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9/14/2015

Lecturer Sajid Iqbal


Fulbright Alumnus
MS Geotech (USA)

Introduction

INSTRUCTOR:

Engr. Sajid Iqbal, Office: Room 16, NIT Building,


Phone: 0306-0648010
Email: sajid_gunjial@yahoo.com
Website: under construction
CLASS SCHEDULE: As Per Weekly Training Program
ROOM:
Room No.NIT-112, NIT Building
OFFICE HOURS:
Open Door Policy
LMS PORTAL:
https://lms.nust.edu.pk/portal/
TEXTBOOK:
none
SUGGESTED BOOK:

1. Design of Small Dams, (1987) United States Department of the interior, Bureau of Reclamation, A water Resource
Technical Publication.
2. James, L. S., et al. (1963), Earth Rock Dame: Engineering Problems of Design and Construction, John Wiley and Sons.
3. Duncan, J. M and Wright, S. G. (2005), Soil Strength and Slope Stability, John Wiley &Sons.
4. Abramson et al. (2001), Slope Stability and Stabilization Methods, John Wiley & Sons.
5. Landslides; Analysis and Control, Transportation Research Board Special Report 176 National Academy of Sciences..

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Program Educational Objectives (PEO)


Program Learning Outcomes (PLO)
Course Learning Outcomes (CLO)
Assessment

The course deals with the introduction of


earthen dams including their design and
aspects to be considered for successful
construction.

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Upon successful completion of the course, the student will


demonstrate competency by being able to:
1.
Analyse seepage and pore pressure conditions
within/under an earth dams and apply various possible solution in
reducing seepage and excessive pore water pressure to
acceptable limits.
2.
Assess different loading conditions and evaluate slope
stability of the dam under these conditions using finite element
software.
3.
Design an earth dam by giving details of its various
components.

Engineering Knowledge:

Environment and Sustainability:

Problem Analysis:

Ethics:

Design/Development of Solutions:

Individual and Team Work:

Investigation:

10

Communication:

Modern Tool Usage:

11

Project Management:

The Engineer and Society:

12

Lifelong Learning:

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Throughout the world, earth dams are preferred


over any other type because of better
understanding of their behavior and ease of
construction. Civil engineers are required to
conduct feasibility of a site for construction of an
earth dam including its detailed design. This
course provides the students with the requisite
knowledge for design of an earth dams and also
hands on practice on state of the art software
available for the slope stability and seepage
analysis of an earth dam.

Week/
Lecture

Topic

General Design Criteria, Classification of dams, Requirements


of good dam site. Comparison of rigid and earthen dams

Classification of earthen dams, Types of construction Earth


dam foundations. Materials of construction

Cognitive

Causes of failure, Criteria for safe design, Preliminary section

Cognitive

Theoretical Aspects of Seepage Fundamentals of seepage


flow, A Casagrandes method
Flow net for earth dam, Use of computer software for
generating flownet
Control of Seepage Through Embankments Adverse effects of
seepage, Methods of seepage control

Cognitive

Cognitive

Cognitive

Provision of core, Design of transition filters Drainage of


embankments
Drainage of upstream face, Control of seepage on downstream
face

Cognitive

Cognitive

4
5

6
6

CLO No.

PLO
No

Learning
Domain

Level of
Learning
1-6

Cognitive

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Week/
Lecture

Topic

Control of Seepage Through Foundations Foundation categories,


Conventional categories, Slurry trench
Concrete diaphragm walls, Alluvial grouting Upstream impervious
blanket, Downstream loading berm.
Relief wells. Treatment of liquefying sands

Cognitive

Cognitive

Cognitive

Slope Stability, Empty reservoir, Steady state seepage

Cognitive

Section Details and Special Problems Section details, Cracking


and its control
Dams on fault zone, River diversion, Conduits through earth
dams
Quality Control of Earthen Dams Dispersive and expansive soils
Compaction, Placement control, Field tests Borrow area control
Foundation preparation and treatment, Contact treatment

Cognitive

Cognitive

Cognitive

Cognitive

7
8
9-12
13
14
15
16

CLO No.

PLO
No

Learning
Domain

Level of
Learning
1-6

Term Papers will be prepared and presented


by group of 2-3 students
Each group will submit term paper in binded
form in standard format
Each group will deliver a presentation in front
of class prepared on power point
50% marks will be for presentation
It will be appreciated that each group will
work on term paper during whole semester

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Choose any of the following area


Stability analysis of an existing dam
Seepage analysis of an existing dam
Liquefaction susceptibility of dam foundations
Performance of cut-offs
Case histories of dam failure
Rehabilitation of earth dams
Term Papers will be prepared and presented by group
of 2-3 students
Term paper will be no more than 6 pages in total.

Following software are available

XSTABL

ROCSCIENCE (SLIDE, PHASE, etc)

GEOSLOPE (SLOPE/SEEP/QUAKE)

PLAXIS (TUNNEL/FOUNDATION)

CLARA-W

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LANDMARK
Proposal

DEADLINE /
NO LATER THAN
4th Week

Progress Report # 1

7th Week

Progress Report # 2

10th Week

Progress Report # 3

13th Week

Draft Paper

16th Week

Final Paper

17th Week

Presentation

17th and 18th Week

ITEM

FREQUENCY

WEIGHTAGE (%)

Quizzes*

3-4

5-10

Assignments^

4-6

5-10

Term Paper

5-10

OHT
Final Exam

2
1

30
40-50

Announced/Unannounced
Individual Effort, zero marks will be awarded and disciplinary actin may
also be taken as per NUST Rules.

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Attendance on LMS
Shortage
Preferably within 5 minutes or anytime during class

Assignment Policy
Within due date
No/reduced grading for copying
Late assignments will not be marked

Cell phones/texting
Silence Zone
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A dam is a wall of solid material built across a river (or any


water channel) to block the flow thus storing water that forms
a reservoir upstream of the dam wall
The usual purpose of dam can either or a combination of
following:
Irrigation
Power generation
Navigation
Water supply
Flood Control
Diversion

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Dams are one of the oldest structures built by mankind


Sadd el-Kafara
Oldest known dam built by Egyptians between 2950-2750 B.C.
The dam was 37 ft tall, & 265 ft wide
It was made of rubble masonry walls on the outsides and filled
with around 100,000 tons of gravel and stone
A limestone cover was applied to resist erosion and wave action
Built as a gravity dam
The capacity was estimated to be 20 million cubic ft or 460
acre-ft
The dam failed after a few years and it was concluded that
overflow was the cause of failure

Nimrod's Dam (Mesopotamia)

Built around 2000 BC as an earth dam


Nimrod's dam was built north of Baghdad across the Tigris and
was used to
Prevent erosion
Reduce the threat of flooding
Divert the flow in the river and help irrigate the crops
Around 100 AD the Romans were the first civilization to use
concrete and mortar in their gravity dams. The dam at Ponte di San
Mauro used a large slab of concrete as the core and the outer layer
was finished with masonry
Due to huge volume of concrete required to built a dam, Arch Dam
was invented

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Kebar Dam built around 1280 AD is the


first known Arch Dam. The dam was 85
ft high, 180 ft long at the crest, 16 ft
thick at the crest and has a constant
radius of curvature of 125 ft
An Arch dam covers narrow gaps and
foundation usually rests on solid rocks
at the ends
In 17th century Don Pedros introduced
the ideas of multiple arch dam
supported on artificial supports or
buttresses to support the arches. This
led to the invention of the buttress dam

Dam
Classification

Based on Function

Storage Dam
Detention Dam
Diversion Dam
Debris Dam
Coffer Dam

Based on Hydraulic Design

Overflow Dam
Non-overflow Dam

Based on Material of
Construction

Masonry Dam
Concrete Dam
Earth Dam
Rockfill Dam
Timber Dam
Steel Dam
Composite Dam

Based on Structural Action

Gravity Dam
Earth Dam
Rockfill Dam
Arch Dam
Buttress Dam
Steel Dam
Timber Dam

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It is a masonry or concrete dam which resists the forces


acting on it by its own weight i.e., gravity
The mass is such (heavy) that the water in a reservoir cannot
push the dam downstream or tip it over
These dams are thicker at the base and thinner at the top
(approx triangular in x-section) to efficiently counter the
force exerted by water
It may be Straight or curved in plan, however, most gravity
dams are straight solid gravity dams
It may have a solid or hollow section
High initial cost

Gravity dams are strong, stable and durable


Suitable across moderately wide valleys and
gorges having steep slopes
Can be constructed to very great heights,
provided good rock foundations are available.
Can be used as an overflow spillway section
The maintenance cost is very low.
Does not fail suddenly sufficient reaction time
Can be constructed during all types of climatic
conditions.
The upstream sediments in the reservoir can be
removed / reduced by operation of deep-set
sluices
Subsequent raising is not possible in a gravity
dam

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It is a curved masonry or concrete


dam, convex upstream, which resists
the forces acting on it by arch action.
Arch shape gives strength
Less material (cheaper)
Narrow sites
Need strong abutments

Buttress is a support that transmits a


force from a roof or wall to another
supporting structure
A buttress dam consists of water
retaining sloping membrane or deck on
the u/s which is supported by a series of
buttresses
The buttresses are in the form of equally
spaced triangular masonry or reinforced
concrete walls or counterforts. The
sloping membrane is usually a reinforced
concrete slab
Can be constructed over relatively
weaker foundation

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In some cases, the u/s slab is replaced


by horizontal arches supported on
buttresses (multiple arch buttress
dam)
In some cases the slab is replaced by
flaring the u/s edge of the buttresses
to span the distance between the
buttresses (bulkhead buttress dam or
massive head buttress dam)
In general, the structural behavior of a
buttress dam is similar to that of a
gravity dam

An earth dam is made of earth


(or soil)
It resists the forces exerted
upon it mainly due to shear
strength of the soil and to
some extent due to its weight
Usually built in wide valleys
having flat slopes at flanks
(abutments)
Can be built on all types of
foundations
May be homogenous or zoned

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Earth dams are usually cheaper than gravity dams if suitable earth for
construction is available near the site.
Can be constructed on almost all types of foundations, provided suitable
measures of foundation treatment and seepage control are taken.
Can be constructed in a relatively short period.
The skilled labour is not required in construction of an earth dam
Can be raised subsequently.
Are more earthquake-resistant than gravity dams
Not suitable for narrow gorges with steep slopes.
Cannot be designed as an overflow section
Cannot be constructed in regions with heavy downpour, as the slopes
might be washed away
The maintenance cost of an earth dam is quite high; requires constant
supervision.
Sluices cannot be provided in a high earth dam to remove slit.
An earth dam fails suddenly without any sign of imminent failure

A rockfill dam is built of rock fragments and


boulders of large size
An impervious membrane is placed on the
rockfill on the upstream side to reduce the
seepage through the dam
The membrane is usually made of cement
concrete or asphaltic concrete
Rockfill dams are quite inexpensive if rock
fragments are easily available
Can be constructed quite rapidly
Can better withstand the shocks due to
earthquake than earth dams
Can be constructed even in adverse climates
Require more strong foundations than earth
dams
Require heavy machines for transporting,
dumping and compacting rocks

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Advantages
Seismic stability
Tall and steep
Can be placed under water

Disadvantages
Limited borrow source
High permeability
Not as much performance data
Gen strong foundation required

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Economics
Conc

- $ 80/yd3
- $ 7/yd3
- $ 4/yd3

Rock fill
Earth fill

H
Conc
0.8 H

1H:1V

1.5-1.7H:1V
Rock fill
3.7 H

2-2.5H:1V

2.5-3H:1V
Earth fill
6H

Performance Data
Ser. Type

Built in USA

Failed

1.

Embankment/Earth

58 %

1.2 %

2.

Gravity

26 %

0.3 %

3.

Buttress

10 %

2.6 %

4.

Arch

6%

0.7 %

End cost effects are same but earth fill are


preferred: More performance data available
Better understood

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Suitability of site
Earth
Arch

Borrow Source
Narrow Site
Wide

Gravity/Buttress
Concrete needs competent rock foundation
Since rivers have lot of sediment thus lot of excavation
to reach to rock (uneconomical)

Core
Shell
Internal Drainage
Cutoff
Spillway
Outlet Structures
Power House

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Core
The

core
provides
impermeable barrier within
the body of the dam
Impervious
soils
are
generally suitable for the
core
Soils
having
high
compressibility & liquid limit,
and having organic contents
should be avoided, as they
are prone to swelling &
formation of cracks

Shell

Riprap is provided as shell to protect core against wave action and D/S
shell protects erosion of core
Adds to the weight and thus stability of dam

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Internal drainage system

To ensure safety of dam, it is very important to handle the seepage water


in the dam so as to maintain the original particles of soils in their place.
The measures commonly adopted for safe disposal of seepage water
through embankment dams are;
Inclined or vertical filter (chimney filter)
Horizontal filter
Rock toe
Toe drain

Cut off. The cut off is required


To reduce loss of stored water
through
foundations
and
abutments
To prevent sub-surface erosion
by piping.
The type of cut off should be
decided on the basis of detailed
geological investigations.
It is desirable to provide positive
cut off. Where this is not possible,
partial cut off with or without
upstream impervious blanket may
be provided

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The basic principle of design is to produce a satisfactory, functional structure


at a minimum total cost. To ensure this, following criterion must be met:
The embankment, foundation, abutments, and reservoir rim must be
stable and must not develop unacceptable deformations under all loading
conditions brought about by construction of the embankment, reservoir
operation, and earthquake
Seepage flow through the embankment, foundation, abutments, and
reservoir rim must be controlled to prevent excessive uplift pressures;
piping; instability; sloughing; removal of material by solutioning; or
erosion of material into cracks, joints, or cavities. The amount of water lost
through seepage must be controlled so that it does not interfere with
planned project functions
The reservoir rim must be stable under all operating conditions to prevent
the triggering of a landslide into the reservoir that could cause a large
wave to overtop the dam( Vajont_Dam )

The embankment must be safe against overtopping or


encroachment of freeboard during occurrence of the IDF (inflow
design flood) by the provision of sufficient spillway and outlet
works capacity
Freeboard must be sufficient to prevent overtopping by waves
Camber should be sufficient to allow for settlement of the
foundation and embankment, but not included as part of the
freeboard
The upstream slope must be protected against wave erosion, and
the crest and downstream slope must be protected against wind
and rain erosion.

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Topography
The dam should be located where the river is narrow. A

wide section at upstream will allow a smaller length of dam


to have a large reservoir
In case of confluence of two rivers, the dam should be
located downstream of the confluence
The dam should be located where the river bed is high, to
reduce the height and cost of the dam

Suitable Foundation

Suitable foundation should exist at the site for the

particular type of dam


This will affect the choice of type of dam to be constructed;
e.g., for gravity dams of significant height, sound rock
foundation is necessary

Good Site for Reservoir. As the dam is constructed to store water in the
reservoir, so the site should have the following characteristics to make a
good site for a reservoir
Large storage capacity: The topography of the site should be such that the

reservoir has a large capacity to store water

Shape of reservoir basin: The reservoir basin on the upstream of the dam

should preferably be cup-shaped, with a flat bottom but steep slopes.

Water-tightness of the reservoir: The geological conditions of the reservoir

site should be such that the reservoir basin is watertight. The reservoir sites
having pervious rocks are not suitable. The reservoir basins having shales,
slates, schists, gneiss, granite, etc. are generally suitable.
Good hydrological conditions: The hydrological conditions of the river at the
reservoir site should be such that adequate runoff is available for storage. The
catchment area of the river should give high yield. There should not be heavy
losses in the catchment due to evaporation, transpiration and percolation
Deep reservoir: The site should be such that a deep reservoir is formed after
the construction of the dam. A deep reservoir is preferred to a shallow
reservoir because in the former the evaporation losses are small, the cost of
land acquisition is low and the weed growth is less

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Small submerged area: Submerged area should be

minimum. It should not submerge costly land and


property
Low silt inflow: The life of the reservoir depends upon
the rate of silting. The site should be selected such that
it avoids or excludes the water from those tributaries
which carry a high percentage of silt
No objectionable minerals: The soil and rock adjoining
the reservoir site should not be soluble thus
contaminating the water

Spillway site: A good site for a spillway should exist at or near the
dam site. The best site of spillway is that in which there is a saddle
near the dam site which is separated from it by a hillock. In that case,
the main dam can be located in the gorge and the spillway can be
constructed in the saddle.
Availability of materials: The dam requires a large quantity of
material for its construction. Suitable type of material in sufficient
quantity should be available at or near the dam site to reduce the
cost.
Accessibility: The site should be easily accessible. It should be
preferably well-connected by a road or a railway line. This would
facilitate transportation of labour, materials and machinery.
Other considerations: For the development of a particular backward
area, the dam may be constructed in that region. Sometimes political
considerations and public opinion may affect the site of a dam

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Topography and valley shape


If the valley is narrow, V-shaped and has sound rock in bed and
abutments, an arch dam is generally the most suitable type.
If the valley is moderately wide, V-shaped and has sound rock in bed, a
gravity dam or a buttress dam may be quite suitable
For a low rolling plain country, with a fairly wide valley and alluvial soil
or boulders in the bed. an earth dam or a rockfill dam may be quite
suitable
Geology and foundation conditions.
Geologic character and thickness of rock, inclination of the bedding
planes, existing faults and fissures, permeability of strata, etc. affect the
selection of type of dam
Rock foundation: High bearing capacity, less erosion - any type of dam
can be constructed on good rock foundation

Gravel and coarse sand foundation: Low bearing capacity; earth dams

and rockfill dams are usually feasible; however, gravity dams of low
height can also be constructed. Cutoff walls or sheet piles are required
to prevent / reduce seepage and piping.
Fine sand and silt foundations: Suitable only for earth dams and low
concrete dams. These foundations are susceptible to excessive
settlement, piping, seepage erosion at the d/s toe and liquefaction
failures
Clay foundation: Very low bearing capacity, the settlements are quite
large; Not suitable for the construction of a dam. Foundation to be
treated / improved before construction of dam
Non-uniform foundations: Non-uniform foundations may consists of
soils of different types of a combination of soils and rocks. Such
foundations are not good for the construction of dams and should be
avoided as far as possible

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Availability of construction materials


Maximum use of local material should be made to reduce the cost.
If suitable aggregates such as crushed stone, gravel and sand are
available, a gravity dam may be suitable. On the other hand, if suitable
soil is available in large quantity, an earth dam may be cheaper
Spillway size and location. Suitable location will affect choice of overflow
or non-overflow spillways/dams
Environmental considerations: The dam and its appurtenant works
should be aesthetically acceptable and they should not have any adverse
effect on ecology and environment
Roadway: If a wide, straight roadway is to be provided over the top of
dam, an earth dam or a gravity dam is more suitable than an arch dam or a
buttress dam

Length and height of dam: If the length of the dam is great and the
height is low, an earth dam is generally better than a gravity dam. On the
other hand, if the length is small and the height is great, a gravity dam is
better.
Life of dam: If the expected life of the project is long, a concrete dam is
usually preferred. Earth and rockfill dams have moderate life, whereas
timber dams have short life.
Miscellaneous considerations: Sometimes the selection of the type of
dam is made due to other miscellaneous considerations. For example, if
earth-moving machines are cheaply available at the site, an earth dam
may be preferred. Similarly, if mixing plants, batching plants, etc. are
already available near the site, a gravity dam or a buttress dam may be
selected. Likewise, if cheap labour is locally available, a masonry dam
may be preferred to a concrete dam

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