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SATHYABAMA UNIVERSITY

(Established Under section 3 of UG Act 1956)


JEPPIAAR NAGAR, CHENNAI 600 119
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
HEAT TRANSFER LAB MANUAL
List of Experiments:
1.

One Dimensional Steady state heat conduction through composite walls.

2.

Emissivity measurement

3.

Heat Transfer by natural convection from a hot cylinder

4.

Heat flow through lagged pipe

5.

Thermal conductivity of metal rod

6.

Determination of Thermal conductivity using two slab guarded


method.

7.

Performance of parallel and counter flow heat exchangers

8.

Heat transfer by forced convection for PIN FIN.

plate

ONE DIMENSIONAL STEADY STATE HEAT


CONDUCTION THROUGH COMPOSITE WALLS
AIM
To determine the thermal conductivities of hylem, wood and asbestos.
INTRODUCTION
When heat conduction takes place through two or more solid materials of
different thermal conductivities, the temperature drop across each materials depends
on the resistance offered to heat conduction path and the thermal conductivity of each
material. This experiment demonstrates this phenomenon in practical manner.
EXPERIMENT
The experimental set up consist of three similar test specimens made of
different materials (hylem, wood and asbestos) aligned together on both sides of the
heater unit. The first test disc is next to a controlled heater. The temperature at the
interface between the heater and the dics is measured by a thermocouple. Similarly,
the temperatures at the interface between successive discs are measured by
thermocouples. Similar arrangement is made to measure temperatures on the other
side of the heater. The whole set-up is kept in a convection free environment. The
temperatures are measured using thermocouples (Fe/Ko) with multi-point digital
temperature indicator.
The apparatus uses known insulating materials, of large area of heat transfer to
enable unidirectional heat flow. The apparatus is used mainly to study the resistance
offered by different slab materials and to establish the heat flow is similar to that of
current flow in an electrical circuit.
The steady state heat flow Q

T/R

where T =

the overall temperature drop and

the overall resistance to heat conduction

Since the resistance are in series R = R 1 + R2 + R3 where R1, R2 and R3 are


resistances of each of the three discs.
The temperature readings should be taken when steady state condition is
reached. That is, when the temperature gradient across the plates does not change with
time.

R1

X1
,
A X K1

R2

X2
,
A X K2

and

R3

X3
,
A X K3

where A = the area of the slab and


X = the thickness of the slab.
knowing the thermal conductivities it may be verified

Q=

T1 =

T 2T
R1

t 2+ t
T2 =
2

T
, =
R
t 1+ t

T 3T
T 4 T
=
=
R2
R3

t 3+ t
t 4 +t
T3 =
T4 =
2
2

Note:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Thickness of hylem
(X1)
Thickness of wood
(X2)
Thickness of asbestos (X3)
diameter of plates
(d)

= 10 mm
= 15 mm
= 6mm
= 300 mm

Tabular Column
Input
S.No.

(W)
V A

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

T7

T8

Q
Watts

1.

FORMULA

BLOCK DIAGRAM
Hylem
Wood
Asbestos

Heater
Asbestos
Wood
Hylem

Q=

V .A
2

D = 300 mm

1.

k1 =

X 1 .Q
A (T 2 T 1 )

A= AREA

x1 = 10 mm (HYLEM)
2
T 2T 1

k1 =

2.

k2 =

(300 X 103) ( )
4
X
3
10 X 10 X Q

=___________ w/m.k

x 2 .Q
A . ( T 3T 2 )

x2 = 15mm (Wood)
2
T 3T 2

k2 =

3.

k3 =

(300 X 103) ( )
4
X
3
15 X 10 X Q

=___________ w/m.k

x 3 .Q
A . ( T 4T 3 )
4

x3 = 6 mm ( Asbestos)
2
T 4T 3

k3 =

(300 X 103) ( )
4
X
3
6 X 10 X Q

=___________ w/m.k

Result:
The thermal conductivities of hylem, wood and asbestos have been found to be:
For hylem,

W / (m.k )

For wood,

W / (m.k)

For asbestos, k

W / (m.k )

EMISSIVITY MEASUREMENT
AIM
To measure the emissivity of the test plate and plot a graph between emissivity
and temperature.
DESCRIPTION
The apparatus consists of two hot plates placed in a rectangular box, one coated
black and the other being the test surface. There thermocouples are placed equidistant
on each hot plate. The panel consists of voltmeter, ammeter and digital temperature
indicator, thermocouple selector switch, a dimmer for each hot plate and an indicating
lamp.
OPERATION
1.

Connect the three pin plug to 250V, 50 Hz, 5 A power socket.

2.

Keep the thermocouple selector switch in zero position and the hot plate
selector switch in one.

3.

Turn the dimmer knob marked one clockwise and set the power input to black
surface by looking at the voltmeter and ammeter, and note down their values.

4.

Turn the hot plate selector switch to position two.

5.

Turn the dimmer knob marked two and set the power input to the test surface
slightly less than that of the black surface by looking at voltmeter and ammeter

6.

Allow the unit to stabilize after ascertaining that the power inputs to the black and
test "surface are at set values.
Turn the thermocouple switch clockwise, step by step and note down the
temperatures recorded by the temperature indicator from 1-7.
Vary the power inputs to the hot plates and note down the temperatures at various
points.
Tabulate the readings.
After the experiment is over, turn the dimmer to off position and switch off the
main.

7.
8.
9.
10.

TABULAR COLUMN:
S.
No.

Ts slightly < Tb

Power(W)

Test Surface Temp (OC)

T1

T2

T3

Ts

Black Body Temp. (OC)

T4

T5

T6

Tb

Ambient
Temp.
(OC)

Emissivity

1.
2.
3.
CALCULATION
Ta =

t+273

Ts =

T 1+ T 2+T 3
+273
3

Tb =

T 4+T 5+T 6
+273
3

(i) Emissivity

T s 4T a4
T b4 T a 4

Emissivity of block body

where

=1

)=1

RESULT
The emissivity of the test plate was measured and the graph was drawn
between temperature and emissivity.

HEAT TRANSFER BY NATURAL CONVECTION


FROM A HOT CYLINDER
AIM
To determine the temperature distribution for a cylinder due to heat transfer by
natural convection.
THEORY
Whenever the flow of fluid over a hot or cold surface takes place due to
temperature difference, the heat transferred between the surface and the fluid causes
motion which is known as buoyancy force. The buoyancy force causing the flow is
directly proportional to the temperature difference. The heat flow increases with
increasing temperature difference as the heat flow is directly proportional to the
temperature difference. The application of natural convection heat transfer in engineering
is limited as the heat flow rate is low.
DESCRIPTION
The apparatus consists of a cylinder placed inside an open duct. A heater is
connected to the cylinder and five thermocouples are connected at equal distance all along
the length of the cylinder. The sixth thermocouple is left in the duct.
The panel of the apparatus consists of voltmeter, ammeter, digital temperature
indicator, dimmer to control the power input to the heater, thermocouple selector switch,
neon indicating lamp and schematic diagram.
OPERATION
1. Connect the three pin plug to a 230V, 50Hz, 15Amps power socket, so that the . indicator
lamp is ,'ON'.
2. Keep the thermocouple selector switch in 'ZERO' position.
3. Turn the dimmer knob clockwise and set the power input of the heater to any desired
value by looking at the voltmeter and ammeter.
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4. Allow the unit to stabilize.


5. Note down the temperatures indicated by the temperature indicator on each step.
6. Repeat the experiment by varying the power input to the heater constant.
7. Tabulate all readings and calculate for different conditions.
SPECIFICATION
Diameter of tube(d)

=38 mm

Length of tube (L)

= 500 m

Duct size

= 200 x 200 x 750 mm

FORMULA

1.

Q
As(T s T a )

Heat transfer coefficient (h)exp=

where

Q heat transfer rate, (w); v x a (voltage x ammeter reading)


As-surface area of cylinder(

dL

)(m2)=

x 38 x 10-3x500x

10-3
Ts- Average surface temperature,
(T 1+T 2+T 3+ T 4 +T 5+T 6+T 7)
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Ta = Ambient temperature
2. Grashof Number (Gr)

gL3 dT
V2

where g = 9.81 m/s2


Coefficient of volume expansion
Tf =

T s +T a
2

1
T f + 273

in 0C ; L = 500 x10-3 m

dT = T sT a

v= Kinematic viscosity. Find out values v, k , Pr from H.M.T. Table for the
corresponding temperature Tf.
3.

Use of empirical relation


a.

For 104 Gr Pr 108 ,Nu = 0.56 (Gr.Pr) 0.25


htheoL
= Nu

b.

For 108 Gr Pr 1012 ,

Nu = 0.13 (Gr.Pr) 0.33

htheoL
= Nu

Thermal conductivity of air, htheo = Theoretical heat transfer


coefficient

500 x 10-3 ; Pr = Prandtl number

TABULAR COLUMN:

S.
No.

Ambient temp. in
o
C
Ta

Surface temperature in OC

Power input
I

amps

Volts

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

T7

10

h theoretical

(m)

w/(m2.K)

RESULT:
The temperature distribution of a cylinder by natural convection is determined
and the graph is plotted.

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HEAT FLOW THROUGH LAGGED PIPE


AIM:To plot the radial temperature distribution in the composite cylinder and determine
the thermal conductivity of the pipe insulation.
THEORY:Consider a radial heat flow through a hollow cylinder under steady state condition.
Q = [ 2 KL(T1-T2)] / [ln (r2/r1)]
Where T1, T2 are the inner and outer wall temperatures.
r1 r2 are the inner and outer radius of the pipe.
K is the thermal conductivity of the material.
Heat input
V

Temperature At
Radius r1, oc

Temperature At
Radius r2, oc

Temperature At
Radius r3, oc

t1

t4

t7

t2

t3

t5

t6

t8

t9

DESCRIPTION:The apparatus consists of a metal pipe with two layers of insulation. Air electric
heating coil wound on a silica rod is placed at the centre. The ends are thickly
insulated to prevent heat loss so that heat flows only in the material at radial direction.
Three thermocouples are placed at different radial direction to measure the
temperature distribution inside the cylinder.

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TECHNICAL DATA:(1) Location of thermocouples


(2) Length of the pipe =
t 4 +t 5 +t 6
3
t 7 +t 8+ t 9
T3=
3

1,2,3 at radius(r1)= 25mm.


4,5,6 at radius(r2)= 37.5mm.
7,8,9 at radius(r3)= 50mm.

500mm.

T2=

Q = [2 KL (T2-T3)] / (ln(r3/r2)
K = [Q.ln (r3/r2) / [2 L (T2 T3)]
Substitute the values and calculate the value of thermal conductivity.

PROCEDURE:1. Connect the equipment to a 230 V.5 amps, 50 Hz


electrical source.
2. Turn the dimmer start knob clockwise and fix the heat input to a desired
voltage.
3. Allow the equipment to stabilize and attain steady state.
4. Turn the thermocouples selection switch knob clockwise and note down
temperature Tj to T9.
5. Repeat the experiment at two different heat inputs.

RESULT:The thermal conductivity of the pipe insulation is....................

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THERMALCONDUCTIVITYOFMETALROD
AIM:To determine the thermal conductivity of a good conductor of heat (Brass rod).
THEORY:Q = KA dt
dx
Where

Q = quantity of heat conducted(W)


K = Thermal conductivity (W/mk)
A = Area of cross section normal t heat flow (m)
dt = Temperature drop (oc)
dx = distance over which it occurs(m)

PROCEDURE:Experimental condition of thermal conductivity is accomplished by the


observation of temperature gradient which occurs in a given area of conductivity of
material.
The material of high thermal conductivity is placed between plates at an
electric heater. The assembly is embedded in low conductivity insulator in order to
minimize the latent heat leakage from exposed surface.
The average value of slope is calculated from the graph between temperature
and length of the metal rod.
The thermal conductivity is given by
K = Q.dx
A.dt
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Slope of the graph=dt


dx
TABULAR COLUMN

Temperature Along Metal Rod


T1
T2
T3
T4
T5

Sl.No

Voltage volt

Current Amp

RESULT;
The thermal conductivity of metal rod is found as

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DETERMINATION OF THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY USING TWO


SLAB GUARDED PLATE METHOD
AIM:
To find the thermal conductivity of the specimen by two slab guarded plate
method.

DESCRIPTION:

The apparatus consists of a hot plate and a cold plate. A specimen whose
thermal conductivity is to be measured is sandwiched between the hot and cold plates.
Both hot plate and guard heater are heated by electrical heaters. All three plates are
circular in shape. A small trough is attached to the cold plate to hold the coolant water
circulation. Thermocouples are attached to the bottom and top of the specimen and the
guard heater. The arrangement is placed in an enclosure. A digital temperature
indicator with selector switch is provided to note temperatures at different locations.
Electronic energy regulators are provided to control the temperatures of hot plate and
guard heater. Ammeter and voltmeter are connected to the hot plate circuit to note the
electrical input energy.

CALCULATION:
The heat transferred through the specimen plate at steady state is given by,

Q=k . A .

Where

dt
dx

Q = Heat input to heater which is equal to m.Cp. t.


m = Mass of water collected in kg /s
Cp = Specific heat of water.
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t = Temperature difference between outlet and inlet water.


A = Surface area of test plate through which heat transfer takes place.
Diameter of plates = 140 mm.
dx = Thickness of the test plate = 25 mm.
dt = Temperature drop across the specimen plate.
k = Thermal conductivity of the test plate.
PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the three pin plug to a 230 v, 50 hz, 15 amps power supply and switch
on the unit.
2. Keep the thermocouple selector switch in first position.
3. Turn the regulator knob clock wise and set the power to heater to any desired
value by looking at the voltmeter and the ammeter.
4. Allow water through the cold plate at a steady state.
5. Note down the voltmeter and ammeter readings, temperature drop across the
test plate when the unit attains stabilization.

NOTE:

The guard heater temperature is not taken for calculation but only to ensure
max. Unidirectional heat flow. The guard heater temperature are much higher than the
hot plate temp, so as to keep the environment filled with glass wool at experimental
temperature.

TABULATION:

17

S.

HEAT

SPECIMEN

SPECIME

GUARD

No

INPUT

BOTTOM

TOP TEMP

HEATER

CONDUCTIVITY

TEMP

W/(mK)

TEMP
V

T1 c

T2 c

T3 c

WATER TEMP

INLET

OUTLET

T5 Oc

T6 Oc

THERMAL

RESULT
The thermal conductivity of the specimen was found to be =

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PERFORMANCE OF PARALLEL AND COUNTER-FLOW HEAT


EXCHANGERS
AIM:
To study and compare temperature distribution, heat transfer rate, overall heat
transfer coefficient in parallel flow and countercurrent flow heat exchangers.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
Stop clock, measuring flask, thermometers, etc,
SPECIFICATIONS:
Length of the heat exchanger = 1200 mm
Inner Copper Brass Tube of ID = 9.5 mm & OD = 12.5 mm
Outer G.I. Tube of ID = 28,5 mm & OD = 32.0 mm
THEORY:
Heat Exchangers ere devices in which heat is transferred from one fluid to
another. Common examples of heat exchangers are the radiators of a car, condenser at
the back of the domesticrefrigerator, etc. Heat exchangers are classified into three
categories as

(i) Transfer type


(ii) Storage type and
(iii) Direct contact type.
Transfer type of heat exchangers are most commonly used. A transfer type of
heat exchanger is one in which both fluids pass simultaneously through the device and
the heat is transferred through separating walls. Transfer type of exchangers are further
classified into

(a) Parallel flow type in which fluids flow in the same direction
(b) Counter flow type in which fluids flow in the opposite direction and
(c) Cross flow type in which fluids flow at right angles or any angle to each
other.

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DESCRIPTION:

The apparatus consists of a concentric tube heat exchanger. The hot fluid is
obtained from an electric geyser and it flows through the inner tube. The cold water can
be admitted at any one of the ends enabling the heat exchanger to run as a parallel flow
or counter flow apparatus. Temperatures of the fluids can be measured using
thermometers. The outer tube is provided with adequate asbestos rope insulation to
minimize the heat loss to the surroundings.
PROCEDURE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Keep the thermometers in position


Start the flow on hot and cold water side
Put on the electric geyser and adjust the flow rate on hot water side
Keep the flow rate same till the steady state condition is reached
Note the temperature and measure the flow rate.

The experiment is repeated for different flow rates as parallel flow and counter
flow heat exchanger.
TABULAR COLUMNS
S.No.
1.
2.

Type of Flow
Parallel flow
Counter current flow

Thi 0C

Tho 0C

Tci 0C

Tco 0C

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S.
No.

Type of
Flow

1.

Parallel
flow
Counter
current
flow

2.

Flow
rate of
hot
water
(Kg/s)

Flow
rate of
cold
water
(kg/s)

LMT
D
O
( C)

Rate of
heat
transfer
Qh
(J/s
)

Qc
(J/s
)

Overall
heat
transfer
coefficient
W/(m2OC)

%
Effectivenes
s

CALCULATIONS
PARALLEL FLOW HEAT EXDCHANGER
Heat transfer from hot water
Qh=mhCph(Thi-Tho) =

Where Cph = 4187 J /(kg OK)


1 J/s = 1 W
Heat transfer to cold water
Qc = mc Cpc (Tco-Tci)=
W
LMTD (Logarithmic mean temperature difference) Cpc=4187 J /(kg OK)

LMTD = Tm

T i/ T
T i T

Where T i

temperature difference at inlet (Thi-Tci )

To

=
temperature difference at outlet (Tho-Tco )
we know Qh
=
UA (LMTD)
A can be taken based on outer diameter 12mm
Overall heat transfer coefficient U = Qh/[A(LMTD)]=Qh /[ DL x (LMTD)]
U =
W/(m2 oC)
Effectiveness

Actual h eat transfer


x100
Max . Possible h eat transfer

(T h iT h o)
(T h iTci)

x100
COUNTERCURRENT FLOW HEAT EXCHANGER
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Heat transfer rate from hot water:


Qh = mh Cph (Thi Tho)
=
Heat transfer rate to cold water:
Qc = mc Cpc (Tco Tci)
=

W
W

LMTD (Logariththemic mean temperature difference)

LMTD

where Ti
To

( Tm

=
=

Ti
Ti/
()
()

temperature different at inlet(Thi-Tco )


temperature different at outlet(Tho-Tci )

we know Qh =
UA (LMTD)
A can be taken based on outer diameter 12 mm
Overall heat transfer coefficient U =
Qh / [A(LMTD)] = Qh / ( DL x
(LMTD)]
=
W/( m2 oC)
Effectiveness

Actual h eat transfer


x100
Max . Possible h eat transfer

(T h iT h o)
(T h iTci)

x100 =
RESULT
The temperature distribution, heat transfer rate, heat transfer coefficient and
effectiveness in parallel and counter current flow exchanger were determined.

(i)

(ii)

For Parallel flow:


Heat transfer rate for hot water
Heat transfer rate for cold water
Overall heat transfer coefficient
Effectiveness

=
=
=
=

J/s
J/s
W/( m2 oC)
%

For countercurrent flow:


Heat transfer rate for hot water
Heat transfer rate for cold water
Overall heat transfer coefficient

=
=
=

J/s
J/s
W/( m2 oC)
22

Effectiveness

23

HEAT TRANSFER BY FORCED COMVECTIQN


FOR PIN FIN
AIM:
To determine the temperature distribution across pin fin due to heat transfer by
forced convection.
DESCRIPTION:
The apparatus consists of a pin fin placed inside an open duct (one side open)
and the other end of the duct is connected to suction side of a blower. The delivery
side of the blower is taken through a gate valve and an orificemeter to the atmosphere.
The flow rate can be varied by the gate valve and can be measured by the mercury Utube manometer connected to the orificemeter. A heater is connected to one and of the
fin and five thermocouples are connected at equal distances all along the length of the
fins the sixth thermocouple is left in the ducal
The panel on the apparatus consists of a voltmeter, ammeter, digital
temperature indicator, dimmer to control the power input to heater, thermocouple
selector switch, U-tube manometer, neon indicating lamp and a schematic diagram.
OPERATIONS:
1. Connect the 3-pin plug to a 230V, 50Hz, 15 Amps power socket, the
indicator lamp is ON
2. Keep the thermocouple selector switch in zero "position
3. Turn dimmer knob clockwise and set power input to the heater to any
ciesired value by looking at the voltmeter and ammeter.
4. Allow the unit to stabilize.
5. Switch on the blower.
6. Set air flow rate to any desired value by looking at the difference in mercury
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U-tube manometer.
7. Note down the different temperatures on each step.
8. Repeat the experiment
(a) Varying the air flow rate and keeping the power input to heater constant
(b) Varying the power input to the heater and keeping the air flow rate
constant.
9. Tabulate all readings and calculate different conditions.
10. After the knob is clicked off and thermocouple selector switch is turned off
to zero after the experiment is over.
TABULAR COLUMN:
VALUE
POSITIO

MANOMETE

POWER

R READING

HM (cm)
H1
H2

SURFACE (Pin Fin)


o

(W)

TEMPERATUR IN C

Ts

AMBIENT

FI

TEMP (T6)

VOLTS

AMP

(V)

S (A)

Fully open
Half open

VALUE

THEORETICAL TEMP

POSITION

IN OC
T2 T3 T4

T1

T5

Fully open
Half open

OBSERVATION:
Duct size (a x b)

0.15 x0.10 m.

Diameter of the fin D

0.012 m.

Diameter of the orifice (d)

0.02 m.
25

Length of the fin (L)

0.15 m.

Coefficient of discharge of orifice meter

0.61

CALCULATION:
1. Experimental heat transfer coefficient
hexpt=

Q
As (TsTa)

Q = v x a; v = voltage ; a = ammeter reading


As = DL.
where (D) = Diameter of the fin
(L) = Length of the fin: Ts=

T 1+T 2+T 3+T 4 +T 5


5

; Ta = T6 = Ambient temp.

m
a

2. Ha = HM x

273+room temp C

( a ) N . T . P . X 273
( a ) R .T . P=

(Density of mercury) =13.6 x 1000 kg/m

3. Volume flow rate of air through the duct


Q=Cd A (2gHa)1/2
A=

(D)2 where D= Diameter of the orifice

4
Cd=0.61
4. Velocity of air through the duct u = Q/A
where A = Area of duct (a x b)
5. Velocity of air at Tmf
U mf =

u
Ts+Tambient
x Tmf :where Tmf =
Tambient
2
26

6. Reynolds number Re =
Where De =

u mf x De
v

4 x ax b
2 ( a+ b )

Find out v, k, Pr values from H.M.T. Table for the corresponding temperature Tmf
v = kinematic viscosity
k = Thermal conductivity of air ;
Pr = Pranatl number
7. Theoretical heat transfer coefficient
htheo=

Nu K
D

where D= Diameter of fin


k =Thermal conductivity of air
Nu = Nusselt number
Find out Nusselt number from H.M.T. Table forrange of Re, Pr
8. Theoretical heat transfer
Q= {htheo x C x k x A)1/2 x (T, - Ta) Tanh (m x L)
where C = D, D = Diameter of fin; L= Fin length
kf (Brass) - 110. 7 W/(m.K) -Thermal conductivity of fin
T1 - temperature where the first thermocouple is fixed
m={ htheo x C/ Kf Af }1/2
where Af = D2/4 D = Diameter of fin
9. Efficiency of the fin =

tan h ( mL )
mx L

L = Fin length
10.

TxTa cosh [m ( LX ) ]
=
TlTa
cosh (mL)

Ta - Ambient temp
Tx = Temperature at X distance

GRAPH:
Distance between the thermocouple and the base of the fin Vs Experimental
temperature has been plotted.
Distance between the thermocouple ma live base of the fin Vs Theoretical
temperature has been plotted.
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RESULT:
The temperature distribution was determined across pin fin due to heat transfer
by forced convection.

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