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3.

2 System Components and Circuit Design


Based on the various reviews conducted on induction motor protection and the above block
diagram which was conceived out of those literature reviews conducted, numbers of components
are required in developing the protection system.
3.2.1 Power Supply
Power supply is the circuit from which we get a desired dc voltage to run the other circuits. The
voltage we get from the main line is 230V AC but the other components of our circuit require 5V
DC. Hence a step-down transformer is used to get 12V AC which is later converted to 12V DC
using a rectifier.
The output of rectifier still contains some ripples even though it is a DC signal due to which it is
called as Pulsating DC. To remove the ripples and obtain smoothed DC power filter circuits are
used.
`A 5V regulated supply is taken as followed:
230V
50Hz 5V DC

Transfor
mer

Rectifier

Smoothin
g

Regulator

5v DC

AC
Figure 3.2: Block diagram of regulated power supply system
Transformer
Transformer is the electrical device that converts one voltage to another with little loss of power.
Most power supplies use a step-down transformer to reduce the dangerously high mains voltage
to a safer low voltage. Here a step down transformer is used to get 12V AC from the supply i.e.230V AC.
Rectifiers
A rectifier is a circuit that converts AC signals to DC. A rectifier circuit is made using diodes.
There are two types of rectifier circuits as Half-wave rectifier and Full-wave rectifier depending
Upon the DC signal generated. Here Full-wave bridge rectifier is used to generate dc signal.
Smoothing
Smoothing is performed by a large value electrolytic capacitor connected across the DC supply to act as
reservoir, supplying current to the output when the varying DC voltage from the rectifier is decreasing. The
diagram shows the unsmoothed varying DC and the smoothed DC. The capacitor charges quickly to the

peak of the varying DC and then discharges as it supplies current to the output. Here the capacitor of 470uF
is used as a smoothing circuit.
Voltage regulation
Fixed voltage regulator78xx, produce fixed DC output voltage from variable DC (a small amount of AC on
it). Fixed output is obtained by connecting the voltage regulator at the output of the
filtered DC. It can also be used in circuits to get low DC voltage from high DC voltage.
Mathematical modeling for power supply circuit
VREV (reverse voltage in diode) = VP VF
VP= VO max + 2VF = 12.6 + 2 (0.7) = 14V
VREV = 14V 0.7V = 13.3V
I (average forward current) =ILDC/2 = 35 mA
IFRM (forward repetitive current) = IL/t2 (t1+t2) = 500mA
Now from datasheet 1N4001 is chosen
For 1N4001 IF (surge) = 30A
So Rsurge =

VP
14 V
I surge = 30 A =0.5

Choose standard 1
Designers recommend;
C2 = C3 = 0.1F
For proper output of IC7805
Rectification circuit
Outputs 12V DC for 70mA load
Lets allow 10present ripple for the rectified output
Then: - R ripple = 0.1 * 12V
V max = 12V + 0.5 (1.2V) = 12.6V
V min = 12V 0.5 (1.6V) = 11.4V
T=

1
50 HZ =50Sec

1 V min
1 = sin V max

= 65o

2 = 90o 65o =25o


t2 = charging time =

2
360 *T=1.4m sec

t1 = discharging time =

Then C1=

T
2 - t2= 8.6m sec

Il
70 mA8.6 m sec
*t
=
=500 F
1
1.2 V
VR

Use standard C1 = 470F


Assume silicon diode
Vf = 0.7V, Vdc = 5v
Vprimary = 230v and
Vr = 10 percent of Vdc = 0.5v
So C1 = (IL*t1)/Vr
But IL= Vdc/RL = 5v/500 = 10mA and
Discharging time (t1) = 0.5T-t2
t2(charging time) = 1.17msec
T (period) = 1/50
So t1 = 15.5msec
C1 = (10mA*15.5msec)/0.5v = 310nF
Diode selection
Peak = Vmax + 2Vforward
= 5.25 + 2*0.7
= 6.65v
For a full wave rectifiers
V reverse = Vp = 6.65v
I foIFRM is repetitive surge current

IFRM = (T*IL/2)t2 = 10(15.5 + 1.17)/1.17


= 142.5 mA
From data sheet
IFSM = 10 A
So Rs = Vp/ IFSM = 6.65/10 = 0.667 = 1

12 Volt DC Power Supply


V r = 0.1 * V dc
V max = 14.7 V
V min = 13.3 V
Let IL=100mA
1 V min
1 = sin V max

= 65o

2 = 90o 65o =25o


t2 = charging time =

2
360 *T=1.4m sec

t1 = discharging time =

Then C1=

T
2 - t2= 8.6m sec

Il
100 mA8.6 m sec
*t
=
=615 F
1
1.2 V
VR

Use standard C1 = 1000F


Choose C2 = 10F

Figure 3.3: Power supply circuit simulation


3.2.2 Microcontroller
The microcontroller IC which we used is Arduino Uno. The Arduino Uno is a microcontroller
board based on the ATmega328. It has 20 digital input/output pins of which 6 can be used as PWM
outputs and 6 can be used as analog inputs, a 16 MHz resonator, a USB connection, a power jack,
an in-circuit system programming (ICSP) header, and a reset button. It contains everything needed
to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with
an AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started.
The Uno differs from all preceding boards in that it does not use the FTDI USB-to-serial driver
chip. Instead, it features the Atmega16U2 programmed as a USB-to-serial converter. This auxiliary
microcontroller has its own USB boot loader, which allows advanced users to reprogram it.
Therefore in order to achieve this task the Arduino mega microcontroller based on ATmega328
was chosen because of its suitability for this project such as speed, power consumption, and
universal synchronous asynchronous receiver transmitter (USART) functionality, in built ADC,
and amount of RAM and ROM on the chip.

Figure 3.4: Arduino-Uno and pin configurations

Power (USB) and pin configuration


Every Arduino board needs a way to be connected to a power source. The Arduino UNO can be
powered from a USB cable coming from your computer or a wall power supplies. Its not allowed
to use a power supply greater than 20 Volts as you will overpower and thereby destroy the Arduino.
The recommended voltage for most Arduino models is between 6 and 12 Volts. The pins on your
Arduino are the places where it will connect wires to construct a circuit probably in conjunction
with a breadboard and some wire. They usually have black plastic headers that allow you to just
plug a wire right into the board. The Arduino has several different kinds of pins, each of which is
labeled on the board and used for different functions.
GND (3): Short for Ground. There are several GND pins on the Arduino, any of which can
be used to ground your circuit.
5V (4) & 3.3V (5): As we might guess, the 5V pin supplies 5 volts of power, and the 3.3V
pin supplies 3.3 volts of power. Most of the simple components used with the Arduino run
happily off of 5 or 3.3 volts.

Analog (6): The area of pins under the Analog In label (A0 through A5 on the UNO) is
Analog In pins. These pins can read the signal from an analog sensor (like a temperature sensor)
and convert it into a digital value that we can read.
Digital (7): Across from the analog pins are the digital pins (0 through 13 on the UNO). These
pins can be used for both digital input (like telling if a button is pushed) and digital output (like
powering an LED).
PWM (8): the digital pins (3, 5, 6, 9, 10, and 11 on the UNO). These pins act as normal digital
pins, but it can also be used for something called Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM).
AREF (Stands for Analog Reference) (9): Most of the time you can leave this pin
alone. It is sometimes used to set an external reference voltage (between 0 and 5 Volts) as the
upper limit for the analog input pins.

3.2.3 Sensors and Transducer Unit


This unit consists of several sensors and transducers used to detect the predetermined parameters
of the induction machine. In this work, we mainly monitor four parameters of induction machine
that are Voltage, Current, Temperature of Stator Windings and Speed of Operation.
Sl No Parameter

Sensors Used

Phase Current Current Transformer

Phase Voltage Voltage Transformer

Winding temperature LM35 sensor

Rotor speed

LM393 speed sensor

LM35 temperature sensor


Temperature is a common signal to be sensed. The most common type of temperature sensors are;
thermocouple, thermistor and Temperature Detectors (RTDs). In this project a thermistor type
LM35 temperature sensor is used due to the following main advantages:

Lower cost
Does not require any external calibration

Linear output
Precise and accurate output

Figure 3.5: LM35 temperature


As shown in the figure above the sensor has three terminals
i.

Input source; it ranges from 2.7V to 5V

ii.

Ground

iii.

Output; analogue voltage output ranges from 201mV to 20v

The temperature of the motor windings is measured using the LM35 temperature Sensor. The
LM35 series are type of precision integrated-circuit temperature sensors. The output of this sensor
is linearly proportional the Celsius. For every 10mv, the temperature value will be increase in 1
degree. It can measure the temperature from -55 to +150C range. The measured temperature
from the sensor unit was displayed in LCD through the controller circuit.

Figure 3.6: temperature sensor


Voltage measurement
The voltage given to the induction motor is measured using the voltage transformer with the
transformation ratio of 220/5V. The voltage transformer will pass through rectification process
before fed to the ADC. The over voltage and under voltage protection circuit is capable of
measuring and monitoring voltage from 200 to 230VAC. In this project the voltage can be varied
by using the variable resistor and the output of the voltage monitoring circuit is fed to ADC
converter, whenever the voltage is varied to 200VAC, the microcontroller will detect under voltage
fault and whenever the voltage is varied to 230VAC, the microcontroller detects over voltage fault,
consequently the microcontroller sends a trip signal to the relay, and the relay trips the motor from
the AC mains, thereby protecting it from damage.
Rectification stage
Rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which periodically reverses
direction, to direct current (DC), which flows in only one direction. The process is known as
rectification and the stage is known as rectification stage. In this stage we use full wave bridge rectifier
.This type of single phase rectifier uses four individual rectifying diodes connected in a closed loop
bridge configuration to produce the desired output. Here we are used 1N4007.

Filtering stage
To smooth the output of the rectifier a reservoir capacitor is used - placed across the output of the
reciter and in parallel with the load. This capacitor charges up when the voltage from the rectifier rises
above that of the capacitor and then as the rectifier voltage falls, the capacitor provides the required
current from its stored charge.

The output V1 of the transformer is fed to voltage transformation unit which transforms the input
voltage into 5 volts range. The voltage transformation unit consists of diode, and resistive divider
network.
RloadC 1 . (4)
Where:
Rload = the overall resistance of the load for the supply
C= Value of capacitor in Farads
f= the ripple frequency this will be twice the line frequency a full wave rectifier is used shown in
equation 5.
f = 2 line frequency. (5)
f = 2 50=100Hz
By rearrange equation (5)
C 1 f Rload
C 1/100Hz10K
C 1uF
For perfect smoothing purpose we take the capacitor value is 100uF
Current measurement
Current measurement is of vital importance in many power and instrumentation systems. Traditionally,
current sensing was primarily for circuit protection and control. However, with the advancement in
technology, current sensing has emerged as a method to monitor and enhance performance. Knowing the
amount of current being delivered to the load can be useful for wide variety of applications. Current sensing
is used in wide range of electronic systems, viz., Battery life indicators and chargers over-current protection
and supervising circuits, current and voltage regulators, DC/DC converters, ground fault detectors,
programmable current sources, linear and switch-mode power supplies, communications devices ,
automotive power electronics, motor speed controls and overload protection, etc.
A current sensor is a device that detects and converts current to an easily measured output voltage, which is
proportional to the current through the measured path. When a current flows through a wire or in a circuit,
voltage drop occurs. Also, a magnetic field is generated surrounding the current carrying conductor. Both of
these phenomena are made use of in the design of current sensors.
Thus, there are two types of current sensing: direct and indirect. Direct sensing is based on Ohms law,
while indirect sensing is based on Faradays and Amperes law.

Direct Sensing involves measuring the voltage drop associated with the current passing through passive
electrical components. Indirect Sensing involves measurement of the magnetic field surrounding a
conductor through which current passes. Generated magnetic field is then used to induce proportional
voltage or current which is then transformed to a form suitable for measurement and/or control system. The
current consumed by the induction motor is measured using the current transformer. The CT is a type of
instrument transformer that is designed to produce an alternating current in its secondary winding which is
proportional to the current being measured in its primary. CT reduce high voltage currents to a much lower
value and provide a convenient way of safely monitoring the actual electrical current flowing in an AC
transmission line using a standard ammeter. Current transformer with primary current 5Amps and rated
secondary current of 1Amps is used. The measured voltage and current are displayed in LCD. If the voltage
and current exceeds the rated value, the buzzer is used to indicate the overload condition of the motor.
We have to consider 60W load for our system so the current passing through the line is about 10A which is
60W 220V ac induction motor. Therefore I1=10A the output current is required to about
25mA therefore by using equation 1 the turn ration is calculated.
n = 1/ 2 .(1)
= 10/25A=400 turns
Some current transformers have a split core which allows it to be opened, installed, and closed,
without disconnecting the circuit to which they are attached. The toroid current transformer type
which have one turn primary winding (N1=1) and secondary winding 400turns (N = 400).
The burden resister is about 35ohm which if the standard resister for lower current value so the
output voltage calculated using equation 2.
IR(2)
= R
= 25A/35ohm=0.875v
Therefore, the maximum output voltage is 0.875V and the maximum secondary current is 30mA.