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SATHYABAMA UNIVERSITY

(Established under section 3 of UGC Act 1956)


Accredited with B++ Grade by NACC
JEPPIAAR NAGAR, CHENNAI 600 119.

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


IC ENGINES LAB MANUAL

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
1.

PERFORMANCE TEST ON CONSTANT SPEED ENGINE

2.

VALVE TIMING DIAGRAM

3.

PORT TIMING DIAGRAM

4.

OPTIMUM COOLING TEST

5.

FRICTIONAL POWER BY RETARDATION TEST

6.

HEAT BALANCE SHEET

7.

MORSE TEST ON MULTI CYLINDER PETROL ENGINE

PERFORMANCE TEST ON CONSTANT SPEED ENGINE


DETERMINATION OF FRICTION POWER BY
PERFORMANCE TEST
AIM:
To conduct a performance test on a constant speed engine and to find the
mechanical efficiency using negative horse power method
INTRODUCTION:
The experiment is conducted on a diesel engine of the following specifications.
Make
Type
Loading
Brake Speed
Rated Speed
Bore
Stroke

:
:
:
:
:
:
:

FIELD MARSHAL
Vertical Automatic Governing
Mechanical brake
4.476 KW
650 rpm
114.3 mm
139.7 mm

Radius of the brake drum : 20 CM


The energy supplied to the engine is by way of burning the fuel. The thermal
energy generated is known as the calorific value of the fuel. A part of this energy
alone get converted in to mechanical power of the piston movement, known as
indicated power [IP]. A little amount of IP is used to overcome the frictional losses of
the engine known as frictional power [FP] and the remaining is delivered as the useful
power output of the engine known, as Brake power[BP].
PROCEDURE:
1.
From the specifications Of the engine, calculate the effective maximum
load that can be applied to the brake drum at the rated constant speed.
2.
Check Fuel supply, Cooling water supply, and the lubricating oil level.
3.
Ensure there is no load on the engine, start the engine and bring it to the
rated speed.
Allow cooling water to the brake drum and load the engine and note down
the time taken for 20cc of fuel consumption for different loads.
4.
At the end of the experiment the engine is stopped by operating the fuel cut
off lever.

TO FIND THE FRICTIONAL POWER [FP]


A curve is drawn between TFC on Y axis and BP on X axis. A tangent is drawn
to the curve and extended to meet the X axis. The negative distance from the origin is
FP. The FP varies with speed. Since the experiment is done at a constant speed, FP is
constant for all loads.
The following calculations are made from the above set of observations for Each
particular load.
1.

Torque applied on the Engine T= (W1-W2) x 9.81 x R-Nm


Radius of brake drum (R) = 20 CM
N = 650 rpm
=

2 NT
KW
60 x1000

2.

Brake power (B.P)

3.

Total fuel consumption (TFC) =

20
3600
x SP gravity of diesel x
kg/hr
t
1000

SP. gravity of diesel = 0.83


TFC
kg/kw-hr.
BP

4.

Specific fuel consumption (SFC) =

5.

Find out Friction power through graph FP in KW

6.

Indicated power IP in KW = (BP + FP)

7.

Mechanical efficiency =

8.

Heat input by fuel to the engine in one second


(HI) =

BP
x 100
IP

TFC
x C.V in KW
60 X 60

Where C.V = Calorific value of fuel = 43,000 kj/kg.


9.

Brake thormal efficiency

BP
H .I

x 100

I .P
H .I

10.

Indicated thermal efficiency =

11.

Indicated Mean Effective Pressure


IMEP =

x 100

I.P x n x 60 x K
inKN/m 2
Ax Lx N

Where
I.P in Kw
n = 2 for 4 stroke Engine

n=2

n = 1 for 2 stroke Engine

k=1

K = No of cylinder
(A) Area of piston

d/4 where d=114.3mm

L = Length of stroke = 139.7mm


N = Engine running speed 650 rpm
12.

Brake Mean Effective pressure BMEP =

B.P x n x 60 x K
inKN/m 2
Ax Lx N

where
B.P in Kw
The above observations and calculation parameters are Put in a proper Tabular
Column.
TABULAR COLUMN
S.
No.

Load on Hanger
(W1) in (Kg)

Spring Balance
Load (W2) in
(Kg)

Net Load in (Kg)


(W1-W2)

Time for 20cc


of fuel
consumption
in (Sec)

1.
2.
3.
4.

T.F.C
in
(Kg/hr
)

B.P
in
(Kw)

S.F.C in
(Kg/Kw
-hr)

I.P in
(Kw)

H.I
in
(Kw)

B.T

I.T

B.M.E.P
in
(KN/m2
)

I.M.E.P
in
(KN/m2
)

mech

GRAPHS:
The following graphs are drawn
1.

B.P Vs. TFC

2.

Bp Vs SFC

3.

Bp Vs Mech. efficiency

4.

Bp Vs BTE

5.

BP Vs ITE

RESULT:
The performance of the constant speed Engine in determined.

VALVE TIMING DIAGRAM 4 STROKE DIESEL ENGINE


AIM:
To draw the theoretical and experimental valve timing diagram of the 4 stroke
Diesel Engine.
INTRODUCTION
The experiment is conducted on a reduced scaled model of a 4 stroke vertical
diesel engine. The experiment aims to represent diagrammatically the sequence of
operations of the inlet valve, exhaust valve and the fuel injection with respect to the
crank angle of the engine. Thus valve timing is the regulation of the points in the
thermodynamic cycle of the engine at which valves are set to open and close.
The ideal, theoretical, sequence of operation for a 4 stroke C.I engine is as
follows.
1.

Suction Stroke

The inlet valve opens and air alone is inducted in to the cylinder as the piston
moves down from the top dead centre (TDC) towards the bottom dead centre (BDC).
The exhaust valve is kept closed through out the process.
2.

Compression Stroke

The inlet and exhaust valves are kept closed and the piston moves up from the
BDC towards the TDC, thereby compressing the air, according to the compression
ratio of the engine. Compression ratio (C.R) is the ratio of the maximum cylinder
volume to the minimum cylinder volume in a thermodynamie cycle of the engine. In
C.I engine (eg, diesel engine) the compression ratio is in between 12:1 to 22:1.
3.

Expansion stroke or working stroke or power stroke

Both valves remain closed during this stroke. The piston is at the TDC. Fuel
injection in to the cylinder starts at the beginning of the expansion stroke. Due to the
high compression ratio, the temperature at the end of the compression stroke is
sufficient to ignite the fuel which comes through the fuel injector;

A rapid explosion takes just after the ignition of the fuel. Expansion of the hot
gases follows, pushing the piston down to BDC. It is in this stroke that the useful work
is obtained from the engine.
4.

Exhaust stroke

The exhaust valve remain open and the inlet valve remain closed in this stroke.
The piston moves up from the BDC towards the TDC, pushing off the expanded hot
gases out of the cylinder through the exhaust valve.
After the completion of the exhaust stroke, the cycle repeats.
The energy from the power stroke is stored in the fly wheel, which in turn
energizes the piston for the other 3 strokes. Theoretical valve timing details :
1.IVO at TDC during the start of suction stroke
2.IVC at BDC during the start of compression stroke
3.Fl at TDC during the start of the expansion stroke
4.EVO at BDC during the start of the exhaust stroke
5.EVC at TDC during the completion of the exhaust stroke
The actual valve timing details are different from the theoretical one for the
following reasons.
1.

Mechanical factor

The valves are opened and closed by some mechanisms whose good design
induces gradual opening and closing at them.
2.

Dynamic factor

The air flow IN and the gas flow OUT involves gas dynamic effects which
induces a gradual opening and closing of the valves.
Typical actual valve timing details of a 4 stroke diesel engine is as follows:
1.IVO 15 deg before TDC during the end of the exhaust stroke
2.IVC 25 deg after BDC during beginning of the compression stroke
3.FIS 15 deg before TDC during the end of the compression stroke

4.EVO 35 deg before BDC during the end of the power stroke
5.EVC 12 deg after TDC during the beginning of the suction stroke
IVO
IVC
EVO
EVC
FIS

- Inlet Valve Opens


- Intel Valve Closes
- Exhaust Valve Opens
- Exhaust Valve Closes
- Fuel Injection Starts

PROCEDURE:
The flywheel of the model is rotated-till the piston, reaches the BDC. The
lower most portion of the fly wheel and the corresponding portion of the base of the
model is properly marked with a chalk piece. The total length of the circumference of
the flywheel outer rim is measured by a thread. This length 'C corresponds to 360 of
flywheel rotation. The flywheel is rotated till piston reaches TDC and then the rim is
marked. The flywheel is then taken back to the BDC for the suction stroke and the
point at which the IVC is marked on the rim of the flywheel. Similarly the flywheel is
rotated through all the 3 remaining strokes and the valve openings, closings and fuel
injection are properly marked on the flywheel rim. The collected details are then
depicted through the valve timing diagram.
TABULAR COLUMN
Valve Opening /
Closing Position

Distance (cm)

Angle = (Distance / Circumference of


flywheel) X360

IVO Before TDC


IVO After BDC
EVO Before BDC
EVC After TDC
Circumference of flywheel = 122 cm
RESULT
The theoretical and experimental valve timing diagram of the 4 stroke Diesel
Engine is Drawn.

PORT TIMING DIAGRAM 2 STROKE PETROL ENGINE


AIM
To draw the theoretical and experimental port timing Diagram of the 2 stroke
Petrol Engine.
INTRODUCTION
The experiment is conducted in a reduced scaled model of a 2 stroke vertical
petrol engine. The aim is to represent diagrammatically the sequence of operation of
the inlet port, exhaust port, transfer port, and the spark timing with respect to the
crank angle of the engine.
In 2 stroke engines, the thermodynamic cycle is completed in 2 strokes of the
piston through one revolution of the crank or flywheel
The ideal theoretical sequence of operation for a 2 stroke S.I engine (eg. petrol
engine of the crank case - scavenger type) is as follows.
1.

Compression stroke

Piston starts moving up from the BDC towards the TDC compressing the
charge of petrol and air, in the combustion chamber. During the compression stroke as
the piston moves up from BDC the pressure of fresh charge in the crank case
decreases and after some further upward movement of the piston, the inlet port gets
uncovered by the piston.
Thus the fresh charge from the carburetor rushes in to the crank case. At the
end of the compression stroke spark gets produced at the spark plug electrode. Thus
igniting the charge for an explosion and the consequent expansion of the gases
pushing down the piston in the power stroke.
2.

Power stroke

Piston travels down from the TDC towards the BDC. First the exhaust port gets
uncover, by the piston and the expanded gases push .OUT of the cylinder.
Consequently the transfer port gets uncovered by the piston, and thus fresh charge
gets in to the combustion chamber portion of the cylinder.

In the power stroke the powerful downward motion of the piston produces, the
power output from the engine; Also the fresh charge enters the combustion chamber
space through transfer port since the pressure in the crank case increases during the
downward motion of the piston.
The flywheel of the model is rotated till the piston reaches the BDC. The lower
most portion of the flywheel and the corresponding portion of the base is properly
marked. The total length of the circumference of the flywheel outer rim is measured
as 'C corresponding to 360 degree of flywheel rotation. The flywheel is rotated till the
piston reaches TDC for compression stroke.
The following points at the cycle are marked on the flywheel rim.
1. Inlet Port Opens -(IPO)fresh charge enter into the crankcase from carburetor
2. Exhaust Port Closes - (EPC) after the full closing of the exhaust port and transfer
port, compression of the charge begins.
3. Transfer port closes - (TPC)
4. (TDC) - when the reaches TDC spark ignition happens, accompanied by the explosion the
piston.

The flywheel is rotated till the piston travels down the TDC towards the BDC
denoting the power stroke.
The following points are marked on the flywheel rim.
1.
2.
3.

Exhaust Port Opens- EPO


inlet Port Closes-IPC
Transfer Port Opens TPO

Fresh charge enters the combustion chamber space due to the pressurizing in the
crankcase by the downward motion of the piston.
Typical actual port timing details of a 2 stroke engine is as follows.
1.EPC - during start of the compression stroke -70 degree After BDC - piston upward
motion.
2.TPC - 60 degree After BDC - piston upward motion.
3.IPO - 130 degree after BDC piston upward motion.
4.SI - Spark ignition 20 degree Before TDC.

10

5.TDC - end of compression stroke.


6.IPC - 50 degree after TDC.
7.EPO - 70 degree before BDC - expanded gases start pushing out of the cylinder.
8.TPO : 60 degree before BDC - fresh charge start entering the combustion chamber
space.
The collected details are then depicted through proper port timing diagram.
TABULAR COLUMN
Port Opening/ Closing
Position

Distance (cm)

Angle

IPO Before TDC


IPC After TDC
EPO Before BDC
EPC After BDC
TPO Before BDC
TPC After BDC
Angle =

Dis tan ce measured


Circumfere nce of flywheel

x 360

Circumference of flywheel = 62 cm
RESULT
The theoretical and experimental port timing diagram of the 2 stroke Petrol Engine
is drawn.

OPTIMUM COOLING TEST


11

AIM
To find the optimum cooling water flow rate from the given diesel engine.
APPARATUS
Spring Balance, Measuring Jar, Stop watch.
SPECIFICATION
Make
Type
Loading
Power
Speed
Bore
Stroke

:
:
:
:
:
:
:

Comet
Vertical Automatic Engine
Mechanical Brake
3.7 KW
1500 rpm
8 cm
11 cm

Radius at Brake drum : 16.75 cm


PROCEDURE
The Engine is started and runs at rated speed at 1500 rpm. The load and spring
balance reading are noted. The line taken for 20cc of fuel consumption and time taken for
flow of water in noted: same procedure is repeated for different values and calculations
are done.
TABULAR COLUMN
Sl.
No.

Net Load on
Engine W1+W2-1
In kg

Time for
water
collected
LTRS/Sec

Time for
20cc of Fuel
consumptio
n in Seconds

Amount of
water
collected in
Kg/Hr

TFC
Kg/hr

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

FORMULA USED
12

Amount of water collected =


TFC =

60 x 60
Kg/hr
t

20
3600
Kg/hr
x specific gravity of Diesel x
t
1000

RESULT
Thus the optimum cooling water flow rate for given 4 stroke Diesel Engine was
found out.

13

FRICTIONAL POWER BY RETARDATION TEST


AIM:
To conduct retardation test on the petrol engine to determine Frictional Power
to engine.
SPECIFICATIONS OF THE ENGINE
Make
: Veegal
No. of cylinders : ONE
Cooling system : Air
Loading
: Electrical Brake
Type
: Vertical, Centrifugal Governing.
INTRODUCTION:
In the retardation test, the engine is run from outside by an electrical motor.
Each speed gives the frictional power of the engine. The fuel supply is cut off during
the test.

PROCEDURE:
1.
2.

Cut-off engine fuel supply.


Test preparation are so planned that the test time is only a few minutes to avoid
over heating of the cylinder piston.
Switch on the switch No.2 and the knife switch No.2
Adjust the rheostat until the D.C. machine speed is 14O0 rpm.
Note down the following observations namely, viz., speed, Voltmeter reading
and ammeter reading.

3.
4.
5.

The frictional power is then V* A/1000.


6.

The experiment is repeated for various speeds that are lower than 1400 rpm.

TABULAR COLUMN
WITH SPARK PLUG
Sl. No.

Speed in RPM

V (Volts)

A (Amps)

F.P (Watts)

1.
2.
3.

14

4.
WITHOUT SPARK PLUG
Sl. No.

Speed in RPM

V (Volts)

A (Amps)

F.P (Watts)

1.
2.
3.
4.
RESULT:
The retardation test on the petrol engine was conducted and the frictional
powers to the engine at various speeds were determined.

15

HEAT BALANCE TEST


I. BY AIRFLOW MEASUREMENT
II. BY EXHAUST GAS CALORIMETER
INTRODUCTION:
The experiment is conducted on a 4 stroke diesel engine. The aim is to find out the
heat expenditure in the engine in terms of the following.
1. Heat input per second HI
2. Heat equivalent of useful work done HUE
3. Heat carried by engine cooling water HW
4. Heat carried away by exhaust gases HG
5. Heat unaccounted losses HUN

ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS
Make
: Ruston
Cooling system
: Water
No. of cylinders
: one.
Loading
: Mechanical Brake
No. of stroke
: Four
Type
: Horizontal, Manual governing
Rated speed
: Variable
Brake power
: 3.7 KW
Bore
: 10.8 cm
Stroke
: 20cm
Radius of brake drum: 24 cm.
PROCEDURE:
1.Check fuel supply, cooling water supply, and lubrication oil level.
2.Open the fuel line and start the engine by cranking.
3.The experiment is conducted for the following loads. l)Zero
load 2) 1/4 load. 3) 1/2 load 4) 3/4 load 5) Full load.

16

OBSERVATIONS:
The following readings are taken for each loading of the engine.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Time t sec for 20 cc of fuel consumption


Engine speed (N)RPM
Load on brake drum in Kg
Spring balance load in Kg
Manometer reading (h2-hl) in cm
Engine cooling water inlet temp TlC
Engine cooling water oulet temp.T2C
Engine cooling water mass flow rate ml kg/scc
Exhaust gas temp, at calorimeter inlet T3C
Exhaust gas temp, at calorimeter outlet T4C
Water temp, at calorimeter inlet T5C
Water temp, at calorimeter outlet T6C
Engine. Exhaust Gas Inlet Temperature (room temperature) T7C
Engine Exhaust Gas Outlet Temperature T8C
Water flow rate through calorimeter m2 kg/sec.

A suitable tabular column is prepared for entering all the above observation
details and the following calculation parameters.
TABULAR COLUMN FOR AIR FLOW MEASUREMENT

S.
No.

Load
on
hanger
(w1) in
(kg)

Spring
balance
load
(w2) in
(kg)

Net load
(w1+1W2) in
(Kg)

Time for
20cc of fuel
consumption
in (sec)

Engine
Mass
Flow
rate
Kg/sec
(ml)

Engine
Exhaust gas
Temperature
o
C

Engine Jacket
water
Temperature

Manometer
Head in cm

Inlet
T7

Outlet
T2oC

H1

Outlet
T8

Inlet
T1oC

H2

17

TABULAR COLUMN FOR EXHAUST GAS CALORIMETER


Load
on
hanger
(w1) in
(kg)

Spring
balance
load
(w2) in
(kg)

Net
load
(w1+1
*-W2)
in (Kg)

Time
for 20cc
of fuel
consum
ption in
(sec)

Engine
Mass
Flow rate
Kg/sec
(ml)

Calorimeter
Water Flow
Rate Kg/s
m2

Engine Jacket
water
Temperature

Calorimeter
Exhaust Gas
Temperature

Out
let
T2oC

Inlet
T3oC

Inlet
T1oC

Out
let
T4oC

Calorimeter
Water
temperature
Inlet
T5oC

Outlet
T6oC

CALCULATION
1.
2.

Torque T in Nm
Brake power B.P = 2NT / 60000 Kw

3.

Heat Input (H.I) =

4.
5.

5.

6.

20
1
x Sp. Gravity x
x CV
t
1000

C.V = Calorific value of diesel = 43000 kJ/kg. SP. Gravity of diesel = 0.83
Hu = B.P KW
HW = ml x SP. heat of water x (T2-T1) KW
SP. heat of water = 4.187 kJ/kg K
H.I., H.U., H.W are same for both (air flow measurement gas calorimeter)
method
HW = ml x SP. heat of water x (T2-T1) KW
SP. heat of water = 4.187 kJ/kg K
H.I., H.U., H.W are same for both (air flow measurement gas calorimeter)
method
HEAT CARRIED AWAY OF EXHAUST GAS (HG) AIR FLOW
MEASUREMENT
Volume of air at R.T.P (Va) = A x Cd x 2 gH m/sec.
Area of the Orifice (A) =

2
d , where Diameter of the orifice (d) = 0.02m
4

Cd Coefficient of discharge = 0.61

18

( h2 h1 ) X 10 2 X w
Air Head (H) =
a

w = Water density = 1000 kg/m3


(a)N.T.P x 273

(a) R.T.P = (273 room temp in c)


Air density at N.T.P = 1.293 kg/m
Mass of air consumed m3 =
P

P x a
RT

Kg/sec.

= Air pressure at engine inlet


= 1 atm pressure = 1.01325 x 105 N.m

= Characteristic gas constant for Air = 287 J/Kg k

= Air inlet temp = Room temp = Tok

Thus m3 is found out.


Mass of fuel consumed m4 =

20
1
x SP. gravity of diesel x
Kg/sec.
t
1000

SP. gravity of diesel = 0.83


Mass of exhaust gas m5 = (m3 + m4) Kg/Sec.
(HG) air flow = m5 x SP. heat of exhaust gas x (T8-T7) KJ/sec (KW)
SP. heat of exhaust gas = 1.005 KJ/Kg
7.

(HuN) air flow = HI (Hu + Hw + (HG) airflow) Kw

19

HEAT BALANCE SHEET FOR AIR FLOW MEASUREMENT


Load
(Kg)

H.I
Kw

H.U
%

Kw

H.W
%

Kw

(HG) air flow


Kw
%

HuN air flow


Kw
%

This is a tabular column giving the heat distribution in KW and percentage heat
input for each particular loading of the engine.
HEAT CARRIED AWAY OF EXHAUST GAS (HG) (FOR EXHAUST GAS
CALORIMETER)
Heat carried away by calorimeter water = Heat lost by the exhaust gas m2 x
4.187 x (T6-T5) = Mass of exhaust gas x SP. heat of exhaust gas (T3-T4).
Mass of exhaust gas x SP. heat of exhaust gas = m2 x 4.187 x (T6-T5) /
(T3-T4).
(HG) calorimeter = Mass of exhaust gas x SP. heat of exhaust gas x (T8T7).
(HuN) calorimeter = HI (Hu + HW + (HG) calorimeter ) KW
HEAT BALANCE SHEET FOR GAS CALORIMETER
Load
(Kg)

H.I
Kw

H.U
%

Kw

H.W
%

Kw

(HG)
Calorimeter
Kw
%

HuN
Calorimeter
Kw
%

RESULT
A heat balance graph is drawn taking % of Heat distribution in Y-axis and %
load on X-axis showing the various heat distribution from the engine for both the
methods.

20

MORST TEST ON MULTI CYLINDER PERTROL ENGINE


AIM
To conduct the morse test on multi cylinder petrol engine.
Test rig specification:
Engine: 4 cylinder 4 stroke vertical water-cooled variable speed petrol engine. The
engine is provided with clutch plate, cover assembly Bell housing, accelerator
control, self-starter motor, dynamo, battery ignition switch, HT coil, cutout,
solenoid switch etc.
Provision is made for cutting the ignition for individual cylinder using Knife
switch.
Loading device: Cast iron brake drum of 400mm diameter mounted on shaft with
bearing support with water cooling arrangement. A belt brake with spring balances
provided with screw rod arrangement for loading.
Fuel measurement: 3-way cock with burette
Air intake measuring device: Air tank with Orifice plate of 20mm diameter and
manometer.

PROCEDURE:

Fill the fuel tank with Petrol. Provide water supply for engine cooling.

Open the 3 way cock, Ensure fuel supply reaching the carburetor. Check for any
loose wire connection. Close the Knife switches. Connect the battery terminals.
The earth terminal to be connected to the negative of the battery terminal.
Under no circumstances the terminals to be interchanged. Release all loads on
the drum.

Close the clutch and start the engine using the ignition key. Incase the engine is
not starting put on the choke and start the engine. Incase of any further problem
check the spark to the spark plug. The clockwise rotation of the accelerator
knob increases the speed of the engine. When the engine is running smoothly
release the clutch pedal.
21

Adjust the accelerator position to run the engine at 1500 rpm.

Adjust the load on the brake drum by turning the screw rod in clockwise
direction to any desired value and lock. Open the cooling water for the drum.

Adjust speed once again to 1500 rpm.

Note the spring balance reading W1 and W2.

Note the time for the fuel consumption from the burette by putting the 3-way
cock knob facing down for 10cc.

Note the manometer reading.

Repeat the procedure for other loads every time adjusting the accelerator
position to run the engine at 1500 rpm.

Calculation
Brake Power BP =

2NT
watts
60

Where N is the speed in rpm, T = torque = Brake drum radius (W1-W2)(g)


Newton.
Total fuel consumption (TFC) =

10cc X 0.8 X 3600 Kg / hr.


t X 1000

Where t is the time for 10cc fuel from Burette in seconds.


Specific fuel consumption (SFC) = TFC/BP Kg/kw- hr.
Morse test
Run the engine at constant speed at some particular load say load. Note the
spring balance reading and calculate BP1.
Put any one-knife switch handle up and the spark for the cylinder connected to
that gets switched off, and that cylinder power also gets off. Hence the speed of the
engine comes down. Now without adjusting the accelerator reduce the load by
adjusting the screw rod connected to the spring balance to bring the engine speed back

22

to the same rpm as it was running with 4 cylinder functioning. Note the spring balance
readings, and calculate BP2.
Now BPl - BP2 gives the IP1 of that particular cylinder under test.
Repeat the experiment for the other cylinders and find IP2, IP3, and IP4.
IP1 + IP2 + IP3 + IP4 = IP of the engine.
Knowing the IP of the engine
The Mechanical efficiency = BP/ IP.
TABULAR COLUMN

Load

Spring
Balance
reading W1
Kg

Spring
Balance
reading W2
Kg

Speed N
RPM

BP KW

IP
KW

Mech.
Efficiency
%

4 Cylinder
1 Cyl. Cut
IInd Cyl. Cut
IIIrd Cyl. Cut
IVth Cyl. Cut

Radius of Brake Drum = g=0.2m 9.81Kg/m2


BP = 2NT/60 watts
Where T = Torque = Radius of brake drum * (W2-W1)*9.81 = 19.62 Nm
CV = 45980 KJ/Kg
TFC = (10* 0.8 * 3600) / (t * 1000)
Torque Calculations
Radius of Brake Drum = 0.2m
SFC = TFC / BP
Where T = Torque = Radius of brake drum * (W2-W1) * 9.81 = 19.62m

23

B.Th.Efficiency
= (BP*3600* 100) / TFC * CV)
MORSE Test
BP with 4 cylinder firing BP1
FIRST CYLINDER CUT
IP1 = BP-BP2(1) for the first cylinder cut
BP with 3 cylinder (First cylinder CUT) BP2(1)
IP1 = BP-BP2(1)
SECOND CYLINDER CUT
IP2 BP 2(2)
BP with 3 cylinder (IInd cylinder CUT) BP2(2)
IP2 = BP-BP2(2)
THIRD CYLINDER CUT
IP3 BP-BP2(3)
BP with 3 cylinder (IIIrd cylinder CUT) BP2(3)
IP3 = BP-BP2(3)
FOURTH CYLINDER CUT
IP4-BP-BP2(4)
BP with 3 cylinder (IVth cylinder CUT) BP2(4)
IP4 = BP-BP2(4)
IP= IP1 + IP2 + IP3 + IP4
IP
Mechanical Efficiency = BP/IP* 100%
RESULT
Morse test conducted in the given multi cylinder petrol engine.

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