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Management Commitment

Learning Outcomes
1. Describe the differentr eras in the development of OSH


act (OSHA)
Explain the prinsciples of industrial safety
Identify the different type of safety culture
Define the managements rols and responsibilities in
safety and health
Examine the accountability of management and the
Analyse the functions of the Safety and Health

1.1 The Eras of Safety


1.Inspection Era (1911 1931)

Focusing on workers behavior by correcting or eliminating physical

Assumtions that cleaning up physical conditions came first as this
was thought to possibly be actual cause of injuries

2. The Unsafe Act and Condition Era

Focusing on unsafe act cause of high percentage of accidenht,

88% (Heinrich, 1931)

Cleaning up the physical condition
Trying to teach and train workers on the safe ways if working

Removing unsafe conditions andstopping unsafe acts in the workplace

3. Industrial Hygine Era

Physicians were focusing occupational diseases

Three concentration area:

Concentrate at the physical conditions
Focus on the behavior of workers
Monitor environmental conditions

4. Noise Era
1951 A worker loss his hearing due to his job.

Worker compensation were intruduced

Two protective actions
Protecting workers from any hearing loss
Protecting the company from paying for hearing loss occurred


5 Safety Management Era

Safety profesional start to see the management in safety.

Safety policies inplace, defining responsibility and clarifying the role

of authorities
Profesional view about:
Attemting to better define the scope and functions of the position

Developing curriculum for formal education to prepare a potential

Evolving a profesional certification programme

6 Occupational Safety and Health Era

(early 1970)
OSH Act changing the world of safety management

Concetrate on two promary things

Removing physical conditions mentions in the standards
Documenting everything that was done

7 The Accountablity Era

Aboved management commitment

Focusing in 3 different view:

Different ways to measure performance
New defination of managerial roles
Better defination of what is acceptable safety performance at all levels

of organization

8 Behavior Based Era and Human Era

Used the principle of Human Behavior in safety program

Consideration of employee perceptions of the organisation and the

working climate that implementation of these approaches have



Heinrichs Axiom of Industrial Safety

1. Injuries result from a complete series of

factors, one of which is the accident itself

2. An accident can occur as a result of unsafe act
and/or unsafe conditions
3. Most accidents are the result of unsafe
behaviour by people
4. An unsafe act or an unsafe conditions does not
immediately result in an accident/injury;

Heinrichs Axiom of Industrial Safety

5. The reasons why people commit unsafe acts

can serve as helpful guides in selecting

corrective actions.
6. The severity of an accident is largely
fortuitous (by chance) and the factors that cause it are
largely preventable.
7. The prevention techniques are analogous with
the best quality and productivity techniques.

Heinrichs Axiom of Industrial Safety

8. Management should assume responsibility for

safety because it is in the best position to get

9. The supervisor is the key person in the
prevention of industrial accidents.
10. In addition to the direct costs of an accident
(i.e. compensation, liability claims, medical
costs, and hospital expenses) there are also
hidden or indirect costs.

The Domino Theory and Multiple

Causation Theory
The easiest and most effective domino to remove is the

one at the center

If you are to prevent loss, remove the unsafe act or the
unsafe condition
Use this theory in two fundamental areas today
Accident Investigation

Domino Theory
Each factor is the fault of the factor that immediately

precedes it
A preventable injury is the natural culmination of a series
of events or circumstances, which occur in a fixed logical

Domino Theory
If one of the dominoes is removed then the chain of

events will be halted, and the accident will not happen

Element 3 (unsafe act and/or mechanical or physical
hazard) is probably the easiest factor to remove

Domino Theory

Multiple Causation Theory

May be more than one cause, not only in sequence, but

occurring at the same time

In accident investigation all causes must be identified
Usually simple accidents have a single cause
Major disasters normally have multiple causes

Multiple Causation Theory

Cause a
Cause b

Unsafe Act

Cause c
Cause d
Cause e
Cause f


Injury or

Unsafe Act
Operating without clearance
Operating at unsafe speed
Rendering safety devices inoperative
Using unsafe equipment, or using it unsafely
Unsafe methods e.g. loading, carrying, mixing
Adopting unsafe position or posture
Working on moving or dangerous equipment
Horseplay e.g. distracting, teasing, startling
Failure to wear PPE
Lack of concentration; fatigue or ill health
Human Factors

Unsafe Act
Unsafe acts can be active or passive:
Active Unsafe Acts:
Worker deliberately removes machine guard

Passive Unsafe Acts:

More difficult to deal with
By pursuing an active safety policy, it is possible to achieve a reduction

in bad habit s and hence accidents

Unsafe Condition
Inadequate guarding
Unguarded machinery
Defective, rough, sharp, slippery, decayed, cracked surfaces
Unsafely designed equipment
Poor housekeeping, congestion
Inadequate lighting, glare, reflections
Inadequate ventilation, contaminated air
Unsafe clothing or PPE
Unsafe processes
Hot, humid or noisy environment

Unsafe Acts/Conditions
The picture shows how unsafe acts & conditions may

interact to produce an accident.

Accident potential is increased when unsafe acts &
conditions occur simultaneously. Of course, this is not to
say that an act or condition alone could not result in an

Unsafe Acts


Unsafe Acts/Conditions



Defining a Management System

ILO-OSH 2001
A set of interrelated or interacting elements to establish OSH policy
and objectives, and to achive those objectives
ISO 1400 (1996)
The part of the overall managemnet system that includes
organizatioal structure, planning activities, responsibilities,
practices, procedures, processes and resrouces for developing,
implementing, achivei, reviewing and mantaining the environmental

Further System Characteristic

Open System
System interact by exchanging infromation
Close System
Limit their ability to adapt or respond to changing externel

Key System Distinctions

1) Management Leadership and Commitment
2) Worker participation
3) Continual Improvement
4) Evaluation

5) Integration
6) Management Review



Safety Culture:
Concept and Realities
Safety culture refers to the ways that safety issues are

addressed in a workplace. It often reflects "the attitudes,

beliefs, perceptions and values that employees share in
relation to safety." In other words, "the way we
do safety around here."

Safety Culture Component

The value, beliefs and principles that serve asa a

foundation for the safety management system

A set of practices and behaviors that exemplify and
reinforce those basic principles

Safety Culture

Safety Culture and Safety Performance

Evidence of safety-oriented workforce is a positive factor

for the firms safety performance.

Three important contributions;
Top managements leadership and support
Lower managemnet commitment
Employees involvement in occupational safety.

The management of an Integrated Safety

Systematic approach to supervisors behavior change is

the most efficient strategy to effect change.

Three problem address need to solve:
The resistence of individuals to change
The adaptation of existing management formal system to support

the process of change

The shaping of the informal political and cultural dynamics of the



Roles and Responsibilities of


Roles and Responsibilities of Managers

and Supervisors



Encouranging Workers Involvement
It takes two to tango

Establishment of a Safety and Health