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ARTIFICIAL LIFT CONFERENCES

21-22 February 2006 Jakarta, Indonesia

Artificial
Artificial Lift
Lift in
in Mature
Mature Fields
Fields
Case Study of the
Golfo
Golfo San
San Jorge
Jorge Basin
Basin
Argentina
Argentina
By
By Marcelo
Marcelo Hirschfeldt
Hirschfeldt
OilProduction
OilProduction Consulting
Consulting &
& Training
Training
Patagonia
Patagonia Argentina
Argentina

Outline
Argentina Regional context
- Oil & gas production history and distribution
Golfo San Jorge Basin (GSJB) Introduction
- Reservoir characteristics
- Oil & water production trends
GSJB - Artificial Lift Systems
- Sucker rod / PCPump / ESPump & others
- Artificial lift evolution Typical example
Lifting cost consideration & evolution
Conclusions
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Argentina Regional context


Argentina

South
America
Buenos Aires

GOLFO SAN JORGE


BASIN

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Argentina- Regional context


General Information
9 Five productive basins
Oil [bpd]:
649,240
Gas [MMcfpd]
4,866
Water [M bpd]:
5,015
Water %:
90
Active Oil Wells:
18,200
35.5 bopd / well
Active Gas Wells:
1,320

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Basins Production distribution


Oil production - Mbpd

NorthNorth-West

300
42.8
%

250
Cuyana

43.4
%

200
Neuquina

150
100

G. San Jorge

50
2.2 % 6 %

5.8 %

Austral

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Oil well distribution

Austral

Noroeste

1.7 %

0.3 %

Cuyana

5%

Golfo San
Jorge

Neuquina

30 %

63 %

Oil wells : 18,200


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Argentina - Production History


Oil & Gas Production History (average per year)
4,0

800
600

3,0

9,070 MM BO

400

2,0

200

1,0

0
1900

1920

1940

1960

1980

2000

Gas - MM cfpd

Oil - M bopd

Cumulative oil Production

2020

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6,000

1,200

5,000

1,000

4,000

800

3,000

600

2,000

400

1,000

200

Golfo San Jorge


1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

Oil - M bopd

Water - M bpd

Argentina Oil Production

2004 2005

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Artificial Lift distribution


PCP

Natural
flowing

Gas lift

Plunger lift

10 %

1%

0.8 %

1.9 %

176

141

1,824

351

ESP

15.3 %
2,787

SRP

Total oil wells : 18,200

70.9 %
12,901
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Golfo San Jorge Basin

Golfo San Jorge Basin (GSJB)

Atlantic Ocean

Comodoro
Rivadavia

General Information
Area [M Acre]:
28,000
Oil [bpd]:
281,500
Gas [MM cfpd]:
447
* Water [M bpd]:
2,686
Water %:
90
Active oil wells:
11,467
24.5 bopd / well
API (Type Escalante)
24
* All the water is injected

First oil well drilled in


Comodoro Rivadavia in 1907

2005 RIG Count

Drilling :
Wokovers:

30
65
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145 miles

94 miles

Sarmiento

Comodoro
Rivadavia

Caleta
Olivia
Las Heras

Caadn
Seco
Pico
Truncado

Cities
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Golfo San Jorge Basin (GSJB)

Sarmiento

Comodoro
Rivadavia

Caleta
Olivia
Caadn
Seco

Las Heras

Pico
Truncado

Cities

Oil fields distribution


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GSJB- Reservoir characteristics


Enviroment of deposition
Fluvial and alluvial braided stream.

Reservoir rocks
Sandstones
Multi layers (lens)
Since 30 Individual Reservoir in some
wells

Traps
Tilted horst blocks, faulted anticlines,
combination structural/stratigraphic
Stratigraphic pinchouts
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GSJB - Reservoir characteristics


South

North

West

East

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GSJB - Reservoir characteristics


South

North
3,000 ft

10,000 ft

65 miles

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GSJB - Oil and Water Production

500
450

2,500

400

2,000

350
300

1,500

250
200

1,000

150

Oil - M bopd

Water - M bpd

3,000

100

500

Water
1999

2000

2001

Oil
2002

2003

50
2004

2005

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Oil produced from Waterflooding


60%
50%
40%
30%

940 % of oil production is from


secondary recovery
(waterflooding)

20%
10%
0%

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

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Water % evolution
100%
98%
96%

Water - %

94%
92%
90%
88%
86%
84%
82%
80%

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

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Typical oilfield in Golfo San Jorge


Finishing of primary stage (natural declination) and
beginning of secondary recovery projects (water
flooding)
High fluid flow rate extraction (in 51/2 casing)
High water % and oil production from secondary
recovery
Complex fluids: corrosive, heavy oil, gas, sand and
scale
Multitphaces fluids (Oil + gas + water)
Multilayer reservoir (from 3000 to 9000 ft) in the same
well
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GSJB - Artificial Lift Overview

Artificial lift & typical well completion


SRP - 78 % - 8,989
PCP - 11 % - 1,313
ESP - 10 % - 1,125
Gas Lift - Plunger Lift Jet pump

9 51/2 Casing (95 %)


9 Vertical well
9 Some directional
wells

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Artificial Lift Evolution


12,000

Number of wells

11,000

192 %
10,000

135 % Grows in

the last 5
years

9,000

17 %

8,000
Beam
Pumping
S.Rod
pumping

7,000
2000

2001

2002

2003

ESP

PCP

2004

2005

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Sucker rod pumping

Sucker rod pumping


Conventional, MII & Air Balanced
Max Torque: 1,280 [M in.lbs]
Long- Stroke Pumping Units- 300
The bigest MII in Latin America

ROTAFLEX

Best practices & Innovations


LUFKIN

Surface

MII-1824-427-216

Pump off controler


Sucker rod

Sucker rod over size pin


SR - 7/8 pin / SR 7/8 1 pin

TENARIS-Siderca

Grade D: 1-7/8- 3/4

High Strength Rods & special alloy


Pumps
Insertable & Tubing pump : From 1 to 3 diameter
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Sucker rod pumping


12,000

400 bfpd

Pump depth - ft

10,000

Pulling Job /well / year:

0.4 1.2

8,000
6,000

5,400 ft

4,000
2,000
0
0

1,000

2,000

3,000

4,000

Flowrate
- bfpd
fl
b d
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Sucker rod pumping


Summary

1,800

Flowrate - bfpd

1,600

Numb of wells :

1,400
1,200

Average flowrate - bpd:

1,000
800

8,989
400

Average pump depth - ft : 5,400

600

Pulling Job /well / year: 0.4 1.2

400
200
0

depth-- ft
Pump depth

12,000
10,000
8,000
6,000
4,000
2,000
0
0

1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000

Number of wells
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Progressive Cavity Pump (PCP)

Progressive cavity pump


Drive head

Best practices & Innovations

Direct & Right angle


Max. power : 75 Hp

TENARIS-Siderca

Sucker rod string


Grade D : 1 & 7/8
Hollow rods (PCP Rods
Rods)
High Strength Rods & special alloy
Downhole
Tubular & Insertable pumps
Single lobe
NBR & HNBR Elastomer
High flow rate single lobe pumps : 500 bpd @ 100 rpm
Downhole pressure & temperature sensor
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Progressive cavity pump


8,000

770 bfpd

7,000

Pulling Job /well / year:

Pump depth - ft

6,000

1.0 - 1.4

5,000

4,000 ft

4,000
3,000
2,000
1,000
0
0

500

1,000

1,500

2,000

2,500

3,000

Flowrate - bfpd
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Progressing cavity pump

Flowrate - bfpd

2,000

Summary
Num of wells :

1,500

Average flowrate - bfpd:

1,000

1,313
770

Average pump depth - ft : 4,000


500

Pulling Job /well / year:

1.0 -1.4

Pump depht - ft

8,000
7,000
6,000
5,000
4,000
3,000
2,000
1,000
0
0

200

400

600

800

1,000 1,200

Number of wells
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Electric submersible pump (ESP)

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Electric submersible pump


Surface

Best practices & Innovations

Switchboards
Variable Speed Drive (VSD)

Downhole

= =
= =

456 series motors @ 5 1/2 casing

- 375 Series Motors with refrigeration shrouds


ESP Wood Group

- Recirculation systems

Recirculation Systems - CENTRILIFT

Instalation under deepest perforations


(51/2 casing)

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Electric submersible pump


12.000

1,300 bfpd
Pulling Job /well / year:

Pump depth - ft

10.000

0.4 0.6

8.000

6,500 ft

6.000

4.000

2.000

0
0

1.000

2.000

3.000

4.000

5.000

Flowrate - bfpd
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Electric submersible pump

Flowrate - bfpd

4,000

Summary
Num of wells :

3,000
2,000

Average flowrate - bfpd:

1,300

Average pump depth - ft :

6,500

Pulling Job /well / year:

1,000

1,313

0.4 - 0.6

Pump depth - ft

0
10,000
8,000
6,000
4,000
2,000
0
0

200

400

600

800

1,000

Number of wells
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Other Artificial lift experiences


Gas Lift

Plunger Lift

Hydraulic Jet Pump

Diadema Oilfield - CAPSA


Cerro Dragon OilfieldPanAmerican Energy

Cerro Dragon OilfieldPanAmerican Energy

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Artificial lift summary


12.000

ESP
PCP
SRP

11.000

Pump depth - ft

10.000
9.000
8.000
7.000
6.000
5.000
4.000
3.000
2.000
1.000
0
0

500

1.000

1.500

2.000

2.500

3.000

3.500

4.000

Flowrate - bfpd
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Artificial lift evolution - Example


Example of artificial lift evolution before and during a
waterflooding project
Maximum reservoir depth= 7,000 ft
5 1/2 Casing
We consider one oil well and one water injector well
Waterflloding
pattern
Oil well
Water injetion well
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Artificial lift evolution - Example


10000

Primary

Secondary recovery (waterflooding)

One year

bpd

1000

Water injection
Oil + water

Oil

100

10

Declination
1

ESP

SRP

First stage

Second stage

Increase pump size & depth setting


Change ALS for ESP Increase pumping speed & size
Increase pumping speed, pumping units & pump size
Small pumping unit & pump size

Lifting Cost

GSJB Lifting cost considerations


Oilfields with more than 85 % of water & Oil from Waterflooding (60-80 %)
Surface maintenance

Energy (15-30 %)

(15-25 %)

Self generated

Type of contracts

Rental or bought

Operative model

Gas (owned or
bought)

Major artificial lift


sistems

ALS efficiency
Flow rate x depth
(HHP)
Energy distribution
80 % for production
20 % Water injection

Others
Fluid treatment
Personnel
Others

Sub-surface
maintenance (25-35 %)
Failure index
Leas or contract for
artificial lift supply

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Lifting cost evolution


Effect of system efficiency

Lifting cost u$s / B.O.E

Lifting cost model solution

By John G. Svinos & Terry Treiberg Theta Enterprices,


Enterprices, Inc

Cumulative production (% of Final Recovery)

SPE 6955969559- Forecast Techniques for Lifting Cost in Gas and


Oil Onshore FieldsFields- Ricardo E. Mart
Martneznez-Perez Companc

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Conclusions
What is our challenge ?
To increase the productive basin life
How to achieve it ?
Waterflooding project (improving recovery factor)
Deepest reservoirs
Exploration
Off shore development
To continue improving our artificial lift experience
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Contact information
Marcelo Hirschfeldt
OilProduction Consulting & Training
Patagonia Argentina

www.oilproduction.net
Info@oilproduction.net