control; relieved through injection
of interferon
Plasma Membrane:

The neuron is enclosed by a semi-permeable


membrane and is the site for the initiation and
conduction of the nerve impulse

The membrane consists of a lipid bilayer

Phopholipids, the main lipid component, are


oriented in such way that the hydrophobic non-polar
tails are pointing towards each others while the
hydrophylic polar phosphate heads point toward the
cytosolic (internal) and external surface

This creates an hydrophobic barrier around the


cell

Protein molecules span the entire width of the lipid


layer

Provide the membrane with hydrophilic channels


through which inorganic ions may enter and leave
the cell
Terminology:
CNS
o Nuclei: clusters of cell bodies
o Tracts: bundles of nerve fibers(neuron
processes)
PNS
o Ganglia: clusters/collections of cell bodies
o Nerves: bundles of nerve fibers(neuron
processes)
Gray matter vs white matter
o Gray matter: unmyelinated fibers and cell
bodies
o White matter: dense collections of myelinated
fibers
Classification
Functional: according to the direction the nerve
impulse is travelling relative to the CNS

Sensory/afferent neurons

From sensory receptors to CNS

Receptors: dendrite endings activated


by changes

Cutaneous sense organs: skin

Proprioceptors: detect the amount of


stretch, or tension in muscles, tendons
and joints.

Lamellar corpuscle: deep pressure


receptor

Free nerve endings: pain and


temperature receptors

Meissners corpuscle: touch receptor

Golgi tendon organ: proprioceptor

Muscle spindle: proprioceptor

Pain receptors: least specialized yet


most abundant
o Motor/efferent: from CNS to viscera, muscles
and/or glands; cell bodies are always located in
CNS
o Interneurons: connect the motor and sensory
neurons; cell bodies are always located in CNS
Structural: according to the number of processes
o Multipolar neuron: most common type; motor +
interneuron
o Bipolar neuron:

dendrites and axons;

found only in special sense


organs (eyes and nose)

Cochlear
and
vestibular
peripheral ganglia, retinal and
olfactory receptor cells
o Unipolar neuron:
single process emerging from the body;
short and divide immediately into proximal
(central) and distal (peripheral)
end of peripheral are dendrites
axon conducts towards and away the CNS
sensory neurons found in PNS ganglia,
posterior root ganglion cells

Physiology: Nerve Impulses


Major
functional
properties:
irritability
and
conductivity
Irritability: ability to respond to a stimulus and convert
it to a neve impulse
Conductivity: ability to transmit impulse to other
neurons, muscle or glands
Most neurons in the body are excited by
neurotransmitter chemicals release by other neurons.
Impairs nerve impulses: sedatives, anesthetics, cold
and pressure
Propagation of nerve impulse along unmyelinated
fibers:
1. Resting membrane is polarized. -80 mV
Neuron is polarized: fewer positive ions in
inner plasma membrane than outside
Major positive ions: K (in) and Na (out)
As long as the inside remains more negative
than the outside, the neuron will stay inactive.
2. Stimulus initiates local depolarization. +40mV
Depolarization: inward rush of sodium ions
changes the polarity of the neurons membrane
at that site
Graded potential: inside is more positive than
outside

3.

4.

5.

6.

Stimulus changes the permeability of a local


patch of the membrane
Depolarization and generation of an action
potential
Action potential/nerve impulse: stimulus is
strong enough and sodium influx is great
enough
Graded
potential
(local
depolarization)
activates the neuron to initiate and transmit
long-distance signal
Propagation of the action potential.
Depolarization of the first membrane patches
cause permeability to the adjacent membrane.
All-or-none response
Action potential propagates rapidly along the
entire length of the membrane
Excitatory (e.g. glutamate, aspartate) - EPSP
Inhibitory (e.g. GABA, glycine) - IPSP
Repolarization
K ions diffuse out of the cell
Restoration of negative charge inside the
membrane
Occurs in the same direction as polarization
Until repolarization occurs, a neuron cannot
conduct another impulse.
Initial iconic conditions restored.
Uses ATP to pump Na ions out and bring K
back in
Three sodium are ejected for every two
potassium ions carried back into the cell

Propagation of nerve impulse along myelinated


fibers:

Saltatory conduction: electrical impulse


wherein no electric current can flow across the
axon membrane, so impulses leaps from node
to node.
Transmission of the signal at synapses:

Conductivity

A neurotransmitter crosses the synapse to


transmit the signal from one neuron to the next.

Electrochemical event: transmission down the


length of the membrane is electrical by the next
neuron is transmitted by a neurotransmitter
which is chemical.
1.

2.

3.
4.

5.

6.

Action potential arrives.


Action potential reaches the axon terminals
which activates calcium gates to open.
Vesicle fuses with plasma membrane.
Calcium causes tiny vesicles containing
neurotransmitter to fuse with the axonal
membrane
Neurotransmitter is releases into the synaptic
cleft.
Neurotransmitter binds to receptor on receiving
neurons membrane.
Neurotransmitter diffuses across the synapse
Ion channel opens.
Enough neurotransmitter is released sodium
entry, depolarization graded potential
Ion channel closes.
Neurotransmitter is removed by diffusion, by
reuptake into the axon terminal or by
enzymatic breakdown.
This limits the effect of each nerve impulse to a
period shorter than a blink of an eye

Physiology: Reflexes
Reflexes: rapid, predictable and involuntary responses
to stimuli; one direction only
Reflex arcs: pathways where reflexes occurs; involves
PNS and CNS
Types of reflexes: somatic or autonomic
Somatic: reflexes that stimulate the skeletal muscles;
reaction to hot object
Autonomic: regulate the activity of the smooth
muscles, the heart and glands; regulate body functions
as digestion, elimination, blood pressure and sweating;
saliva reflex, papillary reflex
Five elements of reflex arc: sensory receptor
sensory neuron CNS integration center motor
neuron effector organ
o Sensory receptor: acts to stimulus
o Integration center: synapse or interneurons
between the sensory and motor neuron
o Sensory and motor: connects the two
o Effector organ: muscle or gland stimulate
Patellar reflex/ knee-jerk reflex: two-neuron reflex
arc: simplest type in human
Two-neuron reflex: synapses between one or more
interneurons in the CNS (integration center); sensory
receptor sensory neuron CNS integration center
motor neuron effector organ
Three-neuron reflex/ flexor/ withdrawal reflex: limb
is withdrawn from a painful stimulus; receptor
sensory neuron interneuron motor/efferent
neuron effector organ
The more synapses there are in a reflex pathway, the
longer the reflexes take to happen.
Spinal reflex: occur without brain development, flexor
reflex
Papillary reflex needs brain.
Whenever reflexes are exaggerated, distorted, or
absent, nervous system disorders are indicated.

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM


Embryonic development: CNS appears as a simple
tube: neural tube
Neural tube: extends down the dorsal median plane
od the developing embryos body
Fourth week: expansion of anterior end of the neural
tube; beginning of brain formation; posterior end
becomes spinal cord
Ventricles: four ventricles of the brain form through
the enlargement of the central canal
FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY OF THE BRAIN
Brain: largest and most complex mass of nervous
tissue
Four
main
regions:
cerebral
hemispheres,
diencephalon, brain stem and cerebellum
CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES
Collectively called as cerebrum
Most superior part of the brain
Encloses and obscure most of the brain stem and
diencephalon
Gyri: elevated ridges of tissue on the surface;
twisters
Sulci: shallow groves that separates gyri; furrows
Fissures: less numerous deeper grooves; separate
regions of the brain

Longitudinal fissure: a single deep fissure that


separates cerebral hemispheres
Lobes: other fissures or sulci that divide the cerebral
hemisphere
Has three basic regions:
1. superficial cortex of gray matter,
2. white matter,
3. basal nuclei: islands of gray matter situated
within the white matter
Cerebral cortex

Speech, memory, logical and emotional response,


consciousness, interpretation of sensation, voluntary
movement
Primary somatic sensory area: located in the parietal
lobe posterior to the central sulcus; interprets sensory
receptors (except special senses); recognize pain,
coldness or light touch
Sensory homunculus: spatial map wherein the body
is represented in an upside-down manner
Body regions with the most sensory receptors make up
large part of the brain.
Sensory pathways are crossed pathways- left side
receives impulses from the right
Other cortical areas that interprets impulses from
special organs:
o Visual area: posterior part of occipital lobe
o Auditory area: temporal lobe bordering the
lateral sulcus
o Olfactory area: found deep inside the temporal
lobe
Primary motor area: allows voluntary movement of
skeletal muscles; anterior to the central sulcus of the
frontal lobe; finest motor control (face, mouth, and
hands)
Corticospinal/pyramidal tract: major voluntary motor
tract formed by neurons of primary motor area
Motor homunculus: body map of the motor cortex
Brocas area: specialized cortical area responsible for
the production of words; found base of the precentral
gyrus (gyrus anterior to the central sulcus; usually on
the left hemisphere
Longitudinal fissure separates two cerebral
hemispheres
Central sulcus of Rolando separates the frontal and
parietal lobes
Lateral Sylvian fissure separates the temporal lobe
from the frontal and parietal lobes
Line drawn from the parieto-occipital sulcus down to
the preoccipital notch delineate the occipital lobe from
the temporal and parietal lobes
Anterior association area: higher intellectual
reasoning and socially acceptable behaviors; anterior
part of the frontal lobe
Temporal and frontal areas: complex memories

Posterior association area: facial and pattern


recognition; blending of different inputs to a whole
situation
o Speech area: junction of the temporal, parietal
and occipital love; sounding out of words
Frontal lobes: language comprehension (word
meanings)
Gray matter: where cell bodies of neurons involved in
the cerebral hemisphere functions
Cerebral White Matter
Composed of fiber tracts carrying impulses to, from, or
within the cortex
Corpus callosum: large giber tract that connects the
cerebral hemispheres; arches above the structure of
the brain stem; allows communication between
cerebral hemispheres
Commissures: fiber tracts for connection
Cortical functional areas are only in one hemisphere.
Association fibers
o connections from gyrus to gyrus and from lobe to
lobe in the same hemisphere
o Superior longitudinal fasciculus
Commissural fibers
o Connections occur between homologous areas of
the two hemispheres
o Corpus callosum
Projection fibers
o Connects the cerebral cortex to the subcortical,
brainstem and spinal cord nuclei
o connect the cerebrum with the lower CNS
centers
Basal Nuclei/Basal Ganglia

Islands of gray matter


Buried deep within the white matter of cerebral
hemispheres
Regulate voluntary motor activities by modifying
instructions sent to skeletal muscles by primary
motor cortex
Internal capsule: tight band of projection fibers that
passes between the thalamus and basal nuclei
Problems with basal nuclei unable to walk
normally or unable to carry out voluntary
movements Huntingtons disease aka
Huntingtons chorea, Parkinsons disease

DIENCEPHALON

Or interbrain
Sits atop the brain stem enclosed by cerebral
hemisphere
Major structures: thalamus, hypothalamus, and
epithalamus
Thalamus:
o encloses the shallow third ventricle of the brain
o relaying station for sensory impulses passing
upward the sensory cortex
o final relay point for ascending sensory
information
o coordinates the activities of the cerebral cortex,
basal nuclei and cerebellum
Hypothalamus
o makes up the floor of diencephalon
o regulates body temperature, water balance and
metabolism
o center of drives and emotions
o controls somatic motor activities at the
subconscious level
o controls autonomic function
o coordinates activities of the endocrine and
nervous systems
o secretes hormones
o coordinates voluntary and autonomic functions
o coordinates circadian cycles of activity
o important part of the limbic system or emotionalvisceral brain
o thirst, appetite, sex, pain, pleasure
o regulates pituitary gland
o pituitary gland: hangs from the anterior floor of
the hypothalamus by a slender stalk
o mammillary bodies: reflex centers involved in
olfaction, bulge form the floor of hypothalamus
posterior to the pituitary gland
Epithalamus:
o Forms the roof of the third ventricle
o Pineal gland

Endocrine gland located rostral to the


superior colliculi

Influence the activity of the pituitary


gland, pancreas, parathyroid, adrenals
and gonads

inhibit the production of hormones or


inhibit the secretion of releasing factors in
the hypothalamus

regulation of reproductive function

exhibits a circadian rhythm that is


influenced by light

plasma melatonin levels rises in darkness


and falls during the day

usually calcifies after the age 16


o Choroid plexus: knots of capillaries within each
ventricle form the cerebrospinal fluid

THE BRAIN STEM


Size of a thumb
Approximately 3 inches (5cm) long
Provides pathway for ascending and descending tracts
Has many small gray matter areas
Nuclei produce programmed autonomic behaviors
necessary for survivals
Associated with cranial nerves
Control breathing and blood pressure
Structures are: midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
Midbrain
Relatively small part of the brain stem
Extends from the mammillary bodies to the pons
inferiorly
Cerebral aqueduct: tiny canal that travels through the
midbrain; connects the third ventricle of diencephalon
to the fourth ventricle
Anterior: 2 fiber tracts, cerebral peduncles
Cerebral peduncles: convey ascending and
descending impulses
Tectum: roof contains corpora quadrigemina: four
rounded protrusions found dorsally, reflex centers
involved with vision and hearing
The mesencephalon contains many nuclei and tracts
o Red nucleus
o Substantia nigra
o Cerebral peduncles
o RAS headquarters
Pons
Rounded structure that protrudes below the midbrain
bridge
Sensory and motor nuclei for four cranial nerves
control respiration
nuclei and tracts linking the cerebellum with the brain
stem, cerebrum and spinal cord
ascending, descending and transverse tracts
Medulla Oblongata
Most inferior part of the brain stem
Regulate vital visceral activities
Control heart rate, blood pressure, breathing,
swallowing, and vomiting
Fourth ventricle: lies posterior to the pons and
medulla and anterior to the cerebellum
o Connects the brain with the spinal cord
o Contains relay stations reflex centers and cranial
nerve nuclei

Olivary nuclei

Cardiovascular
and
respiratory
rhythmicity centers
o Reticular formation begins in the medulla
oblongata and extends into more superior
portions of the brainstem
Reticular Formation
Diffuse mass of gray matter
Motor control of the visceral organs
Reticular activating system (RAS): plays a role in
consciousness and awake/sleep cycle; filter the flood
of sensory inputs that streams up the spinal cord and
brain stem daily.
Weak or repetitive signals are filtered, but unusual or
strong signals do reach consciousness
Comatose: permanent unconsciousness, damage to
RAS

CEREBELLUM
Large, cauliflower-like
Projects dorsally form under the occipital lobe of the
cerebrum
Has 2 hemispheres and convoluted face, outer cortex
of gray matter and inner region of white matter
Adjusts postural muscles and tunes on-going
movements
o Cerebellar divisions
o Flocculonodular, anterior and posterior lobes
Vermis and cerebellar hemispheres
Superior, middle and inferior cerebellar peduncles link
cerebellum with brain stem, diencephalon, cerebrum,
and spinal cord
Provides timing for skeletal muscle activity and controls
balance and equilibrium Body movements are
smooth and coordinated
Performs less when sedated with alcohol
Damaged cerebellum loss of muscle coordination
clumsy and disorganized movements ataxia

PROTECTION OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM


MENINGES
Three connective tissue membranes covering and
protecting the CNS
Dura mater:
o outermost leathery layer;
o double-layered membrane that surrounds the
brain
o periosteum (periosteal layer): inner surface of
the skull
o meningeal layer: outermost covering of the brain
and continues as a dura mater of the spinal cord
Dural venous sinuses:
o Enclosed by fused dural layers except in three
areas
o Collect venous blood
Falx cerebri, tentorium cerbelli: inner dural
membrane extends inwards that forms folds that
attaches the brain to the cranial cavity
Arachnoid mater:
o middle meningeal layer;
o weblike;
Subarachnoid space: threadlike expansion span that
attaches the arachnoid mater to the pia mater
Pia matter: the innermost membrane
Arachnoid villi: specialized projections of the
arachnoid membrane; protrude through the dura mater;
through which cerebrospinal fluid is absorbed into the
venous blood
Meningitis: inflammation of the meninges; diagnosed
by taking cerebrospinal fluid from the subarachnoid
space
Encephalitis: brain inflammation
CEREBROSPINAL FLUID
Watery broth formed from blood plasma
Contains less protein and more vitamin C
Ion composition is different
Formed by the choroid plexus: hanging from the roof
each ventricle
Watery cushion that protects the fragile nervous
tissues from blows and other trauma
Circulation:
1. CSF is produced by the choroid plexuses of
each ventricle.
2. CSF flows through the ventricles and into the
subarachnoid space via the median and lateral
apertures. Some CSF flows through the central
canal of the spinal cord.
3. CSF flows though the subarachnoid space.
4. CSF is absorbed by the dural venous sinuses
by the arachnoid villi.
Circulation inside the brain
rd
Lateral ventricles (in hemispheres) 3 ventricle
(diencephalon) cerebral aqueduct of the
th
midbrain 4 ventricle dorsal to the pons and
medulla oblongata
medulla oblongata spinal cord
medulla oblongata subarachnoid space through
3 openings: the paired lateral apertures and median
aperture
CSF returns the blood arachnoid villi dural
venous sinuses
CSF drains at constant rate to maintain normal
pressure and volume: 150mL

Changes in CSF composition meningitis, multiple


scleroses, tumors
Lumbar (spinal) tap:
o CSF sample testing,
o patient must remain in a horizontal position (lying
down) for 6 to 12 hrs after the procedure to
prevent spinal headache
Hydrocephalus:
o CSF accumulation and pressure exertion on the
brain,
o water on the brain
o Baby skulls bones have not yet fused
o Adult brain damage
o Inserting a shunt (plastic tube) to drain the
excess fluid into a vein in the neck or into the
abdomen
THE BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER
How neurons are kept separated from bloodborne
substances
Composed of least permeable capillaries in the whole
body
Bound by tight junctions
Only water, glucose, and essential amino acids pass
by the capillaries
Metabolic wastes are prevented from entering the
brains
Impermeability of the capillaries is most responsible for
providing this protection
Diffuse easily through the plasma membrane: fats,
respiratory gases, etc.

BRAIN DYSFUNCTIONS
TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURIES
Head trauma: leading cause of accidental death in US
Concussions:
o occur when brain injury is slight;
o victim may be dizzy, lose consciousness
o no permanent brain damage
Contusion: result of marked tissue destruction;
o damage to reticular activating system
contusion comatose
Intercranial Hemorrhage: bleeding from ruptured
vessels
Cerebral Edema: swelling of the brain due to
inflammatory response to injury
CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT
Cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs)/strokes:
o third leading cause of death;
o blood clot/ruptured blood vessel/vital brain tissue
dies blood circulation to the brain is blocked
Hemiplegia: one-sided paralysis
Aphasias: damage to the left cerebral hemisphere,
where the language areas are located.
o Motor aphasia: damage to the Brocas area,
loss of the ability to speak
o Sensory aphasia: loss the ability to understand
written or spoken language
Brain lesions: changes in disposition
Transient ischemic attack (TIA):
o temporary brain ischemia: restriction of blood
flow
o last for 5 to 10 minutes
o numbness, temporary paralysis, impaired speech

SPINAL CORD
SPINAL CORD:
Cylindrical, 17 (42cm) long
White continuation of the brain
stem
Provides
two-way conduction
pathway
Enclosed within the vertebral
column
Extends from the foramen magnum of the skull to the
L2
Cushioned and protected by the meninges
L3: site of CSF testing
31 pairs of spinal nerves: arise from the cord, exit the
vertebral column
Spinal cord: size of a thumb; does not reach the end
of vertebral column
Cauda equina: collection of spinal nerves at the
inferior end of the vertebral canal; looks like a horses
tail
GRAY MATTER OF THE SPINAL CORD AND SPINAL
ROOTS
Gray matter of spinal cord looks like a letter H
Gray matter dominated by nerve cell bodies and
neuroglia
Projections of gray matter called horns
Dorsal, posterior horns:
o two posterior projections;
o sensory
o contain interneurons, somatic and visceral
sensory nuclei
Dorsal root: where fibers of cell body of sensory
organs enter the cord
Dorsal root ganglion: enlarged area where dorsal
root is found
Ventral, anterior horns:
o two anterior projections;
o motor
o contain motor neurons of the somatic (voluntary)
nervous system
o anterior: somatic motor control
o lateral: visceral motor neuron
Ventral root: where axons are sent out
Central canal: surrounded by gray matter; contains
CSF
Spinal nerves: formed by fused dorsal and ventral
roots
Flaccid paralysis:
o damage to the ventral root nerve impulses do
not reach the muscles no voluntary
movement atrophy
WHITE MATTER OF THE SPINAL CORD
White matter is composed of myelinated fiber tracts
Divided into six columns (funiculi) containing tracts
3 regions: dorsal, lateral, and ventral columns
o made up of axons with the same destination and
function
Dorsal tracts: contain ascending tracts
Lateral and ventral columns: ascending and
descending tracts
Spinal paralysis:
o transected, crushed spinal cord
o involuntary movement
o lack of mobility
o loss of feeling or sensory input occurs in the body
areas below the point of destruction

o quadriplegic: all four limbs are affected


o paraplegic: paralyzed legs

PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM


Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
consists of nerves and ganglia found outside the CNS
STRUCTURE OF A NERVE
Nerve: bundle of neuron fibers found outside the CNS
Endoneurium: delicate connective tissue covering of a
fiber
Perineurium: coarse connective tissue covering of
fascicles: fiber bundles
Epineurium: tough fibrous sheath that binds fascicles;
form cordlike nerve
Nerves classified according to the direction in
which they transmit impulses: mixed nerves,
sensory/ afferent nerves, and motor/efferent neurons
Mixed nerves: carry sensory and motor fibers; all
spinal nerves
Sensory/afferent nerves: toward CNS
Motor/efferent nerves: motor fibers

CRANIAL NERVE
Cranial nerve: 12 pairs; only one pair extends to the
thoracic and abdominal cavities
Oh, oh, oh, to touch and feel very good velvet, ah.

SPINAL NERVES AND NERVE PLEXUSES


Spinal nerves: 31 pairs; formed by ventral and dorsal
roots
Division of spinal nerves: dorsal, ventral
Rami: an inch long; contain both motor and sensory
fibers
Damage to spinal nerve or rami loss of sensation,
flaccid paralysis
Intercostal nerves: formed by the ventral rami nerves
T1 through T12; supply muscles between the ribs, skin,
muscles of anterior and lateral trunk
Plexuses: ventral rami of all other spinal nerves from
complex networks of nerves; serve the motor and
sensory needs of the limbs
Plexuses
1. Cervical
O: C1C5
Important nerve: phrenic
Body areas served: Diaphragm; skin and
muscles of shoulder and neck
Damage: Respiratory paralysis (and death if not
treated promptly)

2.

Brachial
O: C5C8 and T1
Important nerve: axillary
Body areas served: Deltoid muscle and skin of
shoulder; muscles and skin of superior
thorax
Damage: Paralysis and atrophy of deltoid
muscle

Important nerve: Radial


Body areas served: Triceps and extensor
muscles of the forearm; skin of posterior
upper limb
Damage: Wristdropinability to extend hand at
wrist

Important nerve: Tibial (including sural and


plantar branches)
Body areas served: Posterior aspect of leg and
foot
Damage: Inability to plantar flex and invert foot;
shuffling gait

Important nerve: Median


Body areas served: Flexor muscles and skin of
forearm and some muscles of hand
Damage: Decreased ability to flex and abduct
hand and flex and abduct thumb and index
finger therefore, inability to pick up small
objects

Important nerve: Superior and inferior gluteal


Body areas served: Gluteus muscles of hip
Damage: Inability to extend hip (maximus) or
abduct and medially rotate thigh (medius)

Important nerve: Musculocutaneous


Body areas served: Flexor muscles of arm;
skin of lateral forearm
Damage: Decreased ability to flex forearm on
arm
Important nerve: Ulnar
Body areas served: Some flexor muscles of
forearm; wrist and many hand muscles; skin
of hand
Damage: Clawhandinability to spread fingers
apart

3.

Lumbar
O: L1L4
Important nerve: Femoral (including lateral and
anterior cutaneous branches)
Body areas served: Lower abdomen,anterior
and medial thigh muscles (hip flexors and
knee extensors), and skin of anteromedial
leg and thigh
Damage: Inability to extend leg and flex hip;
loss of cutaneous sensation
Important nerve: Obturator
Body areas served: Adductor muscles of
medial thigh and small hip muscles; skin of
medial thigh and hip joint
Damage: Inability to adduct thigh

AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM


Autonomic nervous system (ANS)
Motor subdivision of PNS
Relative stability of internal environment
Makes adjustments to best support body cavities
Involuntary nervous system
Coordinates cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive,
urinary and reproductive functions
SOMATIC AND AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEMS
COMPARED
Somatic
o Cell bodies of motor neurons are inside the CNS
o Axons extends all the way to the skeletal muscles
Autonomic
o 2 chain of motor neuron: preganglionic neuron,
ganglionic neuron

Preganglionic neuron: in brain or spinal


cord

Preganglionic axon: leaves the CNS


with the second motor neuron in a
ganglion outside the CNS

Ganglionic neuron- postganglionic axon

Postganglionic axon: extend to the


organ it serves
o 2 arms: parasympathetic, sympathetic

Sympathetic division: mobilize the


body during extreme conditions

Parasympathetic division: unwind


and conserve energy
ANATOMY OF THE PARASYMPATHETIC DIVISION

4.

Sacral
O: L4L5 and S1S4
Important nerve: Sciatic (largest nerve in body;
splits to common fibular and tibial nerves just
above knee)
Body areas served: Lower trunk and posterior
surface of thigh (hip extensors and knee
flexors)
Damage: Inability to extend hip and flex knee;
sciatica
Important nerve: Common fibular (superficial
and deep branches)
Body areas served: Lateral aspect of leg and
foot
Damage: Footdropinability to dorsiflex foot
Preganglionic neurons: brain nuclei of cranial nerves
III, VI, IX, X
terminal ganglion:

route:
o neurons of cranial nerve axons cranial
nerves synapse with ganglionic motor
division terminal ganglionic postganglionic
axon organ
o sacral region
preganglionic axons spinal cord pelvic
splanchnic/pelvic nerves pelvic cavity
synapse with the second motor neuron in
terminal ganglia organ
Preganglionic neurons in the brainstem and sacral
segments of spinal cord
o Preganglionic fibers leave the brain as cranial
nerves III, VII, IX, X
o Sacral neurons form the pelvic nerves
Ganglionic neurons in peripheral ganglia located within
or near target organs
ANATOMY

OF

THE

SYMPATHETIC

DIVISION

AUTONOMIC FUNCTIONING
receive only sympathetic fibers: blood vessels, skin,
glands, adrenal medulla
both divisions serve the same organ postganglionic
axons
release
different
neurotransmitters

antagonistic effects
cholinergic fibers: parasympathetic fibers that
release acetylcholine
adrenergic fibers: postganglionic fibers that release
norepinephrine
preganglionic axons of both divisions: release
acetylcholine
Sympathetic Division
fight-or-flight division;
during emotionally upset and physically stressed
effects continue until its hormones are destroyed by
the liver
type A people: always work at breakneck speed; likely
to have heart disease, high bp, ulcers
Preganglionic fibers leaving the thoracic and lumbar
segments
Parasympathetic Division
active when at rest
aka craniosacral division
resting-and-digesting system
Promoting normal digestion
Conserve body energy
Preganglionic fibers leaving the brain and sacral
segments

Digestive
system
preganglionic neurons are in the gray matter of the
spinal cord from T1 to L2
Ganglionic neurons in ganglia near vertebral column
o Sympathetic
chain
ganglia
(paravertebral
ganglia)
o Collateral ganglia (prevertebral ganglia)
Specialized neurons in adrenal glands
route:
preganglionic axons ventral root spinal nerve
ramus communicans sympathetic trunk
ganglion synapse with the second (ganglionic)
neuron in the sympathetic chain postganglionic
axon spinal nerve skin

preganglionic axon ganglion without synapsing


collateral ganglion
ramus communicans: small communicating branch
sympathetic trunk/chain: lies alongside the vertebral
column on each side
major collateral region: celiac, messentric gangliasupply the abdominal and pelvic region
postganglionic axon: leaves the collateral ganglion
and travels to serve nearby visceral organs

PARAYMPHAresting-anddigesting
Increase peristalsis
Increase secretion
Relaxed sphincters

Liver

SYMPHAfight-or-flight
Decrease activity
Constrict digestive
system
Release
glucose

Lungs

Constrict
bronchioles

Dilates
bronchioles

Urinary
bladder/urethra

Relax (allows)

Constricts
(prevents)

Kidneys

Heart

Decrease
output
Decrease,
steady

Blood vessels

slow,

of

urine

Increase, force

Glands

Stimulates

Constrict
in
viscera and skin
Increase bp
Inhibits

Eyes (iris)

Constrict pupil

Dilates pupil

Eye
(ciliary
muscle)

Bulging
Close vision

Slit eyes
Distant vision

Adrenal
medulla

Secreted
epinephrine and
norepinephrine

Sweat glands

Stimulates

Arrector pili

Goosebumps

Penis

Erection due
vasodilation

to

Ejaculation

Cellular
metabolism

Increase
metabolic rate
Increase glucose

Adipose tissue

Stimulates
breakdown

fat

DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS

Embryonic development: rubella deafness


Lack of oxygen death of neurons
Smoking mother brain damage
Cerebral palsy:
o deliveries, temporary lack of oxygen
o neuromuscular disability in which the voluntary
muscles are poorly controlled and spastic
because of brain damage
o seizures, mentally retarded, impaired hearing and
vision
o largest single cause of physical disability in
children
congenital malformations
o hydrocephaly
o anencephaly: failure of the cerebrum to develop
child cannot see and hear
o spina bifida: vertebrae form incompletely in the
lumbosacral region
hypothalamus: last area to mature
o premature babies problems in
thermoregulation
A good indication of the degree of myelination of
particular neural pathways is the level of
neuromuscular control in body area.
The brain reaches its maximum weight in the young
adult
Sympathetic nervous system gradually becomes less
and less efficient.
Orthostatic hypotension: type of low blood pressure
resulting from changes in body position
Circulatory system problems: arteriosclerosis, high
blood
Arteriosclerosis: decreased elasticity of arteries
Lack of oxygen senility: foregtfullness, irritability,
difficulty in concentrating and thinking clearly,
confusion
Reversible senility: caused by drugs, low bp,
constipation, poor nutrition, depression, dehydration,
and hormone imbalances
Shrinking of the brain hastens for occasional boxers
and chronic alcoholics.
Punch drunk: slurred speech, tremors, abnormal gait,
dementia
Chronic alcoholic reveal reduced brain size.