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JEPPIAAR NAGAR, CHENNAI 600 119

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

HEAT TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

List of Experiments:

1.

2.

Emissivity measurement

3.

4.

5.

6.

method.

7.

8.

plate

CONDUCTION THROUGH COMPOSITE WALLS

AIM

To determine the thermal conductivities of hylem, wood and asbestos.

INTRODUCTION

When heat conduction takes place through two or more solid materials of

different thermal conductivities, the temperature drop across each materials depends

on the resistance offered to heat conduction path and the thermal conductivity of each

material. This experiment demonstrates this phenomenon in practical manner.

EXPERIMENT

The experimental set up consist of three similar test specimens made of

different materials (hylem, wood and asbestos) aligned together on both sides of the

heater unit. The first test disc is next to a controlled heater. The temperature at the

interface between the heater and the dics is measured by a thermocouple. Similarly,

the temperatures at the interface between successive discs are measured by

thermocouples. Similar arrangement is made to measure temperatures on the other

side of the heater. The whole set-up is kept in a convection free environment. The

temperatures are measured using thermocouples (Fe/Ko) with multi-point digital

temperature indicator.

The apparatus uses known insulating materials, of large area of heat transfer to

enable unidirectional heat flow. The apparatus is used mainly to study the resistance

offered by different slab materials and to establish the heat flow is similar to that of

current flow in an electrical circuit.

The steady state heat flow Q

T/R

where T =

resistances of each of the three discs.

The temperature readings should be taken when steady state condition is

reached. That is, when the temperature gradient across the plates does not change with

time.

R1

X1

,

A X K1

R2

X2

,

A X K2

and

R3

X3

,

A X K3

X = the thickness of the slab.

knowing the thermal conductivities it may be verified

Q=

T1 =

T 2T

R1

t 2+ t

T2 =

2

T

, =

R

t 1+ t

T 3T

T 4 T

=

=

R2

R3

t 3+ t

t 4 +t

T3 =

T4 =

2

2

Note:

1.

2.

3.

4.

Thickness of hylem

(X1)

Thickness of wood

(X2)

Thickness of asbestos (X3)

diameter of plates

(d)

= 10 mm

= 15 mm

= 6mm

= 300 mm

Tabular Column

Input

S.No.

(W)

V A

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

T7

T8

Q

Watts

1.

FORMULA

BLOCK DIAGRAM

Hylem

Wood

Asbestos

Heater

Asbestos

Wood

Hylem

Q=

V .A

2

D = 300 mm

1.

k1 =

X 1 .Q

A (T 2 T 1 )

A= AREA

x1 = 10 mm (HYLEM)

2

T 2T 1

k1 =

2.

k2 =

(300 X 103) ( )

4

X

3

10 X 10 X Q

=___________ w/m.k

x 2 .Q

A . ( T 3T 2 )

x2 = 15mm (Wood)

2

T 3T 2

k2 =

3.

k3 =

(300 X 103) ( )

4

X

3

15 X 10 X Q

=___________ w/m.k

x 3 .Q

A . ( T 4T 3 )

4

x3 = 6 mm ( Asbestos)

2

T 4T 3

k3 =

(300 X 103) ( )

4

X

3

6 X 10 X Q

=___________ w/m.k

Result:

The thermal conductivities of hylem, wood and asbestos have been found to be:

For hylem,

W / (m.k )

For wood,

W / (m.k)

For asbestos, k

W / (m.k )

EMISSIVITY MEASUREMENT

AIM

To measure the emissivity of the test plate and plot a graph between emissivity

and temperature.

DESCRIPTION

The apparatus consists of two hot plates placed in a rectangular box, one coated

black and the other being the test surface. There thermocouples are placed equidistant

on each hot plate. The panel consists of voltmeter, ammeter and digital temperature

indicator, thermocouple selector switch, a dimmer for each hot plate and an indicating

lamp.

OPERATION

1.

2.

Keep the thermocouple selector switch in zero position and the hot plate

selector switch in one.

3.

Turn the dimmer knob marked one clockwise and set the power input to black

surface by looking at the voltmeter and ammeter, and note down their values.

4.

5.

Turn the dimmer knob marked two and set the power input to the test surface

slightly less than that of the black surface by looking at voltmeter and ammeter

6.

Allow the unit to stabilize after ascertaining that the power inputs to the black and

test "surface are at set values.

Turn the thermocouple switch clockwise, step by step and note down the

temperatures recorded by the temperature indicator from 1-7.

Vary the power inputs to the hot plates and note down the temperatures at various

points.

Tabulate the readings.

After the experiment is over, turn the dimmer to off position and switch off the

main.

7.

8.

9.

10.

TABULAR COLUMN:

S.

No.

Ts slightly < Tb

Power(W)

T1

T2

T3

Ts

T4

T5

T6

Tb

Ambient

Temp.

(OC)

Emissivity

1.

2.

3.

CALCULATION

Ta =

t+273

Ts =

T 1+ T 2+T 3

+273

3

Tb =

T 4+T 5+T 6

+273

3

(i) Emissivity

T s 4T a4

T b4 T a 4

where

=1

)=1

RESULT

The emissivity of the test plate was measured and the graph was drawn

between temperature and emissivity.

FROM A HOT CYLINDER

AIM

To determine the temperature distribution for a cylinder due to heat transfer by

natural convection.

THEORY

Whenever the flow of fluid over a hot or cold surface takes place due to

temperature difference, the heat transferred between the surface and the fluid causes

motion which is known as buoyancy force. The buoyancy force causing the flow is

directly proportional to the temperature difference. The heat flow increases with

increasing temperature difference as the heat flow is directly proportional to the

temperature difference. The application of natural convection heat transfer in engineering

is limited as the heat flow rate is low.

DESCRIPTION

The apparatus consists of a cylinder placed inside an open duct. A heater is

connected to the cylinder and five thermocouples are connected at equal distance all along

the length of the cylinder. The sixth thermocouple is left in the duct.

The panel of the apparatus consists of voltmeter, ammeter, digital temperature

indicator, dimmer to control the power input to the heater, thermocouple selector switch,

neon indicating lamp and schematic diagram.

OPERATION

1. Connect the three pin plug to a 230V, 50Hz, 15Amps power socket, so that the . indicator

lamp is ,'ON'.

2. Keep the thermocouple selector switch in 'ZERO' position.

3. Turn the dimmer knob clockwise and set the power input of the heater to any desired

value by looking at the voltmeter and ammeter.

8

5. Note down the temperatures indicated by the temperature indicator on each step.

6. Repeat the experiment by varying the power input to the heater constant.

7. Tabulate all readings and calculate for different conditions.

SPECIFICATION

Diameter of tube(d)

=38 mm

= 500 m

Duct size

FORMULA

1.

Q

As(T s T a )

where

As-surface area of cylinder(

dL

)(m2)=

x 38 x 10-3x500x

10-3

Ts- Average surface temperature,

(T 1+T 2+T 3+ T 4 +T 5+T 6+T 7)

7

Ta = Ambient temperature

2. Grashof Number (Gr)

gL3 dT

V2

Coefficient of volume expansion

Tf =

T s +T a

2

1

T f + 273

in 0C ; L = 500 x10-3 m

dT = T sT a

v= Kinematic viscosity. Find out values v, k , Pr from H.M.T. Table for the

corresponding temperature Tf.

3.

a.

htheoL

= Nu

b.

htheoL

= Nu

coefficient

TABULAR COLUMN:

S.

No.

Ambient temp. in

o

C

Ta

Surface temperature in OC

Power input

I

amps

Volts

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

T7

10

h theoretical

(m)

w/(m2.K)

RESULT:

The temperature distribution of a cylinder by natural convection is determined

and the graph is plotted.

11

AIM:To plot the radial temperature distribution in the composite cylinder and determine

the thermal conductivity of the pipe insulation.

THEORY:Consider a radial heat flow through a hollow cylinder under steady state condition.

Q = [ 2 KL(T1-T2)] / [ln (r2/r1)]

Where T1, T2 are the inner and outer wall temperatures.

r1 r2 are the inner and outer radius of the pipe.

K is the thermal conductivity of the material.

Heat input

V

Temperature At

Radius r1, oc

Temperature At

Radius r2, oc

Temperature At

Radius r3, oc

t1

t4

t7

t2

t3

t5

t6

t8

t9

DESCRIPTION:The apparatus consists of a metal pipe with two layers of insulation. Air electric

heating coil wound on a silica rod is placed at the centre. The ends are thickly

insulated to prevent heat loss so that heat flows only in the material at radial direction.

Three thermocouples are placed at different radial direction to measure the

temperature distribution inside the cylinder.

12

(2) Length of the pipe =

t 4 +t 5 +t 6

3

t 7 +t 8+ t 9

T3=

3

4,5,6 at radius(r2)= 37.5mm.

7,8,9 at radius(r3)= 50mm.

500mm.

T2=

Q = [2 KL (T2-T3)] / (ln(r3/r2)

K = [Q.ln (r3/r2) / [2 L (T2 T3)]

Substitute the values and calculate the value of thermal conductivity.

electrical source.

2. Turn the dimmer start knob clockwise and fix the heat input to a desired

voltage.

3. Allow the equipment to stabilize and attain steady state.

4. Turn the thermocouples selection switch knob clockwise and note down

temperature Tj to T9.

5. Repeat the experiment at two different heat inputs.

13

THERMALCONDUCTIVITYOFMETALROD

AIM:To determine the thermal conductivity of a good conductor of heat (Brass rod).

THEORY:Q = KA dt

dx

Where

K = Thermal conductivity (W/mk)

A = Area of cross section normal t heat flow (m)

dt = Temperature drop (oc)

dx = distance over which it occurs(m)

observation of temperature gradient which occurs in a given area of conductivity of

material.

The material of high thermal conductivity is placed between plates at an

electric heater. The assembly is embedded in low conductivity insulator in order to

minimize the latent heat leakage from exposed surface.

The average value of slope is calculated from the graph between temperature

and length of the metal rod.

The thermal conductivity is given by

K = Q.dx

A.dt

14

dx

TABULAR COLUMN

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

Sl.No

Voltage volt

Current Amp

RESULT;

The thermal conductivity of metal rod is found as

15

SLAB GUARDED PLATE METHOD

AIM:

To find the thermal conductivity of the specimen by two slab guarded plate

method.

DESCRIPTION:

The apparatus consists of a hot plate and a cold plate. A specimen whose

thermal conductivity is to be measured is sandwiched between the hot and cold plates.

Both hot plate and guard heater are heated by electrical heaters. All three plates are

circular in shape. A small trough is attached to the cold plate to hold the coolant water

circulation. Thermocouples are attached to the bottom and top of the specimen and the

guard heater. The arrangement is placed in an enclosure. A digital temperature

indicator with selector switch is provided to note temperatures at different locations.

Electronic energy regulators are provided to control the temperatures of hot plate and

guard heater. Ammeter and voltmeter are connected to the hot plate circuit to note the

electrical input energy.

CALCULATION:

The heat transferred through the specimen plate at steady state is given by,

Q=k . A .

Where

dt

dx

m = Mass of water collected in kg /s

Cp = Specific heat of water.

16

A = Surface area of test plate through which heat transfer takes place.

Diameter of plates = 140 mm.

dx = Thickness of the test plate = 25 mm.

dt = Temperature drop across the specimen plate.

k = Thermal conductivity of the test plate.

PROCEDURE:

1. Connect the three pin plug to a 230 v, 50 hz, 15 amps power supply and switch

on the unit.

2. Keep the thermocouple selector switch in first position.

3. Turn the regulator knob clock wise and set the power to heater to any desired

value by looking at the voltmeter and the ammeter.

4. Allow water through the cold plate at a steady state.

5. Note down the voltmeter and ammeter readings, temperature drop across the

test plate when the unit attains stabilization.

NOTE:

The guard heater temperature is not taken for calculation but only to ensure

max. Unidirectional heat flow. The guard heater temperature are much higher than the

hot plate temp, so as to keep the environment filled with glass wool at experimental

temperature.

TABULATION:

17

S.

HEAT

SPECIMEN

SPECIME

GUARD

No

INPUT

BOTTOM

TOP TEMP

HEATER

CONDUCTIVITY

TEMP

W/(mK)

TEMP

V

T1 c

T2 c

T3 c

WATER TEMP

INLET

OUTLET

T5 Oc

T6 Oc

THERMAL

RESULT

The thermal conductivity of the specimen was found to be =

18

EXCHANGERS

AIM:

To study and compare temperature distribution, heat transfer rate, overall heat

transfer coefficient in parallel flow and countercurrent flow heat exchangers.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

Stop clock, measuring flask, thermometers, etc,

SPECIFICATIONS:

Length of the heat exchanger = 1200 mm

Inner Copper Brass Tube of ID = 9.5 mm & OD = 12.5 mm

Outer G.I. Tube of ID = 28,5 mm & OD = 32.0 mm

THEORY:

Heat Exchangers ere devices in which heat is transferred from one fluid to

another. Common examples of heat exchangers are the radiators of a car, condenser at

the back of the domesticrefrigerator, etc. Heat exchangers are classified into three

categories as

(ii) Storage type and

(iii) Direct contact type.

Transfer type of heat exchangers are most commonly used. A transfer type of

heat exchanger is one in which both fluids pass simultaneously through the device and

the heat is transferred through separating walls. Transfer type of exchangers are further

classified into

(a) Parallel flow type in which fluids flow in the same direction

(b) Counter flow type in which fluids flow in the opposite direction and

(c) Cross flow type in which fluids flow at right angles or any angle to each

other.

19

DESCRIPTION:

The apparatus consists of a concentric tube heat exchanger. The hot fluid is

obtained from an electric geyser and it flows through the inner tube. The cold water can

be admitted at any one of the ends enabling the heat exchanger to run as a parallel flow

or counter flow apparatus. Temperatures of the fluids can be measured using

thermometers. The outer tube is provided with adequate asbestos rope insulation to

minimize the heat loss to the surroundings.

PROCEDURE

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Start the flow on hot and cold water side

Put on the electric geyser and adjust the flow rate on hot water side

Keep the flow rate same till the steady state condition is reached

Note the temperature and measure the flow rate.

The experiment is repeated for different flow rates as parallel flow and counter

flow heat exchanger.

TABULAR COLUMNS

S.No.

1.

2.

Type of Flow

Parallel flow

Counter current flow

Thi 0C

Tho 0C

Tci 0C

Tco 0C

20

S.

No.

Type of

Flow

1.

Parallel

flow

Counter

current

flow

2.

Flow

rate of

hot

water

(Kg/s)

Flow

rate of

cold

water

(kg/s)

LMT

D

O

( C)

Rate of

heat

transfer

Qh

(J/s

)

Qc

(J/s

)

Overall

heat

transfer

coefficient

W/(m2OC)

%

Effectivenes

s

CALCULATIONS

PARALLEL FLOW HEAT EXDCHANGER

Heat transfer from hot water

Qh=mhCph(Thi-Tho) =

1 J/s = 1 W

Heat transfer to cold water

Qc = mc Cpc (Tco-Tci)=

W

LMTD (Logarithmic mean temperature difference) Cpc=4187 J /(kg OK)

LMTD = Tm

T i/ T

T i T

Where T i

To

=

temperature difference at outlet (Tho-Tco )

we know Qh

=

UA (LMTD)

A can be taken based on outer diameter 12mm

Overall heat transfer coefficient U = Qh/[A(LMTD)]=Qh /[ DL x (LMTD)]

U =

W/(m2 oC)

Effectiveness

x100

Max . Possible h eat transfer

(T h iT h o)

(T h iTci)

x100

COUNTERCURRENT FLOW HEAT EXCHANGER

21

Qh = mh Cph (Thi Tho)

=

Heat transfer rate to cold water:

Qc = mc Cpc (Tco Tci)

=

W

W

LMTD

where Ti

To

( Tm

=

=

Ti

Ti/

()

()

temperature different at outlet(Tho-Tci )

we know Qh =

UA (LMTD)

A can be taken based on outer diameter 12 mm

Overall heat transfer coefficient U =

Qh / [A(LMTD)] = Qh / ( DL x

(LMTD)]

=

W/( m2 oC)

Effectiveness

x100

Max . Possible h eat transfer

(T h iT h o)

(T h iTci)

x100 =

RESULT

The temperature distribution, heat transfer rate, heat transfer coefficient and

effectiveness in parallel and counter current flow exchanger were determined.

(i)

(ii)

Heat transfer rate for hot water

Heat transfer rate for cold water

Overall heat transfer coefficient

Effectiveness

=

=

=

=

J/s

J/s

W/( m2 oC)

%

Heat transfer rate for hot water

Heat transfer rate for cold water

Overall heat transfer coefficient

=

=

=

J/s

J/s

W/( m2 oC)

22

Effectiveness

23

FOR PIN FIN

AIM:

To determine the temperature distribution across pin fin due to heat transfer by

forced convection.

DESCRIPTION:

The apparatus consists of a pin fin placed inside an open duct (one side open)

and the other end of the duct is connected to suction side of a blower. The delivery

side of the blower is taken through a gate valve and an orificemeter to the atmosphere.

The flow rate can be varied by the gate valve and can be measured by the mercury Utube manometer connected to the orificemeter. A heater is connected to one and of the

fin and five thermocouples are connected at equal distances all along the length of the

fins the sixth thermocouple is left in the ducal

The panel on the apparatus consists of a voltmeter, ammeter, digital

temperature indicator, dimmer to control the power input to heater, thermocouple

selector switch, U-tube manometer, neon indicating lamp and a schematic diagram.

OPERATIONS:

1. Connect the 3-pin plug to a 230V, 50Hz, 15 Amps power socket, the

indicator lamp is ON

2. Keep the thermocouple selector switch in zero "position

3. Turn dimmer knob clockwise and set power input to the heater to any

ciesired value by looking at the voltmeter and ammeter.

4. Allow the unit to stabilize.

5. Switch on the blower.

6. Set air flow rate to any desired value by looking at the difference in mercury

24

U-tube manometer.

7. Note down the different temperatures on each step.

8. Repeat the experiment

(a) Varying the air flow rate and keeping the power input to heater constant

(b) Varying the power input to the heater and keeping the air flow rate

constant.

9. Tabulate all readings and calculate different conditions.

10. After the knob is clicked off and thermocouple selector switch is turned off

to zero after the experiment is over.

TABULAR COLUMN:

VALUE

POSITIO

MANOMETE

POWER

R READING

HM (cm)

H1

H2

o

(W)

TEMPERATUR IN C

Ts

AMBIENT

FI

TEMP (T6)

VOLTS

AMP

(V)

S (A)

Fully open

Half open

VALUE

THEORETICAL TEMP

POSITION

IN OC

T2 T3 T4

T1

T5

Fully open

Half open

OBSERVATION:

Duct size (a x b)

0.15 x0.10 m.

0.012 m.

0.02 m.

25

0.15 m.

0.61

CALCULATION:

1. Experimental heat transfer coefficient

hexpt=

Q

As (TsTa)

As = DL.

where (D) = Diameter of the fin

(L) = Length of the fin: Ts=

5

; Ta = T6 = Ambient temp.

m

a

2. Ha = HM x

273+room temp C

( a ) N . T . P . X 273

( a ) R .T . P=

Q=Cd A (2gHa)1/2

A=

4

Cd=0.61

4. Velocity of air through the duct u = Q/A

where A = Area of duct (a x b)

5. Velocity of air at Tmf

U mf =

u

Ts+Tambient

x Tmf :where Tmf =

Tambient

2

26

6. Reynolds number Re =

Where De =

u mf x De

v

4 x ax b

2 ( a+ b )

Find out v, k, Pr values from H.M.T. Table for the corresponding temperature Tmf

v = kinematic viscosity

k = Thermal conductivity of air ;

Pr = Pranatl number

7. Theoretical heat transfer coefficient

htheo=

Nu K

D

k =Thermal conductivity of air

Nu = Nusselt number

Find out Nusselt number from H.M.T. Table forrange of Re, Pr

8. Theoretical heat transfer

Q= {htheo x C x k x A)1/2 x (T, - Ta) Tanh (m x L)

where C = D, D = Diameter of fin; L= Fin length

kf (Brass) - 110. 7 W/(m.K) -Thermal conductivity of fin

T1 - temperature where the first thermocouple is fixed

m={ htheo x C/ Kf Af }1/2

where Af = D2/4 D = Diameter of fin

9. Efficiency of the fin =

tan h ( mL )

mx L

L = Fin length

10.

TxTa cosh [m ( LX ) ]

=

TlTa

cosh (mL)

Ta - Ambient temp

Tx = Temperature at X distance

GRAPH:

Distance between the thermocouple and the base of the fin Vs Experimental

temperature has been plotted.

Distance between the thermocouple ma live base of the fin Vs Theoretical

temperature has been plotted.

27

RESULT:

The temperature distribution was determined across pin fin due to heat transfer

by forced convection.

28

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