FOR
BEGINNERS.
]^^y^^
^9
ALGEBRA
BEGINNERS
FOR
BT
S.
H.
A1TTHOB8
HALL
AND
KNIGHT,
R.
Schools,"
fob
Etc.
Tbigonohetby/'
"Elementaby
Algbbea,"
REVISED
Algebra
"Elemektasy
or
S.
AND
Etc.
SCHOOLS
AMERICAN
TO
ADAPTED
"Hiohsb
BY
FRANK
L.
Pbofessob
THE
Matbematios
of
Stevens
THE
A.M.,
SEVENOAK,
and
School,
Stevens
AssiSTAin?
Academic
Instititte
LONDON
COMPANY
MACMILLAN
1900
All
t*tghtt reserved
"
CO.,
in
of
Technology
MACMILLAN
THE
Pbincipal
Depabtment
of
M.D.,
LTD.
COPTBIGHT,
Bt
Set
1897
up
and
macmillan
electrotyped
and
October,
August,
1896,
June,
1898
Reprinted
1895.
July,
00.
J^^Y*
1899;
IhrcM
NotfsooTi
J.
8.
Cuihing
It
Co.
If onrood
%j^ B
Lcland
Berwick
Hmi.
St
It
"
U.8.A.
iTp'
ford,
Jr.
Smifli
^9^'
November,
PREFACE.
The
Hall
Messrs.
work
to
give
fully
study.
Many
however,
of
class
made
such
only
clearly
which
points,
important
seemed
as
and
better
and
ditional
ad
that
the
have
we
out
it to
adapt
for
of
bring
to
this
in
needs
written,
was
hope
Algebra
the
meets
it
changes
The
of
schools
made
were
introduced.
fully
the
requirements
changes
so
for
students
in
secondary
their
meet
subjectmatter
Beginners,
undertaken
advanced
our
Algebra
Elementary
was
to
would
that
important
Knight
and
able
being
of
the
of
rearrangement
more
American
schools.
reference
With
from
Hall
Messrs.
edition
to
order
has
and
Knight's
of
topics,
preface
the
and
problems;
reference
to
factors
of
desire
side
practical
interesting
most
determined
been
first,
simple
arrangement
quote
we
to
former
"Our
into
the
to
of
expressions.
as
be
have
been
By
and
this
V
noQ
the
the
course
(o
as
sible
pos
and
all
that
resolution
usual
in
its
of
equations
their
exemplified
siderations:
con
some
opinion
until
postponed
two
early
and
easy
strong
expressions
compound
Algebra
such
by
as
subject,
the
secondly,
should
introduce
the
applications,
mainly
the
beginner
tions
operaof
case
soon
PREFACE.
VI
becomes
without
learning
attractive
more
As
the
opinion
that
through
all
the
before
and
and
problems.
by
have
which
The
do
not
the
of
American
been
work
some
best
be
that
various
effort
to
textbooks
has
Factors,
of
his
equations
easy
been
tions,
Frac
interest
amply
Elementary
on
to
of
knowledge
of
the
meet
wants
Algebra
ported
sup
Algebra
the
beyond
usually
subject
of
all
who
Quadratic
covered
"
examination
for
admission
to
the
classical
Colleges.
FRANK
June,
of
published."
found
portion
learner
Multiple,
arouse
of
view
the
young
types
medium
this
equations
Common
the
the
recently
will
require
Equations
in
the
the
favors
rules
Lowest
and
Moreover,
all
mechanical
through
intelligence
teachers
take
to
Factor,
making
of
simple
of
of
wise
Evolution,
Involution,
difficulties
subject.
somewhat
Common
Highest
esses
proc
something
introduction
not
their
time
experience
is
it
of
many
same
the
early
the
problems,
and
the
of
parts
regards
too
at
algebraical
ordinary
the
encountering
is
he
and
"
with
acquainted
1895.
L.
SEVENOAK.
course
CONTENTS.
CHAP.
PAGS
I.
II.
Definitions.
Substitdtions
Negative
Quantities.
in.
Simple
rV.
SUBTRACrriON
VI.
Addition
Brackets.
Like
op
Terms
Addition
16
Miscellaneous
V.
Examples
I.
19
Multiplication
21
Division
31
....
YII.
Removal
Insertion
and
Miscellaneous
VIII.
Revision
Brackets
of
Examples
II.
Elementary
of
88
42
Rules
44
.
DL
Simple
Equations
52
....
X.
St^ibolioal
59
Expression
.
XI.
XII.
Problems
Leading
Highest
op
Common
Simple
Simple
XIII.
Simultaneous
XIV.
Problems
XV.
XVI.
to
Involving
Fractions
Expressions.
Expressions
Multiple
Common
Lowest
Factor,
64
Equations
Simple
71
only
Equations
Leading
to
77
Simultaneous
85
Equations
89
Involution
93
Evolution
.
XVII.
Resolution
Miscellaneous
into
Factors.
Examples
Converse
III
Use
op
Factors
101
114
CONTENTS.
VIU
CHAP.
PAGE
XVIIL
Highest
XIX.
Factor
CJommon
Multiplication
Compound
op
Division
and
of
116
Expbessions
122
Fractions
.
XX.
Lowest
Addition
XXI.
CoimoN
Multiple
Subtraction
and
Compound
op
op
126
Expressions
Fractions
129
.
XXII.
139
Fracttions
Miscellaneous
XXIII.
Harder
Equations
XXIY.
Harder
Problems
146
i53
.
Miscellaneous
Examples
"
IY.
158
r
"
XXV.
XX
Quadratic
VL
Problems
Equations
Leadinq
162
to
Quadratic
Equations
173
.
Miscellaneous
Examples
Y;
177
ALGEBRA.
I.
CHAPTER
Substitutions.
Definitions.
Algebra
1.
generality
greater
processes
algebraical
have
The
values
of
say
Moreover,
them
we
only
in
we
any
may
symbols
particular
operate
with
Algebra
with
+,
the
"
mean
x,
that
the
value
assigning
indeed
it
is
to
with
the
meanings
same
7,
that
premising
Algebra,
have
same
when
concerned.
chiefly
of
all
the
in
considering.
are
we
own
Thus,
without
at
our
have
must
symbols
definitions
will
as
example
value
is
may
numerical
the
to
throughout.
that
the
that
begin
value
of
those
is understood
it
not
particular
to
no
which
them.
restriction
same
do
numerical
operations
"We
the
keeps
a=l,*'
but
always,
such
it
is
represent,
may
work
"let
there
definite
single
gymhoU
by
with
arithmetical
in
one
letters, usually
are
though
and,
symbol
piece
employed
used
have
denoted
assign
but
Arithmetic,
quantities
are
to
in
as
which
figures
choose
we
symbols
alphabet
by
the
quantities
value
any
we
quantities
while
for
denoted
are
value,
of
treats
the
as
in
Arithmetic.
2.
it
may
each
algebraical
An
consist
other
by
of
the
is
expression
one
or
termSt
more
signs
and
of
collection
which
7a+56
Thus
from
separated
are
"
symbols;
"
3c
:F+2y
"
is
expression
an
When
Note.
3.
consists
^
no
l^cpressions
of
H.A.
two
sign
or
more
five
precedes
either
are
of
consists
expression
of
consisting
(me
terms.
the
term
simple
term,
as
5a.
is
understood.
compound.
or
Compound
terms.
sign
compound
expressions
simpte
expression
may
be
[chap.
ALGEBRA.
further
3a
"
2a
"
2b, is
called
36 + c,
4. When
one
three
than
more
terms,
as
terms,
as
terms
nomial.
multi
more
the
of Arithmetic
notation
of
three
quantities are
multiplied together the
between
One
product.
important difference
or
is called
result
the
two
two
an
binomial
trinomial
expression of
of
expression ; one
Thus
distinguished.
and
be
should
Algebra
remarked.
here
whereas
2x3,
product
of
in any
be written
the
in Algebra
product of a and b may
usual.
most
ab is the
form
the
forms
The
6, or ab.
a x 6, a
in
if
the
a6
ax6
2x3=6
Thus,
6=3,
a=2,
product
; but
Arithmetic
23 means
twentythree," or 2 x 10+3.
the
Arithmetic
In
of
2 and
is written
"
the
of
5. Each
is called
of the
factors
6. When
quantity,
Thus
convenient
the
6a
remaining
appropriately
is not
merely
factors,
or
Thus
factors.
product as
product
the
in
called
is sometimes
numerical
be.
of
coefficient
the
called
sometimes
it is
of
word
the
But
and
sense,
factor,
any
are
a,
product
the
coefficient.
literal
la, but
write
not
coefficient
the
When
Note.
do
be
coefficient.
wider
expression is a numerical
of the
remaining factors.
an
5 is the
of the
may
which
coefficient
we
in
consider
to
coefficient
6a6c,
used
also
of
coefficient
expression 6a6,
is
coefficient
factors
the
it is called
the
in
the
of
one
form
is
simply
unity
it is
Thus
usually omitted.
a.
of times,
quantity be multiplied by itself any number
of that quantity, and
is expressed
the product is called a power
the
factors
of
the
number
to
of
the
right
quantity
by writing
7. If
and
Thus
it.
above
is called
the
second
power
of a, and
third
power
of a,
axaxa
and
so
The
called
the
a' ;
a';
on.
which
number
index
its
a^
Note,
is
a^ is read
'*
When
the
the
expresses
Thus
exponent.
or
of
power
quantity is
respectively
any
2, 5, 7
are
of
indices
a},but
is written
usually
to
the
index
simply
a.
read
fourth
**a
"
squared";
; and
is
unity
Thus
a,
it is
so
a'
is read
"a
cubed";
on.
omitted, and
we
the
do
same
not
write
meaning.
I.]
8. The
beginner
index.
and
coefficient
Example
By
3a
we
By a^ we
quantities
Thus,
if
the
product
mean
the
third
a,
If 6
2.
Here
462
whereas
26*
If
3.
Here
The
3x4
in
of
each
a;
3xa
3 and
and
3a
a' ?
a.
axaxa
we
4x4x4
4x6x5
2x6x6x6x6
5xa;xa:xa;xa;
should
obserye
are
have
units,
12
units
and
1250.
5xlxlxlxl=5.
that
is
every
the
multiplication
3
2h\
of hx^.
=
written
and
2x5x5x5x5
value
the
45^
100;
1, find
64.
4x6x6
of
sets
3x4=:12;
product
4
case
; that
5, distinguish between
beginner
means
of
power
arithmetical
9. In
factors
quantities
5a:*
Note.
of the
between
meaning
4,
a'
Example
in
distinguish between
to
a.
3a
Example
difiference
is the
mean
a,
careful
be
must
What
1.
SUBSTITUTIONS.
DEFINITIONS.
of
power
order
in
immaterial
4x3
in all.
which
For
3 sets
means
1 is 1.
the
instance
of
units
Thus
3x4=4x3.
In
similar
way,
3x4x5=4x3x5=4x5x3;
and
it
is
product
In
of any
like
to
easy
the
that
see
same
of arithmetical
number
for
principle holds
quantities.
the
the
product
Algebra ah and 6a each denote
of the
two
quantities represented by the letters a and 6, and
therefore
the
have
value.
same
Again, the expressions a6c,
the
value, each
same
ac6, 6ac, 6ca, ca6, cha have
denoting the
in
It is immaterial
product of the three
quantities a, 6, c.
of
written
it
is
what
order
the
factors
usual,
a
product are
;
in
them
order.
to
however,
alphabetical
arrange
in
manner
Fractional
which
coefficients
usually kept
in the
form
of
are
improper
greater
than
unity
fractions.
13
Example
Here
4.
If
6,
a?
7,
5, find the
value
T^"^ ^x6x7x5
=
of
273.
aocz.
are
[CHAP.
ALGEBRA.
EXAMPLES
If
5, 6
4,
1,
a;
3, y
12,
a.
2, find
the
1.
2a.
2.
a*.
3.
3z.
4.
z'.
6.
4c.
7.
46*.
8.
c".
9.
7y2.
11.
If
6, 2?
8a3.
12.
4, g
7,
^.
13.
y
6,
a:
14.
1, find
the
of
value
5.
c*.
a:".
10.
Sx,
5z".
15.
7c".
value
of
16.
ap,
17.
3/"g.
18.
3qx.
19.
6/)'.
20.
Saqx.
21.
l?gr.
22.
8agr.
23.
Iqrx.
24.
2a/)a:.
25.
7a:*.
26.
3p*.
27.
8r*.
28.
9npqx.
29.
6*7.
30.
x'^
^hkx.
35.
If A
5, il; 3',a;
4, y
find
the
of
value
31.
J*^.
32.
Ikx.
33.
Jy^
36.
^a:*.37.
if'
38.
39. Jy".
ji^A*.
10. When
40.
//.
i^fciry.
different
several
notation
similar
to that
is written
a^b*cd\
And
34.
as7xaxaxaxcxc/xG?.
Example
If
1.
16c*d"
Here
The
Note.
of the
factors
3, d
16
3*
If
4, g
5"
(16
been
9,
of IGc^e^.
value
S^) x 3*
observe
has
labour
some
5, find the
should
beginner
2.
Example
that
2000
by
81
suitable
162000.
combination
avoided.
6,
5, find
the
value
of
327r"
81/""
32gr"_32x9x6"_
He
11. If
81x4"
Again,
Note.
of
usually
values
called
if
^=0
ah^xy^^^O when
if c=0,
h may
Eyery
then
0^=0
zero
then
J7=0,
power
is
equal
the
other
of 0 is 0.
to
0, the
factors
product
must
have.
may
factor.
ah^xy^
whatever
; therefore
have.
4*
81x4x4x4x4x4
product
0, .whatever
instance,
For
Therefore
and
to
is
factor
one
equal
factor
_3
^ e
81/?'
be
32x9x6x6x6
contains
be
the
a6V=0,
zero
values
whatever
factor.
of a,
6,y.
values
I.
DEFINITIONS.
EXAMPLES
If
1,
3, "
2, p
2,
36j5.
If ifc=
8aa:.
12.
a^P^,
I, ^
2,
8i?V.
"i
0, 7)
I. b.
1,
a;
7, find the
4.
8.
gV.
9. qz\
13.
6"a8
3, g
0,
3. S/jgz.
7. az*.
6. 36V
II.
10, g
SUBSTITUTIONS.
4,
5, find
of
6agz.
5.
i)icV.
14.
r
value
the
"?".
10.
Sft^^a:*.
15.
SaV.
value
of
value
of
these
each
16.
21.
26.
12.
We
which
contain
dealt
be
can
proceed
now
combining
than
more
with
the
find
to
singly by
the
terms
the
numerical
one
term.
the
In
rules
already given,
of
value
numerical
the
whole
sions
expresterm
and
by
sion
expres
is obtained.
13.
have
We
of
importance*
with
error
between
confusion
index;
to
already, in Art.
8, drawn
carefully distinguishing between
dwell
beginners
the
on
c*
4c
the
between
of
source
once
unnecessary
6x5x6x5
20
2x6"
2x5x5x6
3c2
3x62
3x6x5
of the
more
4c 4 2c*
3c*.
625;
=260;
=
76.
expression
62620+25075
and
of c*
value
2c"
beginner
sum
5*
the
value
the
the
and
coefficient
fruitful
be
not
14. The
find
c^5,
Here
Hence
such
is
it may
to
distinction.
When
Example.
these
that
attention
must
the
also
note
product
For
is the
the
of
distinction
two
or
more
in
meaning
algebraicsd
instance, ab
780.
[CHAP.
ALGEBRA.
Thusif
a==ll, ft=12,
the
11
and
2, 6
0,
which
a
a:
5,
expression
The
Note.
16.
to
style
40 +
two
(2
0 +
do
quantities
careful
not
inexact
sense.
to
Unless
3.
in the
the
be
be
never
work
are
should
4,
remember
should
1,
used
short
very
be placed
clearly brought
out
3, /=
5,
I.
7, h
7c9A
7c.
5.
S/2gh,
c.
8.
2/3sr
4.
3flF4^
7.
3a9"
10.
3/+5^2c46
12.
7c
14.
fg\ghab.
564a
to
except
be
in
that
and
vague
signs of equality
under
one
how
connect
particularly
any
the
the
each
other.
step follows
sometimes
be
importance
of
17. /^3a2f2c3,
8A +
a.
3gr.
c.
0, find
2.
3/+5*76.
of
neatness
to
later.
seen
1,
attached
it ; for this
it will
purpose
short
verbal
explanations ; the
add
to
attention
pay
accuracy.
EXAMPLES
If
should
before
be
will
result.
should
be
one
advisable
affect the
beginner
expressions
should
of
equal. Beginners
employ the sign of equality
steps of the
It
3) +
are
the
is
factor
zero
value
the
student
to
should
5^
cannot
The
arrangement.
sign
Sbxy,
the
importance
which
3, find
not
is in itself conducive
The
2.
is, 132.
term.
12, that
150=190.
terms
zero
much
and
neatness
this
working examples
following hints.
Too
1.
from
(5
In
the
4.
23)
is, 23
contains
zero
5a^ab^\2x^
The
12, that
6 is 11
and
term
any
be called
may
If
Example,
6 is 11 +
and
prodiict of
Art.
By
itself zero,
of
sum
the
15.
the
value
+ 2a.
5a.
H.
6A
13.
dh + aSg
76
of
3.
4j/5c9".
6.
963C
+ 4A.
0.
3c4a
6a
7/+ 9f/.
if+lh.
15,
gbZhc+fb,
16.
fh
iQ
682A3+3a2.
IQ.
36226"+4Aa2^*
hbUc.
76.
11.
CHAPTEK
Negative
17.
his
In
to
"
sign
is
prefixed
"
which
is
same
7a
+36
prevail
2c?
4c
represent
additive
18.
Arithmetic
In
than
greater
the
were
In
Algebra,
stand
alone,
loses
The
gain
only
additive,
the
result
corresponding
were
$30.
of
his
to
But
trading
algebraical
$100
$70
$70
$100=
addition
gain
if
divided
according
by
clearer
he
is
statements
=+$30,
$30,
two
or
and
first
a
and
and
one
100
to
always
the
reverse
meaning.
subtractive
the
term
may
intelligible.
be
sign
of
process
made
man
be
would
the
or
of
quite
may
if
subtractive
quantities,
f
sum
but
quantities
sign
be
may
may
meaning
actual
any
the
36
is
terms
arithmetical
no
sion
expres
and
subtractive.
terms
have
the
negative
the
of
Suppose
$100
would
have
yet
subtractive
to
terms.
7a
are
additive
the
not
of
2d
sign
If,
the
using
symbols
and
4c
of
the
result
algebraical
idea
(i^
total
and
with
irrespective
This
the
and
expressed
while
the
additive
the
as
which
to
quantity,
in
the
signs
such
which
to
first
thus
by
quantities
among
Algebra
sum
of
that
all
quantities
the
however,
exceed
Hence
we
sum
the
understand
quantities,
the
case
terms
in
an
those
while
counted
is
prefixed,
notions
and
additive,
are
tomed
accus
the
expression
the
that
siibtractive,
are
sign
no
The
prefixed
connected
of
value
understands
he
is
the
finding
been
has
student
quantities
numerical
in
7"3j+64^
the
with
and
Terms.
Like
of
the
work
arithmetical
deal
and
l
Addition
Quantities.
loss
then
gains
into
as
this
they
is
are
quite
subtraction.
trations.
illus
simple
lose
$70
of
would
positive
be
$70,
and
his
then
[CHAP.
ALGEBRA.
and
the
negative quantity
second
is
case
interpreted as a
to the positive
of money
opposite in character
first case
the
be said to
it may
; in fact
suotractive
would
quality which
produce its effect
possess
other
on
in the
in
transactions, or
sum
gained.
to walk
(ii) Suppose a man
starting from a given point were
road
forwards
and
then
100
70 yards
along a straight
yards
the
from
would
be
30
backwards, his distance
startingpoint
then
and
100
70 yards forwards
yards. But if he first walks
his
backwards
distance
the
be
from
would
yards
startingpoint
the opposite side of it
have
As
before we
30 yards, but on
70
In
each
of
70yards=+30yards,
yards
100
yards
these
"
yards
100
the
cases
"
30
yards.
absolute
man's
from
distance
but
the
the
and
same
by taking
starting point
positive
;
is a distance
from
30
negative signs into account, we see that
the
but
in
direction
magnitude
starting point eqtuxl
opposite in
Thus
distance
the
to the
+30.
represented by
negative sign
here
be
taken
reversal
direction.
as
a
indicating
of
may
is
the
"
(iii)
The
freezing point
marked
zero,
freezing
point, while
is indicated
19.
be
and
by
15"
other
Many
sufficient
here
the
Centigrade
illustrations
to
might
remind
differ
3a^b\
When
Dbfinition.
only
otherwise

their
in
they
4a^b^
the
pairs of unlike
called
pairs
of
be
chosen
student
to
an
additive
like
terms
; and
7a
4a, 36
quantity
is the
not
3a,
it will
subtractive
subtraction
Thus
imlike.
but
that
differ,or
coeflicients,they are
do
terms
numerical
are
are
is
C.
thermometer
of 16** C. means
15** above
the
temperature
below
15"
the freezing point
a
temperature
of
when
called
reverse
they
like,
5a6, 2a^b
7a^, 9a^b are
terms.
Addition
Rule
I.
The
Rule
II.
If
sum
of
of
number
are
Like
of
Terms.
like terms
positive,add
is
the
like term.
coefficients.
10
[CHAP.
ALGEBRA.
EXAMPLES
Find
the
2a,
3a,
3.
66,
116,
5.
2p,
p,
7.
2x,
9.
11.
of
sum
1.
6a,
4/),
96,
7/),
6ar,
21y,
4a.
a,
86,
4y,
y,
n.
56.
6p,
12p.
10a:,
2y,
8a;.
6y,
5y,
4y.
3y,
18y.
2.
^"
4.
6c,
7c,
6.
"^,
9c^i
8.
36,
10.
17c,
12.
4m,
13.
4",
3",
15.
3a:,
lOar,
",
28,
2",
7a;,
17,
2xy,Axy,2xy,xyylxy.
19,
a6c,
3a6c,
".
12a:,
2a6e,
2a:.
5a6c.
the
value
16c,
3rf,
7d,
136,
4rf,
9y,
16.
8a6,
6a6,
18.
5pg,
Spq,
^^t
56.
6c.
17m,
69m.
5y,
5a6,
^xyz,
4pq.
7xyz,
of
22.
36"26"+76"96".
23.
Ila"+3a'8a"7a8+2a".
24.
2x^Sx^ex^9x^.
25.
a^b^'1a^^
26.
a"a:
27.
2p^q^Zlp^q^+l7p^q^,
28.
7m*n
8aV"^
9a^h\
Ila2a;+3a2a:2a23!.
15m*n

9a6cdllo6cd41a6c(;?.
30.
13pga?

5a;pg

7y.
4a6.
Spq,
9aa+lla2+3a"4a".
lOd.
6d,
9c,
7y,
101c.
196,
13m,
21.
29.
18c,
34c,
lly,
20.
Sx.
3c,
14.
Find
6a;,
^"
^i
3m*".
19gpar.
xyz,
II.
CHAPTER
When
together
same
in
the
by
in
signs
the
case
Thus
b +
"
second
the
the
write
Thus
the
it
illustrate
gain
them
the
+(13
be
It
8.
8 +
to
a+(b+c)
now
therefore
5)
"
if
in
that
resents
rep
dollars:
b
the
it
loss,
the
add
take
13
is
clear
full
The
here
;
vir.
we
that
8 +
13+5
that
and
13
the
shall
use
deal
and
their
be
may
added
result.
26.
the
added
be
to
are
altering
(13+5)
(6
"
to
the
from
8 +
is
the
or
enclosed
terms
quantity.
one
Chap.
and
13
without
that
means
we
Similarly
to
8
6 +
of
sum
and
is
to
c.
to
are
we
add
added
have
we
the
5
too
of
excess
much,
and
13
over
must
result.
(135)
c) means
that
8+135
to
c.
Thus
in
a.
Thus
by
as
a+(6+c)=a
(13
18, that
of
precedes
indicate
to
means
Thus
8 +
written
cases.
that
Thus
added
be
Art.
loss
a,
gain
considered
together
Similarly
"b
the
considered
means
or
and
used
are
be
to
to
separately
we
please.
we
may
in
as
suppose,
may
simpler
+5)
added
sum
( )
will
with
only
"
Similar
gain.
are
brackets
of
in
Hence
order
any
result
result.
expressions.
in
the
of
a.
whether
Brackets
24.
within
the
holds
first
the
to
the
from
expression
dollars,
the
precedes
we
of
immaterial
clearly
loss
this
is
also
the
in
added
expression
the
b
form
result
This
for
and
a,
algebraical
an
that
appears
equivalent
To
of
terms
a+cby
6 taken
and
a,
all
to
are
to
from
to
applies
reasoning
may
is added
the
taken.
quantities.
b is taken
expressions
two
connected
are
terms
equivalent
cis
of
value
the
algebraical
of
quantities
the
and
order
whatever
arithmetical
of
number
Addition.
Brackets.
Simple
23.
ni
a+(6c)=a+6c.
we
are
16.
to
add
6, diminished
be
12
[CHAP.
ALGEBRA.
In
like manner,
By considering these
Rule.
sign
When
we
led
are
expression within
an
the brackets
results
be removed
can
following rule
the
to
brackets
preceded by the
making any change in
mthout
is
the expression.
25,
The
take
the
b and
expression a{b+c)
of
sum
b and
c.
subtracted
are
Again,
of b
excess
doing
add
ijb c)
"
over
we
aK
cto
taken
away
same
Thus
subtract
to
we
are
we
get
the
6 ; but by so
therefore
"
and
much,
too
to
are
whether
c.
"
take
we
we
the
sum.
one
"
from
that
If from
c.
have
in
from
be
will
or
(6 + c)=a
"
means
"
shall
result
separately
a
that
means
The
must
Thus
a(6c)=a6Hc.
In
like manner,
a
the
Accordingly
Bule.
sign
"
When
be
de)=a"b
"
When
have
as
be
of
and
sign
We
+(
negative
Now

efiect
as
have
in
b, all that
and
now
can
be
leave
the
28.
the
to consider
algebraical sum
be
wider
Arithmetic,
sense
ab
of
form
of
meaning
the
a
by
them
connect
in the
unlike
two
a\b,
expression
an
of
taking
positive quantity
result
it to
is the
a
a.
in
same
b ; thus
subtract
It will
within
term
together we
result
expressed
unlike
are
they
sum
is to
done
result
find
have
to
we
6). Here
with
"b
together
quantity
implies a decrease, and to add
is,the
the
added
terms
the
finding
"
in
the
If, however,
thus
a\'{ b)
that
preceded by
every
the
and
"
to
of
be
to
are
like
is
Terms.
collected
be
may
term.
of addition
Unlike
like terms
more
collected;
quantities
27
or
they
like
sinale
cannot
the
two
that
seen
enunciated
be
may
changed.
Addition
"26i
rule
c{d{e.
"
brackets
within
expression
be removed
if the sign
may
an
the brackets
{c
following
the brackets
"
"
observed
than
of
that
ab
and
in
in Arithmetic.
signifiesthat
6 is
"
Algebra
expressed by
the
Thus, in
is to
be
word
the
sum
6.
is used
language
subtracted
from
of
a.
m.]
and
to
bears
that
the
mean
the
Example
1.
The
meaning
(3a
3a56
3a
sum
the
2c
by collecting like
following
rule
Bule.
may
in
beginning
3a56
+
36
4a
2b
the
the
same
that
the
on
5a6
66c
Add
is a, that
column
is zero.
6c
2a6
76c
down
5a6
the
1.
3a
2.
the
+4ad
terms
in the
terms
in
single
terms
The
columns
the
are
change.
7ac
first
we
that
vertical
same
add
8a6
3ac
columns,
each
column
m.
a.
up
rearrange
like
terms
2ad
of
sum
2y
6z;
a;3y32;
3.
4p
3q
5r;
4.
7a56
3c;
5.
8/2m
5n;
6.
6a76
3c4d;
7.
2a
8.
7a:5y7z;
465ar;
2p
lla
6/
67c;
4a36
26c;
+
+
7m
666c
2b6x;
4a:+y;
+ 6c.
2x\y3z.
3qSr;
pq
16a
Sa
6z;
r,
+ 562c.
~l4mSn.
4?i;
+
3d;
+
b + 2cd.
2y;
Cb
5xSy+2z.
the
are
and
separately.
7 ad
3a: +
66c
5ac?
4a
of the
fourth
so
265c;
terms
column
of the
without
Here
EXAMPLES
Find
each
+ 4ad.
3ac2arf
+4ac
3a6
the
7ac
"
2a6
and
third
the
together
6c3a6
like
the
add
algebraical sum
brought
+ 5arf
8a6
by
left.
The
2.
effected
that
first column
\2cd
4ac
2cd
in lines so
expressions
vertical
then
columns:
in
26.
26
conveniently
second
2a6
4a
4a+26)
+
+
more
2c
Example
d,
d
rf)+ (
.36rf4a
is however
with
2a
2c + 2a
36
+ 36
any
c^,
Arrange
be
(2a
56 + 2c, 2a
taken
b without
"
terms.
addition
The
of 3a
sum
2a4a56+36+26
it is also
in
two
56+2c)
only
the
relative
Find
; but
Algebra
quantities a and
magnitudes of a and b.
of
sum
to
regard
13
ADDITION.
8x
y.
pressions
ex
in
then
14
[CHAP.
ALGEBRA.
9.
a~26
7c + 3;
263c+5;
10.
6X1/;
11.
25a156
12.
2a362c
13.
3a5c
14.
pq
15.
17a613A:?5a:y;
16.
2aa;
17.
3aa: +
18.
3 + 5crf;
19.
6car +
3/y2
20.
3o6
29.
thus
1 + 2x1
+
7r;
36y
6q
baV3ab^
be
This
30.
8um
4
the
be
must
of
ab2ry.
unlike
are
and
2^
2ca;/y.
letter
together
out
9ax,
2cdSqr
same
its
be
;
pressed
ex
2^7^ + 3^.
form
and
3a6^,
5a^b\
in
terms
Zar^ cannot
left in the
is
cz^by.
2""/(7
Sqrcd;
lbt/ ;
3"4
sum
of 62:^
"6*
is
and
form
simplest
5x, 2a:*,5x,
6a:"5a:
6a:3_2aJ"+2ar"3ar"5a:+6a;+2
4ar"a:2
is in
2ar^ + 6a:2a:"3a:*
convenient
of
powers
together
several
different
powers
all
with
to
of
2a:^,
3a:*,2.
2.
descending
adding
terms
found
the
Find
result
In
ZxyAUah.
69";
36.
abridged.
Example.
The
2ry
3" 2a
axicz
Sby
algebraical sum
This
expression
b\
"
lcz;
2/y
of
powers
of adding
the
Similarly
3/+
Qq7p.
l5cd;
single term,
5c +
12kl5ab;
2hyax
7cd5^r;
hy
9c6a:2a.
2da;
7xy;
2";
+ 206.
ac
Iby^axcz;
a;2y.
qZpr;
2/gSst;
result
4
^b7c;
rp;
2cz ;
Different
cannot
a87c.
2a;
13a;
b +
cz46y;
the
5x
262d;
106
2a?;
Sy2z;
4c
c;
3c
x.
algebraical expressions
of the
letter, it
same
This
ascending powers
following example.
be
will
be
will
descending
in
expressions
arrange
letter.
that
taining
con
made
or
clear
by
9a:;
the
Example
4a:2ar"
1.
3ar^;
Add
3ar"
3a:" +
together

9a:
ar" ;
a:
In
ar'
writing
in
of
power
term
The
other
we
6a:*
down
the
same
have
2a:*
X,
in
second
and
does
expressions
so
like powers
expression
highest
the
term
the
power,
in which
way,
first
the
first
highest
last
the
6a:
a:^ + 4.
put
we
next
7 +
that
are
in
of ike
term
on
so
not
the
till the
appear.
arranged
each
same
in
column
letter^
m.]
15
ADDITION.
Example
2""
Add
2.
together
3a6"
Here
each
6a263a5
a"2+
a"
of
powers
+8aS
56'
36" + 3a62
14a26
4a3
EXAMPLES
Find
the
of the
sum
1.
x^ +
2.
2a;22a:
Sx^
3.
53?x^
4.
a^a^h+^ah^+h^;
5.
3a:"9iK2lla;+7;
6.
ixr^5a^
7.
49"3+2m25m
8.
aa:'46a~*
9.
py^9qy
2x^
3;
loi^
6^8+202/2+3^1;
11.
2a
12.
l+2y3y25y8;
13.
aV3a3ar5+a:;
14.
x^4x*y5a^;
15.
a"4a26
16.
ap^ebp^
17.
c72c"
18.
4A87
19.
3a:" +
36a;2
ca;;
10.
c? ;
lcp;
5y"
4aSa:2
2c73c"
llc";
3A42A;
+
lOaftc + c^
56cp
6" +
3a26
4c"10c5;
2^*
7a:3
5y2 +
2ni6.
2y"y.
7a:
4.
5a:.
Zj?y^ + Qxy*y^.
5c5+
a2a:S
32a/?5;
7/i3A3
2;
3y2
56p";
+
4a:.
3a+7a"5a2.
Soc*yi23i^Gxy*

Zpy^,
3y"4
l+2y3y;
a^ft
8a:9.
2ax^+d.
*Jqy4r;
7a8a;2;
To*
3m;
bx^ + 2d;
2a83a2+2a2;
5a: +
2y25a;
2ca:
7a; ;
2a:*
5m^
2y+67y2;
6a6c;
+
6m22;
5ai"^l^,
15a;2
Sar'Oa:;
6x;
+
2a^b
5a:" +
2py^+SqyQr;
8a2a";
3m3
7;
lr;
43i^ +
5x4.
h^;
2o(^5x^+2;
+
+
5ar"
5;
a^lOab^
Sx;
"22ar6.
4:;
2x22a:
xl;
5x
2ar"3ajy+j^.
xy+2y^;
ascending
a.
b.
following expressions
ZxySy^;
+
m.
2A*
a6c.
2cp7.
4c7c".
2^3_5,
9x^+11
5 ;
~Sx
4y^
exy^lSx^7,
20.
x^
2xy
Sy^;
Sz^
xy+xz+yz^^4y^2a?.
2yz
y^
is
ing
descend
to
h, and
of
powers
of
powers
and
letters,
two
according
arranged
contains
expression
x^ + Zz^
2xz;
z^ZxyZyz;
CHAPTER
IV.
Subtraction.
31,
The
under
simplest
the
negative.
of
cases
of
[Art.
20.]
Thus
Subtraction
of
addition
head
like
is
subtraction
Since
which
come
some
are
2a,
7a=
"4a,
6a=
"9a.
"
3a
"
already
of
terms,
6a3a=
3a
have
"
the
of
reverse
addition,
+66=0;
.*.
the
6
subtract
Now
right
thus
we
from
lefthand
the
[Art.
follows
also
side
and
"6
erase
on
get
a(6)
This
6.
6"
a=a
from
directly
a+6.
the
rule
for
brackets.
removing
25.]
3a(5a)=3a+5a
Thus
=8a,
and
3a
"
"
5a)=
"
2a.
Subtraction
32.
We
may
proceed
Subtract
Example.
of
3a
Unlike
the
26
"
The
in
as
Terms.
following
from
"
3a+5a
"
4a
36
"
6c.
difference
The
expression
=4a36
5c(3a26c)
first
enclosed
=4a36
6c3a+26+c
sign
prefixed,
=4a3a36+26+6c+c
=a"
example.
6f
6c.
brackets
by
Art.
the
20.
the
rules
to
in
brackets
then
like
on
terms
already
be
subtracted
with
removal
are
is
minus
of
the
combined
exclaimed
in
18
[CHAP.
ALGEBRA.
Subtract
9,
3a:6y7"
from
2x+Sy4z.
10.
4a;2y+llz
11.
2a:5y
12.
SxySz
from
13.
w2"p
from
14.
2p
from
2g
15.
db2cdac
16.
3a6
from
3^
from
a:y+yzza:
18.
2/?g3^r+4r"
20.
2n.
4r.
ah3cd+2ac,
from
from
ix^'2xy^
3a6
6cd
4ac
66(t
2a:y+za;.
from
llnp
mn
2y,
from
17.
19.
x+Sy2z,
6cd3ac56d
2y13a.
a:
gr4r".
from
Spm
Inp,
Sxyz
from
take
ofi+Sos^x.
2a:V
3icy*
a^
From
21.
a^'Saj^+a:
22.
2x3a:*
23.
a"+2"83a6c
24.
take
62ca take
25.
3/)' 2p*g
26.
7 + ara?
take
27.
4
28.
8a2a;2
29.
p^+r^Spqr
30.
l3a^"
31.
2 + 3a;7a^"
32.
a:"+lla;2
33.
a" + 5
34.
a:* + 3aJ"a;28
35.
l2a:
36.
x^yz+yhx
37.
4a"ar"
38.
la:
39.
Smn'
40.
33.
on
the
^j^g 3pga
_
gS,
ar^.
32a:2y+lla:yz.
9a2a;28ar"5.
take
r*
s*+3pgr.
3a^'3a;2.
take
take
8a~"5x3.
8a"
take
2a:* + 3x*a:+2.
3yhx
lSm^n+n^

3x+l.
2xyz^
3aV
take
a:*a:*a:'
7.
7a:^4a;2
a*
2p3
Sa^
take
take
1"^ take
56V.
aJ"3ar^+l.
3aa:*
36c
+ a~* +
take
3ar" take
a:
take
2a2
take
+ 5ar" + 15
take
The
Vpg^
a;2y.jgy2
682a6c.
take
8 + 66c +
a^x^x,
x^.
7a2a:8
a*.
a:*l+a:a:".
take
take
m^
w^ + 8 wn*
7m%i.
3;?g2 2g".

foUowiug exercise
foregoing rules.
cod
tains
miscellaneous
examples
IV.]
19
SUBTRACTION.
EXAMPLES
MISCELLANEOUS
1, When
3x1/, z^.
2,
the
Add
3,
find
5ca
4,
5,
Subtract
6.
When
Sc^ + 8c
a?
3,
262
of
of
sum
5ai^,
From
from
2y2i5
the
of
sum
a)(a56).
c^
4,
362).
1.
0, find
the
value
2a~"3ay+4a:2".
(1)
the
a626c+5ca.
ca,
and
(26
2 from
2,
ab
xy+Sz
3a26(26
(2)
value
4z.
36
Simplify (1)
the
of 3z*H3aH'.
6cca,
of
4, find
ab.
sum
Sx
2a?~5y3zand
"
value
3a"
"c
the
Subtract
3,
the
together
take
sum
2j y
Also
of
^.
(2)
3y
Add
7.
resultby
8.
3a27a
together
3a2
2a'
and
6a
and
3,
diminish
the
+ 2,
26^2
Subtract
from
26
6, and
increase
the
result
by
367.
Find
9.
subtract
the
the
What
10.
of
sum
result
from
3a;24z+8,
and
2a;3ar*,
2a:"2,
and
62:^ + 3.
expression
be
must
added
to
5a^
3a
12
produce
to
9a87?
11,
Find
the
the
result
From
what
arrange
12,
7
be
2a
and
Find
14,
when
15,
from
in
a:
a;
ascending
of
powers
the
must
Sa^ +
3a:", 5x\
4,
8;
x.
of
sum
5a^2,
3a
a2,
and
5 ?
5x,
value
of the
of
sum
a:
ar^^
a:*.
the value
0, 6
Subtract
a:*+ 3:"+
re*, Sx^, 2,
2x,
expression
to produce
subtracted
When
13,
2a;2l,
of
sum
a:
1,
the
+1.
of 6ax
2,
sum
a;
(26y
8, y
of a:3
3,
^2^
ca)
z
2x^
(2aaj
36y
4cz)
(cz+ aa?),
4.
7a?, 8a:
2,
air^,2a:"
20
[chap.
ALGEBRA.
2p
be
What
expression must
Sp*, in order
8, 2p2, 2p3
16.
+
from
result
the
is
What
17.
the
4/)*
produce
to
from
taken
of
sum
p^Zp\
3 ?
'S2^+2qi^IIx+6
when
IV.
is subtracted
zero.
By
19.
Find
cube
the
the
Take
of
p^
4pq p^
q^
3g^
from
of
2p^
36' +26^
three
the
times
add
from
the
and
zero,
of x,
square
twice
l,
4g', and
6^*.
8
andx^xos^
Spq
and
exceed
sum
x2ai^,
Subtract
21.
h +
does
algebraic
a;, 2^
of
20.
sum
much
how
18.
remainder
add
the
to
result
the
to
6* 268+36.
2m32w2
Find
23.
y*4a:y*
result
3, fall short
of
the
Sx
must
in
answer
4^+7a:^
ascending
from
7a:'3a;6
3m?
3ar^y2+ 2a:V
and
6a:.y*,
the
arrange
be
added
of
powers
and
unity,
"i^3m,
2ml,
Ilm38m3
of
sum
Give
so
as
to
x,
x6a^
from
zero,
and
6,
and
results.
When
26.
57?i +
expression
Subtract
the
add
what
?
zero
25.
m*
of
sum
7xh/xy*,
Sx^ix^y\
+ 3x*yy
ar^y^ x'^y'^+ a^y^ + xy*xh^
of x.
descending powers
the
To
24.
4m2
the
in
make
6, 3w3
does
much
how
By
22.
6=3,
a=4,
d=0,
c=2,
3a^2bcad
(1)
find
the
3h^cd.
value
of
(2)
"
9a
27.
Find
the
arrange
the
result
Add
28.
2qi^ +
29.
value
If
of
30.
vftlueof
of
sum
in
4 +
together
x^7
the
from
a=5xSy
a,
Sa\
descending
z,
4a,
powers
of
Sx^\a^, x^x^ll,
4a',
7, 18a,
5a,
a.
7? 23?
!, and
tract
sub
result.
6=2a;+y3z,
6z, find
the
z=5a26a5,
find
the
c=rc5y
a+6c.
If
a
a;=2a25a+3,
(y+z).
y=
Sa^+a+S,
V.
CHAPTER
Multiplication,
34.
in
Multiplication
its
primary
signifies repeated
sense
addition.
Thus
3x5
taken
=3+3+3
the
Here
take
we
is the
and
3x5=5x3;
numbers
it is easy
long
so
shew
to
3 +
3.
and
of
number
the
number
units
the
a\a+a^...,
in
of
times
5.
h times
taken
=a
times
units,
the
as
same
axh"a
Again
Also
contains
multiplier
3
?ja
number
and
of
being
terms
h denote
6.
whole
positive
that
a6c=ax6xc=(ax6)xc=6xaxc=6ac
6x(axc)=6xcxa=6ca.
Hence
show
can
Similarly we
integral
quantities
factors
Example,
When
stand
follows
of
into
so
be
to
in
6a".
multiplied
definition
this
not
together are
multiplication has to
by f, we
perform
on
unity gives f ; that
of
3
on
and
take
the
sense,
include
to
as
2x3xax"
multiply
performed
equal parts
multiplication
that
is, the
of
in
the
the
in
as
of
them.
ah
statement
in
case
every
article
previous
factors
positive
Since, by
.*.
the
which
ha
and
is
the
that
in
same
the
product
whatever
order
of
the
written.
are
36.
positive
order
positive quantities.
number
factors
three
whatever
in
to
when
which
extended
for
It
example
divide
taking
be
can
of
product
same
the
numbers,
For
must
By
the
quantities
operation
is, we
is
2xax3x"
the
modified.
that
a,
2ax3"
positive whole
be
6,
the
written.
are
35.
that
a^
definition, d^"aaa^
a^
index
aaa
of
factors
of
in
the
aaaaa
/.
5a2
7a^
7a^
7
aaaaa
a*
is the
product
product.
and
aJ'"aaaaa
aaaaaaaa
the
5a^=6aa,
Again,
and
7aaa
sum
;
=
35a^
;
=
a'
of
""" ^
the
indices
22
When
the
expressions
of different
powers
6a'6*
Example.
of
6aaabh
40a"63aJ".
those
further
of
Saahxxx
the
Thus
another.
contain
together
is used.
method
be
careful
beginner must
indices
the
of one
multiplication
with
way
8a'6ar^
multiplied
similar
letters, a
x
be
to
The
Note.
no
[CHAP.
ALGEBRA.
observe
to
letter
that
this
in
combine
cannot
in
40a*6'ic*
expression
admits
cess
proany
of
simpUfication.
37.
Rule.
The
rule
To
simple expressions
multiply two
together^
multiply the coefficientstogether and
prefix their product to the
product of the differentletters,giving to each letter an index equal
to the sum
of the indices that letter has in the separate factors.
expressions
Example
The
to
are
extended
be
Find
1.
product
The
be
may
of
product
where
cases
than
more
two
multiplied together.
of
product
the
a;^ x ar*
to
a:^
three
x^, x^,
2;2+3 y^^
or
v?.
and
a;2+3+8
3.13,
is called
expressions
more
the
tinued
con
and
3a"*.
product.
Example
The
product
38.
continued
the
Find
2.
hx^^
8y
^xs^
hxh^^ 8y%^
of
product
V2!^yH^,
m"m\m\m\By definition,("x\h)
taken
=(7w.+m+m+...
together with
(wi+
6 times
...
+
.
taken
times),
taken
times)
=am+6m.
(a
Also
"
6)m=w
(m+m+w+...
by
{rn\m\m\,,.
(a
6+c)wi=am
"
of
the
Examples.
compound
3(2a
expression by
36
4c)
6a
96
taken
times),
taken
times)
compound
expression bv
partial products of each
factor.
that
the product of a
it appears
the
is
algebraic sum
of the
single factor
term
6 times
6m+cw.
"
Thus
"
6771.
am"
Similarly
...
diminished
taken
m+m+
that
12c.
v.]
23
MULTIPLICATION.
V.
EXAMPLES
the
Find
1,
6a:
value
of
2. 3x26.
7.
5. 6c3x7c*.
6. ^jf
9, 3a;x4y.
13,
a.
17, a?xY.ah?.
4. 6xx6a^.
7. Sm'xSm'.
8. 4a"x6a*
11. 4c2x5rf6.
12. 3jo*x55^.
14. 3grx4gr.
15. ahxab.
16. 3acx5ad.
18. 3icV'xV.
19. a36"xa86*.
20.
10.
6aa:x5aa:.
%*"
3. x^xtx^.
5a
662.
21. a2xa86x5a6*.
22. pr^x6jjhx*lpr^,
23.
6a:3yxa?yx9ary.
24.
25.
26. 3a6c(2
a*
3a663.
7a2x363x5c*.
56ca2
4ca6(2.
Multiply
28. oi^yoAi+^y^
by a^c.
27. a6ac
29. 5a2362
31. a2268
a26
30.
by 3a62c*.
32.
by Zx^,
5a6
2aar"63y
33. Tp^qpq^+l
by 2jp2.
34. m^
35. ary*3a;2z2
by 3yz.
36. a^Sa^a;
Since
39.
by putting
(a
c
"
c? in the
{a
"
6)771
=
place
am
d)
"
=(ac
=ac
If
and
we
the
each
consider
way
term
in which
it
on
the
(~6)x(c0
of Signs
Bale
results
in
of
enable
us
to
bd)
"
side
of this
result,
that
+ac.
+^.
c) =6c.
ad.
(+a)x(cO=
These
d)
bc+bd.
find
(+a)x(Hc)
(6)x(
[Art. 38.]
righthand
arises, we
by 4mhi.
by 2a26a:.
{be
"
ad
"
by ah:y.
(c'd)b
"
ad)
"
5mn3n^
h(c
"
d)a
=^{c
have
we
b){c d)=a{c
by 3a"6.
6m,
"
of m,
6a
by ar'yz^
state
what
is known
as
the
Bole
multiplication.
Signs.
The
positive; theprodiLCtof
product
two
teniis
of
with
two
terms
unlike
with
like
signs is
signs is negative.
24
[chap.
ALGEBRA.
40.
The
rule
of
signs,and
multiplier,will
To
multiply
obtain
to
the
be
taken
But
"4
times
and
the
3x
"
gives
that
first
is
"3
be
to
taken
By
the
Multiply
1.
of
rule
Example
the
Here
absolute
4ax(36)=
is
product
2a^h^')
=
6a'63)X (
that
the
a"x)
This
duct
pro
aiid
Multiply
5a26
and
3a^6,
of
35
12a(
rule
the
by
2a'6',
however,
result,
down
at
once
2a^b^
the
rule
by
product
6a'
5a^b
5a^"x^.
3ab
complete
4.
4a
6a^bV,
is
product
written
The
thus
; also
is 6a"6^.
Example
change
a6*.
be
may
for
6aW,
are
df^x.
product
continued
we
then
12a6.
"
by
the
6ab^x)
6a"63
ab*)
of
positive
the
Find
3.
bah^x
value
..
Example
product is negative
the
signs
Multiply
2.
the
signs
Thus
the
"36.
by
4a
/.
and
(3)x(4)=+12.
Example
times,
is
negative.
Hence,
Sa^h
and
4) implies that
"
+12.
Thus
of
unity
to
4 times
3x(4)=12.
the
sign changed;
second
12
is taken
made
product
indicates
"
is done
what
unity
therefore
the
..
Similarly
to
that
means
and
times
do
must
we
negative
taken
"
Now
made
result
to
by
4.
4a62) x (
^b^
of the
sum
in Art.
3ab^)
by
37
is
ab*
of
6a"6^
signs
positive.
the
quired
re
3a6=.
ISa*^^
I5a^0^
Uab*.
26
[chap.
ALGEBRA.
I"a=3,
l, k
0,
a?
5,
find
y=l,
the
value
23.
4a
of
22.
4c3a:
ac3cyyife.
25.
2ay^+4Ar*.
26.
a*2c2
27.
a3ay
28.
aa:ya:cy.
29.
c^y^c^
30.
a"a;2_2y.
31,
cV2aca+c/r".
32.
acyy*+2a2.
21.
Sa2i/
24.
+ 4k.
3y3.
of
Multiplication
42.
^0
From
Compound
Art.
replacing
2y.
5ya:.
3y2.
yS,
Expressions*
b and
c+d.
{aib)m=am\bm;
38,
by c+c?,
have
we
(a + b)(c\'d) a(c\'d)\b{c\'d)
=
=(c
d)a\(c\c[)b
^ac+ad\bchbd.
Similarly it
be
may
{a
shown
b){c{d)=aciad
"
{a+bXc
(a
43.
When
together
used.
one
contain
For
"
d)=
b)(c d)
"
both
or
more
"
of
than
ac
"
ac
"
ad
bc
"
be
"
bd;
bd
ad"bc+bd.
the
two
"
expressions
terms
by
a?"
y,
"
we
}c)m=aw
6m
"
=a"x
preceding results
multiplying together any
Rule.
be
may
cm
have
={ax
for
multiplied
method
{abiccy,xy)^a{xy)b{xy)
44.
be
to
similar
instance
(a
replacing
that
The
of the second,
prefix to the
algebraical sum
"
ay
enable
two
us
{bx
by)\(cx cy)
"
"
bxhby+cxcy.
to
the
general
expressions.
state
compound
rule
Multiply
each
ay)
"
c{xy)
term
"
product,
45.
is
It should
be
noticed
that
the
product
of
which
as
as
6 and
the
whole
whole.
xy
brackets
is
to
By
be
the
v.]
above
27
MULTIPLICATION.
value
rule, the
of
the
product
the
partial products +cu:, +bx, ay,
by the rule
product beiug determined
Example
The
The
1.
Multiply
a:
product
operation
is
more
by
a?
Example
2.
ar* +
(a:+ S){x
x^+Sx
x^+l5x\tQ.
result
7a:+56
that
like
dy by
2a;
3y
4a;
7y
terms
vertical
15a: + 56.
4a;
as
follows
the
to
2a;
each
'Jx + 66
conveniently arranged
Sx
Multiply
of
7)
same
by addition,
of
algebraical sum
"bt/; the sign of
signs.
7.
We
s^+
is the
7y.
may
column.
stand
in
the
28
[chap.
ALGEBRA.
46.
We
shall
Example
3aj2
2x
2a?
6ar"
give
now
Find
1.
the
few
of
product
Each
5
of greater
examples
3a;^2a:5
of
term
and
difficulty.
2a: 5.
first
the
expression is
first term
of
the
multiplied by 2a;, the
second
then
each
term
the
of
expression ;
first expression is multiplied by
5 ; like
terms
columns
and
placed in the same
are
4a;210a?
15a:2
6a:3
10a; + 25
I9a;2
Example
2.
the
25.
Multiply
6 + 3c
by
26
a^
a6 +
3ac
26'+
2a6
a6 +
a2+
47.
If
the
ascending
or
will
be
expressions
descending,
found
2a2
3a6
+462
5a^+
3a6
+46^
are
of
66c
3ac262+66c.
not
some
arranged according
common
letter,a
product
of 2a^ + 46'
3a6
and
ment
rearrange
3a6
Sa' + 46^.
is not
rearrangement
but
convenient,
necessary,
because
6a86
powers,
The
10a4+15a3620a262
+^
to
convenient.
the
Find
Example,
26.
6 + 3c
added.
results
9a262 + 12a63
of
8a26212a63+166*
.10a4+21a3621a263
it mak"s
like
the
terms
more
easy.
166*.
EXAMPLES
V.
e.
Multiply together
1,
ar*3a:2,
3.
2y23y+l,
5.
2a23a6,
7.
Sar^ar
9.
ar^+a;2,
11,
2a23a6,
13,
6c,
2a+3.
2.
4a2a2,
3yl.
4.
3a:2 + 4a?
a2.
6.
56226
T, 2a;7.
8.
5c24c
3,
10.
ar'2a;
5, ar*2a:
12.
2F3ibl,
14,
2a:l.
a;2a: + 2.
a^a
a6
+
c.
2,
26
+
+
5,
3,
3c,
4a; 6.
263.
2c
l.
+
5.
3ifc2_jtl.
a26+3c
tion
collec
v.]
29
MULTIPLICATION.
ix^xy+y^,
x^+xy+f^.
16,
a^ Tax
17^
o2633c3,
a36^3c2.
18.
t^^x^x,
19.
a86a
21.
5m2
23.
2a: +
25.
a3 + ar"+ 3aa;2 +
26.
67"*i?8+4/)2_2/) + 3, jy2_2^
27.
"i"2m*
28.
a*+l+6a24a"4a,
29.
a2 +
30.
ar*+6a:V' + y*"4^y4^"
5, a8
2a:"3x",
62+c2
22.
Sa^
3a: + 2 + 2x2.
24.
a' +
3a2a:,
a^ + 3aa:2
ar^
a?\
2^2
a;23a:+l.
l, 2y^^y^\.
3a,
Sa^ + 1
5a.
fe^a^fca,a^fe^a'+fe*.
3a2a:.
3.
4m"3m5
3m"4wi^
2m*.
Za^\
abc.
a6+ac5c,
'2y*V
3m2.
64m
34w,
20.
6a5.
+ 2ar".
a'+2aa:
+20?,
15.
ar*
y*
6a:V
4a?y* 4a:V
binomial
two
multiplying together
and
^+8
*7,can
by the
factors, such
as
x
alw.ay8 oe obtained
of
the
it
is
utmost
methods
importance that
already explained,
the product I'apidly
down
learn
should
the student
to write
soon
6y inspection.
48.
Although
the
of
result
"
This
is done
in
terms
the
by observing in
product arise, and
combination
the
nomiials
which
the
of
what
coefficients
that
noticing
they
coefficients
numerical
in
of
result
the
the
from
two
bi
; thus
multiplied together
are
the
way
{x8){x1)=a^8x7x+56
=^2
15^+56.
(x+8)(X'*7)=x^+SX'7x56
=x2+x56.
(^8)"
7)=ar'ar+7a:56
=x^"x56.
of these
results
The
product
consists
of three
The
first term
is the
product
In
each
1.
2.
binomial
3.
4.
The
The
numerical
terms
that
notice
terms.
of
the
first terms
of the
two
expressions.
third
binomial
two
we
term
is the
product
of
the
second
terms
of
the
sum
of
the
expressions.
middle
term
has
for
with
its
their
coefficient
quantities (taken
proper
binomial
two
expressions.
of the
the
signs) in the
second
30
[chap.
ALGEBRA.
The
intermediate
products
down
the
in
step
written
at
be
omitted, and
may
the
following examples
work
in
as
once,
v.
the
:
(j7+2)(47 + 3)=^45a:f6.
(a;3X^+4)=ar^4^12.
{x"^y){x
{x
extension
By an
easy
the
product of
Thus
%y){x
"
of
4y)
these
\^xy+^OyK
a?*
%xy
24^^.
"
principles
we
down
write
may
binomials.
two
any
=a^
10^)
+ 3yX^
(2.t7
y)
^\^xy2xy''^y^
=^^+xyZy\
(3^4yX2^+y)=6^8^
3^4y^
=^^
bxy
"
Ay^,
"
(^+4X^4)=^+4:f4^
16
=^16.
{2x+by){^xby)^Aa^+\0xy\0xy2^
4r^25/.
EXAMPLES
Write
the
down
values
V.
of the
f.
following products
2.
(a7)(a6).
3.
(a:4)(a?+5).
(66)(6+4).
5.
(y7)(yl).
6.
(al)(a9).
(c^5)(c
8.
(a:9)(a:3).
9.
(y4)(y
10
(a3)(a
13
{kQ){hQ).
16
(p
19
{xZa){x
22
(a
25
28
(a
3Ka2).
4).
7).
12.
(a
7)(a7).
(a5)(a+5).
15.
(c
7)(c + 7).
17.
(z+5)(z8).
18.
(a;9)(a?+9).
20.
(a
21.
(a;
23.
(c
24.
(p2g)(i?
(2a:3)(3a:+2).
26.
27.
(5a:2)(5a:+2).
(3a; + 2a)(3a:2a).
29.
(6a;+a)(6a:2a).
30.
(7a: + 3y)(7a?
3).
9)(p10).
4c)(a
2a),
4c).
11.
(a?
14.
5)(a;
8).
26)(a
5(/)(c
25).
5d).
4y).
4y)({r
25).
y).
CHAPTER
VL
Division.
49.
the
object
The
by
qnotient,
the
produce
is
find
to
divisor
the
is
the
thus
above
inverse
statement
of
divisor
r
quantity,
called
multiplied
so
to
as
multiplication.
divisor
dividend
or
is
be
must
briefly
be
may
quotient
It
the
out
dividend.
Division
The
division
of
which
better
sometimes
to
written
dividend,
quotient.
this
express
last
result
tion
frac
as
thus
dividend
..
quotient.
^rr".
divisor
Examjde
when
or
4x
Shice
1.
divided
is
by
4^7x
Example
27a'
Divide
2.
27a*
by
and
We
2^aaaaa
ikui
dividend
the
the
divisor
both,
factors
just
as
in
mon
com
metic.
arith
3a2
27a"
36a"6M
Divide
The
that
9aaa
Therefore
3.
from
remove
to
Example
follows
9a*.
and
it
4x,
4.
quotient
9a'
is
is 4,
quotient
the
otherwise,
The
of
product
the
quotient
f
9a"
by
3a*.
lat^c^.
^^^"^ if
'
^^
=
5aa
6a"c.
"a
bo
In
letter
the
each
in
of
the
dividend
these
quotient
and
it
cases
is
divisor.
the
should
difference
cc
,
be
noticed
of
the
that
indices
the
of
index
that
of
letter
any
in
32
[chap.
ALGEBRA.
50.
is
It
to
easy
of signs holds
rule
the
that
prove
for
division.
a6a="*=^=6.
Thus
a6;a=^="^"^"=6.
a
a6H(a)=.g^J")^(^)=
6.
in division
well
as
"a
"
Hence
"a
"
multiplication
as
signs produce +,
signs produce
like
unlike
Bnle.
To
of that
the index
of
the
of
coefficient
2.
Example
If
Kote.
the
by
Thus,
we
7)
quotient
that
from
by subtracting
the dividend.
in
its proper
sign the
that of the divisor.
by
%^a^x^
by
quotient
\2a^x.
Or
a^'h?^
is obtained
at
once
mentally,
7aa;2
^oa^^x^M
the
apply
of the
power
same
the dividend
Divide
1.
quotient
so
another
prefixmth
obtained
the result
Example
The
letter in the
To
"
simple expression by
one
of each
index
The
divide
"
letter
divide
to
are
led
ia^
a'r a^
a^
rule
rule
we
Sa^fta:*.
Qa^ftar)
to
a^
of a letter
power
any
curious
conclusion.
by
the
a" ;
a?
but
also
.i
=1,
a^
:.
its
full
will
somewhat
appear
significance is explained
result
This
[See Elementary
Rule.
divide
sum
This
the
follows
Examples.
AUjebra^
in
to
strange
the
Theory
Chap,
the
of
beginner, but
Indices.
xxxi.]
compound
expression by a single factor,
that
term
factor, and take the algebraic
separately by
partial quotients so obtained.
To
each
of
aO=l.
divide
at
(9x
12y
(36a"62
Art.
from
once
3z)r(3)
24a2i*
38.
3a;
20a^62) f \a:^b
4yz.
=
9a6
66*
Sa^ft.
34
[chap.
ALGEBRiL
The
entire
operation is
written
compactly
more
a?+6)a;2
lla:+30(a;
a;^+
follows
as
6a?
5a: + 30
5a: I30
The
dividend
is
and
the
separated
complete
parts
many
may
found
of all the partial quotients.
quotient is
by taking the sum
the
above
is
^"2+lla:+30
separated into two
parts,
By
process
and
each of these is divided
by :r+6 ;
namely a:^h6a:,and 5^+30,
obtain
thus we
the partial quotients +a: and
+5.
into
the
for
reason
as
is this
rule
be
as
Divide
2.
Example
24a:"
the
convenient,
65a:y + 2ly^ by
8a?
Divide
8x
3y )24a;2
65a;y +21y2(3a:
56a:y
56a;y
7y
7y,
Divide
2ly2.
the
second
Example
the
Divide
3.
under
result
first terni
of the
term
by
IGa^
whole
place
the
dividend.
obtain
we
by 8a:,and
this
of the
the
the
subtraction
of
this
8a?;
first term
quotient. Multiply
divisor
by 3a;, and
By
56a:y
24a:'
21y*
21y2
3y.
obtain
so
quotient.

46a^
8a3)16a"46a2
40a2
39a
by
8a
39a9(2a"5a+3
39a
3.
40a2+15a
24a9
24a9
Thus
the
quotient
is 2a'
5a
EXAMPLES
3.
VI.
b.
Divide
1,
a' + 2a
by
1,
2.
62 + 36 + 2
3.
ar" + 4a; + 3
by
a:
I.
4.
t/^+ 5y
5.
a;' + 5a;6
by
a:l.
6,
ar' + 2a;8
7.
p^
3/740
by
p + 8.
8.
^^^4^32
9.
a
5a50
by
11,
ic2+ aa;30a'
by
+
a;
10.
+
6a.
10.
m'
12.
a'
+
+
7m
6 + 2.
by
by
y + 3.
by
a?2.
by
78
9a6366'
g + 4.
by
by
6.
+ 126.
VI.]
35
DIVISION.
Divide
13.
a:'+18a:45
15.
2ar213a?24
17.
19,
5x^
21.
I2p^
22.
4m2
23.
12a2
24.
25ar"
25.
21;"2+ llpg
26.
8a:S + 8ar"+4a;+l
xy
by
by
74pq
49"'
31a6
H
2m
206^
by
4a
5a:
by
12a"+aa;6a:2
20.
Ba^
30.
Sx^
the
Tlie
divisor
Example
1.
by
14ar+21
process
consists
of
of
a;2a.
by
2a:
Art.
51
3.
is
than
more
applicable
two
a*2a'7a2
Divide
5c
a?+6.
by
52.
2a
l.
29.
by
3a2a:.
5g.
ar^ + aar"3a2a:6a"
12ar"
by
350^
ac
3.
ar+
7y.
28.
by
21.
56.
2a: +
2a:'+13ar"17a:+10
27.
18.
a?
12g.
40g2 by Sp
5ar" +16ar
by
+ 7n.
49y3 by
^xy.
I2q^ by 2p
16.
2a: + 3.
6y^ hy
a:*
2a: 3.
by
42a? +441
14.
a:16.
to
cases
in
whicli
terms.
8a
a2a6)a*2a"7a2+8a
by
12
a'a6.
12(a2a2
a^a86a^
a'a2
a^
8a
+ a^ + Qa
2a2+2a+12
2a2
E3cample2,
First
arrange
4a:*
Divide
each
of the
2ar"a;+3)6aH"
2a
5a:2 + 6a:*
12
15
expressions
a:*
a:
by
descending
in
3 + 2qi^x.
powers
a:*+4x"5ar"a:15(3a:*+ar"2a:6
6ar^3a:*
9a:g
2a:*5ar^
5ar"
2a:*
Sx^
x^+
4ar^
8a:^
4x^+
2a~"6a;
10ar"
5a:15
10ar"+5x15
of
a:.
36
[chap.
ALGEBRA.
Example
Divide
3.
ar"7a:
^Q(^27^~A7r^
6)ar'2a:44a:3
x^
23ar831a;+12(a:2_2a;
2a:*+3a:3
2a;*
+14a;210a:
4a;'''
21a;
In
that
divisible
not
all
until
on
in the
the
highest
that
is not
division

exact,
in
power
the
is a:*
quotient
division
the
where
cases
the
12
a;^,so
by
; thus
further
any
4a;2 3.
on
remainder
carried
is
+15
21a;
4a;2
4a;*
b.
i8a;231ar
3a;"
Now
5a^"
Ix^^
3a:3+
carried
by ^Ix
V2^Q[^Z\x
the
the
work
remainder
be
cannot
2a; + 3, and
there
should
is lower
is
be
than
divisor.
53.
be
Occasionally it may
expressions in ascending powers
2a3
Divide
Example,
10
found
of
16a
convenient
some
to
arrange
letter.
common
39a2
15a*
by
2a3+15a*(
24a5a2)1016a39a2+
25a*
10 20a
2a3
4a14a2+
8a210a3
4a
6a2+12a3+15a*
6a2+12a3+15a*
EXAMPLES
VI.
c.
Divide
1.
a36a2+lla6
2.
ix?4x^+xJtQ
3.
y3 + y*9y+12
4.
21m^m*
5.
6a35a29a2
6.
6ifc3F14ifc
7.
6a;3_j.iia:2_39a._65
8.
12a;3
by
by
by
3.
a;2a;2.
by
by y23y
+ ml
8cuc2
a24a
by
7wi*
3.
+
+
2m+l.
2a23al.
3F
by
27a2a; + 1 Sa^
4A;1.
3ar^+13a;+13.
by
Ga;*
13aa; + 6a".
4a
5 + 2a3a2
ba^,
the
VI,]
37
DIVISION.
Divide
9.
16x3
i4a:2y
10*.21c3
5^2^
^^^^
3ocP
2"Z3
3a:*10a:3+12ar^lla;
12.
30a*
13.
7?"7?%x\^
14.
15.
21m327m26m2+20
16.
ISa:^ +
3a3+610a2
iOa^x
Qcux^
3y*4y3+10y2
18.
6a3
19.
12a:*
20.
/)*6/"3+13p210;?
21.
28a:*
22.
5a57a*9a3lla238a
23!
25!
10a*4aa
l +
69x
x38a3
43/* by
27.
a8
64
28.
16x"
29.
4m52"w36
15x*
31.
3a2
32.
9x242^^+42^22
33.
4c212cd2
34.
9i"216g2
35.
a^x^+x^y^oi^
36.
x^+x*yar^y^
37.
a3"3
38.
ix^+l
40.
a:"6x*8x3l
22
32x3

4x2
30x
40
by
by
x3 +
2c
^y^
363
x2 +
by
133..
5a2+17a10.
26.
9a*4a2
9y2
81
by
y23y+9.
by
3a24a+2.
9.
by
3c2
by
wi^
4x
2m2
3m
4.
5x2.
a+26
3c.
2yz.
rf3.
3p4g5.
oi^2xy^
+
+.5
y*
by
3x
by
3^+2.
24.
6m*
50x2
by
9
86c
3()p+25
a69"*
by
4x2
6x
8a6+462+10ac
ISoa:.
8.
8m27m3
30.
by
4a2.
by
p^Sp{2.
35x2
81
2a4.
4x^x5.
by
a44a2
36x2
9xr^
x2+2xy+2y2.
by
S.
lm^^
2/^^2
by
Tla:^
ci^.
by
i6
x2+2ax
by
ar* +
+
3y".
5a32a+l.
by
5a:3_33a;2_3a.+
3cd
3a2
Sm
by
3y_2
"Tlxy
3a;+3.
17.
Sar^x
by
by
%x^
a24a+3.
by
24aS
a:2 +
by
48
by
Tc^
lla"82a212a
by
by
11.
\r^
by
by
x3x2^.
x^ +
xyy\
36a*3a33a
l.
x32a;l.
39.
by
2a"+2
36
by
o".
a^ +
2a^+2a+l.
CHAPTER
Removal
54.
Insertion
and
are
Quantities
that
they must
in the
expression
the
4a
expression
all
Thus
2a
from
It
When
the
"
convenient
which
have
brackets
treated
here
to
as
whole
same
has
to
way.
indicate
brackets
"
26
"
within
be
can
be
to
Arts.
tracted
sub
making
removing
and
24
25.
the
preceded by
is
without
for
rules
in
given
brackets
removed
the
quote
been
already
expression
an
the
in
operated upon
(4a
26) the
36
brackets
within
36.
be
will
brackets
2a
enclosed
be

Brackets.
of
sometimes
indicate
that
Vn.
sign +,
in
change
any
the
expression.
When
brackets
the
brackets
be
Example.
be
mny
removed
Simplify,
expression
by removing
part
this
purpose
brackets
Tlie
in
When
56.
dealing
is
46)
46
(6
6 +
the
sign
"
the
within
term
convenient
common
use
2a).
like
terms.
within
brackets
brackets
brackets.
within
of
For
different
forma.
(),{},[].
are
two
are
expression
enclose
to
already
to
employ
the
2a
by collecting
or
generally best
each
pair in
with
l^rackets,
enclosed
usual
there
it is
removed,
In
it
3a
is
expression
an
(3a
86,
it
Sometimes
of
36
36)
2a
55.
the
if
by
preceded
sign of every
is
changed.
(2a
The
brackets
within
expression
an
begin
to
of
pairs
more
succession
with
the
apply
we
bi'ackets
innermost
the
rules
to
be
pair.
quoted
above.
Simplify,
Example.
by removing
brackets,
a26[4a66{3ac
Removing
the
all
brackets
expression
At
Note.
mitil
the
the
first
the
brackets
26
[4a
66
a26[4a~663a
a264a
2a,
have
{3a
66
been
will
find
removed.
c)}].
it
+2a
c2a
3ac
by collecting
beginner
expression
one,
(2a46
by
one
the
like
best
46
c}]
46";]
2a46+c
terms.
not
to
collect
temit
VII.]
CHAP.
REMOVAL
OP
EXAMPLES
a+2b
2a
(a:3y)
{xZy
2a+
Vn.
and
brackets
Simplify by removing
36
(2a
(2a:4y)(ar8y).
2z){z
(6
26).
3a)
iy "\2x),
(4a
86)
(66
m(wp)(2m2p
11
a6
12
6x
13
(pg)(g2p)
14
2ar"(3y2_a:2)(ar54y2).
15
{w?
16
(ar2a)(a:26){2aa:(26
17
(a
18
2"2 2^2
19
a:[y
21
2""(g+p){/3(2/)g)}].
22
3a:y[a:(2yz){2a:(yz)}].
23
3a2
!24
[3a
(ly
(2n2
{2a
(a
of
Example
7a:2(a:4)
3.
6a4[10a3a:9a]
4a:
{2y
2x)
(3a? oy).
2p).
a:)}.
5a
(2p2
g2)}.
(a6){a6(a+6)(a6)}"
(2a
before
when
2a: + 3a:
there
7a:2a:
is to
is
12
8
that
plied
multimore
used
as
removed.
12.
5a: + 8.
3{a;
or
be
must
being
6a;
be
two
are
coefficient
indicates
bracket
bracket
4[10a
bracket
any
the
within
own
6)}].
2(a
a:)}].
expression
3(a: 4)
Simplify
8.
263c(6a4c).
An^).
prefixed
its
2.
6a
"
when
2a: +
5a
36).
(6 + ca).
but
1.
6a
c)
{3a
expression
considered,
"
6.
(2a
2a2)}],
placed
coefficient
be
to
the
that
Examples
6a
a2(43a).
20.
6)}] [4a
multiplier only
(3m2
+ 3^2
{;"2
{862 ^9^2
coefficient
brackets
The
4,
25
(3a:+ By).
3m2)
(2i?g)(p2^).
((^2
+ 2p2)
[6a2
by
a
7a:)
{a:(ya;)}].
term
every
(2y
2.
36)(63a){a+26(2a6)}.
+

57.
3a:)
2"2)
3w)(wm
c(a+c6)(a+6
terms
5a).
10
a.
collecting like
(2aSh).
39
BRACKETS.
4[10a
3{a:
4[10a
3{
4[a
3a:]
4a+12aj
12a:.
a:
2a
3a}]
On
removing
bracket
each
2a:}]
by
2.
Then
by 3,
its
other
bracket
the
the
term
innermost
is
multiplied
before
multiplying
expression within
is simplified.
The
steps will
be
easily seen.
40
[CHAP.
ALGEBRA.
58.
Sometimes
line
called
thus
symbols
to
be
connected
meaning
as
(6 + o),and
lience
Note.
line
The
fraction
is
the
is drawn
is used
b+c
"
ab
and
^^
Thus
the
over
with
the
same
c=abc.
numerator
of vinculmn.
kind
between
vinculum
denominator
equivalent
is
of
to
l{x
6).
Find
4.
Example
of
value
the
847[lla;4{17a:
The
expression
84
7[
1 la:
The
59.
3(5a:l)}]
847[lla:4{17a:
847[lla:4{2a:3}]
847[lla:+8a:+12]
847[3a:+12]
84 + 21a:84
21a:.
the
For
Arts.
24
for
on
25
page
these
Rule.
brackets
brackets
1.
and
brackets
of
be
may
easily
have
Am/
c=a\{b
"
"
"
b+c=a
the
results
of
steps
the
are
deduced
converse
from
established
been
them.
in
c=a
"
c)y
"
(b+c\
"
(b
c).
"
follow.
rules
be enclosed
within
of an expression
may
the
prefixed^ the sign of every term within
part
the
Rule.
within
15a;3}]
Examples.
brackets
Brackets.
equivalents
a+b
From
of
12, and
little
insertion
following
and
5a:)}]
rules
given
9 +
847[lla:4{17a:
Insertion
of those
17a:
3(8
the
be
4{
When
may
3{895a;)}].
+ crfe
6a:
aa:
a6
a6
(ar^ ax)
(cd6).
+

(6a: a6).
within
be enclosed
Any part of an expression may
the
prefixed, provided
sign of every term
sign
brackets
be changed.
2.
and
the
the
Examples,
"
b
xy
ax
by
d
+
ah
{xy
{b

c)
by)
{d
e).
{aa:
ab).
42
[CHAP.
ALGEBRA.
23.
Multiply
2xSy4{x
2y)
5{dx
3{2y
by 4x{yx)In
each
the
y)}
S{x
y)}.
of the
that
2{x
signs
brackets
the
before
the
be
may
of
powers
(1)
a;
so
positive,
(2) negative.
24.
ax*
25.
cux^+aVh3i^5x^cx^.
2x^cx^
2x^bx^x*.
MISCELLANEOUS
the
of
1.
Find
2.
Subtract
la^
3.
Simplify
4.
Find
continued
the
What
5.
what
sum
26
3c
6.
7.
Multiply 362
8,
When
2a^
i,y
5^^
2c)
of
to
c), 3a
(36
3a^,
2a
Find
10.
value
the
Simplify
when
x
2a
a:
of 2a:^
7, 6
12.
result
ax^
and
5x
of 3aa;,
3,
+ a;^
36)
a:
7a?z, 4aa:,
4c2rf,
and
add
the
by
^xh/h^
and
4xz.
find
its
difference
to
the
unity.
and
divide
the
by Zxyh\
14.
Simplify
15.
Find
2a36
(5a
nothing,
Simplify by removing
16.
q^1
2a:z,9aa;,
*S3i^y4xi^z+2xh/h^
Multiply
And
2^?
4.
4 from
13.
result
2d
5a:V^.
36.
of 1
value
sum
make
to
pl^+ 2pq
"
+ Sx^.
by
9a(26c)
Subtract
11.
sum
algebraic
Ixy^^
p + q
a:*.
2c).
1 +
9.
2y
to
2xy^,
to
make
6 + 3c.
result
the
added
3pq
2, find the
3a
he
p^
1 6ar*+5a;3
a:
(6
(a
add
product
to
36
1, and
must
added
Divide
26 + c,
from
quantity
be
must
EXAMPLES
by
the
a;
of
2x*Jy
and
{a:
{2xy
product
5[x
3(2a:
a~^
2x^) +
3a:+8y,
and
the
of
sum
+26,
5c
11a; + 2
by
3a
2d,
3e +
5c2/.
i7.
Divide
18.
If
3a? +
2) }].
{2xy
6y2).
multiply
the
2y.
Find
+
2a:2
brackets
ar*

4a:3
1, 6
ad
2,
igx!^
c
aca2crf
0, d
+
1, find
c2a+2c
a:^
the
+
7a: + 1.
value
of
a26+2o*.
5/,
6a+2(^
vn.]
MISCELIANEOUS
EXAMPLES
find
19.
the
Divide
20.
of
sum
I0x^7x{l
what
quantity
and
x^)
43
II.
S{x*+3c^
must
2) by
3{3^+l){X+l).
Simplify 5a:*
21.
the
result
If
22.
4a:*
from
a
0, 6
8a:"
1,
(2a:a 7)
Find
the
24.
Subtract
25.
Express by
(a" + 4) + (a^
excess
over
y{x
a^Ta; +
(a"+ 4)(a"
from
2)
amd
2y)
y )
2y\
2).
symbols
is
the
times
greater
of
sum
of b and
product
26.
of
means
Three
(2)
of Ix^
product
(1) 6's
subtract
of
3, d=2,
2, find the value
e
(S) e+aK
(2) (c + a)(ca) + 62;
(l)3c*d";
23.
2.
a: +
than
and
26
by 7.
by
is less
the
than
c.
Simplify
3a2(4a62){2a2(36a2)263a}{567a(ca62)}.
the
Find
27.
continued
product of
xy\^y^, T^xy + y^^
a^ +
Divide
28.
If
29.
30.
4flM; + c^
3, 6 2,
(1) c(a+6)
From
much
rod
32.
boy
then
0, d
2a
36
2, find
the
of
value
c) + a(c6);
inches
a+6
buys
(2) a"+d'".
inches
long 6c
marbles,
off;
cut
are
how
Simplify
33.
Divide
34.
Multiply
2/
y^ over
35*
2a
{5a
loses
the
+
how
has
many
times
times
of
sum
equal
=
2, 6
id
3a:*5a:y
to
=
diminished
taken
and
the
value
of
2.
2xyy^
the
1,
6)(c
c

of
and
the
by
0, d
of
excess
6) + (oc
hdf
find
+
and.twice
6 is
times
equal
to
z.
five
d.
of the
l,
three
and
of y
sum
their
multiplied by
difference
=
by the
from
product
the
times
by a:22a;+l.
of
sum
find
algebraical symbols
Three
(2) Seven
If
3ary.
in
(3) The
5a:* +4a:"
1
Express
(1)
36.
6, and
wins
(a6)[a2
3x^
6(a
by
remains?
31.
he
Aa?
xi^xh/^ + y^,
of
squares
the
(c^
of
value
d)(2c
6).
difference
and
n.
is
Vin.
CHAPTEE
Eevision
[If preferred,
on
Simple
chapter
this
and
Equations
Eules.
Elementary
of
be
may
been
the
until
postponed
have
Problems
chapters
read.]
Substitutions.
62.
quantity
given
expression.
The
is that
the
of
the
is denoted
of
equal
of
fourth, fifth, "c., root
any
fifth,
"c., power
third, fourth,
cube,
whose
quantity
expression.
9*
simply
more
the
to
is 9, because
81
J/a, or
by
is
power,
root
square
expression
proposed
any
second
or
square,
Thus
of
root
square
whose
root
square
Similarly
the
The
Definition.
is that
81.
sja.
expression
equal to
is
given
The
roots
Examples,
The
VS2
3^
27.
because
2"
32.
V(6a36^c)
the
called
value
the
^, J/, Ij,"c
symbols
because
sj is also
Find
1.
the
by
y27
symbol
root
Example
denoted
are
of
radical
when
J{Qa%^c)y
V(6
33
V(6
27
V(3x27)x(2x8)
1*
sign.
a
3, ^=1,0
8.
8)
8)
=5x9x4
180.
Note.
the
of
line
the
expression
above
being
2.
expression
of
the
as
as
3,
X/{a^cx)
V(4)2(l)4
^(64)
7x(4)3x9
66.
is often
\/6a^b*c
written
the
indicating
square
root
whole.
4, 6
vinculum
,J{Wh^c)
form
used
t(3c"n
expression
Example
The
An
s/W
3^81
1, /=
"
0,
a;
4, find
^iPx).
\/(
3)*{
1)2+
the
valueof
VIII.]
CHAP.
REVISION
ELEMENTARY
OF
EXAMPLES
If
4, b
ly
6, d
Vm.
Of find
45
RULES.
the
a.
of
value
1.
n/"*.
2.
\/9^.
3.
V6Pc.
4.
\/9^P.
5.
'M*?.
6.
V6^^.
7.
a\/9^.
8.
36j/3^.
9.
^/^^/9?.
If
3,
3Va3^dN/2^+\/6^.
10.
2,
l,
a;
4,
0, find
the
valae
of
11.
^/^2c^.
12.
n/3^.
13.
\/6^.
14.
5v^.
15.
V3SP^.
16.
\/a^^.
17.
1^6^.
la
\/3H^.
19.
\f^ac"Jcx\"J"cx,
20.
VcV+\^^\/9^.
21.
If
a;
100,
81,
find
16,
vf22.
If
6,
2,
l,
2v/^"cx
2\/a^64xV
Find
the
of
value
of
Indices.
and
which
rules
coefficients
have
been
still
are
fractional.
\7^
the
N/8a26.
integral
are
of
sum
0, find
The
Coefficients*
Fractional
Coefficients
Fractional
63.
4,
of
Viz.
Vy+
a;
value
the
Jy^
lxy
7^
\xy
2y",
a:'+ia:yly"
Here
and
by
Example
Divide
2,
\x
\y ) W
each
the
the
column
up
coefficients
rules
of arithmetic.
Jar^+yV^^+T^^
+
is added
fractional
by
^x+\y,
iary^
xVy*
separately,
combined
46
[CHAP.
ALGEBRA.
Fractional
64,
indices
the
and
fractional
a~^
"
Indices.
4a~^x
been
all
such
indices
negative
the
integers,but
3.v^ may
be
dealt
discussion
of
the
"
complete
have
In
as
with
by
the
rules.
same
For
the
student
theory of Indices
will
It
xxxt.
Elementary Algebra, Chap.
here
sufficient
to
that
the
rules
for
combination
point out
indices in multiplication and division
given in Chapters v. and
are
universally true.
a
referred
It
will
be
from
seen
indices
combining
expressed by
where
integral
in
these
two
a*"xa"=a"*+",
have
n
may
fractional.
shall
now
and
that
the
division
rules
be
may
be
of
vi.
for
cisely
con
statements,
and
or
illustrations
multiplication
the
(1)
We
65.
is
the
to
give
any
(2)
a"*Ta"=a"*";
values
positive
involving compound
examples
some
negative,
or
expressions.
Example
Multiply x^
1.
3a;^+
x^Sx^+
2a;*
by
1.
2a;*1
^
2a;
Sx^
6a;^+
x^+
.3a;*4
2a;
Example
Multiply
2.
c"
7x*+lla;*4
+
2c
"
*

by
3c
"
2c*.
7+2c*
c*
Here
2c"
3c*
+6
2c^14c*+
+
been
4
5c* 35
the
expressions have
arranged in descending
of
powers
+
10c*
noticed
the
2c2"
3 + 21c*6c^
9c*34+31c*6c2*
and
terms
c,
+5
it should
and
that
in
this
numerical
stand
involving
ment
arrangeterms
between
c*
be
and
the
c"*.
Vin.]
Example
47
RULES.
Divide
3.
24a;^

Arrange
ELEMENTARY
OF
REVISION
16a;"
+ a;*
and
divisor
16a;"^
in
dividend
by 8x"^
bx^
descending
2a;^+x^

of
powers
4x^.
x,
a.l_2a;^_4a;i+8a;"^)a:^5a:^
24a:^16a;'^16x~^(a;^32a;'*
+
x^2x^
4x^+
EXAMPLES
Vm.
1,
Find
the
2,
Add
together ai6
3,
From
4,
Subtract
5,
Multiply
6,
Find
7,
Divide
ioc^^y^ by ia;^y.
8,
Divide
a^
9,
Simplify J(2a:
of
suni
the
Jm
take
^h^c
of
product
2a?h
3y)
10.
Find
the
sum
11.
Find
the
product
of
\x\y
12.
wi
Jw,
c, ^^,
from
^2
27n
".
T"ff6f
Jc, Ja+Aft^^,
a6 +
1
_
and
^a^ix+l
l^fihy
i(3a:f 2y)
b.
^afrf^c.
^^^^
H
in,
Sx*
^52,
ia;f^.
a?^
IV^,
,3j(7a; 5y).
of
and
^{z\y)
^{x
z)
\{y
\x).
brackets
Simplify by removing
8(^).5{2.3(")}.
13.
Divide
14.
Subtract
15.
Add
16.
Multiply
17.
Divide
IB.
\2?
\lx^
^[Ix
a;
i by
a3
36a2
fa;
\a^x
fy)
and
J62^4a66af
+

i.
3y)
iar" by a
(2a:

2a:).
iy)(ia:
2a:.
i" by 6ai6i.
\{y
1)}.
y).
48
[chap.
ALGEBRA.
19.
a2^
Multiply
when
20.
Multiply
21.
Divide
22.
Find
23.
Multiply
24.
Divide
25.
Divide
and
by a2+Ja6A2,
the
verify
result
2.
x^y^+y
by
11
a:*a:'y*+y
and
x^y+y^
of
product
the
a;^y^+yby a;^y^.
a:
x^
6*
1, 6
7ry^.
c"8ci3
ci3.
4x^y2_i2ariyi+2524a:~*y+16a;'V
by 2a:*yi3+4ar"V
of
26.
Find
the
value
27.
Find
the
square
28.
Find
the
29.
Divide
30.
Multiply
31.
Find
"
of
The
Example.
of
a+6
of 3a
"
^x).
^6
"
"
^x, aa:*
Cases
a^h
3a6c
by
is
a+6
y^{(?{a?abac
a?haJtf^
c.
a^c +
ab^
2abc
abcac^
ab^
abc
ac^ +
a^b
be
are
o^c
yc
l^cbc^
arranged in descending
alphabetically ; thus
3a6c.
+ oc^^^c
abc
taken
b^
+68
a^
is
l"^hc+"^
abc
a?c
work
of notice.
worthy
+ a?c
the
6.
a^ba^c3abc
letters
Division.
in
in division
6^ + c'"
c)a"3a6c+
Here
aar
(3a:"y*a:'"y")(a:"ya;"yi).
a^ +
a*f
other
6^, and
5 + a22a2.
following example
Divide
3a
"
^.
by
Important
66.
ia:)(aa;^
by
value
product
a2 + 2a27
the
"
a^\a
continued
a;y
(aa;
ac^ +
bc+
(?
axi^ +
bc^+
"?
powers
in the
similar
of
first
a,
and
the
remainder
arrangement
will
60
[CHAP.
ALGEBRA.
and
Dimension
68.
Each
of
the
the
degree
three
of
the
the
or
numerical
each
69.
of
The
or
composing
the
is called
letters
involved
abc
the
product
degree ; and
fifthdegree,
is not
coefficient
counted.
is said
Thus
sion
dimenis called
be
to
oar* is said
third
the
of
of the
term
of
number
Thus
term.
dimensions^
"fivedimensions^
are
and
term,
of
letters
Degree.
of
q/^
be
to
Sa^ft* and
a*6*
dimensions.
seven
of
degree
is the
expression
an
of
degree
of
the
term
a*
contained
in it; thus
8a' + 3a
5 is
highest dimensions
the
a^x
and
IhV
is
an
fourth degree^
an
expression of
expression
it is sometimes
useful
to speak of the
of the fifth degree. But
dimensions
of an
of the
one
expression with
regard to some
letters it involves.
the expression ax'
For
instance
d
6x^4 ex
"
"
"
"
"
is said
to
homogeneous
is useful
by
(2a2
Sab
Art.
the
product
of
5a2 + 3ab
is
462)
lOa* + Sla't
that
is
instance
the
divisor
homogeneous
of two
2la^b^ + 166*.
expressions each
homogeneous
expression of four dimensions.
homogeneous
of
two
expression by
homogeneous
quotient of one
is
itself
homogeneous.
expression
homogeneous
For
is
homogeneous
two
the
Also
when
homogeneous.
product
dimensions
two
x.
47,
46^)(
the
Here
that
notice
to
is also
expressions
Thus
in
It
dimensions
compound
70i
of three
be
in
is
of
the
example
homogeneous
of
three
Art.
of
66
and
the
dimensions.
Vm.
EXAMPLES
1,
Divide
a^ + 30a6
2,
Divide
a^ +
3,
Divide
a^lr^+l+Sab
4,
Divide
IBcd
y^z^
12568
+
by
San/z by
1 + 27c^
by

Srf^
a6
by
c.
56 + 2.
yz,
+
1 +
may
dimension,
one
dimensions,
it
1.
3c
2rf.
be
the
quotient
of
another
noticed
dividend
geneous
is homo
vm.]
OF
REVISION
actual
Without
following
cases
}^.
9.
division
1?^*.
10.
2 +
^J!".
In
17.
which
terms
18.
the
of
term
some
of
(3a^"
it
heing
20.
the
bxy
known
that
down
ah'^ +
Write
5a^
the
The
Introduce
two
16.
1253c4
,^..
ar'
+
y"
which
will
65c,
make
of
dimensions
there
expression
whole
the
the
the
correct
product,
terms
them
given
the
of
3a^2abb\
in
of
the
the
that
b
of
powers
respectively
dimensions.
in
46ar^y
taken
of
value
the
having
letter
mistake
no
square
the
24a:*
^x^y^
l^xf
Sy^,
coefficients,
given
having
descending
that
of
powers
1.
quotient
the
3y2)
is
are
a^y^l
x^ +
make
^\
degree.
eighth
ascending
in
arranged
4,
down
3a^",
22.
the
of
2,
12,
21.
15.
Jiomogeneoits
are
'^){%x^ 2xy
coefficients
are
12.
statement
Write
9,
the
considering
following
^^T^.
oft^c
of
power
homogeneous
By
the
expression
7a36c2
19.
11.
which
and
like,
each
introduce
in
quotients
expression
are
In
the
the
^.
14.
Sy
down
write
l+a
13.
61
RULES.
ELEMENTARY
ocy +
into
coefficients
25,
Sxy
0,
by
3a^b
of
the
9, 6,
a:
when
terms
1.
and
5a^cLb^
is
y^y+l.
dividend,
homogeneous
of
product
divisor,
and
expressions
quotient
of
three,
so
one,
as
to
and
CHAPTER
IX.
Simple
71.
An
do
we
equation
Thus
the
briefly
or
The
of
employ
an
of
called
are
Certain
symbols
and
of
present
value
the
The
root
74.
the
denote
upon
is
degree
unknown
The
the
The
called
of
equals
by
a
the
of
when
the
the
to
is
is
word)
above
object
an
equation
satisfies
find
is
its
found
only
example
The
to
an
which
involved;
finding
so
^=2,
which
treat
value
of
usually
equation.
of
is
of
it.
called
value
is
called
the
letter
in
quantity
unknown
is
It
equation*
simple
usual
to
x.
equation
depends
only
equals
the
to
2.
If
from
3.
If
equals
are
multiplied
by
4.
If
equals
are
divided
equals
we
values
symbols
In
the
If
equals
the
value
1.
we
and
equation,
more
required
process
simple
solving
add
is
involves
axioms
following
sign
equation.
quantity
process
how
The
the
which
equation
the
always
the
equation
an
the
the
it
of
true
or
use
discover
value
of
only
symbols.
explain
equation.
the
of
satisfy
to
whose
solution
An
first
the
order
is
ordinary
to
quantity.
solving
or
in
letter
unknown
called
sense.
equation,
particular
condition,
the
is to
chapter
is
values
the
of
is said
kind
simplest
73.
is
left
the
of
for
true
identity
the
(in
values
particular
307=6,
the
of
be
equation
the
the
left side.
and
3a; =6
an
whatever
an
ioT
true
Thus
and
sides
only
equation
an
side
are
employed.
true
whereas
so
identical
an
right
or
right
Consequently
equation.
always
the
as
the
to
members
equations
called
is
equation
an
distinguished
the
is called
wide
which
4=ar+7,
have,
may
equation
but
equal,
are
in
identity.
parts
72.
expressions
two
word
a7+3+:F
value
equality
are
the
statement
whatever
true
that
asserts
usually
not
Equations.
take
equals
by
sums
the
equals
the
are
equal.
remainders
the
products
quotients
equal.
are
are
are
equaL
equal
IX.]
CHAP.
the
Consider
75.
It
SIMPLE
7a: =14.
equation
is
sides
53
EQUATIONS.
by
numerical
value
x=2,
sides
by 2,
in the
terms,
equation
7a;"
have
we
12,
"
2a:"
To
This
quantity
3a:
differs
occurs
its
changing
Subtract
any
sign.
a;
the
sides
term
from
both
appears
side
one
Hence
as
we
a:
It
in
an
and
appears
+x
the
term
may
by changing
from
this
equation, and
8,
and
we
from
removed
been
has
"8
the
by simply
get
[Axiom
2]
[Axiom
1].
side,
one
removed
and
from
following
rule
side
one
change
may
the
of
the
sign of
equation
every
term
terms,
change
places.
Example,
Take
the
equation
Transposing,
"3a;"
"
a;
12=
+24=
a"
24.
3a; +12,
3x+12=a;+24,
or
which
is the
original equation
other.
transposedfrom
sign.
that
ever,
how
can,
we
12,
=12
been
other;
be
We
have
has
its
unknown
other
the
to
the
show.
to
of the
sides
+ 8 on
as
appears
enunciate
the
may
Any
other
that
on
"a:
and
Rule.
to the
see
side
one
sides, we
8 to both
we
10, by collecting
"
preceding in that
of the
equation.
3a: a:
Thus
15
of Terms.
proceed
we
3a:
Adding
3]
12.
both
This
from
from
on
transpose
[Axiom
4a: =28.
solve
case
=23
a;
Transposition
76.
4].
get
we
a:
Again,
[Axiom
^"
both
multiplying
to
get
we
Similarly, if
have
must
with
the
sign
of every
term
changed.
64
[cHAP.
ALGEBRA.
77.
To
f3=^+f.
solve
Here
be
it will
convenient
transposing,
1 Oo;
6:f
We
equation
can
give
now
with
for
general rule
quantity.
unknown
one
60
:f=60.
.*.
78.
4r
solving
simple
any
Rule.
clear
First^ if necessary,
of fractions ; then transfpose
the
unknjovm
side of the
terms
containing
quantity to one
Collect the terms
equation, and the JcTiown quantities to the other.
each
both
sides by the coefficient
on
side; divide
of the unJcnown
and
the
value required is obtained.
quantity,
the
all
Example
Solve
1.
5(a: 3)

brackets,
Removing
5a:
7(6
15
..
Example
2.
Forming
the
Solve
24
9a:
64;
a:
6.
(a:+ 1 )(2a: 1 )

products,
term
27^
a;
on
It
habit
of
5a:+
selfreliant
In
when
we
the
we
obtain
and
case
applying
substitute
the
such
side, and
=
16 + 47 +
9a:
63;
a:
7.
same
47.
value
result.
of
own
15 + 47.
1;
beginner
the
tends
tests
simple equations
the
16+423;
transposing,
13a:
iti his
confident
of
24 + 3a; ;
2ar"13a:
for the
useful
extremely
verifjring, that is, proving
of
(2a: 3)(a: 6)
is
habit
the
each
..
79.
24
x).
have
we
2ar^ + a;l6a:
the
5a:
3(8
24+
/.
24
7a: + 3
42 +
5a:+7a:3a;
transposing,
Erasing
a:)+ 3
truth
to
acquire
to
of
make
his
the
the
results;
student
accuracy.
we
in the
have
two
only
to
show
sides of the
that
equation
rx.]
To
Example.
that
show
a;
7,
side
right
{2x
these
since
(a;+ 1 )(2a; 1 )

5)
results
two
47.
oa;
(8x13)
35
(llx2)
69.
47
(143)(75)+47
Thus,
3){x
equation
(2a:3)(a:5)
(7 + l)(14l)35
The
left side
the
the
satiafiea
*7
(a:+ l)(2a;l)5a:
When
55
EQUATIONS.
SIMPLE
the
are
47
69.
same,
satisfies
the
equation.
EXAMPLES
Write
down
the
1.
7a?
5.
12a: =132.
9.
4a; =18.
13.
6a:
17.
3.
9a: =18.
6.
33
7.
4a:
12.
11.
30
6a:.
lla:.
15.
3.
19.
11a:.
26.
14.
2a:.
18.
6a:
42.
following equations
5a:7
25.
4a:7
21.
24.
15
37 11a:.
27.
3a:18
29.
3a:
31.
8a:35a:5
33.
5a:
34.
7a:214a:+13
2a:
35.
157a;9a:28
14a:17
36.
5a:6a:
37.
5(a:3)
39.
37(a:l)
41.
15.
72a:.
72a:
8.
7a:.
1 7 + 3a:
6a;
307a:
+
=
415a:7
=
213a:
107a:
2a; +
4.
5a:
8.
10
12.
4a:
0.
3a:
27.
lla:.
16.
15a:.
20.
24
23.
13
ll.
26.
7a: =18
28.
4a: =13
30.
32.
7a:
2a:
11 2a:

13
7
5a:
40"
54(a:3)
5.
a:2(a;l).
8(a:3)2(3a;)
42.
4(5a:)2(a:3)
a:43(a;
43.
lx,lx
44.
ll=l^l
45.
^ 3..
46.
i4=^+2.
47.
(a;+ 3)(2a:3)6a:
48.
49.
(2i+l)(2a:+6)7(x2) 4(a:+l)(a:l)9a:.
50.
(3a:+l)2+6+18(a;+l)2
2)5(5a:).
+
2).
4)
12.
l)
7(56ar).
2(a:+
(a;4)(2a:
10a:.
5a:20.
54x.
2a:.
139a:+8a:.
ll(54a:)
2ar.
10.
12
6a:.
38.
x.Z.
8a:.
5a:.
28.
4(a:2).
=
5.
1 1 5.
8a: +
22.
6a: +
following equations
3a: =15.
12a:
the
of the
a.
2.
10.
Solve
21.
solutions
IX.
9a:(3a:2) + 66.
0.
56
[CHAP.
ALGEBRA.
Show
51.
that
5 satisfies the
5xQ{x4:)
Show
52.
that
0?
is the
15
7(25
53.
Verify
that
2a;
that
Show
54.
{Sx
80.
shall
We
Example
bx
5xl2x^
the
6{xSf
7)(Sx
35)
term
4lx~S5
12ic2
thus
each
on
the
the
Ql2x^+39x2:7.
Solve
2.
7a;
9);
35;
2.
bracket
not
affects
the
remove
within
term
every
until
brackets
we
1"
=
least
brackets,
.352
"
1 1 a: +
11a;
and
collecting terms
multiple
common
transposing,
4a;44;
99
4a;
4a;
44
changing signs,
this
equation
"
44
15a;
a;
In
14 ;
352ll(a;9)
Note.
1).
9)(a;
transpose
627
do
we
the
Multiply by 88,
removing
difficulty.
products.
the
Example
of "work
and
before
sign
first line
formed
have
3(4a:
a?
it, in
63(4a;213ar
side
..
Since
of greater
5a; + 41a;39a:
Note.
5)
1.
brackets
by removing
Erase
5).
equation
equations
re.
have
we
5ar(12a:241a;
and
(2a:+l)(a;
some
(4a?
Simplifying,
the
equation
25)
equation
\){2x1)
give
now
Solve
3)
4 satisfies
the
2(3a:
the
5{x4)6,
of
15
3 satisfies
2(a:+l)(a;
6)
solution
a:)
equation
2{x
of the
denominators
352
=
495
oo.
99
is
regarded
as
single term
with
the
minus
sign
In
it.
before
fact
it is
equivalent
to
(a;
9), the
vinculum
or
effect
same
In
certain
as
the
bracket.
by
in two
the
or
and
numerator
denominator
having
the
[Art. 58.]
it will
cases
throughout
of fractions
between
line
more
be
l.c.m.
found
of
steps.
more
the
convenient
denominator,
not
but
ply
to multito
cleax
68
[CHAP.
ALGEBRA.
Solve
11.
the
equations
]^^i
ar+3+^"
12.
5x2.
IQ
^^'
1R
^^
17
TQ
ly.
IX.
7+2a:.
a;6_a:4_,
a;
~r
"^"'
4(a:7)
^76a:
,
^^
a:l_2a:31
^o"""i^
3~*
oa
^^'
12*
97a:_5(a?l)
~2
6
~5
,"
.3a:l
**2
ll6a?
,."
T"
gla:
~6~
lO*
a;+5_a?+l_a?+3
~6
a:+12
,.
^^
"6""^
45a:
l2a:_13
l2a;
23ar_l.a;
2"^?
"
~T"
21.
?(a:6)+j^.
(a:l)(a:4)
22.
l(a;l)2.
(a:4)l(2a;9)
23.
4)l(a:3) ^(3a:5)?(a:6)i(a:2).
^(a:
24.
^(38a;) ^(72a:) ^
25.
l(5a:l)l(6a;13)H8.
i(a:+4)^(20a:)
no
fy"
1(1
6a:).
5x
x+l
10a: +
a:
a:_13a:
8"n[8
f,
a:12
6^K
6(a;4)
4""
^'*
^""^7
28.
"^^(^3):^(a:+10)+?^0.
=
51
^'
ri'*'44''"2(n~3^3)"66'*'3(^"^}
31.
^a:
33.
325c75a:
35.
Sa:
37*
Find
38.
335
64 3
=
2a:.
9+l5a:.
63:= 753?
of
(3a:l)(4a:ll)
and
What
equal
value
to
of
337
x

63:+
25 +'1
34.
"2a:
013:+
0053;
36.
'43:
SSa:
11.
value
the
32.
which
makes
G(2a: l)(a:3)
will
8(3a:
make

l)(a:+
the
the
"?
two
"4a?.
11 7.
'3.
expressions
equal.
expression 77a;
1) ?
1 26=
3(2a;
1)(4"
2)
CHAPTER
X.
Symbolical
82.
the
In
solving
of
means
will
would
question
question
second
is
than
greater
83.
the
find
by
The
the
them
is
50+6,
the
and,
than
60
in
the
answer
just
number
the
as
number
the
so
an
answer
greater
gives
self
which
is
07+0.
will
examples
the
readily
number
be
not
may
of
this
choice
be
perhaps
arithmetical
of
the
After
chapter.
the
best
first
duction
introleave
we
should
instances,
he
necessary.
Example
Take
numerical
the
InBtaDce
of
excess
Similarly
the
Example
2.
Example
3.
does
much
defect
If
If
of
a;
is
a;
is
one
from
is
is
17
a:
of
part
17
the
46
of
one/oc^or
equal
does
to' 27
exceed
27
17
*'
17.
17.
is
17
17
much
how
which
10,
over
exceed
by
'*
is
obviously
answer
Hence
how
By
1.
The
by
is
the
to
answer
"
course
hint
necessary
subject
student
which
60
following
to
to
than
greater
addition
the
supplies
case
which
question,
symbols
arithmetical
the
by
of
"find
of
process
would
who
beginner,
The
6."
by
than
greater
by
question
similar
Thus,
of
difficulty
the
algebraical
difficulty.
no
arithmetical
analogous
when
puzzling,
number
the
to
found
in
proposed
question
present
find
"
chief
of
conditions
the
express
be
frequently
evident
to
symbols.
the
problems
algebraical
is
beginner
Expression.
45
the
x.
other
part
other
is 46

factor
is
2;.
3r.
X
Example
4
miles
an
In
hour
Id
hours
How
4.
hour
far
can
man
walk
in
is,
4a
hours
he
he
walks
walks
miles.
times
as
far, that
miles.
at
the
rate
of
60
[CHAP.
ALGEBRA.
If
6.
Example
is divided
$20
equally
the
y persons,
among
share
20
total
is the
of each
divided
sum
the
by
of persons,
number
or
"
spends
man
of
Out
6.
Example
quarters
containing
purse
in
; express
y half4ollars
left.
and
i^x
the
cents
sum
$a;^4ic quarters,
and
y
..
halfdollars
the
=2^
quarters;
left=(4x+2y"
sum
26
2;) quarters,
(4x + 2y
EXAMPLES
X.
a.
1.
By how
much
does
2.
By
how
much
is y less
3.
What
must
be
added
to
to
make
7 ?
4.
What
must
be
added
to
6 to
make
h ?
5.
By
6.
What
7.
By
what
8.
By
how
9.
The
what
what
10.
The
The
is the
12.
what
The
is the
13.
How
14.
The
what
15.
what
The
is the
other
17.
of
other
18.
How
hy
2 ?
get
2a: ?
is
and
numbers
of the
one
is 10 ;
numbers
third
is 100
if
of them
one
and
is 25
of
two
factors
is 4a; ;
if
of
two
numbers
is p,
times
is
of the
one
is 4,
factors
and
of
one
is
them
many
difference
2y
numbers
is 8, and
the
greater
numbers
is a:, and
the
less of them
of
them
?
of two
difference
other
in
contained
of two
other
is the
is 6 ;
number
to
product
sum
make
to
3 is divided
divided
three
product
The
when
numbers
is the
other
number
15 ?
sum
What
16.
each
of two
than
6a: exceed
does
is a:, what
11.
what
6a; be
much
5 ?
multiplied
quotient
must
sum
exceed
5 be
must
is the
is the
another
is
2) cents.
"
is less
of
12
equal
numbers
many
than
30
by
numbers
each
y ?
is 48a; ; what
equal
to
to
must
be
is the
value
taken
to make
of
15a:y ?
19.
If there
are
numbers
each
equal
20.
If there
are
5 numbers
each
equal
to
2a, what
x, what
is their
is their
sum
product ?
X.]
SYMBOLICAL
21
there
are
each
numbers
61
EXPRESSION.
If there
22i
are
books
each
is their
to p, what
equal
worth
what
dollars,
product
is the
total
cost?
If
23.
of
books
value
equal
cost
dollars, what
does
each
cost?
How
24,
for
If
26.
What
27.
If
spend
for
sold
at
price
in
cents
dimes
be
can
will
what
dime,
of
of
out
be
of
sum
six
at
oranges
30.
If
each
in
31.
How
have
left
hour
must
bought
the
in
cost
cents
how
$5,
score
dimes
many
many
that
so
to
who
man
in
bill of
pay
must
man
order
will
$y,
$12
earns
to
$6
earn
of
sum
equally to
equal
may
take
to
travel
hours
at
the
days,
what
it
is the
what
of
out
pay
contribute
must
persons
the subscription of each
hours
many
work
man
of
?
at
dimes
many
?
30aj cents
$x,
week
combine
persons
dimes
?
How
33.
days
day
a
35
How
of
in dimes
daily wage
6 days a
many
dimes
y
of
32.
How
rate
an
dollars
two
is the
What
28.
working
p weeks,
29.
to
worth
I left ?
the
of
are
is the
26.
have
in
each
apples
apples
of y
cents
books
many
y dollars
%"
so
fund
as
sisting
con
y quarters
miles
share
10
at
miles
34.
How
35.
If I
36.
How
far
call
I walk
can
walk
miles
in
will
days
many
in p
take
it
rate
is my
travel
to
of q miles
hour
an
rate
per
miles
at
day
miles
day?
We
84.
subjoin
Example
1.
What
numbers
The
of which
Example
will
In
will
be
the
sum
product
the
2.
half
that
is
boy
of his
five years
the boy
be
2(a;+ 5),
then
therefore
be
2a; +
least
the
10
will
or
371 + 3.
n{n
years
how
be
22? +
are
a:
10
1 )(7i+
old,
old
2a; + 5 years.
product
of
three
secutive
con
l and
+
+
2;
2)
2).
and
five years
is the
5 years
years
in full.
out
(71+ 1) + (n
(2) the
is
father:
or
to
+
worked
examples
sum,
consecutive
.*.
And
harder
is (1) the
numbers
two
few
old
old;
father
;
his
hence
his
age
now?
therefore
present
his
father
age
must
62
[CHAP.
ALGEBBA.
3.
Example
and
and
with
that
has
What
has
.'.
hasp"x
has
Thus
q dimes.
now
the
the
3 times
as
has
won
goes
of 25 miles
The
coach
is
travels
begins with
fp
fact
the
equation
an
miles
by
and
coach
b miles
and
hour,
an
the
in 1 hour
by train;
the
journey
train
take
at
hour;
.*
dimes.
lOx
a5)=3(g+10x).
long does
7 miles
travels
is g+
that
7 miles
how
dimes,
10(p"x)
10(p"
of
rate
hour,
per
is
that
dollars,
+x
the
by
lost ;
equation
at
; A
money
B.
as
dollars,
man
coach
rate
much
q dimes
4.
axe
required
Example
if the
playing for
wins. $x ; express
7
that
is,
Incurs.
7
tntin
Similarly the
/.
Example
what
How
5.
do
men
whole
the
time
6 miles
in
is
^+
occupied
will
men
many
hours
in np
hours
np
travels
be
is the
time
hours.
"
required
occupied by
to
men
qxnp
do
in j" hours
;
men;
1^^
hours
is,p
hours.
.*. 1 hour
that
men.
Therefore
the
required number
EXAMPLES
1.
Write
2.
Write
three
down
of
X.
b.
of which
numbers
consecutive
is qn.
men
is the
least.
down
four
consecutive
numbers
of
which
is
the
down
five
consecutive
numbers
of
which
is
the
greatest.
3.
middle
Write
one.
number
4.
What
is the
next
odd
5.
What
is the
even
number
6"
Write
down
the
one
is 2^; +
7.
How
old is
8.
How
old
9.
In 2x
middle
of
three
1 ?
before
next
product
2n
2n
odd
of which
numbers
the
1.
a
was
years
after
a
a
who
man
man
man
will
will
years
be
be
ago
y years
years
if his
old,
old
in
present
what
15
years
age
is his
is
years
present age
?
?
X.]
SYMBOLICAL
his
son
In
of
from
has
each
B^
who
man
20
years
boy
will
6 years
a
father
if he
his
12.
is
aged
now
11.
age
old
How
10.
63
EXPRESSION.
in
%ra
and
has
the
same
be
twice
dimes
after
has
in
as
present
won
this
Express
amount.
old
as
is the
as
has
will
years
old ; what
years
?
old as his son
be
is twice
dimes
algebraical
symbols.
A
13.
X
has
dollars
he
dollars
25
then
has
and
four
13
has
times
dollars
much
as
; after
A.
as
has
won
this
Express
in
algebraical symbols.
How
14.
in
1 mile
15
15.
How
miles
in
16.
How
miles
required
do
to
fly in
if he
walks
if he
walks
minutes
50
walk
hours
21.
22.
What
23.
What
remainder
If
is
miles
the
at
of 2 miles
rate
in
receives
/)
day
goes
train, how
by
and
boat
the
hours
how
hours,
5a;
be
to
men
will
men
many
mow
of com,
acres
if each
number
when
which,
divided
by
a,
gives
c.
remainder
the
if
divided
if when
quotient
in
dollars
many
spends
is
does
in
%x
; express
and
What
equally
dollars
has
man
cost
it take
many
How
week
in
l^ill is shared
y cents
26.
y miles
miles
30
and
train
by
is
gives
quotient
divided
by
there
is
25.
in
work
remainder
how
cents,
down
is the
24.
will
acres
h and
quotient
boat
by
if the
work
same
long
r
miles
take
do
the
Write
plums
walks
men
mows
27.
in
to
man
pigeon
journey
How
20.
%x
take
it
travels
hour
an
If
can
man
the
miles
19.
75
if he
far
will
mun
minutes
30
18.
10
in
walk
man
can
will
long
How
walk
man
q hours
7 minutes
long
miles
minutes
can
many
in
17.
miles
many
minutes
the
dime
his
purse,
dimes
the
does
y quarters
total
and
n
among
persons,
billamount
the
to
cost
of
plums
he
he
man
6a5
nuts
three
are
in
save
calendar
month
and
each
pays
25
away
has
left.
pays
sum
and
dimes,
if he
year,
and
earns
4x
times
plums,
as
when
expensive
x
as
nuts?
28.
If
page,
how
words
on
an
many
average
pages
there
will
be
are
words
required
in
for
line, and
book
which
y lines in
contains
CHAPTER
Problems
85.
to
The
solve
of
the
Example
xhe
Their
the
Find
by
conditions
is
which
{x{4),
then
a;
is
a;
..
and
numbers
$10
II.
Let
a;
than
more
the
and
18 dollars,
and
$47
B
the
Hence
has
$8
24
is
the
thus
methods
and
28,
whose
$7,
$15,
28.
16,
of
between
the
A,
than
more
of
8110
his
test
question
B,
$25.
by
solution
C,
so
or
that
finding
not.
have
may
C.
dollars
that
dollars.
10=47,
..
has
greater.
to
x+(x8)4(x+8410)=47;
express
we
12,
4=
to
number
xh
is
3x=21;
that
the
by
sum
equal
xx+84a;+8h
80
question
28;
conditions
Divide
5,
represent
and
x,
16.
advised
is
satisfies
Example
12
are
beginner
and
be
to
a:
it
as
solved
whose
2a:
whether
be
can
number,
a:
The
the
of
numbers
two
smaller
the
the
symbol,
4.
sum
that
IX.
Hence
BO
employed
be
now
may
follows
as
which
Chapter
I.
is
chapter
quantity
equation
in
given
dififereDce
Let
unknown
simple
last
is
procedure
language
symbolical
already
the
Equations.
problems.
method
obtain
Simple
to
of
principles
Represent
in
leading
various
The
XL
x=7;
has
then
has
66
ICHAP.
ALGEBRA.
Example
exceeds
FV.
onesixth
Let
be
the
Onehalf
of ^'s
mtmher
of ^'s
years older
by 8 years
4
age
of years
is
age
by ^x
age
is
of B'b
in B'a
multiplying by
Ja;
8 ;
a:
48
2a:
36
18.
3a; h 12
..
double
of the
72
may
18.
What
by
by
two
so
is 22
years.
that
three
is
age
4 years.
a;
and
onesixth
times
one
part
may
three
part
number
is the
one
be
may
much
as
the
28
to
increased
then
so
number
that
find
the
by 5, and
it.
resulting number
double
whose
number
and
times
added
be
added
that
60.
is doubled
must
the
such
parts,
is below
other
1 than
the
whose
exceeds
its half
seventh
part
that
part
by
9.
exceeds
its
eighth
1 ?
Divide
of the
into
much
Find
age
parts,
number
times
17.
^'s
and
two
the
is less
19.
into
48
two
parts,
so
one
be
may
threefifths
other.
and
If 4, Bt
20.
double
of ^'s
and
of
^
22.
'^
23.
is 8
38
to
square
25.
years
age,
'I'he
difference
find
shall
We
by
B,
and
their
share
that
so
A*b
and
is the
5's
of A^s
share
and
^'s
onehalf
^'s
24 years
onethird
of
is
money
of each
age
?
be
shall
together.
is
equal
B, and
^'s, and
than
of
older
(7b
than
C;
together
ages.
numbers
[See
7.
between
the
C,
A^
they
are
consecutive
smaller
find
two
is 31
old
and
than
younger
onehalf
of the
numbers
86.
how
them,
threefourths
younger
;
years
Find
24.
Aj
C*b share
years
of ^'s
onesixth
amount
16
between
of ^'s, what
between
of A^s
onethird
onesixth
^'s, and
is
$76
have
(Ts
^11
Divide
21.
onethird
to
122
How
be
^'s
other.
certain
result
16.
into
twice
as
15.
part
75
Divide
14.
above
the
is 18 years,
Divide
13.
be
age
ages.
by J(a:4)years,
..
age
^^s
years.
J(a;+ 4)
B's
their
then
half
and
B,
find
;
age,
represented
Hence
Thus
than
whose
product
Art.
84, Ex.
1.]
the
squares
of
two
exceeds
the
consecutive
numbers.
give
now
examples
of
somewhat
greater
difl"culty.
I.
Example
from
much
did
certain
B
win
has
sum,
2
$6,
A
and
has
B
then
has
six
dimes
fivesixths
of
XI.]
Suppose
has
LEADING
PROBLEMS
6 +x
that
wins
TO
dimes, A
67
EQUATIONS.
SIMPLE
has
then
60"
dimes, and
a;
dimes.
Hence
60x=l(6\x);
3606a;=30
6x,
lla;=330
x=30.
Therefore
wins
II.
Example
times
old
as
Let
B^s
Ten
years
; thus
years
is twice
; what
he
age
dimes,
80
as
old
^'s
ten
ages
years
is 2x
age
2a;10=4(a;10)
he
ago
four
was
years.
respectively
were
ages
B,
as
present
then
years,
their
ago
have
we
ifS,
their
are
or
and
10
x"
2aj"
10
2aj10=4a540,
2x=30
a;=16,
.*.
so
that
is 15
old, A
years
30
years.
EXAMPLES
finds
he
he
had
six
lost
has
A's
; how
play each
of 4's, what
with
$15
; if
lose
between
much
as
does
them
money
; A
B
as
certain
of
$28
times
as
7,
old
as
is 20
years
; find
their
old
How
it will
^
will
is
be
is twice
are
father
be
as
in
as
their
is 24
twofifths
much
as
win
play
they
to A
sum
did
much
till JB's
gives 3
much
; find
older
as
money
had
; what
times
is four
father
; what
ages?
twice
only
of what
9,
times
three
twice
be
8,
had
6,
age
have
has
4,
only
old
to
; after
b.
to
much
] how
and
then
had
each
first ?
5,
old
begin
and
3,
and
is fourelevenths
money
at
is
2,
has
1,
his money
XI.
as
old
as
their
ages.
than
B^
and
; after
each
his
at
years
$3
to
first ?
; in
son
giving
16
years
ago
was
he
twice
will
as
ages.
man
15
old
whose
present
10
years
ago
was
threeeighths
years
as
age
; 5
ages
years
ago
he
three
was
times
as
older
than
years
of his father's
his
age
son
; in
; what
7
are
the son's
years
their
present
68
[CHAP.
ALGEBRA.
III.
Example
ducks
the
; if each
total
number
he
goose
of
and
dimes,
bought
birds
in
$66.40
spent
person
cost
how
108,
was
buying
duck
each
and
geese
and
dimes,
of
many
if
did
each
buy
questions of this
quantities expressed
kind
In
it will
instance
Let
be
the
each
Since
And
since
in
it is of
of
number
to
the
express
money
108"
then
a; is the
number
7x
dimes.
geese,
7 dimes,
costs
goose
duck
each
importance
denomination
convenient
be
essential
same
the
costs
geese
108"
cost
dimes,
in
ducks
have
to
in
the
all
present
dimes.
ducks.
of
3(108"
cost
x)
dimes.
the
Therefore
amount
is
spent
dimes.
7x43(108x)
But
the
question
that
states
the
is also
amount
$56.40,
is 564
that
dimes.
=564
7x+3(108x)
Hence
7x+3243x=564,
4x=240,
.".
108"
and
Note.
In
all these
quantity
and
student
the
represents
of
number
of
geese,
x=48,
the
number
of
ducks.
it should
kind,
the
statement
so
be
"let
x=J.'s
vague
and
found
easier
IV.
Example
9 of them
how
many
Let
16
and
be
eggs
the
cost
eggs
cost
spends
woman
much
as
did
she
of
price
16x
cents
..
25
over
the
**let
or
known
un
etc. ;
with
x=the
inexact.
not
$1
cents
to
put
in
buying
as
16
eggs,
under
cost
finds
and
75
cents
buy
an
that
equal to the
other
to some
quantity involved
the equation is often
simplified.
that
avoid
to
noticed
be
of
number
careful
be
sometimes
It will
the
examples
must
a
supposition
ducks,'' or any
x=60,
egg
in
cents
; then
0 eggs
cost
9x
cents,
9x25=7616x,
25x=100;
Thus
=
the
price
of
an
egg
is
cents,
and
the
number
of
eggs
100^4=25.
10.
men
number
A
each
of
$30 is divided
receiving 75 cents,
sum
each
of
sex.
between
and
the
50
women
and
men
50
women,
cents;
find
the
the
XI.]
The
11,
the
price of
yards
worth
sorts, part
; how
pound
13,
pay
had
days
shall
$1
for
he
worked
15,
dimes
; the
of
pound
of
by
$68
what
he
their
have
of
$46,
22,
23,
pound.
12
each
is
day
idle
; how
$90
he
many
which
either
are
ters
quar
halfdollars, quarters,
in
four
was
of
times
dimes
and
the
; how
and
number
were
many
and
cents
all gets
in
of
80
24
which
money
it, and
for
cents
lbs.
; how
greater
was
gained
between
in
heaps
marbles
has
of
$18;
thereby
as
one
arranges
There
36
are
ages
other
than
9 each.
each
the
less
years
them
combined
the
old
and
A
A
of his
their
; in 24
father^s
three
persons,
two
years
sons,
their
age
; find
at
16
lost
for
certain
number
number
at
If 8 lbs.
of tea
much
as
gained
and
45
24
lbs.
find
;
of
lbs.
of
; how
4 cents
of
$3,
them
and
the
apples
for
three
of
and
and
B
each
and
finds
that
cost
under
60
quarter
$1.50
of
J., B,
them,
share
for
oranges
cei\ts as 16
bought
were
is the
of
24
over
between
$42
; what
$53
number
man
between
have
have
that
bought
as
40
at
sum
is divided
eggs
cents
five cents
cost
as
oranges
sixteen
tea
be
much
as
of
of
coins,
of
tea
tunes
times
bought
threefifths
24,
received
30
used
other
is four
and
buying
15
for
he
day
each
many
that
way
C
many
By
ages.
cost
for
end
marbles
the
; how
person
; how
dozen
he
paid
horse
of money
for
240
each,
will
sum
of them
cents
ages
that
$16.10,
he
price
age
is three
and
21,
cents
have
boys
such
in
C,
each
and
spends
the
man's
for
number
coffee
horse
for
respective
20,
for
paid
the
buy
the
pay
of whom
combined
12
sold
altogether
19,
two
?
that
halfdollars
he
he
half
his in heaps
heaps
of
up
60
condition
of
up
there
was
times
buys
man
Two
18,
one
of
ten
did
than
did
the
are
$11.46
person
on
made
worth
rest
as
each
17,
days
but
is made
many
respectively
much
sort
the
$10
yard.
per
is
$68,
and
each
price
than
of
each
16,
at
number
quarters
there
board
$6
and
60
$2,
; how
sum
for
receive
his
of
sum
dimes
or
of
is hired
of
less
much
as
the
worth
tea,
pound
is there
he
14,
of
is
; find
69
EQUATIONS.
SIMPLE
cloth
$20
cents
much
of
yards
exceeds
80
man
works
shall
TO
hundredweight
12,
13
of 27
price
he
LEADING
PROBLEMS
selling
number
at
cent
four
;
many
cost
sugar
find
the
sugar,
of
for
them
at
eggs.
a
cent, and
by selling
apples did
$7.20, and
price of
them
I
at
buy
if 3 lbs.
each
pei
70
bottle
of
26.
and
of
divide
10
which
is
divided
tlie
entire
eldest
old
as
find
of
part
idnd
divide
it
quotients,
the
his
the
by
the
farm
number
and
10
obtain
we
increased
number
then
result
20
by
when
of
$16
the
having
he
which
numbers
the
at
B.
quotient
the
numbers.
should
enough
and
and
$3.50
pay
to
$2.60
per
other
as
of
his
of
the
for
pay
yard
it ;
and
buy
each
to
are
15,
he
money
quality
did
yards
if
that
inferior
an
is
and
by
is 4 ; find
less
found
onehalf
onethird,
received
numbers
by
4, B,
persons,
than
more
than
more
two
silk
three
$10
amounts
greater
many
two
$10
the
between
buying
between
receives
; find
the
lack
; how
man^s
of
the
is 3
women,
and
3,
to
number
of
women
was
bought
man
at
of
for
total
the
and
of
of
at
10
child
each
the
number
than
twice
of
the
persons.
apples
them
gaining
more
and
women,
twice
as
be
ages.
and
$1,
sons,
times
will
ages
men,
than
number
of
cent,
some
woman
less
respective
was
number
to
each
children
fourfifths
sold
He
cents.
remainder
$2,
of
find
given
was
number
combined
their
three
and
youngest
their
; find
age
men
ages
the
as
years
receiving
number
the
10
$34.50
man
The
cents.
of
sum
each
old
as
father^s
their
combined
the
times
; in
son
than
The
children,
Is twice
age
whom
second
less
33.
of sherry,
if
is 100.
32.
of
receives
purchased
Find
the
third
we
the
divided
that
$10
in
would
left
sum
34.
is
person
he
is
dividing
31.
$89
fourth
the
if
add
quotient
way
which
therefore
years
difference
$26
the
than
that
and
money
amount,
yard
whose
of
The
30.
such
the
to
from
29.
cost
sherry
bottle
than
more
less
acres
number
such
remainder,
50
the
sum
in
arising
of
10.
C,
than
more
acres
number
equal
and
had
50
10
by
cents
dozen
farm.
the
by
28.
he
sells
Find
27.
per
per
man
in
acres
three
XI.
dozen.
remaining
has
and
port
26
costs
port
of each
price
of
dozen
Four
25.
a
[CHAP.
ALGEBRA.
the
at
for
cents
of
rate
and
cents
; how
the
did
many
for
he
buy?
36.
2".
and
B
D
of
farm
350
fivesixths
owns
onesixth
acres
of
owned
as
much
by
acres
was
much
as
as
each.
A,
owned
as
B,
^,
and
by
four
fourfifths
A,
men.
together
as
B,
much
; find
C, and
as
the
ber
num
B,
XIL
CHAPTER
Elementary
algebraical
[Art. 68]
The
abbreviation
words
highest
89.
In
factor
can
be
Example
1.
Example
a%^
h*
a^
is the
written
sometimes
two
highest
without
them
or
sions
dimen
remainder.
used
instead
of
the
of
factor
of
power
h that
of
power
factor
common
highest
highest
common
inspection.
common
highest
the
the
expressions
by
highest
The
is
simple
down
The
highest
will
that
divide
a^6*,
6^
"
is
a%^c^,
divide
will
6^
a^
a^b^c
is
a*
a^, a\
and
aK
is not
factor.
common
90.
If
the
Arithmetic
the
to
Example.
la^xy
(1)
the
(2)
the
greatest
highest
it consists
greatest
common
highest
the
power
given
of
the
highest
measure
of
each
letter
common
factor
2.
^y^,
5.
a%^c,a^hc\
6.
Sa^ft, 9a6c.
9.
12a"6c2,
ISaftV,
13.
14ftc2, 636a^
15.
Hxy^z,
Ga^y,
lOdtth^,
h\xyz\
the
21a*ar^,
Z^^x^,
numerical
which
Zn.
.3a62, 2a6".
8aa:,
as
2"ahnf
coefficients
divides
every
one
2xy^,
of
expressions.
1.
11.
it
by
of
product
EXAMPLES
Find
of
prefix
and
find
factor.
common
factor
the
coefficients,
measure,
highest
common
of
numerical
common
algebraical
The
for
have
expressions
their
coefficient
is
of
case
2.
for
of
factor,
common
the
is
H.C.F.
of
of
factor
expression
each
divides
Expressions.
common
is the
expressions
which
Simple
of
highest
The
Definition.
bb.
more
Factor
Common
Highest
Fractions.
5662c.
Uxhp.
^xh/,
a.
of
3,
6c", Sft^c.
4.
^^,
7.
%xYz,2xy,
8.
ISy^, Sxy^z".
10.
loi^y^zS 2\xh/7?.
12.
aVy,
14.
16.*
h^xy\
cvS^,
72
[CHAP.
ALGEBRA.
Lowest
91.
Oommon
Multiple
lowest
The
Definition.
of
algebraical
is divisible hy
The
words
lowest
92.
multiple
can
Example
Example
aHi^
1.
The
2.
The
quantities a^
of
each
Dy
93.
eflBcient
least
(1) the
lowest
the
power
" is the
and
least
power
for
have
the
lowest
it consists
multiple
power
of that
of
aryz,
4.
4a2, Sahx*,
7.
win,
instead
lowest
common
of
a'6*, a6*,
by each
of
that
of the
numerical
which
in the
occurring
coefficients
8.
abc.
4a*bc^, 5ab\
5.
is divisible
by every
given expressions.
^x^y, ^xyh.
6.
2a6, ^xy.
^yz^t Ssx^.
9.
2xy, SyZy
I6xh/, 2Dxy:^.
12.
^,
11.
3.
9ab^
14.
15.
16.
72;"V^"
highest
20.
57aary, 76a:y2.7.
22.
51mV,
pn,
factor
common
18.
34mnp*.
^
24.
eea^ft^cxS ^dab^xyh,
b.
ZII.
2.* a^\
17.
by
co
of
is
of the
coefRcients, find
multiple, and prefix it as a
common
multiple.
13.
multiple
a^"
is divisible
the
a* is a".
10.
both
the
multiple of
common
nZ, Im,
Find
of
is divisible
power
letter
each
letter
3y".
1.
sions
dimen
numerical
EXAMPLES
Find
lowest
or
",
common
common
that
lowest
common
lowest
420a*a;*y ;
is
(2)
of
multiple
of
algebraical lowest
The
Example.
two
remainder.
usei
multiple
common
expressions
the
to
lowest
lowest
their
without
sometimes
common
quantities b*, b\
the
Arithmetic
lowest
a^
a,
the
If
2Sa^xy
written
a' is the
; for
expression
of
case
be
of
multiple,
common
the
In
is
L.C.M.
abbreviation
of
multiple
of them
each
which
Expressions.
common
expressionsis the
more
Simple
\2\^\
and
Ib7^y\ ^x'^yz^
4zx,
2\a^c.
lOSp^gV.
the
lowest
19.
common
2a*, Sa^feSc?.
21.
Z^a^'h^
23.
4"a'bc\
74
[cHAP.
ALGEBRA.
mvltiply cdgehraiccdfractions :
for a new
multiply together ail the numerators
denominator,
all the denominators
for a new
To
Bnle.
96.
and
Fractions.
of
Division
and
Multiplication
Lxample
"
"
all the
factors
97.
Bole.
proceed
denominator.
ib^
each
divide
To
nmnercUory
1,
_
3a^
cancelling
and
divisor
_
bc^
and
in numerator
metic^
Arith
in
as
by
fraction
one
in
as
other.
invert
another:
the
mtdiiplication.
T^^^^:^^^
Example.
^
4x^y^
5a"2
4x"y2
bai^
I5b^xy^
28aV
?".
=
all the
other
factors
cancelling each
other.
EXAMPLES
Simplify
ab
n
^'
^*
ab
6aV
fl^^2ccP
6V
3a"2^15"V
"
^'^
'
5ax*
"*^'
Reduction
98.
In
must,
order
as
denominator
multiple
to
in
of the
Q^
find
Common
the
sum
it is most
a:"y
ISfe^
l4cP^81d"
40c
^6^'27c^'
Denominator.
difference
or
first
them
reduce
convenient
denominators
'
'
iV
,"
to
x^i^*
y^^l7y^3V
za:^
Arithmetic,
; and
Sp^q^^pq
8a'262
"*
SaH\9aT'^xy
'2Ei baH
^S
,,
4a^
"
in
3a:"'
4ar^
bbc'""
l^bc
"""
2aV^10".^"V
25fa
7c^
^*
9a26
Sfe^c
yz"
Sp^^'i^'
^
'
4^2
3^5
2acc"
"^^
a63
9my
'"
we
^
"*
7a6a''l2aa;*
d.
^4c"rf*
2^
146^0
*"
following expressions
a^l^
xy
the
Xn.
of the
to
take
given
of
fractions,
any
to
the
commou
lowest
fractions.
mon
com
xn.]
ELEMENTARY
Example.
Exprees
76
FRACTIONS.
lowest
with
denominator
common
fractions
the
lowest
the
make
to
of each
numerator
its denominator
The
Note.
lowest
of
multiple
common
Gxyz,
6^'
6^*
would
common
multiplying
quotients.
the
plying
Multi
6xyz.
which
is
required
fractions
equivalent
Sex
6^
of
each
by
corresponding
equivalent
as
is
factor
the
obtained
XLL
fractions
with
by dividing
denominators
the
by
numerators
EXAMPLES
Express
the
clearly be
denominator
and
by
have
we
2az
result
same
denominators
the
fraction
the
in
the
turn,
respective
e.
denominator
common
1.
5.
9.
12.
99.
To
Rule.
add
The
rp,
The
least
2.
^
retain
the
is 12.
5x
15a?
="
T*
j^
Sab
ab
db
bx
2x
10a;
Simplify
0
6a65a6o6
t\
rrii
The
expression
^
^
10a;
common
',^"'
^"
20a; + 9a;14a:
Example
and
denominator
common
expression
all
the
fractions: express
denominator
algebrai; form the cal
common
Simplify
1.
Fractions.
subtract
or
of
Subtraction
and
Addition
r^r
10a;
0.
denominator.
76
[CHAP.
ALGEBRA.
Example
The
3.
expression
Note.
^_
Simplify
The
^~^^,
^r^.
and
of
admits
he
must
beginner
XII.
careful
simplification.
further
no
between
distinguish
to
Example 2, and
erasin^Tequal
of
in the
cancelliziffequal factors
course
multiplication, or iii
tions
in simplifying fracterms.
Moreover,
reducing fractions to lowest
factor
from
remember
that
he
must
a
can
only be removed
and
nomerator
Thus
be
cannot
signs,
it divides
when
denominator
^^75^,
in
different
with
terms
as
taken
each
cancelled
in
because
it
a^
only
whole.
divides
cv
3a'c*
and
not
whole
the
because
it
fraction
is therefore
When
be
only
and
6aa;
its
in
is
the
not
simplest
denominator
no
Similarly
numerator.
divides
cannot
whole
be
cancelled
numerator.
The
form.
expressed
the
denominator
1 may
understood.
Sx
Example^.
before
""".
4y
If
^^^" ^^
fraction
r^^^^^R
Example^.
"r
4y
in its lowest
is not
combining
4y
it with
a^
other
_ax
^
terms
it should
fractions.
x_Sax2x
^.
EXAMPLES
Xn.
f
.
Simplify
the
following expressions:
be
simplified
XIII.
CHAPTER
Equations.
Simultaneous
the
Consider
100.
unknown
equation
contains
which
2^iH5y=23,
two
quantities.
transposition
By
get
we
5y=232^;
y=?^^'
is,
that
this
From
to
there
jc
be
find
to
the
one
as
for
that
appears
be
will
able
satisfy
it
(1).
value
every
corresponding
of
of
values
as
pairs
many
choose
we
value
to
Thus
y.
we
please
we
give
shall
which
equation.
given
21
For
if ^=1,
instance,
(1)
from
then
obtain
we
v=
"
27
if
Again,
J7=
if also
But
have
we
quantities,
have
we
If
from
now
the
such
equation
"
of
values
the
containing
same
known
un
(2).
which
(2)
must
be
satisfy both
tions,
equa
identicsd.
232x^24ar
Therefore
Multiplying
across
92
So?
Substituting
this
value
1 20
1 5.r ;
7^=28;
..
in
8 +
/.
the
5y
equation,
first
=
have
we
23;
5y=15;
^=4./
and
Thus,
of
on.
"
and
and
(1)
in
so
3a;+4y=24,
as
y=
of
values
; and
=="
second
this
seek
we
then
2,
and
if both
y,
there
equations
is
only
are
one
to
be
solution
satisfied
by
possible.
the
same
/alues
TS
[CHAP.
ALGEBRA.
101.
Definition.
the
by
simultaneous
When
two
the
unknown
of
values
same
equations are
quantities they
method
this
of
is
which
that
of
object
only of
readiest
since
formed
equation
any
values
and
will
always
the
unknown
The
103.
to
To
1.
eliminate
coefficients
practice it
will
solution.
It
be
the
of
meaning
in
we
found
be
must
either
cause
called
Addition
by
Solve
the
that
borne
of
elimination.
the
We
known
un
shall
of
we
a;
Subtraction.
(1),
6a;+2y=16
(2).
to
make
in both
35y=135,
29y
.*.
substitute
48;
87 ;
6y
subtracting,
X,
or
3x+7y=27
\bx+
find
used
two
15a: +
To
the
our
quantities
have
of
by which
disappear is
Elimination
the
contine
methods.
two
Example
but
mode
shall
we
unknown
we
illustrates
taneous
solving simul
simultaneously true,
equations are
will be satisfied by the
by combining them
the
which
original equations. Our
satisfy
involves
be to obtain
one
an
equation which
quantities.
the
process
quantities
consider
best
equation ;
the
for
already worked
example
solution
rarely
mind
in
the
simidtaneoiis
term
called
are
equations.
*We
102.
satisfied
more
or
this
3.
of
value
eitTier of
in
the
given
equations.
Thus
from
3ar + 21
(1 ),
27
and
When
Note.
which
the
of
one
of the
equations we
present example, if we
the
unknowns
has
use
substitute
5a; + 6
.'.
been
complete
to
3 for
as
solution.
y in (2),
16;
2,
it is immaterial
foand,
the
before.
we
have
Thus,
in
xni.]
SIMULTANEOUS
7a: + 2y
Solve
Example2.
it will be
and
from
6a:
(2)
4y
95
.*.
Substitute
value
this
a:
35+2y
.*.
Note.
when
Add
in
coefficients
the
when
; subtract
sign
5.
in (1),
.'.
unlike
1 ;
19a:
adding,
y.
4y94,
14a; +
Multiplying (1) by 2,
(2).
to eliminate
convenient
more
(1),
47
5a;4y=
Here
79
EQUATIONS.
47 5
6,
of
one
unknown
coefficients
the
equal
are
and
equal
are
and
in
like
sign.
Elimination
Solve
3.
Example
Substitution.
by
(1),
2a;=5y+
(2).
247x=3y
Here
from
we
eliminate
can
/.
3y;
4835y7
6y;
41=41y;
..
from
104.
(1)
a:
Any
sufficient
will
of
one
sometimes
the
Solve
given above
certain
are
shorten
arithmetical
that
coefficients
28a;23y
multiple
of 28
and
28
of
and
63
in the
63
if
Thus
we
contain
that
and
is,
therefore
from
(1),
found
artifices
which
(1),
17
(2).
factor
common
equations equal
multiply ( 1 ) by 9 and

207y
=.
252a:220y3
subtracting,
be
22
two
252a:
will
work.
63a:55y
Noticing
3.)
methods
the
there
but
Example.
the
obtained
Thus
(1).
l)
24^(5y
and
value
1 98,
68;
13y
130
10,
a:
9.
to
7,
shall
we
the
(2) by
least
4.
make
common
80
[cHAP.
ALGEBRA.
EXAMPLES
Solve
1.
the
equations
4.
a;+y
10.
60,
4a; +
41.
25,
3y
6a:+4y
51.
7a:+5y
46,
19.
8.
5,
11.
14.
17.
4a;3y
0,
7a;4y
36.
20.
13a:y=14,
6,
0.
6.
9.
3a:+2y
41.
6a:+4y
7,
4a:+5y
2.
4a:+5y
4,
5a;3y
79.
lh
a:y
9.
a5y
25,
l3.
+ y
y=10,
4a:+
7y
6ar +
12.
15.
22,
6a: +
0.
63.
lla:7y
la
21.
9a;8y=14,
47.
3a:7y=l,
4a?+
2a;+3y
2y
x+y
a:+5y=18,
4.
3.
23,
xy
x
3ar+5y
2a;3y
16.
5.
0.
7a?6y
13.
a?+y
xy=
24,
a:y=
7.
2.
7.
xy=
a.
19,
a:+y=
XTTT.
43,
2a;3y
13.
7a: + 3y
65,
7a:8y
32.
14a: +
13y
36,
21a: +
19y
66.
2a:7y
22.
5a:
25.
23.
21a:9y
76.
13a?9y
46,
12y
6y6a:
4a:
31.
15x14y
7y21,
11a:
28.
9.
26.
lla:+13y
solve,
33y,
10x
7y16.
17.
29.
We
add
it will
be
10=6y,
7y
4a:+13.
Example,
few
to
necessary
Solve
in
17.
7a:9y3(a:4y)
6a: +
7a;
(2),
9y
3a: +
4a: +
(3),
By addition,
80
wheuce
a;
47 + 3a:,
6a:
3016y.
19a: +
17y
41a: +
37y=17.
7,
to
14
(1),
38
(2).
8.
(3).
12y
38
3y
38
42.
6a;3y
10a;
2a:y=14
/.
Prom
4y
lly=14;
10y3a;
..
From
3.
proceeding
equations.
the
simplify
66,
before
which,
6(a:+2y)(3a;+lly)
From(l),
33.
13a:17y=ll,
cases
12y.
7a: + 8y
30.
ll,
llylla:
7.
29a:39y
a
27.
3a: +
32.
7,
21y
5a;7y
18x
6a:5y=ll,
13a:+lly=17.
105.
7y22.
24.
66a:
28a? +
ll,
20.
From
(4).
(3)
we
obtain
2.
82
[CHAF.
ALGEBRA.
13.
3(a:y)
14.
3(a:+y5)
15.
4(2a:
16.
7(2a;y)
17.
^=y=i
W
i^r^,
?l
=
jB
108.
2(a?+y)
6)
+
3(a?+y)+2(a;y)
3(a:y7)
2(ya:),
15,
3(3a;
5(3y4x)
2y
30
y
20.
a;
In
order
21.
one
of
solved
then
by
the
rules
the
the
already
found by substitutingin
same
any
equations which
that
we
order
solve
given.
one
of
The
the
thus
two
taneous
simul
quantities
from any
unknown
from
are
contain
have
must
to
unknown
unknowns
unknowns
8,
?+?=3.
have
Eliminate
^?
o;
seen
quantities we
that
find
in
equations. Similarly we
three
contain
equations which
three
have
must
equations.
Rule.
6(y2a;).
unknown
two
3y+4.
^=y^=?^
simultaneous
to solve
0.
13.
3)
S7.
I_?
2".
18.
2xfy+4.
l)+4a?
5(y"a;
0,
2(a:+ y2)
2(a:y
5),
25.
we
pair of the
another
pair.
obtained^
which
unknown
remaining
given equations.
may
is
Xin.J
SIMULTANEOUS
Solve
Example.
2y3z
5a:4y
unknown
the
as
4z
be
to
Multiply (2) by 5,
20a: +
lOy
Multiply "(1 ) by 2,
14a: +
lOy
8ar +
4y
Multiply (4) by 2,
used
(4)
14z
12a:
of
modification
Some
with
6z
the
35;
2z
35.
22
32
a;
3.
2,
from
the
equation
from
the
equation
have
^ 1
+ ^
2y+3z
Eliminating
whence
from
(1)
a;
rule
may
often
be
10 y
+
?+2,
7
1,
7a:2z
from
3.
3a;y=12
have
and
foregoing
equation
.
we
(4).
16
0 ;
?l=4.l
Solve
have
And
advantage.
ji
we
16
the
Also
0 ;
find
we
Example.
we
(3).
(2),
From
35
15z
by subtraction,
109.
eliminated.
13a;
by addition,
from
(2),
6a:4y+4z
(3),
and
*"...
Multiply (2) by 2,
From
(1),
6a;z
by subtraction,
from
%
Ix + hylz4a: +
Choose
83
EQUATIONS.
18.
(2) and
(1).
1+
42
13,
78
2,
(2).
have
(3), we
21a; +
4y
282;
12a;
4y
48
Also
by
(3).
substitution
in (2)
we
obtain
14.
84
[CHAP.
ALGEBRA.
EXAMPLES
Solve
1.
the
equations
3a;2y
2x
Sy~z
x+
3.
a:
y +
2y
4,
S,
8.
c.
2.
3a?+4y6z=
4x+
4.
3y
14.
3a; +
4y
4a; +
3y
0,
6.
6x3y+2z=12,
9a:
3a;+2y52=
7.
0.
3y625a;
22
3a:
a:2y+2"
9.
4,
8,
IK
15.
22
4a: +
l(2.y) 11,
=
a:z
a:
l.
*
3.
z+2y
3a;+8
4y+3z.
z3.
;^
2a:y2_2yza:_2za:y
2z
84,
62
13.
9,
2=
5z=
16,
2.
5a:
a:ya6.
"
3y
21,
3,
y=
2a:
=y+=a;+y+z+2=o.
+y
1(2
(z4a:)
1(3 z),
(a;+y)
2,
y^
6,
39.
iJy5Jz,
10.
Z"yz^
16.
l",
2z
2y
2a:l(22y)
1.
2=
8a?3z+
y92=l.
12.
14.
3y
0.
^a:+l(y
z)
13.
8.
11.
24,
a:+4y32=
\x^ y^\z \.
a:+
y+
x
6a: +
7a;4y3z=
y
27,
7a;+8y9z=
16,
a:3y2z=
32=:32,
4a:5y+6z
5.
Zni.
xm,
0.
"
y.
").
Problems
In
110.
unknown
leading
to
Simultaneous
Examples
discussed
have
to
quantities
problems
of
XIV.
it is essentisd
that
seen
the
CHAPTER
in
the
have
chapter we
are
equations as there
many
the
statement
Consequently
as
determine.
to
Equations.
last
contain
between
which
equations
different
or
must
relations
quantities
are
be
to
determined.
of
fifth
Let
Find
1.
Example
whose
be
is
11, and
one
is 9.
sum
the
difference
whose
numbers
two
number,
greater
then
the
less
(1).
x"y=:ll
^"i^=9,
Also
(2).
aj+y=45
or
By
addition
The
numbers
and
$15.50,
find
the
If 15
of
price
Suppose
lbs.
25
each
pound
and
per
pound.
of
from
the
question
10
lbs.
of
coffee
of
we
1550
102/=
and
75a;+
have
we
=7750,
ll2/=385,
2/=35.
15x+350=1550
(1),
whence
1 5a;
..
*.
the
cost
of
pound
of
tea
1200
a=80.
is
80
cents,
35
cents.
and
the
cost
of
pound
of
(1),
302/ =7365.
Subtracting,
from
cost
$24.55
(2).
3,
(2) by
75a; +502/
And
cost
25x413y=2455
(1) by
together
together
have
15x4
Multiplying
coffee
cents,
coffee
and
Then
cost
to
tea
lbs.
13
2y=M.
17.
and
tea
tea
of
and
28
of
lbs.
subtraction
by
therefore
are
2.
Example
; and
2a:=56
coffee
is
86
Example
twice
the
black
balls
Let
We
white
of
number
four.
by
be
bag containingblack
of
equal to a third
iR
whole
balls;
In
3.
of
number
How
of
balls
the
bag
have
the
following equations
x+y
(1) in 2,
and
from
Thus
there
student
number
3y
12
%.
number
of black
(2).
4;
balls.
black
12
are
x, y^
the
such
number
as
whose
435
the
of
its value
is
digits beginning
units
tens+^
+y
100^+10^+0.
number
certain
A
Example,
and
digits,
digits
hundreds
=x
if 45
of its
three
Similarly
10+5.
left
the
of
number
100+3
lind
contain
Consider
X
the
of
number
obtain
and
bag
the
the
and
;
111.
from
8 white
are
times
black
2y
(1),
the
of
3y+4
we
whence
three
did
balls, half
balls.
then
Substituting from
white
number
the
balls, and
white
contains
and
exceeds
many
number
the
balls
2(a;+y)
[chap.
ALGEBRA.
be
of two
added
digits is three
digits will
it the
to
times
be
the
sum
reversed
be
Hence
the
digit in
have
we
the
the
tens'
number.
two
equations
10a: + y
3(x
10y+a:
y)
(1),
10a; + y + 45
and
lx2.yi
From(l),
from
Thus
yxb.
(2),
From
these
the
(2).
equations we
number
is 27.
obtain
2,
7"
XIV.]
LEADING
PROBLEMS
EXAMPLES
1,
Find
2,
The
numbers
two
87
EQUATIONS.
SIMULTANEOUS
TO
XIV.
wliose
is
sum
64, and
whose
their
difference
difference
is
12.
the
is 97 and
numbers
two
of their
of
is 51
find
farmer
6,
have
price
Twice
7,
A's
of
sum
of
8,
tlireequarters
each
and
3,
onethird
is
and
14,
half
their
cows
7 horses
and
worth
are
What
and
of
for
cows
for
cows
while
$131,
value
is the
the
same
three
each
cows
animal
could
$330.
He
money
; find
the
exceeds
is 61
ages
^'s
of
B^s
old
of
^'s
5's
11
by
by
age
they
are
quarter
exceeds
age
times
how
years,
exceeds
age
B^a
three
; if
years
?
1
by
age
j find
years
and
year,
the
of
age
?
In
9,
and
in
how
eight hours
miles
In
10,
the
coach
bill
11,
three
times
the
and
else
13
sum
each
15,
reversed
exceeds
are
goods
this
that
9 carts
are
will
; how
each
of
used
be
the
and
number
of
and
five
?
and
times
to
does
than
more
quarters,
twice
quarters
seven
hour.
per
and
exceeds
used
hours
train
miles
halfdollars
are
hours,
in six
than
more
travels
rate
with
paid
each
of
tons
and
require
10
many
tons
dimes,
the
number
in
carried
given to 17 boys
given to 13 boys
of $14.50
have
boy
is
been
and
certain
digits,
is
each
in six
does
of
carts
and
wagons
each
can
ters
quar
and
ons,
wag
14
carts,
and
wagon
carry
could
of
of
many
the
does
D
C
mile
one
halfdollars
many
$8.70
hour
with
paid
of
of dimes
wagons
14,
much
of
; find
is
$15
it is found
cart
amount
hours
number
Fortysix
13,
13
than
train
the
than
more
more
per
travels
hours
number
6 ; how
by
of
walk
coach
in
9 miles
each
in
6 ; how
bill
12,
times
each
the
by
quarters
does
but
does
walks
9 hours
hours,
3 miles
walks
hours
seven
many
in
the
numbers
two
^66.
age
their
Half
is
animal.
each
of
of
seven
horses
numbers
two
numbers.
worth
bought
10
bought
of
numbers.
sum
the
and
sheep
sheep are
five
the
the
; find
is 13
Four
5,
and
or
; find
Onesixth
difference
difference
the
is 17
sum
4.
the
of
Onefifth
3,
"
of
sum
numbers.
of
number
if 36
find
the
be
16
girls;
the
20
girls j
find
same
how
girl receives.
each
and
and
and
taken
number.
two
from
digits
the
is
seven
number
times
the
the
sum
digits will
of
be
88
certain
and
if 27
16.
digits,
find
the
the
find
of
dollar
how
dimes.
the
of
how
Two
again
of
buy
100
the
sum
by
versing
re
equal
are
of
sum
the
to
digits
much
as
and
men,
and
quarters,
then
for
180
have
?
4
women,
a
as
girl,
would
he
first
at
find
oz.,
halfdollars
the
changed
he
he
quarter
If
ounces.
halfdollars,
in
halfdollars,
have
boy
and
quarters
235
has.
he
If
and
is
weight
oz.,
silver
had
and
sugar
of
of
of
and
and
half
boy
and
boys,
woman
each
of
lbs.
coffee
coffee
girls,
girl,
each
much
as
as
and
$2.50,
cost
find
$3.80,
cost
J5, he
?
number
of
$22.50
the
have
and
half
and
the
cost
10
of
lb.
per
have
6.
Find
of
and
men
five
16
and
each.
women;
6
women.
receives.
spends
spent
19
and
exceeds
number
men
among
sold
again
dollars
the
11
among
are
much
of
dollars
of
consisting
number
woman
person
as
coins
divided
been
man
articles
by
divided
is
$23.80
would
halfdollars
each
bought
to
respectively
had
of
for
lbs.
could
much
he
he
of
10
of
sum
sum
26.
If
lbs.
number
same
per
value
24.
the
formed
halfdollars,
their
coins
the
each
shall
and
852,
between
amounts
the
lb.
coffee.
halfdollars
Find
reversed
times
six
and
10
dollars,
coins.
70
of
and
The
23.
worth
as
17
and
times
the
girl.
sugar
sugar
$22
$100
If
22.
is
times
halfdollar
quarters
much
as
is
of
all
man
and
man
be
number
between
silver
in
kind
many
each
woman
the
in
Divide
that
100
the
exceeds
oz.,
has
How
lbs.
coins
has
and
21.
of
sum
number.
number
the
each
man
He
coins.
so
will
digits
and
10
the
number
$380
of
many
20.
of
find
has
weighs
dimes
the
number.
man
number
the
the
19.
the
times
four
the
exceeds
number
by
digits
and
other,
8
number
the
between
the
digits
The
18.
by
is
digits
two
to
number
and
digits,
each
of
added
be
certain
the
number
XIV.
number.
17.
of
[CHAP.
ALGEBRA.
for
20
in
$6.50
of
$9.00.
and
What
cents
buying
and
such
onethird
weight
30
as
of
cents
articles.
each
much
did
90
[cHAP.
ALGEBRA.
ExampUa.
(2a^*)"
(
=32a:i".
3a6")" 729a"6"
=
_16a^6"
/2a6"y
8laV'
\3x2y/
It will be
that
seen
operated
are
in the
last
the
case
down
the
numerator
and
nator
the denomi
separately.
upon
EXAMPLES
Write
"
.
XV.
of each
square
of the
a.
following expressions
1.
a%.
2.
3ac8.
3.
^xy^.
4.
66V.
5.
4a26c".
6.
3a:y.
7.
2a263c.
8.
3da:".
9.
10.
?^
11.
??!.
12.
?^
14.
g.
.6.
^
16.
13..
Write
down
the
cuhe
of each
of the
following expressions
^^
:
17.
2a:.
18.
3aR
IQ.
42r".
20.
Sa^fc.
21.
4xY.
22.
62cd".
23.
6y*.
24.
4/?"g".
27.
^3.
28.
g^:*.
^5.
26.
^.
Write
down
the
value
30.
29.
{ab^)'.
(i.)"""
^2^.
of the
following expressions
31.
(a:V)^
Square
By multiplication
iW)' ^
To
115.
of each
Zm^n^.
32.
(arVf.
(")'"'"" (I)*
Binomial.
have
we
(a + 6)2=(a
=
6)(a
6)
a2 + 2a6 + 62
(i).
(ab)^=(ab)(ab)
=
a^2ab+b^
(2).
XV.]
formulae
These
Rule
the
91
INVOLUTION.
of
sum
"Rule
to the
The
2.
Example
1.
Example
2.
quantities is equal
two
ttcice their
by
follows
as
to
product,
the
of
of
sum
increased
square
of their
sum
of the
The
square
their squares
1.
verbally
enunciated
be
may
diminished
squares
{x\2yf
ix^+ 2
(2a8362)2=
2y+{2yf
2a^
(2a8)22
36H
(362)2
=4a612a86H9"*.
Square
To
article
By the preceding
116.
(a+"Hc)2={(a
the
In
same
we
way
Multiuomial.
6)+cp
(a + 5)2+2(a
aH
6)c+c3
c2 H 2a6
6H
2ac + 26c.
prove
may
(a6+c)2=a*H"Hc22a6+2ac26c.
(a+6
c+flO^="^+^Hc2+c?2
each
In
of
these
instances
we
2a642ac+2ac?+26c+26c?+2cc?.
that
observe
the
sists
con
square
of
(1) the
expression
the
taken
terms,
the
si^n
have
bke
The
sum
with
is
or
or
square
laws
same
expression
of
squares
the
several
Ex,
Ex,
1.
2.
the
given
to
be
the
terms
hold
always positive.
are
be
whatever
the
of terms
number
in
To
(a:2yas)2
multinomial
twice
the
the terms
the
of
sum
product {with tJie
that follow it.
:
to
a?3 +
43^ + 92*2.a:.2y2.a:.32+2.2y.3z
ar* +
4y2 + 922.4a;y_6a"
12yz.
(l+2a:3a;2)2=H4arJ+9a:*+2.1.2a;2.1.3ar"2.2a:.3a:*
by collecting like
the
squared.
of
terms
"
unlike
The
Note.
the
twice
(2)
of
sum
terms
9ar* + 4a;6a:212a:"
l+4a:'^
l+4a:2a;2iac8
and
rearranging.
9a:*,
92
[chap.
ALGEBRA.
EXAMPLES
Write
down
the
ZV.
of
square
of
each
1.
a?+2y.
5,
3a
9.
2 ah.
10.
a6c
13.
la:".
14.
S+2pq.
17.
be.
18.
a6c.
20.
2xyz.
21.
a: +
23.
3ar +
24.
26.
x+y+ab.
27.
h.
following
a?2y.
3.
6.
a:5y.
7,
2m
l.
36.
7n,
4.
2a36.
8.
9a?.
11.
oftcei.
12.
2ab
15.
a:" 3a;.
16.
2a+a6.
2a+6+c.
22.
x^+x
l,
l2a:3a:a.
25.
23a;
ar".
mn+pq.
28.
2a+36+a;2y.
3y22.
(o+6)3=(a
xy.
Binomial.
multiplication,
actual
expressions
19.
Cube
To
By
b.
2.
2;?g.
117.
the
XV.
have
we
6)(a+6)(a+6)
==c^+3a^b+3ab^+b\
Also
(a
the
observing
By
results
we
can
Example
1.
Example
2.
")3
down
(2a:+ y)"
2aa)"
Ba^ft +
of
law
write
(3a:
a^
down
1.
P +
5.
a?
9.
""l.
the
cube
the
q'
2.
mn,
3y.
6.
a?
10.
53,
the
of
of
in
terms
these
binomial
any
8ar^ +
27a:"54ar"a"+36a"*8a".
of each
cabe
formation
EXAMPLES
Write
30^2
y
2ar^^y".
XV.
of
the
c.
following
expressions
3.
026.
4.
2c+d.
7,
2a:yl.
8.
5a+2.
11.
2aS363.
12,
4y33.
CHAPTEE
XVL
Evolution.
118.
number
The
of
operation
of
reverse
119.
(1)
or
of
root
expression is
the
requisite
proposed
being multiplied
quantity which
by itself
of times
produces the given expression.
that
the
The
Definition.
By
(2)
Rule
of
of
root
"ve7i
negative
Signs
odd
every
quantity itself.
It
is
has
quantity
sign.
Evolution:
it is
we
that
see
either
be
may
positive
(3)
Kote.
called
is
root
positive quantity
negative quantity
no
the
Involution.
the
any
finding
any
of
root
the
sign
same
that
remark
as
the
positive
opposite
every
but
magnitude,
in
equal
roots
root
even
has
of
worthy
square
an
quantity
especially
two
have
can
in
tJ^oM
Example,
In
the
the
tja%*
XI
7^
V81^2
(2)
index
(1)
the
c*, because
3a;', because
the
Examples.
the
Find
proper
Divide
of
because
the
a:*)'
=
(c*)*
our
attention
to
we
of
a^h*.

a:*.
c"
(Sa:^)*
foregoing examples
extracting any
proposed root
Bnle.
prefix
the
From
for
(a'fe*)*
a'ft^,because
=.7?^
Vc2o
120.
confine
shall
we
root.
Examples.
rule
"3aa;'.
chapter, however,
present
positive
%\x^.
may
a
deduce
simple
general
expression :
a
root
and
sign.
of
exponent
proposed
every
root.
V64a:"
4ar*.
Vl6a?=2aa.
5Ig^V9a:"
s/'
5^
26c*
94
[CHAP.
ALGEBRA,
EXAMPLES
Write
the
down
XVL
of the
of each
root
square
a.
following expressions
1.
9a:V*.
2.
25a"6*.
3.
49c2d".
4.
a"6V".
5.
36a:"y8".
g^
i6a:".
7.
a?Vz'.
8.
9;?V'
42^
a3"
Write
down
the
A*.
13.
"*"'"
a""".
144
,"
of the
following expressions
Sx^,
15.
^*
1^"~'
"
of
the
16.
27a:".
'^"'
~""^"~*
27c"
of each
value
the
of each
root
"'^^'
down
Write
cube
14,
27'
lex"
,,
,^
following expressions
21.
V^.
22.
V^^8.
23.
24.
V64^.
25.
V^^^^6^
26.
27.
28.
Vsl^.
29.
V^V^
V32^W^.
121.
the
ar"yw.
By
square
formulae
the
in
Art.
115
(2^ + 3y)*
=
4^?^ +
12^
Example
The
Thus
the
Thus
Find
{5x)^
at
down
write
of 25a^
root
square
(6a;
complete
an
iOocy
is 5a:
root
16y^.
4y.
of
root
square
^^
"*"'*"*'~5I*
required square
root
+2.
is
a/
sion,
expres
square,
4y)2.
square
the
of
terms
20a:y + (4y)3
+ (4y)a
(5a:)22(5ic)(4y)

the
once.
Find
expression
the
the
required
2.
down
written
expression
Example
The
1.
ar"y".
9f.
of
Conversely, by observing the form
sometimes
be
it may
recognised as
root
to
binomial.
of any
Thus
its square
able
are
we
and
XVI.
95
EVOLUTION.
b}^
easily determined
the
in
rule
the
to
must
explained
recourse
inspection we
is quite general, and
next
applicable to all cases.
article,which
and
But
the stvdent
is advised, here
elsewhere, to employ methods
of inspection in preference to rules.
122.
Find
To
found
the
the
is
first term
Now
and
this
the
b.
Thus
by
to
term
new
The
work
double
may
be
can
of a^.
loot
powers
is a.
root
is 2ah\b^
we
be
arranged
a2+2a6
first
product
; if
2a
of
the
of
term
found
follows
as
as
given
6.
already
complete divisor
the
obtain
2a
the
term
a.
down
the
is the
divide
we
the
of
(2a +6)
or
letter
this
a^ from
remainder
the
one
Set
Subtract
root.
of
of
to
its square
obtain
to
the
root,
given.
square
2ab
the
of
terms
cover
to dis
have
a^\2ab\l^,we
", the
remainder
first term
" is
required
the
remainder
is
a^,and
of the
and
expression
Expression.
Compound
according
terms
first term
of
and
a, is the
first term,
Arrange
2a
of
square
which
be
cannot
Root
by
process
when
a^+2ab\lP'
The
the
root
square
have
Square
the
Since
123.
The
the
When
add
we
b.
62(a+6
a2
2ab
2a+b
b^
2ab+b^
Find
Example
the
root
square
9ar"
of 9a:^
^2xy
49y'.
7y
93?
42a:y+49y"
%xly
42a:y+ 49y'
The
Explanation,
of the
term
"y
we
to
and
the
this
Divide
get
7y,
root
the
and
subtract
remainder
root
of
^v^
is 3a;, and
this
is the
first
root.
doubling
divisor.
square
new
the
obtain
4i2xy,
term
divisor.
the
and
we
result
root
the
62;, which
first term
in the
Next
from
root, which
multiply
the
has been
the
to
be
complete
of
term
remainder,
has
first remainder.
found.
first
is the
of the
by
annexed
divisor
There
is
the
and
%x
both
by
now
ly
no
96
[cffAP.
ALGEBRA.
124.
The
rule
be extended
caii
obtained
before.
as
the
remainder^
doubling
terms
first
term
of
divisor,
and
and
in the
the
last
the
of
the
If
Find
Example,
the
in
descendlDg
1 6a:*
16a:* + 4a*
of
the
new
in
the
root
complete
product
divisor
the
the
continue
by
by
from
the
root
has
process.
of
root
12a""
term
remainder
we
second
divide
then
the
no
now
remainder
We
next
the
subtract
is
square
2"x^a^
Rearrauge
and
there
is
as
multiply
next
the
is obtained
first term
the
be
will
root
down
divisor
already
by the
of
root
square
the
brought
new
result
root
; if there
found
been
We
of
found.
root
the
divisor.
term
the
remainder
down
set
find the
terms
have
we
the
to
as
two
of
part
or
remainder.
last
When
first
the
the
first
The
multinomial.
any
so
of
powers
24xi^a
25ar^a2
24a:3a
253:2^2
24a^a.
x.
1 2xa^
4a*
163:2^2 _i2a?a5
4a*
16a~^a212a:a3
4a*
( 4ar"
3aro + 2a^
16a:*
8ar*3a5a
24ar^a+
8a:26a;a
2a'
When
Explanation,
4a:^
3a;a,
have
we
9zr^a^
obtained
have
we
16ar2a212a:a3
the
Double
8a:^6a;a,
of the
term
+
as
2a^
we
the
complete
and
the
125.
first
Find
the
expression
whence
the
the
root"
by
and
2a^
found
and
place
the
result,
divisor.
Divide
16a:^a',the
first term
of
divisor
the
to
4a*
and
root
subtract.
the
Now
divisor.
There
the
following method
is
by inspection
62+c2
the
root
square
no
; we
first
get
multiply
remainder
4a*
4a6
4a2
4a("c)
(2a)2 +
square
root
2.
4ac
+
+
6^
of
2bc +
of
a,
c^
(6c)2
2a(6c)
ia2a
used.
4a64ac26c.
in
terms
be
may
descending powers
letters be arranged alphabetically ; then
the
in
terms
is found.
4a2
Arrange
8a:^,the
oy
divisor
the
of
already
root
both
annex
Sometimes
Example,
the
part
remainder,
which
root
of
terms
the
two
remainder
{bc),
(6c)2;
[Art. 121.]
and
let
the
othej"
98
[cHAP.
ALGEBRA.
If
and
preferred,
taken
at
To
be
can
j"rst term
the
is
and
expression
and
6.
Thus
by
of the
1.
obtain
to
three
following
we
three
6, the
is
of
terms
have
we
the
root,
given.
to
of
powers
root
Set
a.
down
this
a^ from
Subtract
root.
letter
one
then
the
as
the
given
is
(Sa^+ Sab
or
the
b
times
found
Having
of
Expression.
of a\
root
remainder
first term
the
postponed
be
may
a^{Sa%^^ah^\",
and
its cube
required
the
is
3ab^+b^
Za^b + Sab^ + b^
Now
chapter
Compound
cube
and
a\
the
this
of
according
terms
of
term
of
is the
first term
first
cube
by
process
when
a^\Sa%
Arrange
the
the
Root
which
found
The
of
stage.]
Cube
the
Since
discover
remainder
later
Find
126.
to
the
remainder
divide
we
the
terms
of
term
the
mainder
re
found.
already
term
divisor, which
the
3a^
product of
first
of the
square
b.
b^)x
is the
the
complete
can
consists
Three
times
the
square
Three
times
the
product
of
a, the
of
term
the
root
already
found.
2.
term
3.
of
the
a, and
new
b.
The
The
of b.
square
work
be
may
arranged
as
3(ay
=3a
3xax6=
follows
3a^6
3a62+63
+3a6
(6)2
+62
3a2643a62
Example
Find
1.
the
cube
root
of 8ar"
Sx^
3(2a?)3
3x2a:x(3y)=
12ar"
SQxy
63
54a;y2
S6a^y
54xy^
36x^y
5ixy^
54xy^27y"
21y^
4V
l2siPlSxy
dy'
S6a^y
27
y^,
2^1y^ ( 2a?
ISxy
(3y)2=
3y
XVI.]
99
EVOLUTION.
I
CO
u
o
"
"1
"
4a
S^
"IjCCJ
"
iH
'^
53 e
1i
I
I
"^
43
"*
o
GO
CO
^
o8
"'H
ns
4J
eg
IH
4
""
.ja
"
1i
o
I
o
o
CO
CO
CO
Od
GO
CO
53.2
S
"0
a^
00
.^^^^
i'%
CD
"43
"
"
00
+
CO
CO
S
o
"
43
"^3
.2
fl
*3
.a
00
ti
O
IH
II
1^^
'1
II
II
"
08
^
"
S*
'd
o
II
II
II
,_^
43
00
d
CO
"Bgr%
tH
iSP^
^5tg
?."
d
e8
dp^
CO
'fH
CO
." ^
cc
I"
fl
CO
X
"
"1
""^
^
"^
Id
""'
"
CO
n""H,ia
043
d
e8
100
[chap,
ALGEBRA.
XVI
EXAMPLES
Find
cube
the
of
root
of the
each
c.
following expressions
1,
a3+12a2
64.
2.
Sas^ +
l2a^
3.
64a:3_i44a45+io8a:27.
4.
8i3"
36;?*+ 54p2
5.
m518m2
6.
a:"+6aV
7.
l3c+6c27c8+6c"3c"
8.
8 +
9.
216108A;
48a
108m
36m
66m2
48y"
11.
64+192)fc+240P
12.
x^6xh/Sxh
127.
The
the
Find
consists
of
the
lies
its
27.
12xV+%*
m".
8y"80y".
for
ifc8.
Sxz^Sy^l2yheu:^^.
Elementary
upon
The
Algebra,']
and
extracting square
methods
algebraical
following
example
cube
the
roots
explained
is
to
given
process.
cube
of
614125.
512000
and
root
between
cube
l2xyz
see
arithmetical
(90)^
9m^
60it*+12A:"
rules
based
chapter.
614125
Since
(80)^ and
l2xy^
are
Example.
160P
ordinary
the
33m*
6(y9(y27
+
present
illustrate
63m"
l.
c".
examples
Arithmetic
in
additional
[For
in
108y
216.
6x
342P109P+171ifc*27P+27ifc".
10.
xvl
lies
root
between
that
729000,
80
and
is
and
90
between
therefore
figures.
two
614125(80+5
b
=
85
512000
3a2
3xax6
62
(80)2
3x80x5=
6x5=
19200
1200
25
20425
In
other
Arithmetic
modifications
the
of
102125
102125
ciphers are
usually omitted, and
the
algebraical rules.
there
are
XVn.
CHAPTER
Resolution
128.
When
Definition.
of
product
two
called
is
is
quantities
the
called
of
resolution
its
into
expression
the
these
of
determination
the
it, and
of
factor
the
ties
quanti
latter
these
of
each
is
expression
algebraical
an
expressions
more
or
Factors.
into
factors.
In
the
this
chapter
resolution
be
shall
we
of
explain
their
into
expressions
by
which
factors
may
rules
principal
the
component
effected.
Expressions
in
which
Each
Term
divisible
is
by
Common
Factor.
Such
129i
term
separately
brackets
; the
Example
factor
expressions
3a
1.
factor, and
by this
terms
of
the
placed
the
3a^
expression
within
quotient
outside
as
Qah
each
dividing
coefficient.
have
common
;
..
ExampU
2.
5a^bic^
3aa
I5ahx^

6a6
into
factors
3a(a
20b^x^
EXAMPLES
Resolve
by
simplified
enclosing
being
factor
common
The
be
may
26).
Sbsc^ahic
ZVIL
4^),
3a
a.
1.
ar^+oar.
2.
2a^Sa,
3.
a'a^.
4.
a*a^b.
5.
Sm^"mn,
6.
F^+^p^q
7.
JC*5ar".
8.
y^
9.
5a"25o"6.
10.
12ar
12.
27
13.
tx^yh^+Sxy,
15.
2a"a2+a.
16.
3ar^ +
6o V
17.
7i5'7p"+14p*.
18.
46"
6a"6"262.
19.
a:y"*y2+2ay.
20,
26a"6"+39a*6",
162a;.
48arV.
xy.
11.
10c"25c*d.
14.
17a:* 51a:.
3o"a:.

102
[CHAP.
ALGEBRA.
Expressions
in
contain
The
130.
1.
Smce
terms
{o^"ttx)
x{x a)
b{x
=:
(xa)
{xa)
taken
{xa){x
6Ji^'9ax{4bx6ab
Example
Resolve
3.
into
into
factors
(6x^9ax)
Sx{2x
(2a:3a)(3a; + 26).
pq\qrprr^.
4a6
3aa:'.
{l2a^4ab)(3aa^'bx^)
4a(3a
(3a6)(4aar').
6)
ar"(3a 6)
ZVn.
b.
26y.
11.
aar2ay6a:
13.
ac^
a.
15.
a"o2
17.
a^"aby\2ax2by.
al.
Trinomial
result.
I2a^ + ba^
3a)
abbyay
9.
Chap. V.
in which, in
way
coefficients
of the
2b{2x
8,
b + bc^ +
{4bx6ab)
3a)
6a5.
bn,
ambman
4bx
a6 + 26.
ax
9ax
SqSp+pqp^.
7,
In
62:^
6.
2a'\2x
131,
times
oi^.
5,
the
b times
a) taken
a^ +
a" + 2a
{x+b)
plu8 {x
4.
3,
times
x^ocz+xyyz.
ar'+ary+ax+yz.
we
2.
1.
x, and
factor
common
have
b).
EXAMPLES
Resolve
factors
12a^+bx^4ahSaa^
following examples.
a)
factors
into
to
{bxCLb)
taken
Kesolve
2.
b,
as
x'^"ax\hx"ab.
contain
factor
grouped
so
is Common.
that
the
factors
terms
common
a^'ttx+hxdb
Example
into
Resolve
in
be
can
Factor
is shown
first two
the
Terms
the
Compound
method
Example
last two
which
Art.
forming
different
48
4a
ac
4c.
y^.
10,
2mx
12.
2a2 + 3a6
14.
ac^
16.
2x!^ + S + 2x+3x^.
18,
axy\hcxy"az"bcz.
nx
2a
2my+ny.
2ac
36c.
fec^+ 26.
Expressions.
attention
the
terms
has
product
combine
of
been
two
so
as
drawn
to
the
binomials, the
to give a trinomial
XVII.]
RESOLUTION
Thus
We
the
propose
resolution
of
the
on
trinomial
1.
The
first term
2.
The
product
equal
to
the
third
15
is the
that
equal
of
the
the
the
product
of
of
sum
+24,
and
its
of
their
sum
of
in
and
factors
two
; e.g.
of
trinomial
(2) above
(3) we
is
we
in
see
be
a:^ +
the
two
factors
coefficient
will
easily understood
from
11a; + 24.
be
must
It
the
terms
the
factors
+11.
x.
"3
the
factors
the
"3.
in
laws
into
is
second
gives 2,
+3
terms
and
which
that
and
and
the
of
coefficient
Resolve
second
The
is
namely,
notice
terms
"5
+6
application of these
following examples.
Exa'ffiple 1.
those
to
identities,into
trinomial
of
The
the
similar
above
factors
second
of
term
and
"5
the
of
problem
converse
results, we
of both
product
the
to
of
sum
above
algebraic
The
3.
is
is the
15
(4).
factors.
the
By examining
(2^
(3),
expression,
side
righthand
binomial
component
the
consider
to
now
that
(1),
(x+5){x+Z)=j:^+Sx+l6
(^6X^3)=a:2ar+15
(:F+5X.r3)=^+2:F15
(:F5X^+3)=ar^2^15
occur
see
103
FACTORS.
INTO
is clear
such
that
their
that
they
must
product
be
+8
+3.
a:"+llar
..
The
is
second
it is easy
their
to
sum
Example
Example
be
must
The
is
second
lOa^,
and
terms
their
/.
Note.
his
In
results,
Chap. V.)
of
the
sum
factors
this
he
the
has
that
both
their
product
be negattve,
and
4.
(a?
9){x
(a;
9)2.
(a;^+ b){7? + 5)
(a;2+ 5)2.
x^
must
Hence
ar"llaa;+10a2
examples of
by forming
of the
factors
11a.
such
must
6 and
factors
into
Resolve
5.
they

"
Example
be
24=(a;6)(a;4).
a;*+ lOa;^ + 25
4.
10a; + 24.
mast
Hence
18a; + 81
a?^
factors
ar"10a;
x^
factors
10.
they
..
3.
the

that
see
into
of
terms
and
+24,
Resolve
2.
Example
+ 24
kind
llaa;
be
they
lOa*.
such
that
must
be
their

10a
product
and
a.
(a;10a)(a;a).
the
product
chosen.
9)
student
should
{mentally,
as
always verify
explained in
104
[chap.
ALGEBRA.
EXAMPLES
Kesolve
factors
into
XVn.
3.
y"+7y+12.
S,
6.
6^6ft+6.
136+40.
9.
z"13z+36.
1.
a^+3x+2.
2.
y^+5y+6.
4.
a^Sa+Z
5.
a^^
7.
62 +
8.
6"
136+42.
10,
x^l5x+56,
11.
ar"15a:+54.
13.
62126+36.
14.
a"+15a
16.
x"+9x+20,
17.
ar"10a;+9.
19.
y223y+102.
20.
y*24y
22.
a'+10a6
23.
a2
25.
m*+8m2+7.
26.
w*+9mV+14n*.
28.
6415a
29.
13 +
a2.
consider
Next
132.
is
The
Resolve
1.
of
and
their
algebraical
required
and
their
to
second
terms
their
opposite signs,
to
The
be
a^
18.
x^\6x+^.
21.
y"+64y+729.
24.
a223a6+13262.
27.
65ar+a:".
30.
21635a+aa.
third
the
the
to their
12a
+27.
of
term
the
nomial
tri
35.
be
such
of
that
Hence
+2.
them
the^
be
must
their
product
have
must
positive
in
order
(x
5.
7)(a;6).
7^Zx~^,
factors
be
must
such
that
Hence
3.
sum
of
greater
7 and
them
they
negative
product
must
be
must
their
in
have
order
sum.
therefore
are
ic23a:54
in
that
opposite
x^ + 2x
sum
factors
into
required terms
have
the
must
therefore
algebraical
and
Remembering
factors
x2+2a:35
..
miLst
14y+y2.
greater
are
of
terms
and
54,
15.
sum.
Resolve
2.
Example
the
the
/.
The
factors
into
terms
opposite signs,
to give its sign
is
1162.
where
case
22 + 152+44.
95.
12a6
second
35,
The
56.
12.
negative.
Example
is
+ 2162.
these
signs,if
9 and
6.
(a;9)(a:+ 6).
the
cases
preferred,
the
numerical
following
quantities
method
may
adopted.
Example
Find
23.
two
These
positivemay
3.
Resolve
numbers
are
35
into
12;
predominate,
"V^
2^
product
whose
and
factors
we
23jcy
hence
23xy
is 420,
and
inserting
the
420.
whose
signs
have
420
(ay
35)(a:y 12).

differenceis
so
that
the
106
134,
The
select
the
to
[chap.
ALGEBRA.
enable
will
combine
so
resolved.
Bkample,
Resolve
and
fails to
third
*loi^ 19a;

the
Thus
135.
negative
mental
these
1.
second
sign
2.
second
that
3 and
for
6
combination
be
will
if
correct
insert
we
(7a;+ 2)(a;3).
it will
work
be
not
to
necessary
will soon
find
and
the
that
the
If
third
of
terms
is the
If
same
the
ing
follow
two
factors
its
that
as
of
term
Resolve
is
negative,
opposite signs.
14a;^ + 29a;
factors
into
then
that
And
since
signs
in each
down
write
(7a:
may
have
5 must
opposite
we
case
3 and
have
we
(1) the
positive sign
in
(2) the
negative
14ar"
143^
29a;
only
now
29a;
16
(7ar
16
(7a;+ 3)(2a;
5)
as
first
trial,
signs.
predominate,
must
(2).
3)(2a;
factor.
In
Therefore
29,
the
(1),
15
14a:229a;lo
each
the
this
trinomial.
of the
term
trinomial
the
have
of its factors
1.
middle
is
the
both
have
of the
positive,then
same
sign, and
trinomial
the
of
term
third
terms
noticing
the
unsuitable
the
to
down
put
Example
In
2
the
predominate.
at
steps
hints
sion
expres
term.
student
length. The
different
be
cases
rapidly reviewed,
may
combinations
at
once.
rejected
attention
It is especially important to pay
all
chosen
multiplication.]
actual
In
11, the
middle
the
factors
shall
7a;219a;6
[Verify by
trial, noticing
factors
give Ix^ and
first
of
easy
will
alone
6.
7x23x1
since
19, these
that
so
it is not
Practice
2)(a; 3).
7x32x1
signs
coefficient
correct
try (7a;
Since
But
terms.
the
give
Next
the
factors
into
have
first
that
first trial.
down
Write
must
to
the
at
pair he has
glance whether
any
give the correct coefficients of the
at
as
be
find
frequently
factors
proper
to detect
him
to
will
beginner
3)(2a; + 5).

5).
to
insert
the
proper
XVILJ
INTO
RESOLUTION
Resolve
2.
Example
into factors
107
FACTORS.
52:^+173;
(1),
5ar"17a:
+ 6
(2).
In
(I) we
In
(2)
And
notice
that
which
factors
the
for
(1)
we
write
may
(2)
since
5x3+1x2
17,
5ic2 +
In
each
1 ; but
wonld
and
stndent
When
an
136
"
both
are
positive.
17a; + 6
By
expression
this
is
of
one
reject at
+ 6
).
(5x
)(x
y.
(5a;2)(a;3).
third
6 also
term
referred
cases
admits
to
of
above
factors
which
the
nnsnitable.
is the
multiplying
)(x+
the
as
once
Expression
the
(5a;+
that
see
we
5a;"17a;+6
Hote.
negative.
therefore
And,
give
Difference
by
a"
we
of Two
obtain
Squares.
the
identity
(a+6)(a6)=a263,
a
result which
may
be
verbally expressed
The
is
and
the
may
at
any
once
expression
be resolved
follows
differenceof
any
two
quantities
their squares.
as
which
squares
the
and
is the
into factors.
difference
of
two
squares
108
Resolve
Example,
Therefore
second
the
factor
intermediate
steps
1
Example.
difference
The
of
into
factors
and
4y.
be
by
(329
500
79000.
7c").
numerical
aid
quantities
of the
171)(329
4y).
omitted.
two
the
171)
XVn.
f.
1.
a29.
2.
a249.
3.
^281.
4.
a2100.
5.
a^"25.
6.
ic2_i44.
7^
64a:2.
3^
814ar".
9.
4y2l.
10.
y2_9aa.
4y225.
9y249ar".
12.
13.
4m281.
14.
36a2l.
15.
ifc264^2^
16.
9a22562.
17.
12116y2.
Ig.
12136a;2.
19.
25
c*.
20.
a^b^2^y\
21.
49a*10062.
22.
64a:249z2.
23.
4/)2g281.
24.
a*6*c29.
25.
a:"4a*.
26.
ar*25z*.
27.
a^^p^qK
28.
16a^"96".
29.
25ari24.
30.
a"68c49ar".
Find
the
factors
by
of
value
31.
(39)2(31)2.
32.
(51)2(49)2.
33^
(1001)21.
34.
(82)2(18)2.
35^
(275)2 (225)2.
36.
(936)2
When
If
137.
and
if
We
is the
Expression
an
we
have
we
divide
divide
a'"
is
formula
158
EXAMPLES
Kesolve
of 5x
(i + 1c^){l
(329)2(171)2
Example.
4y,
usually
squares
found
conveniently
sometimes
and
(5a;+ 4y){5x
may
49c"
the
of
6y2
{4y)\
of 5x
sum
difference
1
16y'.
{5x)^
is the
is the
253^*
/.
The
IQy^
first factor
the
25a:'
factors
into
25a;2
and
[CHAP.
ALGEBRA.
a' +6^
6*
therefore
by
the
a"
Sum
by
or
+6
6 the
following
Difference
of Two
the
(64)2.
Cubes.
quotient is a2"a6+
quotient is a^'\ah+h\
identities
62.
a86"=(a6)(a2+a6+"2).
These
which
results
can
be
enable
written
us
as
the
to
resolve
sum
or
into
the
factors
difference
any
expression
of two
cubes.
XVII.]
middle
The
Note.
Example
We
the
8ar^
1.
Example
term
omit
usually
may
factors
at
{2xf
(2a:
is the
%xy
64a3
2.
27y3
343a"
27a:"
S3^+129
(4a)"+ (1 )"
(4a
5.
Sa^
9.
l8a8.
21a2a;
{7a^ 3a;)(49a*+
2.
a" +
6.
^Sz\
XVII
63.
6' 8.
9a^.
g.
a:8.
3.
I +
7.
a" + 2763.
27 + a:".
11.
4.
ly".
8.
xYU
12.
64
a:V
17.
512a3l.
18.
a^b^(^
8a:"343.
20.
x^ +
21.
a:*27z3.
w"1000n".
23.
a' 72963.
24.
125a"+
19.
22.
l.
l.
We
138.
shall
of this
processes
Example
1.
The
of
sum
(a
..
the
factors
give
Example
and
26
26)2
4a: is
26)*
26 + 4a:,
26
(a
+ 26
terms
simplest
343.
27.
51263.
16a:*.
4a:.
+
4a:)(a + 26
4^),
be
they should
collected
form.
(2a: 3y )*

+ 7y)
3y )} {(3a:
(3a:+ 7y
(a
like
in its
(3a:+ 7y)*
2.
1 6a:2
contain
result
the
factors
is
difference
their
into
Resolve
2lGy^,
p".
harder
applications of the
give some
exercise
in which
miscellaneous
by a
chapter will be illustrated.
now
down
write
15.
1000a:"
to
step and
2166*.
16.
as
l).
14.
125a"
If
Sy.
10.
13.
and
l)(16a2_4a
9y").
(2x^+d){4x^l8si^+Sl).
factors
into
as6s.
of 2a; and
product
EXAMPLES
1.
3y )(4rc2
+%xy
once.
Examples,
Resolve
(3y)"
intermediate
the
109
FACTORS.
INTO
RESOLUTION
2a:
3y)(3a:+ 7y
2a: +
(2a: 3y)}

3y)
so
110
[chap.
ALGEBRA.
139.
squares,
Example
be
so
resolved
Resolve
1.
factors
iki?'C^+4cx4x^
Example
Here
Resolve
the
2bd
terms
of
arrangement
into
the
The
140.
following
Resolve
Example,
141.
than
(3a)2(c2a:)a
(3a
2ck;
of
two
4a^,
4x^)
2x)(3a
c +
a*c*
2a;).
6' + cP+
the
suggest
2cm;.
preliminary
proper
Thus
is
6"+26ci+daa"
6" + 26d
(" + d)"(ac)"
{h+d+ac){h+da+c).
2acc'
cP(a"2ac
c2)
important.
factors
x^ +
xh/^ + y*.
(a:2
+ y*)"(a:y)"
(a:"+
a:y +
expression
an
2M
factors
case
into
Sometimes
(a~"
j/^)

be
may
ary +
y2).
resolved
into
more
factors.
two
Example
1.
Resolve
into
16a*
Example
2.
When
Kote.
of two
1^
an
into
explained
however,
be
factors
(4a2
{x
or
as
Arts.
found
simplest
difference
of two
36).
i/^){xy){ix^+xy+y^,
be
can
arranged
difference
136,
to
afii^,
y)(x^xy
the
962)
y^)
expression
W){Aa^
factors
{x^ + y^){a^
+
16a*81"*.
squares,
in
methods
the
816*
Resolve
3ifi
factors
cP + 2ac
c^ + 4cx
9a^(e^4cx
expression.
26da2c*+6"
9a^
and
terms,
difference
factors.
into
into
compound
the
the
137
first
squares.
use
either
as
the
ference
dif
of two
will
the
be
rule
for
resolving into
xvii.j
RESOLUTION
142.
In
taken
where
cases
factor
simple
all
an
to
common
outside
bracket
Resolve
ExampU,
INTO
of
factors
into
60arV
into
two
(x{yfz\
(a
3c)2l.
16a:
4a;V(7a:5)(a; + 3).
XVn.
first
GOix^.
^xhf[lx^
be
129.
factors
more
or
in Art.
contains
should
this
28a:*y + 64ar^
EXAMPLES
Resolve
resolved
be
to
its terms,
explained
as
2%3i*y+ Usi^y
expression
each
HI
FACTORS.
15)
h.
2hfc^
2.
[xyYzK
3.
{a
5.
{2x\fa?,
6.
a''{h
cyK
7
10
(18a; + y)2(17a7y)2.
U.
(6a
12
4a2
^Z,
x^{2b^c)\
14
(x
15.
(3a;+ 2y)2(2a:3y)2.
16
a22aa:
17^
ic2 + a2 +
18
la22a663.
19^
\2xy
20
c^a?h'^
21.
a;2
22
ar* +
23.
{m
24
aHa2
27
16a"62_56^
30
a26"81a26.
(2a
36)2.
yf{mn)\
ar2462.
2ab.
2^z*a*
2a:3y22a2z2.
33
2166"
36
(u?
ax^
38
m*
40
6x^y^+l5xY^^xy\
a363.

w2
4mn
j?)2 (m
71
256a;*
28.
6477i7wi?i".
29.
x^x*yK
31.
4ma?x7?,
32.
l7293/".
34.
25023
35.
1029
4n*p*.
z2.
2^^x^^.
4)2.
26.
240ax,
4m2"2p2
2aa?
2a; +
(oa
a*h^\Q,
'25.
l.
3)2
2.
37.
o^^
39.
8a:ya:".
41
2 wt^rt*
^c^
33^.
^'
4?i8.
43.
a262_a262
45.
{a
48.
119+10mw2.
50.
240a;2
51
52.
x*\y*7x^yK
53
54.
a:^+ a;* + l.
42
9Sx*
44
x^2x^x
46
a?y?
47
2p
49
24a262
7 x^y^y*.
Sahf
3^
[For
2.
^''^^
additional
hf
i.
l.
3252y3.
4/?2 9g2.
30a63
366*.
examples
see
a:ya;^V
Elementai'y
Algebrar\
4n\
+p)\
Sly*.
"^^
7 w*"^
112
Converse
143.
often
The
be
actual
be
converse
in
as
resolving
useful
observed
into
enabling
as
and
1.
2a
Hence
the
product
Find
2.
Example
the
by
and
{2a+ (36
(2a)2
4a2_(96266c+c2)
4a2962+66cc".
the
the
in
their
formula
is
squares
the
product
for
equally
of
the
c.
(36
c)}
cf
ar*2a:+4,
with
36 +
of
product
first factor
c)}{2a
(36
x2y
once
student
the
useful
2a(36c).
2a
thus
arranged
(36c)
x+2,
Taking
be
may
two
at
as
can
of factors.
quantities.
36
of
down
write
2a
division
which
chapter are
just
application. Thus
of two
Multiply
formulae
the
difference
the
to
us
expressions
that
direct
difference
the
Example
These
their
factors
multiplication and
by a skilful use
of
this
in
Factors.
of
avoided
wholly
exemplified
seen
Use
processes
partially or
should
It
has
sum
[CHAP.
ALGEBRA.
the
sB"+2r+4.
third, ai\d
second
the
with
the
fourth,
the
product
(ar'+ 8)(a:"8)
a:"64.
Examples.
by
Sx^
the
4)} {{x
2){x^ +
of
product
2a? +
4)}
2oi^ + x6
and
Qa^Sx
6x2.
Denoting
the
Divide
the
division
required
quotient
^
^
by
of
means
fraction,
(2^^+^6)(6a?^5a:H)
=
Sx^
_(2a;3)(a:
bx2
2)(3a;l)(2a?l)
(3a:l)(a: + 2)
=
by cancelling factors
(2a:3)(2a:l),
which
are
common
to
numerator
and
ator.
denomin
114
[CHAP.
ALGEBRA.
MISCELLANEOUS
1,
Find
2.
If
the
a
1,
=
lOa;^
of
product
1, 6
EXAMPLES
2,
ggb^
Simplify 2[4a:{2y
4,
Solve
(I)
^
the
5,
6.
Find
the
f^^
8,
Find
in
9,
Find
the
a
5, 6
the
of
price
a:*
of
root
3,
25,
5a: +
7.
Sa^b^c, 12a*6V,
Sa:* + 24ar"
the
jbc)^
^
a+b
articles
bk
1, find
{cLbl
8a
at
15a"5"c
each.
cents
32a: +
16.
of
value
{ac)\
b+c
a+c
11.
13(a:l).
Solve(7a:+5)7f
12.
times
as
is
twice
old.
Find
old
as
their
13.
Simplify (1
14.
The
2a:)
of
one
How
15.
father
now
16
them
is 2a^' +
old
is
aged
40
Find
the
Find
the
twenty
years
ago
he
was
three
ages.
{3
of two
product
as
(4
Qxh/^
3a:y + 2y^
boy
6a:)}+ {6
expressions
6a:* + 5x^1/ +
and
2y
a22a6+263.
by
square
of
3a:4y
'
5.
a? +
L.C.M.
and
dollars
of 2a:*
square
0*446*
of
y)}].
(a:+
'
15
H.C.F.
Divide
If
3
the
value
3abc'
a?3_2ar_l2a?.
down
7,
10.
the
3a^.
2x4k
(^b^
(2a; y)
equations
6
Write
0, find
2b^+cd
b^
and
3a:
h^~cd
a^ +
3.
12
m.
who
2a:
8a;)}.
is
5xy^
find
(7
other.
the
years
6y*,
ago
was
half
old
as
as
his
lowest
multiple
common
of
17.
(1)
13.
third
Find
of the
two
factors
of
ar^a:y72y2.
numbers
greater
exceeds
which
(2)
differ
onefourth
by
of
the
6a:213a;
11, and
less
6.
such
by ?"
that
one
xvn.]
MISCELLANEOUS
If
19.
1,
EXAIMPLES
1,
cd
hd
_c^cP
a^
ac
b^'
Simplify
'By{5tely7(4)
(2iar)}
21.
Solve
equations
the
(1)
(3a;8)(3a;
(2)
^+"+y
takes
Find
23.
travels
at
'
(1)
will
2'
an
the
hour
of
rate
takes
a
trsdn
2/'
factors
into
12ar"+aa?20a8;
a"166aa:+9:c".
(2)
(1)
a:+l+2(a;+3)
(2)
4a;+9y
12,
Find
6a:3y
7.
f,"^i,\~^f
of
value
the
4(a;+6);
"
26.
Find
27.
divided
by
262c
"3
^'s
by
of
each.
S" aJ^"l
4"
28.
$8,
29.
Find
30.
Simplify
the
when
quotient
the
^*v"
and
removing
the
3
of
product
between
share
root
a?
c*
and
share
is
ft' +
h^"?
c'.
^168
C*b
square
by
2bc^
?.
when
,
a;(l+3a:)ar
share
miles
p
be
Solve
25.
than
of
rate
what
of
24.
(ya:).
the
(a;3)(a;+7);
sum
Kesolve
l)
.+y5
stations
hours
the
^,
two
2)(4a;lI)(2a:
which
train
between
hours
which
IS
of
value
the
20.
22.
q
find
0,
adhc
ab
2,
115
III.
is
of
9oi*
them
4*8
threefourths
12a?*

brackets
a^

of
22ar*
[(6
c)^ {(^{a
a:^ +
12a:
greater
Find
^'s.
the
4.
6)'^.
XVni.
CHAPTER
Highest
144.
Definition.
The
algebraical
more
which
The
Note.
instead
of
Algebra
is
with
object
to
the
term
is
two
numerical
greatest
values
algebraical
common
of
for
highest
it
common
We
have
inspection
be
already
resolved
easily
Example
It
be
be
shown
factor
is
not
for
incorrect,
divisors.
solely
to
the
always
The
metical
arith
that
trial
by
in
which
concerned
not
are
their
confined
ought
into
Find
1.
the
will
be
follows
as
the
greatest
the
Example
H.C.F.
2.
Resolving
each
the
+
a^
the
H.C.F.
2c^
the
factor
highest
6a26
is
compound
or
enable
ex"
which
of
factors
2ca^{x
2c)
if the
factor
common
a^ +
a^^aJb\
will
^c^ot^,
common
ic^x^
9a6,
simple
more
factors,
3a2
therefore
of
product
common
and
expression
a^ +
of
factor
common
the
is 2cx^,
Find
3a2
or
method
by
down
factors.
out
2cx^
therefore
two
analogous
An
write
to
of
factor
highest
pick
to
easy
arranged
how
explained
the
4"S(^
are
we
or
used
dimensions
highest
easily
highest
common
expressions.
[See Chap, xii.]
readily to find the highest
us
pressions which
are
given as
sions
dimen
sometimes
is
usage
of
to
can
highest
or
measure.
145.
can
this
expressions, and
the
expressions
measure
common
quantities,
but
factor
the
more
or
is
mejdsurt
common
find
to
of
expression
remainder.
two
without
facUyr}
common
of
factor
common
the
is
them
greatest
highest
our
of
each
term
common
highest
expressions
divides
Factor.
Common
into
its
ea^ft
9a6
9a62
a{a
Zh)[a
Oab^
a{a
36)(a
a(a+3").
3a(a
ga^a.
factors,
of
we
have
3"),

3ft),
36)
expressions
XVIII.]
CHAP.
When
146.
there
different
the
two
are
of the
powers
careful
to notice
be
COMMON
HIGHEST
or
expressious coutainin^
more
highest common
compound factor
factor
the
of the
highest power
given expressions.
should
student
same
that
117
FACTOR.
which
contain
must
is
to
common
all the
Example
The
1.
highest
x{axf^
Example
a(aa;)?,
Find
2.
the
a7p+2a^x
Resolving
the
2ax2
Therefore
2a^x
4aaa?
3(aa:+ a2)2
factor
into
a^
6a"
of
^ax+a^^.
%a\
factors,
have
we
aJ{7?+2ax+a^)
a{x+af
20(25
2a(a: + a)(a;3a)
(1),
2aa?
3a")
(2),
3{a(a?+a)}" 3a2(a;+a)a
(3).
from
factor
^a^x
{ax)\
is
2"Lx{axf
common
2ax^
expressions
ax^
and
highest
a\
of
factor
coDimon
inspection,
the
highest
common
i8a(a;+a).
EXAMPLES
Find
the
highest
1.
^y^y
3.
3a32a26,
5.
c^c(P,
7.
a^7?{a
9,
axhXf
XVm.
factor
common
x^xy,
3a22a6.
c*c2cP.
x)\
a*x
2a^x^[a
+
x)^.
ax,
11.
7?+x^,
13,
{a^ax)\
15,
a?7?4^2Xy
17.
o"36a,
19.
2a:29a;+4,
21.
4m*9mS
22,
3a*a:"8a"aJ"+4a2a:3^ Sa^ar^
7?+xy,
x^+aey^,
{axx^)\
ar* 49a:2
o"+2a248a.
3x27a:20.
of
a22a6
2.
3(a6)s,
4.
^^^h\
6.
vf^x^^,
ix?y^+x^,
8.
2x2
8a; + 8,
6".
^h,
(x
2)".
10.
^x^y^t
12.
ix^y^y^, y^ipcy^^f,
14.
{abcU^)\
jg^
{3i?b7?)\
18.
3a2 + 7a6,
20.
3c*+5c812cS
6m*+5m"6m2.
6m"6m26m,
3aV+16aV12a2a:".
a.
llaV
6aV,
{a^cac^)\
ar".8ar*+15a:".
2a2+7a
3.
6c"+7c*20c".
118
[chap.
ALGEBRA.
factor should
highest common
always be determined
but
it
when
will
sometimes
by inspection
possible,
happen that
be
into
factors.
find
To
readily resolved
expressions cannot
the
factor
in such
we
highest common
adopt a method
cases,
used
for
that
in
Arithmetic
to
finding the greatest
analogous
147.
The
of two
measure
common
We
148.
shall
algebraical process
the
proof of the
Algebra^
work
now
of
principles,which
two
the
which
examples
the
reader
the
We
here
may
student
the
out
finding
rules
102, 103,
Arts.
numbers.
more
or
conveniently
should
bear
certain
If an
a
expression contain
expression is divisible by that factor.
expressions have a
and
their difference;and
multiples of them.
If
XL
their
mm
of any
two
Find
Example.
the
highest
H.C.F.
the
First
Explanation,
in
highest
is made
Again,
divisor,
the
as
\i'e
the
second
when
quotient
the
the
Arithmetic,
last
the
of
is
vrill divide
the
difference
of
63a;
39.
a;
'expressions
take
we
coefficient.
2a:^
the
to
is
3
for
divisor
Arrange
ia?
the
left of the
the
to
3a:
right
and
highest
so
tnat
work
the
5a:
21
dividend.
made
is in turn
to
arranged
so
first remainder
the
quotient
placed
divisor
expressions according
The
order,
same
remainder
2
multiple of
it
and
sum
2ar"
given
x.
When
the
put
8a:"
smaller
above.
divisor
the
factor
the
powers
of the
has
power
parallel columns
reading
3.
arrange
descending or ascending
having their first terms
whose
a:
factor^
aUo
and
is
factor^ any
common
common
43fiSx^24x9
Therefore
enunciate
in
follow.
I.
the
in mind
on.
the
As
in
common
factor
the
compound
required.
149.
This
method
is
only
useful
to
determine
of the
highest common
Simple
the
be
first removed
from
them, and
given expressions must
factor
of these, if any,
be observed
and
must
highest common
the
into
factor
the
rule.
multiplied
compound
given by
factor
of
the
factor.
factors
xviil]
HIGHEST
Find
Example,
the
24a:* 23(?We
24a;*
have
18a:*
and
39ar"
factor
and
32a:
18a;
18ar*
3a;
3a: have
the
factors
2a; and
3a:, and
reserving their
Art.
Gar^
2a;2
(6a;"

factor
common
39a;2
a;2
2a; and
in
of
2a;(12ar"
Also
as
119
FACTOR.
common
32a;
60ar"
6ar"
highest
60ar"
2a;3
COMMON
30a;
16),
13a;
18a;.
6).
the
Removing
x.
factor
common
simple
continue
a;, we
148.
2a;
2
C. F.
Therefore
the
H.
150.
far
the
So
applicable
But
in
many
will
method
understood
the
of Arithmetic
found
necessary.
if it is remembered
contain
must
1.
has
we
that,
as
the
highest
3aJ"_13x2
23a;21
3a;'13ar*
23a;21
have
of
the
will
be
at
every
factor
of
[See
seeking.
are
Find
These
factor
and
on
27a;*
making
in
3a;'
90a:
90a: + 63
work
H.
contains
seeking
is contained
have
We
the
may
8a:^10a:+7.
no
63
mind
F.,
we
in the
every
conclude
therefore
the
factor
work,
highest
II.]
21.
63
find
that
it
divisor, we
an
integral quotient.
written
in 9(3x2 ^n)x^i).
reject
itself
the
46a;42
remainder
that
C.
with
maybe
simple factors,
therefore
stage
a;244a;H21
6a;3+
13a;2 + 23a;21
clearly
more
of
27a:290a;
Here
arithmetical
of the
6ar^ + a;244a:
6a;^26a:^
contained
exactly
considered.
148, 1. "
Art.
common
found
been
we
modifications
certain
cases
factor
Example
(3a;+ 2).
algebraical expressions
be
remainder
common
a:
process
the
to
is
in
that
But
their
9
form
the
H.
and
course
the
H.
two
original
go
on
But
9(3a;2 10a;
the
C. F.
is not
C.F.
can
have
with
of
we
7),
the
are
sions
expresnone.
divisor
120
[chap.
ALGEBRA.
the
Resuming
work,
have
we
3x210ar+7
3a:"10a:"+

3a:"+16a:21
Sar'+lOx
I
The
highest
the
Therefore
been
2 has
factor
3a:*
^x
7a:
2) 6a:
14
3a:
3a:+7
common
factor
removed
on
the
1
3a;+7
is 3x
7.
grounds
same
as
the factor
above.
the
Sometimes
151.
expressions
arranged
are
Find
Example,
is more
convenient
process
in ascending powers.
the
and
highest
of
factor
common
34a16a29a"
(I),
47a19a28a5
(2).
cannot
we
expressions stand
begin to
The
without
other
using a fractional
quotient.
suitable
obviated
factor, just as
by iiitroducing a
As
found
with
divide
the
it useful
the
to
division
common
we
multiply
when
ordinary
way.
their
in the
factor,
of them
either
Multiply (1) by
4 and
hence
by
use
Sa^
20
35a
95a2
20
28a
48aa
40a"
40a3
47a2
7a
6
difficultymay
last
in the
could
case
H.C.F.
be
cannot
affected
1216a64a236a8
35a
284a2
235a2
84a^
49a2284a2
200a3
284a'
l+o
the
H.C.F.
is 1 +
a.
we
The
divisor
be
longer proceed
no
7a212a"
5a5
7a
5+
5a
12a
35a
Therefore
by the
1221a57a224a'
7a
we
one
simple factor.
any
(2) as
19aa
7a
4
factor
remove
simple
no
the
when
12a
12a2
12a2

12a2
12a
if
XIX.
CHAPTEE
Fractions.
The
153.
be
applied
Reduction
ply
divide
or
the
fraction
by
fraction
factor
common
the
if
this
Reduce
1.
be
be
to
lowest
to
the
in
expression
lowest
^.
"
expression
^
=

2x
; x^
,
3y{3x4y)
The
has
convenient
both
expressed
form,
by
be
should
beginner
numerator
resolution
into
EXAMPLES
Reduce
Sxv
terms
2x{3x4y)
he
12aV
9xyl2y^
rvu
The
until
terms.
2a:*
"
Note.
any
factor,
Qx^
to
by
3a
Reduce
valent
equi
an
=
.,
2.
to
terms

Example ^
quantity.
same
common
lowest
ISa^x^
The
muLtir
toe
denominator
highest
its
if
reduced
and
numerator
factor
the
by
be
therefore
is said
fraction
resulting
Example
denominator
may
dividing
now
may
fractions.
altered
is not
fraction
and
numerator
algebraical
An
of
xviii.
of
Terms.
Lowest
to
value
The
Rule.
154.
Chapter
simplification
and
reduction
the
to
in
explained
principles
to
lowest
terms
factors
XIX.
begin
denominator
where
cancelling
in
the
necessary.
a.
a^2a
Sah
"
^'
iix''Sxy
and
to
not
3a;"
1
""""
careful
x.
3y
4a38^
^'
Qa^''
b^
2ai/l'
most
XIX.]
CHAP.
Bedace
to lowest
*"
6arV
123
FRACTIONS.
terms
10A'
6arVi^
3^+6"'
"
13.
,^
"
7r:k
TK
of
factors
15.
i^"
3ar'12a:16
the
When
156.
the
^'
2ar^+lla:+12
denominator
and
numerator
be reduced
by inspection, the fraction may
nator
denomiand
its lowest
numerator
terms
by dividing both
which
be
found
the
by
factor,
by
highest common
may
rules given in Chap, xviii.
determined
be
cannot
the
"
,k
14.
""
3ara+iac
to
,
"
"
2ic3 + a?3
ar"2a;16
a:*4a:21
TO
Reduce
Example.
^
The
and
numerator
a:^
respective quotients
3a:"lSar"
153c3
If
38ar"
5x^
by
a:
(3a;
numerator
factors
we
3a; 7"
lowest
a;
3)
5ar"
denominator
the
use
obtain
we
ar"2a;
3)
""
7)(5ar"
or
may
to
7.
as
3.
(3a;7)(a^"2a;
2a; + 21
Reduce
Example.
denominator
2a: + 3 and
is 3a;
either
into
denominator
23ar21
Thus
resolved
and
of numerator
Dividing
^^fZ^^^t^^^l]'
terms
15a:*38jB22a;+21
H.C.F.
156.
lowest
to
can
following
+ 3
a:
3*

readily be
method.
terms
7a^18ar"+6a:+5
The
Of
a;
numerator
a;(a;2+3a:
the
factors
these
Hence,
1.
only
arranging
4)
a;(a;+ 4)(a;
which
one
be
can
denominator
the
1).
so
as
common
to
factor,
.,
the
..
fraction
ss"
a;(a:+ 4)(a;l)
/
,/
y
7a:*(a; 1 ) 1 la;(a: 1 )
"
3
^r
a;(a;+ 4)(a;l)
,.
5(a;
1)
y(a: + 4)
"(a?l)(7ar"lla;6)"7a;2lla;6
shew
divisor
a;
as
is
a
124
[chap.
ALGEBRA.
EXAMPLES,
Reduce
to lowest
a?^a?^
3ar*7x2
a^4a^
y"2yg2y3
4y2
a^2a"
R
""
m^m'^m2
2W
9a^a^x2a^
^
^"
a34a2ft21a62'
'"
ar*21a?
"'
8,
"*""
+9a:s'
2a:
[For additional
"
examples
Mnltiplication
157.
Rule.
multiply
the
}or
To
together
for
a
T
In
for
number
any
the
the
Example,
fractions:
more
and
nators
denomi
the
bd
ace
of fractions.
application of
of
course
the
this
work
rule
is
factors
modified
which
are
by
moving
re
common
denominator.
and
numerator
or
_x^x^=j^;
practice
in
ac
r^
ace
Similarly,
so
j=
and
two
denominator,
new
Thus
Fractions.
of
numerator,
new
4a:3_5a^*
9ar5 +
4a: +
Algebra.']
Division
multiply
numerators
4 +
Elementary
see
and
rni
ct*
y" + 63A+2y^zM
t/^+7y^ + Sy^Uy
^^'
6c2d28ccP24cP'
2c3 +
,^
""
8a:*21a?^
c3f2c2dJ2ccP9rfs^
23:330^+1*
to
3a^l0ax^7a^x4a*'
5a^4xl
"
5ae
*"
i*
m^m^2m
4y
^*
*^'
3y3
a^+a
#"
'
b.
2a:2
1
"*""
terms
XIX.
Simplify
The
^"x^^^"^^.
expression
^
^(^+5)x^2a^)
4a3
6(2a
3)
_2a3
12a
by cancelling those
factors
which
are
common
to
both
numerator
and
denominator.
158.
Rule.
divisor^and
To
proceed
divide
as
in
one
fraction by
multiplication.
another:
invert
the
XIX.]
FRACTIONS.
rrx%
125
d__ad
Example.
d^h
'
Simplify
^
rpi.
The
631^
expression
Xj^o
"
2a^
ax
."
_3aa?
t^s*
2a
aa;
a^
^r^"r,
dai^
2a)(2a;
(3a; 2a){2x

^a?
2x^a
a)
j~j
a{x
a)
{Sx
2aj{^x
2a)
(5;;v 2a)
2a; f
1,
all the
o^^s
"
xa
=
_
since
be'
factors
cancel
each
other.
EXAMPLES
XIX.
c.
Simplify
"'""
x^ + Sx
r.
'
x' +
2c^ +
3cd^
4c2
9rf2
4a212a6
c +
"
2cd
*'
3d2*
12y2
"*
ar" + 4x
ar^ +
"
4'a;
5y10y3^12y
^*
9a?+20^ar"
364a
7a;+10
ar' +
08 + 27
Q
^'
a;'^
+ 3a? +
y^y
Id
"*"*"
5
640^681
^4m^
3m2
8w
8a36
a;7
a^a;
8a2
a^7a6
_^2a:g+
1262
30a2
ar^+ aa?20a'
aa~^ + 9aa:
^a:g8aa;+16a'
20a3
'
x^ + 8aa: +
(a6)^c^
a^ + a6 +
a2a6
(ac)^62
(a
examples
Elementary
ac
[For additional
ar!
see
Ho6"
o23a646"'
sc^ax
5a:
a3+a26
a^b^
16a"
a2
a; +
a^ + 8o696"
oar'
"
(a
+
+
loa*^'
6)^c^
6 +
'
6^j?g2jP15
ar^49
a2 + 6a62762
,p
^^*
Sm^m2
,p
17.
9*
3a25a2*
a:'aQ
^6356^+256'
4ar^ + 4a;15
ft
1
"*"""
y=*+ 6y
2o^3a2^.3ag8a3
*
25b^
JC3X66
^^
12^y22y24
y^lG
,^
2/?8+ 4/?^pg5p
,Q
'
'
"*""*""
56*+246
2^h^
a249
6^+125
2'
_^o^~4a21
a2 + 9a+14'
'
6^25
"*
'
5a; + 4
6y3
^*
2'
"
'"
aW'i'
c)2*
Algehra.l^
w+2
m^
'
XX.
CHAPTER
159.
or
which
The
lowest
resolved
into
factors,
\2a^{a
xf
power
or
it
The
1.
the
L.C.M.
(2)
the
lowest
of
that
Example
Find
2.
each
numerical
occurring
in
lowest
3a^
Qah
18a62

Therefore
Example
the
6a^b
is
L.C.M.
Find
3.
9a62
iyz^xyz)^,
ilesolving
each
y^{xz^
z*
Therefore
the
2a:z8
L.C.M.
ar*)
tx^z^
is
a;)',
is
of
multiple
its
divisible
expressions.
given
a^
6a^b
factors,
9ab^.
have
we
Sa{a
Sb),
2a{a
3h){a
a{a
36)(a
a(a
36)2.
36),
36)
its
{yz{z
i/^xiz^
z^z^
xy^z^z
z^+2xz^
factors,
x)}^
a^)
2xz
of
multiple
common
into
xyz)^
the
y\xz^3?)y
expression
(yz^
a;)^, 8a'(a
6a(a+36)2(a36).
lowest
the
6a:^(a
which
common
2a3
a3
factor
into
expression
easily
inspection.
coefficients
2a^lSah\
9a6,
be
of
each
the
of
multiple
of
power
by
can
x)K
the
which
or
dU
which
expressions
found
readily
product
of
3a2
Resolving
the
factor
factors,
common
2iaV{a
of
(1)
be
can
lowest
is
consists
of
product
two
lowest
remainder.
without
them
compound
of
of
expression
of
each
by
multiple
the
as
Example
and
divisible
common
given
are
is
the
is
of
multiple
common
expressions
algebraical
mensions
lowest
The
Definition.
more
Multiple.
Common
Lowest
xy^(z
xf(zx)^.
have
we
V(z
ar^)
x^\
z^{z
x)^,
x){z
+
+x),
x)\
by
every
CHAP.
XX.]
COMMON
LOWEST
EXAMPLES
Find
lowest
the
XX.
1.
a", a^a\
2.
^,
4.
5.
Y,
9a266,
9,
m25w
a.
of
multiple
common
x^Zs?.
3.
4m",
^. ^'^'
6.
ar*4,
10.
y^
12.
a:^ +
14.
c^Sca;
ar^ + g.
Sy*, y^.g^s^
5m14.
6, ma
6m"8m"
ifc^ifc+1,ifc'l.
8.
6a2 + 2a.
+
127
MULTIPLE.
x^ +
27y8,
xy^\
11.
a:29a:
13.
62 + 95 + 20,
15.
a24a6,
16.
22^^
17.
3a:3_i2a2a;, 4ar^+lGaa;+16a2.
18.
a"caV,
(a^c + oc*)*.
19.
20.
(2aa2)3,
4a?id+a\
21.
2a;2_ar_3^
22.
2a^'7a:4,
23.
24.
2a:2 + a._6^
25.
6a"
a"8a
4a:y
16y=,
ar'
3ar*
6a:y + 8y2,
4ar")2.
18a;2, c"8ca:+12a:".
15, a?2a^Za,
12y".
(2a:3)2, 4a;29.
a:3_8a:2+16a:.
6ar"7a:5,
7a2a;
Ta' + llarG,
Soar',
the
When
160.
cannot
be
finding
the
determined
highest
Find
Example.
2a:* + a:*
The
62 + 5_20.
highest
20a?2
Therefore
3a;"
the
ea:^, lOo^
21aa;
lowest
that
their
be
factors
resolved
factor
of
multiple
common
2a:* + 3a:"
and
7a. + 24
10a^".
is a:^ + 2a7
.Sa~"

7a; + 15.
3.
obtain
we
2a:* + aJ^
2a:* +
factor.
common
common
By division,
Uaar*
the
lOa^ic
(7ar^3a:)2.
20ar"
13a:2
L. C. M.
7a; + 24
7a: +
is
15
(a:^+
(a:"+
2a;
(a:2+
2a:
2a:
3)(2a:a
3a:
3)(2a:2
a:
3)(2ar"

3a;
8).
5).
8)(2a;*

a:
6).
by
128
LcHAP.
ALGEBRA.
EXAMPLES
Find
the
lowest
1.
ix^23^lSxlO
2.
y^
3.
m^
4.
2x*2x^\x^
5.
Find
multiple
6.
{ax
7?i
yS
and
ar'y,
24.
_
11m
4:X*2x^
6.
3x9,
factor
common
{aiP
8.
gy
6m^
and
lowest
the
m^
^xQ
highest
{x
3^2
the
of
Find
Find
7.
6a:^
H.C.F.
the
and
the
lowest
common
a^oi^.
T^fy
multiple
common
Find
multiple
9,
the
of
a^
{a^a^x^f,
of
{a^
axY,
to
W,
a^4Jb\
of
product
the
the
and
11,
product
of
given
two
Find
of
the
[Sa^
multiple
factor
common
Find
the
highest

2axf,
common
lar^aj^
of
{a^Acbb^)^,
of
factor
common
2a?x{9a'^
lowest
4ar^),
and
iSa?x
mvltiple
common
additional
examples
see
the
sions.
expres
lowest
the
the
aH^
of
T^
x^y
Elementary
Algehra.'\
common
Qaoi^,
and
{a? "\2a^h)\
lowest
IZa^x^
7?y\7?\^\X}f^,
[For
multiple
common
that
a^3db^{2l^,
common
highest
lowest
factor
common
lowest
the
the
and
show
2abx)\
multiple
12,
and
equal
is
bdb
the
Find
xll
highest
+
factor
common
Qxr
L.C.M.
Find
10,
highest
and
5a;6
and
{a^x
3m2
and
a^x^.lOx
x^)\
of
and
b.
of
multiple
common
Sy^Sy9
ZX.
XX.
xy^^
^y^y
"
130
[chap.
ALGEBRA.
We
163.
those
discussed
already
Example
The
with
begin
Find
1.
lowest
the
the
value
^^"f^^.
?^"?
of
denominator
comroon
Therefore
in
is 9a*.
?f^i2"+a)"l^zi"?
expression
"
9a*
Example
Find
2.
the
^^^
of
value
lowest
Thus
the
denominator
common
^(^
expression
2y)
9a*
^Ez^.
^^^Z^
+
xy
The
of
illustration
further
in
examples
Chapter xii.
aas
ay
is a;xy.
+
^(3y
^)
"
y(3a:
2a)
ttxy
ax
2ay
^xy
Zxy
ax
2ay
a"xy
0,
since
the
To
Note.
brackets
in the
terms
in
as
the
accuracy
first line of work
ensure
the
a2
a1
3"+
+
"'
zx
y^
IT
"
12
3ar"''
"
a;
a:
2x
a:5a_
za:
ys
2a*
t^
a^
a^W(?
a*
9a'
+
"
3a
2a
ary
a^ + 3a*
5a
"
10.
a?
a:v
a^
563
2aya:y
4a?
ahhe
i_a
"
2a;y
2a;"
"
Zxy
a^_2a*a6
"
"3c~
26c
,^
^^*
6a:y4a:'
J^"
152^
"
y
,"
'

6a
+
3a"3c"
"*"'""
^Q
^^'
,,
w5^
"^
a;
xy
3"
m+3
""
35
2m5
6
"
"
"^
"
"
JO^
""
lue
2arl
a? +
1
7fe + 3
63
2fel
to
a.
3a;l
o
^
+^6
^'
XXI.
^
recommended
above.
of
value
the
other.
is
beeinner
EXAMPLES
Find
each
destroy
numerator
2a6
2c*
6c
a^a6
oc
'
'
d'b
'
be
"^
XXI.]
We
164.
of
shall
lotpest
he written
consider
denominators
down
lowest
Hence,
multiplying
expressions.
always
shoidd
2a
the
"
is {x
2a){x
by
numerators
a;
a).
and
x'2a
tively,
respec
have
we
the
compound
denominators
possible.
denominator
common
subtraction
2a?3a_2a?a
Simplify
The
the
and
addition
are
multiple of
by inspection when
common
ExampUh
the
131
FRACTIONS.
OF
SUBTRACTION
now
whose
fractions
The
AND
ADDITION
(2^3a)(a;a)(2a:a)(a:2a)
expression
^
{x2a){xa)
23^5ax
Za^{2a^5ax+2a^)
2a){x
{x2ar"
3a V
5ow: +
2a;
2a)(a:
(a?

a)
5aa?
2a'
a)
a'
(a:2a)(a;a)
In
Note.
findiug
the
value
the
will
brackets,
the
remove
be
able
Mmmple
to
2.
take
as
Find
Hence
lowest
done.
After
the
little
and
then
practice
he
^"^
?^^
of
value
denominator
expression
brackets,
steps together.
the
common
in
product
x^lQ
The
as
2a),
the
have
we
both
expression
an
(2a; a)(a;
first express
should
beginner
of such
is
(Sx+2){x
(a:+ 4)^
(a;4)(a;+4)^.
4) +
{x^)(x4:)
\X
_3a:^
^f\X
"
14a: + 8 + ar^9a;+2Q
(a:4)(a:
^4ar'+5a:
4)a
28
"(a:4)(a;
+ 4)a*
165.
If
fraction
simplifiedbefore
is not
it is combined
in
its
lowest
with
other
terms,
fractions.
it
should
be
132
[chap.
ALGEBRA.
Example,
The
Simplify
5a:y4y^
/yV
g^^^^y'
expre88ion
y^^'^^^)
_a:^ + 5a:y4y'_
ar^16y^
a:^ +
hxy
4y^
4y
a; +
y(a;
4y)
_
"
^^16y3
a^ +
5xy
4y2
4y"
ary +
__
"
a:2_l6y3
^a^ + 4xy
a:*16y^
ar(a:+ 4y)
a:
(a:+ 4y)(a;
EXAMPLES
Find
1.
the
value
'"
"
xa
xo
xl
ar^l*
a(a
^.
17
"""'"
jg^
",
2a; + y
6)
"
,r;
TVs'
10"
"^^*
2a? y
ar*y2'"(a;+yj2'
ay
a?
13.
"^"*
3
rr;
a?+y
4a
2^^6^6a"2STF
1_
F+8'^6+2'
;;"
3x(a: + a)
^i" o+^^^'^
y22y3"^y2y6*
36
16.
^''^
6 +
jir.
(6 + 1)2
"~2c
6a26c
^^^*
ca
a" + 2a
a_
a2 + a2
a^
00
".
.^
,p
"^"'
x^4y^'^x+2y
2a;(a:a)
(aj+y)''
^q
2a
rrv
^"^^
3a
2a;
"
aj'a^
4a2"^
264
QQ
^^'
71
la"^(la)2'
aryy*
"^^^
'f
1
i
^'
2'
,,
.,.
(a;2)(a;+ l)'
.
14.
a3
a3
2'
ax
"*
a24
a+3
D.
"
'
b2''b
a:2
3.
"'
a+x
obx
a
'
rt
12.
b.
x^
0"
i*
a(a6)
a;
''
x4
XXI.
2.
^'
a2'^a'6'
4y)
of
1+1
4.
4y'
a:3+ia.
_^V_
"**"
ar" + a:y +
l*
1
+
l
^y^V
y2+ a^V^
5^.1
XXI.]
Find
x+2^.
27.
2 +
The
additional
a;+l
^
x
practice in
^^^^+'^.
Simplify
expreaaion
furnish
following examples
the simplificationof fractions.
"^
A+
ar*
n,
The
E^n.ple.
29.
n^
166.
133
FRACTIONS.
4+^2a.
28.
a;l
1
OF
of
value
the
SUBTRACTION
AND
ADDITION
^^^j+g"5
_20(6l)6("
l) + 7"
1)
16(6'^
21621
21(61)
15(621)
167.
two
of
the
Sometimes
the
the
the
of
denominators
finding
at
once.
*~^^
Simplify
S{ax)
Taking
by combining
simplified
instead
together,
of all the
be
will
Example,
5(6+1)*
15(621)
work
fractions
multiple
common
first two
S{a
fractions
^a'^
x^)
together,
3(ci+a?)(aa;)
expression
^
x)
a2x
=
_
8(a*
x')
a+2x
{a
4(a2 + ar")
a2x
2x){a^
2x){a^a^)
x^) {a
4(a*x*)
_a^
2ah;
ax^
2x^{a^2ah:'aa:^+2x*)
4(a*
4a'a? + 2a3i^
^
"
ax{2a
X*)
a?)
'^a*^x*)
'
2{a*
X*)
the
lowest
134
ALGEBRA.
[CHAP.
EXAMPLES
Find
the
6
c.
of
3
23a?
2a;n
value
XXL
2x
l+2a_3a'
ix^l'
2a+3c
.
96a;
a'
rr
(a+l)^
__L___L_
1
12
z(zl)
2
a;

(a;2)2
13'^*
19
J^
a2_i
z(2+l)
(oTI?'
1,1
10
11
"^"^'
(a+1)*
a3
^
ah
2712a:a*
6 + 4ar
fl
"*
(a;a)"*
(a;a)"
4a:^9a;
_
Kl.2a,a"
a;a
*'
'
22aa
4a^9d^'
2a3c
2a7
33a
6c
^
2a
^*
ar"+4
a:2
3a
(2+a)(3a)(l+2a)
y2
14
(3a)(l+2a)*
2(.V3)
y4
(y2)(y4)'^(y2)(y3)*
(y3)(y4)
1
nf
2 +
2 + 3x
a?
3a:'
1x
(la;)(2a;)(3+a:)*
(la;)(2a;)
2
10
1
^
5a
17
a+1
,
6(a2_lj
2(a2+2a3)
ar5
IR
"'""*
2a:
ar"4a:6
19.
"^
ar' +
3(6
X)
6a+3*
_3a?6
2a;
a:6'
a~" +
b^
_a
a6~a2
3a2
a^ + b^
ft2"a"6"*
a6 +
J^S_
^"*
i23x
a:" + 27
1
21.
3*
1
a^ +
a:
22.
4a:y
2xy
y^
a)*
jc^
"
1
J.
2^'^2+i
a:*2aV+y*'
gar
(a:
"^^^
a;
\xy)^
OQ
a*
(a:

3_
4+a:"*
a)^*
QA
^^
_"
Hl
x)
4(1
xy
2(1+^)'
XXL]
ADDITION
2a6
135
FRACTIONS.
OF
SUBTRACTION
AND
2a3
no
9R
ft^
"
tt
97
^''
a6
a^
a+6
a;3_a76
OQ
"
a:6
a;
xS'
11
+
168.
find
To
a+6*
3(a+2)
3(a2)
a6
for
meaning
the
^^,
fraction
is
define
we
it
as
"
the
(ar2)a'
a:2
a;4
g3_
a?3
30
ft^*
a?3_a;l_
no
'^"'
"
by
rule
"
this
6 ; and
of
signs, prefixing
+.
^=
Therefore
^
Again,
b ; and
by
of
is the
signs, prefixing
rule
^
6 ; and
of
by 6, and, by
is obtained
this
the
rule
(2).
by dividing
the
by 6, and, by
the
A=?
(3"
enunciated
be
may
of
division
follows
as
and
denominator
(1) If the signs of both numerator
whole
fraction will
fraction be changed, the sign of the
(2)
"
"
Therefore
results
of
is the
signs, prefixing
These
division
=^= ?
Likewise
the
.
by
from
by dividing
Therefore
(1).
0
quotient resulting
is obtained
this
+?=?
0
"
alone
be
changed,
the
of
be
changed,
un
sign of
the whole
(3)
of the
If
sign of the
fraction will
whole
Example
1.
hj:a
be
{b
changed.
a)
alone
b
^a^^
y
xy
yx
xoi^
vt
7
ExampUi.
denominator
the
^^
{yx)
+
x
a^
x^x
^.
be
136
[CHAP.
ALGEBRA.
Sx
Sx
Example
"
4x^
Example
Here
4
it is evident
fractions
sign
of the
that
is ar^
lowest
a^, therefore
denominator
the
?^+?^(^Z^
the
aP4'
x^
Simplify ^
4.
two
Thus
Sx
3.
in the
expression
be
convenient
first
of the
to
alter
the
fraction.
third
?^
_^+
denominator
common
it will
^^^^^1
_
x^a^
xa
a{x a)+
2x{x
a)
a(3x
a)
~~
"
x^a?
ax
a^ +2x^
"
2ax
Sa^
a^
a^a^
2x^
a^a^'
Example
^
5.
Simplify
^
^
Here
in
observed
finding
that
considered
the
there
; for
L.C.M.
of them
"
{h'C)(ha)
of
the
differ
{ca)(cb)
denominators
different
six
not
are
three
=;;
{ab)(ac)
"
from
compound
the
other
it
three
be
must
factors
to
only
be
in
sign.
Thus
{ac)
(6
"
a)=(a6),
{cb)
Hence,
replacing the
we
may
second
write
the
and
the
in
each
in the
L.C.M.
expression
^
{hc).
expression
{ab){ca)
the
factor
Now
{ca),
is
c){c
by its equivalent,
(6c)(a6)
(6
denominator
form
{ca){bc)
a){a"b)
("c)(ca)(a")
=
{b'C){ca)(ab)
b+cc+aa+b
_
ibc){ca){abY
=
In
Note.
arrange
the
b by c, and
0.
it will be found
convenient
to
examples of this kind
that
that
is followed
is, so
a
expressions cyclicaUy,
by b,
c by a.
138
Find
the
ab
h^
a+b
a^a:
1
7^"^.+
{xa){ab)
3^.
17
'
h+e
"
o^
20.
2a; +
a;a
3x+a
(b
c){b
"
'
"
a)
(c
a){c b)
g^
l +
4(a
a:)
^^a:**
2(a:2 ^2)
_
1_
"
2a*
.
2a3(a
28.
{r'p){rq)
1
Oft
'^'^*
Q7
^'*
4(a:+a)
l +
{qr){qp)
c)
{zx){zy)'
{yz)(yx)
{pq)(pr)
Qfi
^y
"^^^
b){a
1+p
"
(a
{xy){xz)
24
(za;)(zy)
.+
yg
23
^r"
,."
(y2)(ya;)
(xy)(xz)
a:)
2a"(a:a)
aV^
a:^) 5^^:^*
_JL__L_+^^"^+^^^5"
^rp
a2 +
62^64a*
^,+7.^.+^'
a?2"^(2+a:)a^(2a)*
.
(a
'
a:+2
a^
_
22.
ah
a3x
xa
21
a^
^,A+^+
yz
_
i+.
a2a:
a+a:
{baf
2/)(a a?)
,p
Jf
[ab)^
(a;

a^6
ah
arz
*
19.
ab
iig
(6a)(6a?)
2a
^^
{ab){xa)
2xl
gfc
IR
a;)(6 a;)'
1^
(la:)2
a;l
(a
(xb){ab)
13.
st^t/^
%"r,,
y"a:"
,2
11
12.
'^"*
b^^W^^
a^ +
a^b^
ar"l*
a:a:"
aha
Q
^
'"
XXI.
of
value
ct
""
[chap.
ALGEBRA.
6)(aa+"")
(ya:)(ya)
b^
XXIL
CHAPTER
Miscellaneous
171.
Definition.
are
fraction
fraction
numbers
of
which
is called
the
,
"
Thus
X
are
the
last
of
these
b and
of
c,
in
the
to
the
as
caJled
are
it
is
and
dy
middle
two
line
to
separate
convenient
write
to
numerator
complex
forms
a
in
proved
ale
his
ir
Simpliflcation
is
the
means.
sometimes
lb
It
quantities,
while
extremes,
the
"r^
172.
outside
horizontal
the
using
denominator,
fractions
Fractions.
the
types
referred
Instead
and
is itself
Fraction.
Complex
are
Fraction.
denominator
or
minator
deno
sometimes
quantities,
Simple
numerator
and
numerator
In
whose
is called
Complex
,
0
fraction
whole
Fractions.
of
the
Complex
Fractions.
Algebra,
Elementary
Art.
141,
that
_a
d_ad
a
.
'
bo
d
The
should
student
be
able
should
to
the
notice
write
down
the
lx=.
a
"
r
.
,
=
particular
readily.
results
b
,
=li.
following
cases,
and
140
[chap.
ALGEBRA.
173.
The
illustrate
following examples
the
simplificationof
fractions.
complex
Example
^.
Simplify
1.
a"
The
expre8sion
a:"rt*
a:3+a"
(a:f )f(a;^j
"
a?*
T^cfi'
a*
?+^2
Example
2.
Simplify
'^
6^2"o
Here
the
fractions
reduction
above
effected
simply
he
may
below
and
which
6a,
by
by multiplying
is
the
L.C.M.
of
the
the
denominators.
Thus
the
expression
^^t^*~V^
a^+3a
18
"
_2(o"6o+9)
"(a
Examj^eZ.
Simplify
2(a
6)(a3)~
3)
+ 6
^Jl::^Liilt^
a+o
a"o
ab~a+b
The
^^^^
ia'^^)'ia'^?
numerator
similarly
the
"
denominator
{a
h){ah)
4a^b^
Hence
4ab
the fractions
{a^ + 62)(a2
^
"^
62)
4a26a
b)
(a
6)(a
(a
6)(a6)
(aH62)(a262)''
4ab
ah
"a^
Note.
To
denominator
simplily
ensure
are
each
accuracy
somewhat
separately
^aand
neatness,
complicated,
as
in the
above
when
the
the
numerator
beginner
example.
is advised
and
to
XXII.]
the
the
In
174.
Find
Example,
of
value
the
we
from
begin
fraction,and
lowest
Fractions
Continued
of
case
141
FRACTIONS.
MISCELLANEOUS
0"^"
"
24
1a:
1
The
expressions
4_3(lar)
422a:
2x
a?
3a;"'5a
1a:
1
84a:3
2x
2a:
2'X
5
"
XXn.
EXAMPLES
Find
1.
the
of
value
1.
*+
2.
2.
4^.
3.
^^'.
7.
'ya;
a:~y
11
a:a
5
i11
y
le.
3
"
"
"
n
"
a;
"^^*
"
a:2+_5_
+
62
3
^i
^
"
fe +
,"
,.
^^^6T3
^^"*?T3
c+d
P^" 1^
6""^
9^
"
4'
Ir
al
a^
1Q
8.
y3+l^
a+6_6
IX*
I
.^^
1a
a^
6.
:^l
6^
"3
4.
j._c
y
2
5.
a.
a^
^6+6^
x+S
a^b
cd
6^
x+3
"
ic
cd
c
+ d
T/j
1+i
a
19.
0:+!.
"!
a;
20.
a?
a?3
a;3
a;l
1ab
i+i^.
"""
i_"^i^LZ^^
cd
cd"^c
18.
1 ah
2"
i..
4^
ci
142
[CHAP.
ALGEBRA
Find
the
of
value
11
"+?
^^
24.
1"1^
l_.
d^?
"^^
28.
,
_3(ac)
a;l
as
3a2c
it is convenient
Sometimes
175.
to
single fraction
express
of fractions.
group
'"lOa:V
lOxV
"2^
176.
"
26.
"
^7j
27.
25.
i_i
Since
lOarV
2ar"*
a:
represents the
fraction
lOarV
quotient of
often
by the denominator, we
may
equivalent form, partly integral and
Example
^
1.
""7,(x
x
ExampU2.
2) +
5^j
a
express
fractional
partly
_5_^
17,3.
3(x+5)152^3(a:+5)
"
Examples,
+ 2
2ar"7gl
that
^garl
a?3
x3
By
actual
division,
xS)
2x^
7a;
1 ( 2a:
2a:36a:
ar1
ar
4
Thus
the
Therefore
quotient
is 2a;
1, and
?^rl^=2a;la:3
remainder
the
^
aj3
H
x+6
x\5
x+5
Shew
the
fraction
"
4^
rator
nume
in
an
xxn.]
MISCELLANEOUS
177.
If
the
denominator,
result
in
be
numerator
we
of
lower
still
may
which
form
whence
the
division,
perform
express
and
fractional.
integral
partly
partly
is
^^^'
'^^
""
that
"
""
the
division
quotient,
and
remainder
if
Thus,
we
whose
carried
stop
can
fraction
to
on
is the
is divided
to
quotient
A
"
t;
a^
four
which
"
terms,
and
remainder
the
most
of
following
1ar^
a~h
g
*
of
the
thus
if
quotient
x^
are
is
j..
have
x^^
following exercise
the
fractional
terms
tt:,
illustrate
Simplify
should
we
ci}^
the
contains
processes
EXAMPLES
ft
be
may
four
x^^
The
178.
a^
quotient
a^, the first
ofi
x^
last
l+3ar"*
the
in
by
aP
a^
remainder
for
divisor.
1 + 3jc3
terms
in
please by taking
we
any
numerator
of terms
=2a:6a:"+18x"64a;7+^^^^
The
number
any
term
is the
the
on
at
whose
denominator
carried
we
be
may
the
and
found,
follows.
result
the
Here
our
the
and
division
By
the
than
dimensions
the
^^
Prove
Example,
143
FRACTIONS.
4a6
'^d^'
x^l_x^+x^+l
Qt^+x+V
xl
fractions
miscellaneous
connected
XXn.
examples
with
fractions.
b.
12a^i + arl
^l+6a?+ftg"
2a
aa46a"
a2a6263
{x+y?_(xy)^^
'
spy
x+y
144
[chap.
ALGEBRA.
ahx^
hxy
OCX
1/
cy
p
*
aa^+Qcyaa:y
\_
*
_
'
x\ax
a^Sx)
^
a
Sx'
2+35
9.
7^6x+S
a:"9a:+14'
a2lla;+28
^+"'
1
Sa3a
in
12.
"^
cd{a^
18.
3a^3(a^27a;T54)
JL.1
x\
iM
^"^
TT^'
JL.
1
x+\
\x
W)+ah{(^+"P)
,
1
_
a:*
Soar* + 4a*
a:*aa:*4a^+4a'*
a'+4
"^4
17
2a:^ + a?^3ar
5ieg8ar21
2a:"3a:9
,
"'"^'
35ar^ + 24a:35
a:8+ 7a:^8a:
g+yP
20
\\xy
aa +
^^'
\a;y
b"(ca)g
)
^ra^4a
V3a
y
+
x^
xy'ip
xy
x+y
a^9
3^/
\a*
^aga2\n
a2 +
"
a^ +
llj*
"*
"
2^^/
2a:2y+2ary*
y/J
c"(afe)^
a6'La24a+4*
"^
\2i
y/
xl\y'^x^l
ggl
{rp){rq)'
'
(^\y'](
^^
p + gr
{qrMp)
jc +
a^("c)8
\y
7ar'+ 61a:40
r+pg
^
(i"g)(2""*)
OA
,.
23.
1\
2/.
S^r9)
~2~
Q9
^l+a:\_l
16.
10
nt
3a^/
6a"(a; 2a)(a;

3a)*
XXm.
CHAPTER
Harder
also
we
which
of
The
others
add
following
the
already
difficulty,
more
by
worked
full
will
serve
as
explained
the
solution
artifice.
special
some
in
will
chapter
methods
sufficiently
trate
illus
methods.
useful
?^
Solve
1.
this
the
facilitated
examples
most
Example
of
presenting
be
often
will
in
equations
revision
for
exercise
but
the
of
Some
179.
useful
Equations.
??^.
=
of
Clearing
fractions,
have
we
(6a:
3)(a:
6a:2 +
5)
(3a:
27a:15
6ar"
2)(2a?
7),
17a:14;
IOa;=l;
..
""
To'
"
By
Note.
the
case,
form
the
in
simple
which
the
across
Example2.
^
Multiplying
or
many
above
equation
is
simplification
necessary
"
reduction
miitiplying
Solve
up,"
20,
readily
it
as
given.
is
we
3a;+4
have
8a:+23??i^^"?l=8a;+1220,
3a:+4
By
transposition,
Multiplying
across,
31
93a?
124
84
/.
^^^^'
20(5a;
7a;;
ar=12.
2),
be
can
brought
When
completed
sometimes
is
?^^=?"+3.i^
20
by
eq^uations
this
by
called.
is
to
the
ing
multiply
XXIII.]
CHAP.
180.
HARDER
When
they
two
should
ExampU
or
be
?iz^
By transposition, we
and
together
ator,
denomin
same
simplified.
_??_
?^zi?
the
have
fractions
more
taken
Solve
1.
147
EQUATIONS.
13.
have
8ar49_^,"_28(245a:).
'T^r^'^^^
"
^:^
35a:_4
'
5ag
a:2*
4a;
Multiplying
across,
have
we
3a;5a:'6
that
10ar=164a:+20a:6"";
is,
3a;
22
X
.
..
Example
This
the
^
Solve
2.
f =^
^
+
work
by proceeding
The
be
would
be
may
written
(a:10)+2
(a:6)
form
(a:7)
+ 2
(a?9)
2,
"*"
x%
x9
x1
have
2
2
,
a:10
gives
"
a;6
x9
1
.
a;6'
x1
10
a:
"
x1
_A
a:9'
x1
a:10
Transposiug,
a;6
"
*"
which
"
x\0
we
once
solution
in the
"*"
whence
at
The
^.
follows.
as
equation
by
laborious.
a:9
(a;10)(a:7)""(a;9)(a:6)
Hence,
equal
that
since
the
numerators
equal,
are
the
denominators
is,
{x
\Q){x l)
ar"17a?
..
"*"
9){x
6),
{x
70
ar"15a:+64j
16
2a:;
x^S.
must
be
148
[OHAP.
ALGEBRA.
XXTTT.
Solve
the
following equationa
1.
6.
4a:10*
6.
'
x+7
3ar+7
2a:+r
"
3a; +
42"
14
21
7^^T4
6
24^^*
8~
2i
14.
1
_
Sx+6'
x+3
x+2
x+l
15.
6'
10
5a;17_.2a;ll_23_3a;7
13 4a;
18
3^
_
_
3a;18
a;4
4a;16
x6
2a;+10
6(a;+4)"
16.
3a;+12
a;+6
17.
a?l_a;5_a;3_a;7
ar2
x6
1"
a;8'
a;4
'
+.
a;9
a;ll^^=lS'
a;17
1.11.1
19.
2a;l
20.
fl?l_
a;2
21.
a;l
2"^
2a;3
2a;7
a?
7a;+2
10.
_a;4_a:3
xo
a;
4'
5a;64_4a;55_2a;ll_a?6
a;13"a?14"
xQ
xf
3a; T
9a22_3a?5
2a;6
8a?19_l_3a?4
"'^"'^*
"'
8.
8'
4a: +
0.
17a:+3
8a?l_4a;3
6a:+2
22a?~12_o
4a:10
IQ
^^'
6 5a;
5a?~8_5ag+14'
4x13'
4.
8a:6
9.
6ar17
7^34a;
4^^5?
9
x4:
7.
2.
6x9
8.
a.
2a;7
_1
3(a;l)"3
6a;~l
3"+T
3.
XXIII.]
Solve
HARD"R
the
following equations
2a?13
5a?+3I_2a7+9_a:6
oQ
149
EQUATIONS.
'
x+5
x+Q
12a?+l
Qo
a;5
xQ
llH2a?
ar"9
[For
a;3
a;+3
additional
examples
Elementary
see
Literal
the
In
181.
equations
have
involve
will
literal
have
we
numerical
we
have
"a;
oa?
{a+h)x
"
2.
SlmpUfying
Solve
the
^
A
xa
xb
left side,
a{x b)
"*"
"
oc,
=:
a^i
"

r^?^.
xc
have
we
h{x
a)
xc*
(xa)(xb)
{ab)x
_ab
.
{x
xc'
a){x b)
(a;

Multiplying
When
supposed
c{a+ c) ^ {x
whence
Example
the
hitherto
quantities.
are
(x+a)[x+h)
Multiplying out,
discussed
to
be
across,
a){x b)
xc
Qi^cxo^axbx\ob^
ax+bxcx
{a+6c)"
.
"
ab,
a6;
'"
"

ajbc
efficients
co
equations
known, and
solution.
Solve
Eqnations.
these
coefficients,
in the
appear
Example
been
Algebra.^
c){x+c)
ab.
150
[chap.
ALGEBRA.
Example
Solve
3.
simnltaneons
the
equations
(1),
CKCftyaC
px+qy
eliminate
To
g and
multiply (1) by
y,
thus
ctqx
hpx
By addition,
(og
hqy
bqy
hp)x
+
+
"
"""
"
(2).
(2) by h
cq,
6r.
cq+hr;
"
="
ag
"
op
of a; in either of the
might obtain
y by substituting this value
ing
conveniently found
by eliminatequitions (1) or (2) ; but y is more
We
follows.
as
X,
i? and
Multiplying (1) by
(2) by
apx
apx
By subtraction,
(ag
hpy
cp,
aqy
ar.
arcp;
hp)y
0/1 +
op
XXm.
EXAMPLES
Solve
1.
the
have
we
a,
following equations
b.
oM+h^^a^hx.
2.
a:*a2
(2aar)".
3.
a\ax)\ahx=h\xh).
4.
("+l)(a:+a)
5.
a(a; + 6)6"
6.
i^xcP
7,
a(a:
a)
a26(aa;).
h{x
6) + c(a? c)

2(a6
dh:+"?,
6c + ca).
10.
ar+(a:a)(a:6)+a"+6"s=6+a*a("l).
,,
2a;o_3a;6_3a^86'
^o
ga?_6a?_a^
'
^Q
ax
COO
15.
^bx
*aba
ab
^a
ex
,
(6l)(a:a)
a?4a
ar
ba^b^'
6_ar
64c
6'
a:
6c
l"(i"a:)?(xgr)"p(jp2)+W?iy
a
=
van,]
16.
following
the
Solve
ttx+hy
'+l
3
2
19.
equations
simultaneous
17.
b,
xya
cxdt/
0,
"+y
21.
0,
t^=^+K
Thus
is
surd
quantities
termed
are
rational
183.
actly
ex
surd.
irrational
an
surds
be
cannot
quantity
surds.
are
called
not
of
is called
root
""6x4 ay
"2
Eqnations.
root
\/a2TP
sometimes
which
xy
o^"^
6y_I_
6a: + ay
Surd
the
indicated
VA
oa:
gg
or
If
^/2, V5,
",
^+^+^=^+^3.
Depinttion.
the
''ty
Irrational
obtained
c.
*+y^^=o.
23.
2a?6,2y+a_3a?+y
a+26*
b
a
182.
hy,
^=".
a(a+x)^b{by).
OA
ax
xy
?+=2.
"+y=6.
22.
18.
2c.
c^+cP,
11
20.
a+b.
151
EQUATIONS.
HARDER
for
are,
sake
the
and
quantity;
of distinction,
quantities.
Sometimes
quantity
equations
appears
the
under
the
which
in
proposed
are
radical
sign.
student
For
the
a
known
un
fuller
BlC'
equations
may
Here
shall
we
a
Algebra, Chap, xxxii.
only consider
mentary
be
solved
ing
few
can
by the followgeneially
simple cases, which
of
the
side
to
method.
a
one
single radical
Bring
equation
term
by itself : on squaring both sides this radical will disappear.
in turn
remaining radicals can
By repeating this process
any
of
discussion
be
surd
consult
removed.
Example
2Va;V4a:ll
Solve
Transposing,
Square
both
aides
; then
4a:
1.
^/ar
V4a:ll.
^a? +
4a:
4Va:=12,
^/a: 3,"
=
..
a:
9.
11,
the
152
[CHAP.
ALGEBRA,
Solre
2.
Example
2+
Transposing,
Here
cvbe both
must
we
sides
Vx5
13.
fjx 5
11.
thus
x~5
whence
1331
1336.
Multiplying
across,
have
we
(6Va:ll)(Vx+6)
6aJllVa:+36Va:66
is,
11
^i^^==?JV^i^
Solve
ExarnpU^.
that
xxin.
V"+36n/"
Vx
22^/a;
3Va?(2/s/a?+l);
6a:+3Va:,
66,
66,
^/a: 35
=
EXAMPLES
Solve
the
equations
1.
Vi^=l.
4.
2^/x+I
3.
7.
sf]T5x
3^fr^.
9.
N/4a:*lla?7
^/6^^2^=7.
3.
V?^=2.
5.
3N/r=2"=l.
6.
8.
V""3ar"+7a;ll
1+
18.
N/4a:+13 + 2V"
IR
2.
2a:3.
11.
:#:"ii
s/gl,
"v^a?3
^/a:+3
~V^
a:.
13.
2n/6x^7"/x
3
12.
s/x^^=
14.
3+
6a:.
^xl.
\/l2a;33
^/g +
0.
N/iT7i+4?
10.
""/"
l/2i.
2\/3S;
Va:45
i
_
"^^*
3^/a:8
2Ja:3_^^^"S
17.
19.
"/l+4x+2V"
21.
fJ^c+l"
fJx+Ts
;^.
\fx3.
22.
3Vx7*
1^
^g^
hJlzl.2+.
20.
N/g+\^a;3=^"
^"
V4a;3
V"+3
/s/"^
154
"=^+33,
Hence
".
;.
Thus
If
the
the
4 and
is 36
time
will
5 o'clock
take
also
20
gains
13,
33;
36.
there
4.
past
asked
follows
as
be
the
* '
what
At
between
minutes
13
consideration
into
behind
divisions
is 13
a:
nlinutes
be
question
must
we
[caA^.
ALGEBRA,
the
In
hourhand.
the
when
case
this
between
times
case
hands
two
the
minutehand
the
minutehand
"
7 divisions.
or
x=^+'J,
Hence
7
which
gives
a:
7
11
7'
Therefore
the
times
7:^^past
are
11
for
3.
Example
$2.60
at
how
;
a
much
by
gain
of
30
per
did he
the
of
number
respectively
currants
lbs.
of
loss
of
The
cents
on
the
his
the
of
price
the
figs is
"
outlay
pound
of
is
cents.
15a;f28y=260
loss upon
rants
cur
outlay
?
in the
cents
cent., and
per
30
each
; then
16a;f 28y
Therefore
10
lbs. of currants
28
figs and
clears
for
pay
36' past 4^
cent., he
pound
per
X, y denote
Let
figs and
buys 15
figs at a
grocer
selling the
4, and
"
\hx
(1).
and
cents,
the
gain upon
the
is
currants
"
28"
cents
therefore
the
total
gain
is
10
^y??cente;
6
that
is,
From
28y6aj=
(1) and
8 cents
cost
Example
two
places,
at
the
will
rate
have
we
pound,
4.
c
(T\
Two
miles
of p
and
the
persons
apart, and
miles
walked
find
an
hour,
before
he
'
that
100
a;=8,
currants
A
walk
and
and
and
B
the
at
start
rate
of
q miles
figs
from
simultaneously
direction.
same
the
is, the
pound.
; that
y=6
5 cents
cost
in
overtakes
(2).
travels
; how
far
XXnr.]
HARDER
Suppose
A
has
walking
? hours;
walked
the
at
and
will
being equal,
times
of
rate
miles
travel
then
miles,
155
PROBLEMS.
has
hour
an
miles.
xc
will
travel
^^
*in
miles
xc
walked
these
hours;
in
miles
two
have
we
x_xc
"
ZT'*
fif
qx=pxpc;
whence
^^.
pq
Therefore
Example
5.
Had
rate.
the
speed
miles.
travelled
train
less, the
and
hour
an
had
have
distance
certain
6 miles
been
have
^
travelled
has
more,
the
hours
uniform
journey
been
speed
occupied
at
the
6 miles
would
hour
an
Find
more.
the
distance.
Let
the
occupied
by xy miles.
'
be
hours
first
the
On
time
of the
speed
be
taken
train
; then
the
speed
In
hours.
miles
distance
supposition
Is y
be
the
per
this
the
case
6)(y 4) miles.
second
the
supposition the distance
by {x 6)(y + 6) miles.
represented by (x
On
is
a:
distance
miles,
and
traversed
the
will
traversed
will
be
sented
repre
All
these
..
From
these
xy
{x+ 6)(y
equations
(1) and
Hence
the
(2)
we
distance
6y4a:
24
a:y6y
6a;36,
36
6y
obtain
is 720
a;
and
If the
if the
fraction.
numerator
denominator
of
equal
6)(y + 6).
is
24,
(1);
(2).
30, y
24.
miles.
EXAMPLES
1.
4a:
6a;6y
or
From
("
xy
or
jcy
4)
be
must
have
we
ary
and
distance
for the
expressions
fraction
increased
XXIV.
is increased
by
by
it reduces
5 it reduces
to
find
to
},
the
156
2. Find a fraction
and
its denominator,
If
3.
i
to
[chap.
ALGEBRA.
is added
it reduces
that
reduces
"
to
from
is taken
unity
if 3
snch
numerator
which
becomes
3 from
of
denominator
the
sabtracted
if 7 be
subtracting
on
th^
to
to
fraction
it reduces
to
from
its numerator.
it reduces
required
the
fraction.
4.
Find
and
fraction
subtracting
4 from
5.
If
6.
to
what
At
When
7.
8.
At
9.
what
11.
At
the
26
per
for
he
gave
he
bought.
14.
males
The
and
and
of
11
clock
12
and
minutes
o'clock
apart between
the
hourhand
six
is the
o'clock
of
hands
the
are
between
right angles
at
read
3 per
gain of
clears $6.76
at
he
$1446
of
the
hands
the
are
loses
he
26
per
; find
baying
certain
20
the
consist
of
females
find
the
$76
at
of
each
cent,
per
the
number
per
and
horses
tlie
price
land
each
33000, of
each
of the
per cent,
animals
many
canvas
of
price
at
for
canvas
and
the
is
of
of
yards
cent,
horses
district
These
of all
cent
and
16
By selling the
$1140 ; find how
write.
nor
in
disease
cows.
receives
he
1 o'clock
of cloth
yards
through
population
16.
Two
miles
apart,
C
persons
and
walk
ana
walked
far
they
can
will A
and
to
mile
one
when
A
16.
gives
how
of
whom
of
835
all the
of
midea
females.
hour,
he
of the
them
neither
can
cent,
20
cloth
spends
each
$20
at
cows
hands
cent,
per
dealer
13.
and
buys
selling
of 20
gain
yard.
at
the
fraction
between
times
person
By
and
1
line
hands
right angles
12.
$36.
the
are
be
will
6 ?
what
at
tracting
sub
on
between
the
are
and
10
straight
same
of 5 and
watch
clock
minutehand
time
When
10.
of
between
time
of the
in the
o'clock
10
fraction
certain
denominator
the
numerator
to
denominator.
the
7 to
a
and
5 to the
reduces
6 ?
what
At
hours
adding
numerator
hands
the
are
ahead
watch
and
of 5 and
minutes
the
between
time
together
hours
and
numerator
to
adding
{ on
denominator,
the
from
by ) ; if 6 is taken
" : required the fraction.
increased
watch
the
is added
reduces
1 from
from
simultaneously
start
each
other
hour
faster
; if G walks
far
than
G, how
places
two
p
miles
will
per
have
meet?
walk
start
of
have
per
D
meet
miles
c
miles,
walked
hour
per
and
when
faster
that
he
than
walks
overtakes
supposing
miles
per
that
hour,
XXIV.]
HARDER
A,
17,
miles
+26
and
Find
18,
the
19,
acres
had
$18
cost
did
he
pay
20.
quarters
takes
C
hours
A
he
more
76
cents
did
he
man
buy
A
and
22,
onehalf
what
of
his
still
has
The
23.
largest
the
middle
the
other
have
42
been
of
qualities
A
than
of
eighths
how
B
of
$72.50
more
an
per
acre
yard
per
with
field
actual
amount
same
more
rent
and
has
find
than
for
pays
six
the
had
of
and
field
$1.76
per
and
onefourth
size
of
the
buying
than
acre
acres
fields.
the
per
;
one
of
and
would
area
of
the
area
large,
as
obtains
of
the
total
he
more.
more,
begin
area
twice
of
and
$10,
the
dollar
loses
quarter
they
more
cost
won
twice
each
cents
tons
game
did
in
two
many
one
and
of
yard
how
has
the
size,
the
of
60
ton
wins
been
and
B,
cost
acres
had
tance
dis
had
acres,
30
by
three
each
amounts
616
and
hour.
first
he
area
; he
less
much
certain
the
in
what
is
more
if
more
it is ; find
spend
more
acre
acre
how
B,
per
playing,
threefourths
$28
than
bought
each
than
ton
tons
threeeighths
pays
than
but
second
the
their
spend
each
pays
fourths
cents
dollar
less,
4
exceeds
than
each
cease
fields
half
each
if
money
smallest
the
less
acres
does
much
25,
If
obtains
a
fields
cloth.
and
three
fields
jB, C
A,
24.
of
field.
two
in
they
than
smallest
walking
tons
for
but
more
less
more
of
received
When
area
and
coal
2
playing
money,
$26
had
if
walk
To
hour
an
rates
for
have
are
has.
then
in
perform
can
and
acres
faster
CI
than
of
received
would
he
15
hour
per
their
$90
have
less
increasing
If he
less,
$4
cost
faster
find
pays
would
the
at
journey
hour
land.
obtained
mile
threequarters
A
of
quantity
have
hour
per
than
more
21,
26
A,
A
by
the
per
how
half
mile
miles
+6,
when
perform
speed
walked
towns
a,
after
overtake
may
have
can
have
would
land
walk
can
of
the
would
he
the
train
of
rates
hours
they
two
certain
acre
more
for
they
starts
then
the
at
more.
buys
each
B
that
between
reducing
1 hour
person
more
will
hour,
per
by
in
journey
the
and
less,
hour
far
distance
the
place
same
order
in
start
how
7 miles
speed
the
respectively.
C
must
instant,
same
from
start
hour
an
after
long
B,
157
PROBLEMS.
fields.
different
yard
less
five
pays
yard
less
three
has
pays
but
pays
158
[CHAP.
ALGEBRA.
1.
When
2.
Solve
3.
3,
=
5,
equations
the
1,
=
lx^yS29:,
(2)
1 =y
value
the
of
3y;
2(z+a;)
0, find
ly3a:
(1)
IV.
EXAMPLES
MISCELLANEOUS
3(a:+y).
Simplify
^x^
ax
fy.
3a
a^x^
xa
6^
6^36
Find
4.
the
of
root
eqnare
"30^""3""106
f5
6.
In
baseball
are
onefourth
are
onethird
5 ; find
the
errors
runs,
and
in the
the
The
runs.
in the
score
c"i
f7
match
of the
of the
f"
in
is
score
first four
the
first four
last five
innings
16, and
the
innings
the
errors
errors
ber
num
innings.
1
6.
Find
the
iilz^x^.
of
value
!_?.+ I
a^
7.
Find
the
value
ax
as^
of
(a2)3(ll6)(2a36
)+36.4(la).
+
8.
Kesolve
(1)
into
factors
3a220a7;
(2)
a*b^h*a\
J
9.
Reduce
to
lowest
^^ ^^ ^^
"^
terms
4^^^ + 52:2 7
a?
2
XXIV.]
equations
the
Solve
10,
(1)
(2)
a:+yz
T^T'
0,
dx
xy+z
^fzJLr+^friZ^r:
/
c
purse
of
receiving
half
12.
remainder
and
sovereigns
the
13.
If
one
divided
is
and
them
and
third
the
Find
ife=
2,
0,
"i
Find
the
(2)
16.
square
root
l6a+5a2
Simplify
17.
"
; if
given
to
sum
$8
each
is
of
1,
of
ro
find
3,
value
the
of
Vihk
g2), Mp^^pq
to
will
be
17a:
6'
x'S'
is to
each
q^), 6(i""g3).
"!"
money
"
xS~x9
given
there
number
the
'^
_L
'
x'i
18.
the
the
12a3+4a".
^
(0\
^
persons,
half
of
of
equations
Find
six.
i5^.^i9^^6^12x^ +
the
Solve
second
of
L.C.M.
three
the
contained.
purse
the
+ 2l
amongst
more,
one
fn{lh)2hm^+
14.
ar^10a:
ar^9a;+14
more,
^=1,
20;
1.
sovereigns
of
,
ar"6x
firbt
5a:+y+a
4,
_^+?__^+2
Simplify
11.
"
ax
,""
(3)
159
IV.
EXAMPLES
MISCELLANEOUS
be
there
$2
over
divided
will
:
among
be
^3
find
the
short,
number
number
and
of
of
sons
perif $7.50
is
persons.
160
[chap.
ALGEBRA.
19.
Resolve
into
2ar"3a6
(1)
21.
(a66)ar;
2x'
result
the
arrange
expression x^
according
Ill the
20.
factors
3x
the
to
ix^
(2)

Axy
4, substitute
descending
I5y*.
of
powers
a.
Simplify
22.
Find
H.C.F.
the
of
3a:8lla:"+a:+16
23.
in the
Express
5a?"7a:"2(te*llxa
and
form
simplest
ay
(1)
/a^1
(2)
a:
y_y+a;
24.
A
as
person
much
of each
amount
26*
95000
possesses
at
3^ per
kind
Simplify
ic+1/
jb+I/
\arl
times
\xl
a^+lUf
'
cent.,
of stock
the
and
stock,
the
3 per
at
cent., four
the
4 per
cent.
: find
is $176.
some
at
rest
his income
when
expression
3[(a+6){(2a36)(5a+7616c)(13a+263c5d)}],
and
26*
Solve
27*
the
when
following equations
(1)
llya:
(2)
a:+y2
Express
1, "
2,
the
3, c^
llarlOly
10,
3,
a;+zy
following
fractions
110
6,
y +
in their
4.
;
"a:
simplest
form
x+
2a:
28.
equal
What
to
the
value
product
of
of 6a
will
+
11
make
and
the
3
product
4a
of 3 8a
and
3a f 4
CHAPTER
XXV.
Quadratic
Definition.
185
Equations.
An
which
equation
contains
the
square
"
of
quantity,
unknown
the
equation,
If
of
the
the
equation
the
only
contains
unknown
of
Thus
2a;*^"
the
5x'=3
5x''^=20
and
is
an
is
in
which
the
the
the
he
to
first
if
;
"
pure
as
power
it contains
quadratic.
quadratic,
Equations.
Quadratic
considered
be
may
unknown
the
simple
is to
quantity
tion
equa
be
found.
25
Solve
Example,
x227
Multiplying
x^n
99
9x2
across,
the
x2=36;
of
root
square
676
16x2=576;
.".
taking
26x2
..
and
and
quadratic.
pure
square
ratic
quad
degree.
square
it is said
affected
of
called
affected quadratic
an
quadratic
pure
is
power,
second
the
unknown
Pure
186.
of
both
it is called
square
higher
no
equation
an
or
but
equals,
these
have
we
x="6.
[In regard
But
sign
the
to
For
these
a=+6,
two
before
the
the
6,
all
included
in
6.
of
on
+2;=
are
an
square
Hence,
when
equation,
root
of
both
various
gives
"x="Q
the
the
sides,
four
x=+6,
the
we
two
side.
to
and
write
shows
this
cases
of
the
prefix
the
sides
two
ought
we
cases
"6.
"x=
to
be
necessary.
un
x=6,
already
the
extract
it is sufficient
one
of
that
seem
the
119.]
root
square
might
of
Art.
see
Hx=+6,
x="
sides
sign
quantities
examination
an
and
double
it
x^=^Q,
equation
double
the
extracting
In
187.
to
to
put
given,
square
the
root
double
namely
of
the
sign
XXV.]
CHAP.
Affected
163
EQUATIONS.
QUADRATIC
Quadratic Equations.
188.
"5.
^3=
the
Taking
the
taking
the
.'.
the
be
may
a?
sign,
a:
lower
solution
Now
sign
upper
"
is
"
^=8,
given equation (^
x^
written
a?
5, whence
^=
8 ;
2.
"
"2.
or
3)^=26
"
(3)^ 25,
6x+
"
5, whence
0:^61^=16.
or
Hence,
by retracing our
the
equation
each
side, and
that
learn
steps, we
.r26a7=16
be
can
solved
extracting
side
each
the
is that
adding (3)^ or
first
by
square
this
the
root
and
the
to
we
add
left side
makes
why
reason
quantity
added
to
quantity
be,
the
then
9
to
it
perfectsgtiare.
Now
whatever
may
472+2ar+a2=(ar+a)',
a^
and
if
that
so
x',
has
trinomial
unity for
without
a:
equal
therefore, the
is
2oux;\a^=(a:df;
the
square
completed by adding
the
Solve
2:^+143;
The
of half
14
square
..
that
is,
is
are
coefficient
given, the
are
of half
term
If,
x.
may
coefficient of x.
the
a:"+14a:
(7)3
a;+7
.*.
a;=
.'.
a;
32+49;
81;
"9;
7
2,
+
or
9,
or
be
79;
16.
an
of z^ should
of
square
coefficient
the
(7)^.
(a;+ 7)2
When
the
highestpoiDer^
have
32.
.*.
189.
square
Example.
half
its
always
must
of
in x^ and
terms
and
perfectsquare,
we
coejicient,
its
to
"
be made
equal to
1,
square
square
terms
the
164
Example
\,
Transpose
Solve
so
as
*Jx
have
to
7?%,
the
involving
terms
Thus
ar"7a:
the
Completing
a:*
square,
7" + (
8.
8 +
Example
Clearing
bringing
r?
of
fractions,
the
terms
Divide
3a: +
12a; + 4
to
is,
a;2+8
^T^
10.
a!"+
13.
a:"+4ar
a?
8.
6.
32.
43;
"l;
3,
a:
obtain
we
or
1.
XXV.
a.
3.
(7+a:)(7ar)
3^*(^+^"
6
(3a:2)(2a:f3)
ar"+ 6a;
40.
9.
a:2+35=12a:.
2.
(a?+8)(a:8)
J.
S"
8.
17.
11
2
a:"+2a:
1.
1
=
3;
a:2
EXAMPLES
1 ;
/.
6a:2.
9.
/.
(a: 2)2

7(a:'7)
side,
one
ai24ar+(2)2
equations
or
Sa:^ + 5 ;
a:24a:
the
8,
3 ; then
by
/.
a;
involving
throughout
22'
3ar'12a:
7.
the
3a~"+5
Solve
2.
3a:+l
*'
and
"^
/.
1.
side,
""
Solve
one
on
(^2)'
T'
is.
that
positive.
term
square
that
[CHAP.
ALGEBRA.
"v
^./^.
a?(3a:+5)+21
11.
x^\b^
x,
12.
lla; +
14.
9a: + 36"=a:2.
16.
a:'+ 16a:
12
24.
_,
a~'.
34
0.
XXV.]
QUADRATIC
Solve
the
equations
17.
i(a""+7)(6a?)=(ar'+3).
"=^^.
16.
x2_
x+S
,"
^^
20
190.
We
have
the
this
to
coefficient
Example
that
shown
the
of
coefficient
by dividing
square
All
cases
unity.
throughout
equation
may
by
pleted
com
be
the
of ^.
I,
Solve
32S3^
l0a.
3iB2 + 10a:=32.
throughout by 3,
bo
to make
as
coefficient
of a^
/6\^
10
Completing
the
f*'+?"^
Thus
the
^+o*+(
square,
32
"
"I "'i
a:="y=2,or6i.
:.
Solve
25
) ""o''*"q'
"""
ExampUi.
readily be
may
a;^ jg
the
Transposing,
Divide
a!"4!c+II5_,
,(
^+2.
when
reduced
""
6"*+lla;=12.
Ua: H
*" +
Dividing by 6,
166
EQUATIONS.
(11J=^+
121
.
i*+Io)=iOo'
18.
19
..
a!"j^"jg g,or3.

unity.
166
[cHAP.
ALGEBRA.
191.
solving
We
an
(1) If
x^ and
then
see
affected
necessary
the
following steps
quadratic equation :
simplijvthe
on
are
that
side of the
one
equation
that
so
equation,arid
the
for
required
are
the
terms
in
vjithout
term
the other.
091
the coefficient
(2) Make
of x'^ unity
throughout by the coefficient
of x^.
(3) Add
coefficient
of
side
each
to
the square
(5) Solve
the
be
the
positive by dividing
the
equation
of half
square
the
x.
(4) Take
192"
of
and
resultingsimple equations.
the
When
of each side,
root
coefficients
literal
are
the
method
same
maj
used.
Solve
Example,
7"*
Simplifying,
that
7(a:+2a)^
+
2Sax
Sa*
28a"
5a{7x
Sa^
7ar"7aa:
is,
x*a"x
or
the
Completing
that
23a).
S5ax
1 15a*
84a2,
I2a\
+
a^^ax+(^j
square,
16,
V^"2/
12a2
"~4~'
a_.A.7a.
^2*T^
^
"
.*.
whence
tUK"
Thus
solution.
is the
we
cases
if
only
solution.
it convenient
find
to
the
equations
1, 3a:8+2a:
4.
or
3a.
hitherto
quadratic
the
there
however,
then
is
(^1)^=0,
roots.
ZZV.
EXAMPLES
Solve
4a,
Sometimes,
a^2x+l=0,
roots.
two
considered
instances
had
07=1
equal
the
have
equations
only one
similar
all
In
193.
a;
3lla?
7. 15a:"6"
21.
4ar".
=
9.
b.
2.
5ar"
5. 21a~"
8*
4a?'
8a:+21.
3.
6a:2a:l
2a:+a
6.
10 + 23a:+12a:=
9.
Sar^
Ua:
15.
19a:
=0.
16
0.
0.
XXV.]
QUADRATIC
Solve
the
equations
10ar^+3a:=l.
10.
13. ar"+
2aa:
15a".
16.
116a: + 20ft2
19.
(a:3)(a:2)
3a;.
H.
12a:2+7a:
14.
2a:2
17.
9ar^
7x3_3a:
a;
it
that
appears
quadratic
every
where
a,
therefore
6,
we
can
by
2a2a:a
Ix+l
lc{2h
after
see
Elementary
From
aa;+l.
10).
3a?l_2a?9
2(3
be
can
the
reduction
aa^ + 6^
a;^+
2a:)
written
_^
"
"
preceding examples
and
transposition
in
the
values
can
form
whatever.
solve
any.
_.
j
\2a/
4a^
b^
(^+i)'=
"
4ac
4a^
square
5a:).
Algebra."}
have
numerical
may
any
solve
this quadratic we
a,
extracting the
0.
(a:2)2.
suitable
equation
is.
^^
2
that
3(3a:a+lla;
.^+iF
Formula.
Transposing,
dividing
18.
6ca:.
a?
(a:4)(3a:+l).
examples
by
3ar" =
qa
Solution
15.
ar1
194.
I5aa:.
26.
[For additional
20a:2
2a;(2a;+ 3).
28. (3a:7)"(2a;3)2
12.
20. 5(a;+l)(3a:+5)
?^=?5.
25.
143c2
12.
Sa^
2(ar"4).
21. 3a:a^i3+(a._i)(2a;+i)
00
167
EQUATIONS.
root,
b_
2a~
"V(6"4ao)
2a
6"V(6'4ae)
.
'
; thus
If
168
[chap.
ALGEBRA.
195.
In
it must
be
of
cannot
of
do
make
It
6'^
know
we
In
5jb^
13a; 11
such
is the
whole.
numerical
these
values
the
case
exact
determined.
be
0.
therefore
c=ll;
the
that
happen
perfect square.
equation cannot
6, 6=13,
"
of the
Solve
Example.
"
sometimes
may
Aac
"
solution
the
the
5, o.
a,
numerical
Here
that
compound
simplify the solution
values
not
^^''f"" JQ"^'^)
result
remembered
root
square
We
the
the
by
formula
have
we
^_("13)"\/(13)^4.5(ll)
2.5
_13"n/169+220
10
13"y389
^
10
Since
has
389
thus
simplified;
not
exact
an
the
two
13
Solution
obtaining
found
the
of
solution
shorter
than
Consider
the
Clearing
of
either
of the
^
equation
fractions, 3^
a:
if either of
zero.
the
the
Hence
3:r
method
one
will
be
already given.
2.
into
+
(1);
factors
we
have
3)=0.
2, a?+3
"
of
sometimes
7^6=0
side
factors
still
which
methods
(aF2)(a?
Now
is
Tliere
quadratic
'
lO
Factors.
by
be
cannot
^/389
"
10
196.
result
are
V389
13+
this
root
square
roots
be
zero,
is satisfied
quadratic equation
their
by
product
either
of
is
the
suppositions
aF2=0,
Thus
It
the
appears
roots
from
orjF
3=0.
"3.
are
,
this
that
when
quadratic equation
has
been
170
[chap.
ALGEBRA.
Example
Form
2.
the
whose
equation
roots
and
are
3,
x^Sx^zS.
6.
Sa^ + 7x
9.
12a:2 + io
Here
ora;
a,
;
the
.'.
that
{xa)(x+ ^]=0;
is
equation
is,
{x
a)(Sx
6)
^3ax^bxab
or
EXAMPLES
Solve
1.
ar^+ 2a:3
4.
32520;
7.
4ar*14
Solve
ar*
1.
5.
2a:29a:
3a:.
8.
6a^3'7x
resolution
by
ix^ 9x^90.
13.
2ar"3a:
16.
5ar5lla:
19.
12a:2_
21.
24a;2 + 22ca;
2.
+ 2
2,^2,2.+ 1062
the
2a;(a:
+ 9)
24.
(2a;l)2ll
25.
6(a:
4.
ar"lla:=:152.
14.
3x^+5x+2
17.
a^a^^O,
23a?.
0.
12.
ar"85=12a:.
15.
4ar514
a;.
18.
ix^7ax
SaK
20.
3ast^+2bx
22.
0.
1x.
26a:.
6a: +
(a;3)3.
x){x
1.
2) + 6ar"
6(2a:
1).
27.
2a:la:+la?
^?=^".
29.
JL
+
^^+jy
'^"+1(^)=3.
3
6
a: +
a;
"
^"^
3ar
e,
a;4a;a;5
80.
0.
a;6a;6
28.
c.
0.
11.
0.
(a:+l)(5a:).
2)2 + 13(1
2a:
21c2.
equations
23.
28.
0.
factors
into
2.
0,
XXV.
equations
0.
10.
Solve
the
formula
by
2.
"
3("+6).
"
"^"^
31.
'
83.
3(a;+4)
"356
XXV.]
Solve
the
equations
3a!
"+8
o"
41.
=2.
(X !)"=
examples
a:
the
from
If
Eqnations.
and
value
of
either
of the
one
be
can
be
involve
0/
AlgehraJ]
Elementary
see
Qnadratic
which
equations
in
(*'Y".
\c
Simultaneous
miknowns
"
additional
two
may
2(a:l)
xb
198.
^
ar'l
0a
xa
[For
""
12
.Jk.+
37.
5+
40.
of
""+J+#^="
86.
171
EQUATIONS.
QUADRATIC
the
solved
chapter.
Solve
Example,
the
simaltaneous
4a^+Socy2y^
6a?+7y=l,
the
From
first
equations
equation,
"
="
^,
and
lO.
by
therefore
substitution
second
in the
equation,
have
we
4(l7y)^
whence
that
66y
is,
3y(l7y)_go,io.
196^8 +l%105y260y2
4
0 ;
y2y6
0;
(y3)(y+2)
0;
41y
/.
..
.'.
From
the
first
equation,
we
3,
see
246
or
2.
that
if
y=3,
260;
then
a;=
4,
"
and
2, then"=3.
y="
Homogeneous
199i
y=mx
x
and
The
most
in each
obtain
convenient
of the
a
Equations
of
method
given equations.
quadratic
to
determine
the
Same
Degree.
of solution
By division
the
values
is to substitute
eliminate
we
of
m.
if
172
[c^AP.
ALGEBRA.
Example.
Solve
Put
and
mx
equations
Bimultaneous
the
substitute
a^^(5+ 3m2)
and
ir2(lm+2m2)
By"^ division,
that
^^"
(1) Take
From
3 and
m=
32
mx
.*.
Solve
+
3y
x2y
9,
6.
3a:
mx
2.
5.
8.
a:y
a:
11.
16.
3.
(1).
Thus
x="2.
+
2.
2,
2,
3.
6,
=9,
+y

d.
14.
3a:2+7y2=55,
=
9.
a:"+2a:y+2y2
a"*9ajyy*
17,
119.
5,
6x^xy
2.
2a;5y
=1,
"
=3,
a:yy2
12.
3.
4.
^1=1.
''I'
16a:y3a;2= 77,
15.
7a?y+3y2=110.
60.
2a:+y
x^Sy^==1.
9.
lt
14'7a:y
3aj
1.
"
XXV.
3a;4y
(2).
or
10a:y=l.
24.
1^ 2.
(1)
whence
3xyy^
29.
0;
"
in
xy
1,
y=
2x2
16
a;=
equations
3,
ar"+42r'
13.
^ 5
t"
whence
=
32
simultaneous
the
xy
10.
(2).
either
EXAMPLES
16
1.
in
l)
or
substitute
1 and
Sa^
4.
"
3,
substitute
/.
(2) Take
"i
S2x^
(1),
a:
(1),
2/71^
7n
(w3)(m
.*.
1.
32
wi22m3=0;
is,
/.
'
=
=
'
Thus
equation.
each
in
XXV.
17.
21ar^ +
6a?2 +
2ar" +
Sy^
143,
8a:y + 3y3
195.
3a:yy2
3a:y+5y2
371,
266.
XXVI.
CHAPTER
Problems
200.
Leading
shall
We
quadratic
to
speed
hours
two
time
1.
been
less
travels
is
the
give
rise
uniform
rate
would
journey
if the
taken
have
train.
the
at
at
the
more,
of
rate
miles
300
hour
an
the
train
occupied
travels
train
miles
find
the
Suppose
which
problems
some
equations.
Example
had
discuss
now
Equations.
Quadratic
to
of
rate
miles
per
the
then
hour,
hours.
300
supposition
other
the
On
the
is
time
ar
a^
whence
750
5x
0,
0,
25,
(a:+30)("25)
or
.*.
the
[For
miles
25
30.
or
the
hour,
per
negative
value
did
he
be
2.
all
$2.52
Let
the
is
but
the
buys
man
two
buy
the
value
negative
see
at
of
number
articles
apiece
cents
for
than
more
$2.40,
they
and
cost;
sells
how
number
cents,
"
and
articles
of
sale
the
bought
then
is
price
cents.
"
x"2
252
240
_o.
.
"
"
"
^A
^~
"
X'2
thatis,
^
of
meaning
Algebra.']
Example
many
of
explanation
an
Elementary
each
travels
inadmissible.
being
for
train
300_300_2.
Hence
hours
m.^m^i.
x2
the
cost
price
of
174
[cHAP.
ALGEBRA.
After
simplification,
6a; + 240
a:28a:240
OP
thatxa,
(a:20)(a:+12)
/.
Thus
the
number
A
Example 3.
larger pipe
cistern
cistern, find
Suppose
in
and
a;
in what
that
the
0;
20,
be
by
or
; then
they
filled
by
each
fill (
will
and
minute,
one
) of
"
the
in
of the
a:
Thus
The
the
other
smaller
0,
(a:75)(3a:20)
0;
75,
pipe
solution
75 minutes,
6".
or
the
larger
60
minutes.
is inadmissible.
6"
it will
Sometimes
201.
takes
cistern
15
3a:(x15),
..
"
100
1500
cistern
^,
100(2a:^15)
3a:* 245a:
fill the
would
minute.
15
a;
fill the
pipe singly.
and
when
one
1+_1^
Hence
to
therefore
cistern
in 33} minntea
smaller
the
singly
fill
will
pipes
respectively in
12.
two
than
pipes running
two
15 minutes
it will
time
0;
2ar,
less
minutes
15
filled
be
can
takes
a:^
is 20.
required
if the
a;
be found
convenient
to
use
than
more
unknown.
one
Nine
Example,
of
second
the
side
the
of
one
foot, and
by one
square
exceeds
twentynine
square
foot : find
square
Let
times
second
the
length
of
times
side
exceeds
square
the
six times
the
of each
area
the
area
first
meter
periof the
by
squares
9a:4y=l.
The
areas
of the
two
squares
are
t^ and
6y"29ar"=l.
one
square.
feet and
perimeter
of
the
square
feet ; thoft
then
XXVI.]
PROBLEMS
LEADING
QUADRATIC
TO
9a:"
From
Bubstitntion
By
that
first equation,
the
in
the
second
is,
(a;6)(ll2;+ l)
whence
a;
the
5,
value
negative
Also,
Thus
the
lengths
?^
Find
2.
Divide
number
which
into
16
05
inadmissible.
ll.
ft.
11
XXVI.
is less
two
0,
EXAMPLES
1.
1
"
being
and
5 ft
are
"
equation,
lla;254a;5
or
175
EQUATIONS.
than
such
parts
by 72.
its square
that
the
of
sum
their
squares
is 130.
Find
3.
squares
equal
Find
4.
numbers
two
is
to
Find
5.
such
the
that
of
sum
their
233.
which
number
reciprocal of the
differing by
when
increased
by
is 68
13
times
the
number.
numbers
two
differing by
such
that
their
product
is 330.
6.
The
length,
7.
its
breadth
the
and
One
8.
of
Find
is 13
two
is 374
area
side
diagonal
of
rectangle
yards
find
the
longer
yards
shorter
than
the
sides.
than
the
and
other,
area.
consecutive
numbers
consecutive
even
difference
.the
of
whose
procals
reci
is s^,
9.
Find
two
numbers
difference
the
of
whose
reciprocals is 7^.
The
10.
is
numbers
11.
he
12.
pace
walk
per
find
them.
^^^ :
the
bought
farmer
he
than
more
buy
of
disease
through
each
difference
certain
he
gave
reciprocals
for
of
two
of
number
consecutive
for
sheep
odd
at
how
75
$315
cents
many
did
By walking
hour, a man
29
miles
what
threequarters
finds
that
is the
he
of
mile
takes
ordinary
more
\\
rate
hours
than
his ordinary
less than
usual
to
176
[CHAP.
ALGEBRA.
13.
less
cistern
than
cistern
could
filled
be
A
14,
been
twelve
The
find
wheel
the
small
boy
cent
dozen
per
the
boy
lawn
A
round
width
of
out
which
the
running
the
in
cistern
had
they
two
for
more
?
foot
one
in
more
ference
circum
less
revolutions
48
per
wheel.
each
worth
cents'
12
to
consequence
market
the
if
that
bought
makes
buy
to
had
than
more
and
have
is
carriage
wheel,
master
both
in
calculates
and
eggs,
of
are
utes
min
price.
pay
How
He
apples.
of
the
at
of
rate
apples
many
did
buy
17,
dozen
sent
was
his
taps
time
the
in
pipes
two
pipes.
circumference
and
two,
the
the
find
he could
cheaper
the
price per dozen
is
large
the
16,
ate
of
a
what
than
mile
each
dozen
per
When
minutes
buys
cents
16,
by
man
cent
in
of
larger
the
by
smaller.
the
by
filled
is
filled
be
can
XXVI.
feet
45
it ; if
and
long
the
of
area
40
the
broad
has
is 60
path
uniform
of
path
find
yards,
square
its
width.
18,
a
finds
woman
she
Four
the
length
the
the
person
money
22.
of
their
23.
the
by
is 280
greatest
of
the
5^
is less than
times
second
the
by
did
each
of
more
the
perimeter
of the
area
feet
9 square
the
four
is
less
than
that
find
their
of
the
than
first
find,
by tha
by
the
price had
interest
more
is 1008
square
the
and
other,
froir.
feet
on
the
difference
sides.
which
the
by
second
If
9.
is
than
greater
the
product
the
product
of
all
numbers.
the
integers
represented
the
third
find
greatest,
consecutive
the
of
if
i)er cent,
stock
?
one
buy
rectangles
two
numbers
three
and
he
stock
cent,
per
received
is 3 feet
times
Find
24.
square
eleven
much
how
two
have
of
are
one
dozen
per
did,
does
square.
price
is 8 feet
There
of
area
some
would
breadths
first
three
its
buys
area
one
less
feet, and
each
of
what
at
The
length
two
its
$5 less he
his
cent
formerly
she
that if it be divided
digits such
if 27 be subtracted
digits the quotient is 7, and
order
of the digits is reversed.
(Art. 111.]
number
been
of
number
of
21.
side
the
side
Find
product
of
of
gets
than
cent
by 12
square
five times
the
than
20.
she
for
apple
more
dozen
times
secoDd
is less
one
that
get per
now
19.
of
selling
By
such
number
that
which
has
the
two
of
the
least
for
digits.
25.
Two
and
"
reaches
trains
which
and
260
miles
after
are
start
simultaneously
apart.
they
meet
reaches
:
find
the
from
in
rate
two
stations
3f hours,
of each
and
train.
178
ALOEBRA.
13.
and
Add
3(25
14.
Find
2(36
a)
what
3 exceed
2a; +
a{6+c
together
a)
the
+6)}+c,
(a
value
of
product
of
make
will
1 and
a;
6"+8125c"+306c
15.
Divide
16.
Simplify
2(3a+25)4(J+2a)c,
e.
the
2a; +
of
produat
by
a;
+3
and
14.
66C+2.
by
13aW
87c*"P^266cd.
,,.
/ ahcc^
2aa?
a^hx
a^hh^
.n\
_
17.
times
18,
and
as
will
old
old
his
as
bought
twothirds
a
son
that
for
man
be
then
aged
certain
of
twentyfive
at
How
12
in
m
x
of
cents,
gained
at
pears
for a
four
at
18
years
ago
was
years
number
number
who
years
three
cent
How
cents.
for
cent,
selling
by
many
pears
them
did
buy?
19.
Solve
the
equations
lIz:3"_4"+2^5_g^^7x+U.
(1)
g"y.3g6y^o
(2)
^+1.=1.
^^24
20.
Divide
21.
If
find
the
22.
and
the
horses
value
Find
lowest
had
60
24.
of
the
Also
23.
ahfi +
If
Z=13a66+9c,
and
(2ac
b^
worth
are
of
each
value
of
divided
boy
r=5a+466c,
calculate
of
26
2ab^c
362
amongst
cents.
vahie
12a'6c^
sheep,
b^d
150
'''^'
6a'^b^^
children.
many
7c,
r(X+r)
15a^6*;
18ac*.
^
+
of
worth
$2.
Sa^b^c,
How
X=3a96
the
are
iab'^c^, I2a^b,
"^
$49
bx\
cows
is worth
factor
common
18
az*^c
and
sheep
multiple
the
c^ by
x* +
h cows,
when
highest
gentleman
cents,
14
horse
common
find
'
Each
boys
were
girl
there
r=20a+766c,
+
Z.
MISCELLANEOUS
25t
Solve
the
equations
3(6
m
^
EXAMPLES
_
""
50
Find
a?
a2a182;
4, y
3, find
28.
The
29.
4a;+2y+z
as
and
When
money
much
find
;
; after
as
money
much
How
30.
Find
the
square
31.
Find
the
value
to
is
had
of
root
play,
wins
time
of
one
other.
sit down
B.
the
value
the
expressions
of two
product
is
1.
V3{a:(ar"z2)_i.
Vi^iv" '2^)'X^}+
of them
2a:
8a:"+13a;6.
(2)
5, and
a:)
of
factors
(1)
If
i(y
the
'
125
a:+l,
^(a:+y)
(2)
27.
'
26.
36
3a:
63a:
5a;)
179
V.
has
$15,
and
each
at
twothirds
then
he
as
much
twice
has
as
first ?
16a"+4a+4
16a8+a28a*.
of
^{zl(x3)}{xp+2)}{.l{"l)},
and
subtract
the
result
from
Find
the
square
root
32.
a:*
(a:+2)(a;3)(a:+4).
of
2x^
Ux^,^,
4X36~'^'''^i6'
If
33.
2a
35
Separate into
34.
Solve
the
(1)
36.
and
same
to
farmer
another
sum
what
value
their
sells
to
a:"4a:y"a:V+4y".
(2)
:
one
and
the
factors
simplest
(a:l)(a:2)(a:6)
6 horses
of
Oa^
equations
was
the
1, find
x^xyQu^;
(1)
35.
4c?
(a;3)";
person
13
price
cows
of
each
horses
the
at
?
same
and
cows
prices
for $375,
and
for the
180
ALGEBRA.
37.
When
3, 6
Solve
38.
the
l + I
(2)
6a:+3?/
7a:*4ar"21a:
From
42.
Find
distance
value
the
he
from
45.
can
miles
47*
places
if its
3^
speed
for
hours
the
{x~a)(xb){x+a+b),
of
i^+Sxyl
6a:2_5a;+x
3,
"
72^+23:
3jc"+
by
minutes
from
Find
from
walk
an
the
at
and
sc+yl,
the
extract
square
longer
Find
to
he
rate
for
and
back
walks
of
the
miles
double
in
the
at
hour
an
time
certain
rate
journey.
of
miles
from
What
to
at
an
A^
is the
to B^
highest
the
the
Solve
^
If
hour.
factor
common
1x*'l0aa^^3a^x^4a^x
46.
take
5 hours
take
the
x^+Sx+2
/?, and
to
10
requires
distance
in
it would
between
5ar3^3ar"10ar
a^ +
man
of 4
rate
hour
and
a:*3x"+iiK34.2a?+^.
A
44.
the
6a!^\2a!^~l5x6
of
places
two
hour,
an
x{xjah)(xa+b)
I^ivide
of
9y+90.
factor
between
x^9x
root
10a;
common
3 miles
is the
2ar" +
43.
of
120,
highest
by
what
41.
value
1=7.
travels
increased
journey
the
12.
coach
40.
were
7, find
b + 2c
equations
the
{c(3c26)+26}.
(1)
Find
39.
ac
4c +
(2)
2,
equations
4a\
of
8.'r*13aa:"+6aV3a"a?
(1)
l(2x57)6;
.(3x?"zS)
(2)
a:2y+z
the
lowest
0,
common
9x8yjSz
multiple
of
0,
2a;+3y+5z
36.
3a\
MISCELLANEOUS
when
is it
expression ax^Zb
The
48.
is 7
a;
equal
49.
is
is its value
what
to
Find
equal
when
to
'when
30
is 1 ; and
a;
181
V.
is 3, and
value
for what
42
to
of
zero
lowest
the
4(a2
Extract
50.
EXAMPLES
the
12(0^2
ab),
4ar"
h^),
12a:
62),
^IGa"
24a
OK
a^
lS{a^
of
root
square
of
multiple
common
x^
61.
Beduce
to
lowest
terms
12a?* + 4a:"23a:"9a;9
8a:*14a:"9
62.
Solve
equations
2a:y+3z=l,
(2)
53.
the
4a;+3y2z=13,
6a?4y
20.
Simplify
d'bb^'
a^b
h
1
(2)
ar"+8a:+15
The
64*
of the
sum
reversed
the
Find
number.
the
55.
Solve
digits of
two
number
new
the
a:2+lla;+30
a
number
is foursevenths
equations
of
is 9 ; if the
it was
what
(1)
^y^^l^^l.
4a:(6y4)=l,
(2)
3a;+4yll=0,
66.
Find
the
5y6z=
value
of
2
3a?
67*
Resolve
into
(1)
factors
ax
a
_
728a:13=0.
8,
ar*a*
(a
a:)^'
a:"2a:*+JB"{
(2)
a"+a*a"l.
digits
are
before.
se
182
ALGEBRA.
68f
One
rode
later
per
^wo
the
hour.
60.
divide
the
at
than
69i
started
persons
the
Find
each
What
63.
Find
9y"
15yz
Ifea
5z^
factor
of
ftr*2a:5+9a:*+9a:4
and
highest
will
the
Simplify
^
make
the
How
"
many
which
will
exactly
9a?*+80a:"9.
expressions vanish
these
"
0.
X'2
_\hx^+%xy\2y^
3y*
35x2+47a:y+6s^
of
value
x
2a
the
cents
eggs
16a6
"ahnaj^^
oTF
4l^tx^'
x2b
10
B t
of
x+2
14ic223a:y
five times
at
hour
miles
25z"'
3^15^
xl
eggdealer bought
and
per
score,
sold
whole
the
an
of 30
B.
6^5a:y6y"
a;+26
An
both
equations
^'
half
rate
to
{"*.^.)(5")'
factor
of
the
from
16a:*
dimensions
highest
expressions
x2a
66.
and
common
value
Find
6igy
(2)
'
65.
between
9y'
64.
"*"
at
lepi^
the
the
Solve
train
4x*_x_
"
62*
by
go
arrived
of
root
to
and
hour
per
distance
time
same
travellea
square
the
of
miles
7i
who
is the
What
Find
of
rate
other
the
at
did
per
he
certain
number
dozen,
buy ?
number
at
75
cents
of
eggs
per
gaining $3.24 by
at
16
hundred
the
cents
;
tion.
transac
he
MISCELLANEOUS
If
67,
l,
2,
EXAMPLES
3, rf
a^b^ahc
a?2
2c
bc2ad
simultaneoiiB
the
Solve
yf 12
xyl
x+y
ad'
equations
of
value
h + cda
2a^^(il^3ahc_a
68.
find the
4,
183
V.
_
"
"*
14
5(y+l)
g+7.y5_
the
Simplify
69i
fractions
(yg)"
xy_^xz_
(1)
'
""
scy
"?^
11
a?
"
..
70.
$50
put
IB'rom
was
taken
find
the
71.
certain
in its stead.
If the
its stead.
Find
the
lowest
Solve
the
equations
amount
a*+3a"c
+ 3aV+ac".
225
'36
OOaylS
150: +
"03
'2,
72ar'
10a?+^
m
^'
,ll~5ar
'9
4ar3i
"
14(a:l)""
21
'
15
SimpUfy
a:"~4a:21
a:'h6a;'247x_^a:"20a:+91
^
'
a:
What
must
7?x\2
17
be
the
value
(o
of
+
a:4
ar
in order
2ar)"
a2 + 70aa;+3a;*
may
be
was
"135a:
74"
was
equal
to
1) when
is
equal
to 67
that
taken
onefourth
multiple of
common
4a"8a*cH4aV,
(1)
73.
part
increased
thus
sum
original sum.
(a*aV)2,
72i
the
$70 put in
and
onethird
of money
sum
From
now
and
part
$120,
184
ALGEBRA.
75.
Find
"x^+2T
the
on
78.
equations
(2)
(a
farmer
he
five
of
sold
Find
the
b)x'ay
bought
them
for
find
value
he
the
H.C.
Also
the
L.C.M.
the
the
Solve
(1)
t^
$30.
per
He
cent,
bought.
.ty.
^
'
'
of
2a
'StT'
2o66
2a
of 21a:8
F.
Zb
36
3^
2a
a^J^a
ea^a^
2a2ar.
a^lx^+Qx.
aar"+2a4C3a,
x^x,
ah^
expression
c)(a6
sheep for
profit of 20
2a~()6
xy
Find
Simplify
made
2a
a^^_ar
(a+6
81*
$27,
many
a*,
of
number
and
ahy
"
of
a:a+y2
80.
certain
'
h){xah).
{a? + h^)x
a\
how
a?+y
l\\
{a
_x+y
xy
79.
a{xa)h{xh)
+
8x^+27,
of
multiple
common
and
6a^"5a?6.
(1)
all but
those
the
lowest
16a:^+36a:^+81
of
factor
common
the
and
81,
Solve
77.
sold
find
and
16a:*+36a:"
76.
highest
c){(a+c)"6"(a2+62+c2)}.
equations
I+"_2^=3y6, ^+4^
*
186*;
"
"
(2)
3ar2
82.
the
Extract
2a; + 3
l
root
square
of
+5.
83.
Find
value
the
of
0+6
84i
silver
coins.
ab
bag contains
of $144.
Each
each
coins, and
How
many
180
gold
silver
coins
are
46^6a"
4a"+663
4a+66_^6a46
a^
a^b^
gold
and
coin
is worth
coin
there
silver
as
many
of
each
b^
coins
a.s
a*b*
of
cents
as
value
the
cents
many
kind
206*
as
there
there
are
gether
altoare
gold
186
ALGEBRA.
95.
five times
my
as
Find
the
replied,
age
but
twenty
Ten
"
I was
years
ago
he will be half
hence
years
age
of
value
?^
his
son,
my
is his
What
age."
96,
being asked
person
old
as
\{ax){a
x)
'^
L)x
+L"
xa
..
a)
xaA"
97,
When
4, 6 =2,
1, find
=
the
value
of
a"6"(a6)8ll(36+2c)(2c"^V
98.
Find
the
of
root
square
99*
Solve
the
(1)
equations
2^
J^
2;
Simplify
V
J
3y)3(a:
y)
2(a: + yl)(l
What
101.
3x2+
(2)
22a?
493.
2a;l
x\
100.
aw.
value
of
will
make
2y"
a;)
the
of
sum
J^~\^
2(a6)
equal
to
102.
man
returning by a
7i minutes
104.
"*" ^^
3(a
6)
2 ?
takes
103,
and
Find
the
to
product
(1)
3a:4a:y
(2)
X'1y\
Extract
the
certain
of
a:22ary
square
Zx^ ^ ^xy +
7y^
root
2y2, 7^
of
16
1^
2y\
ar"+
2a:y+2y".
MISCELLANEOUS
105.
Find
the
EXAMPLES
factor
highest
106.
Tlie
of the
sum
107.
If
108.
Solve
place
will
the
inverted.
number
(2)
17*"^
If
a?
"^~*

6iat;
h+e,
Express
Resolve
y
+
in the
3(2;2)
y* +
z'
2a:y
simplest
factors
12a:"+7a:+l
l)+m{a^+b^).
fractions
1+%"1
equations
75a:
(n
^
'
3(x+l)
(2) "/a;+12
1?
80a:+21,
23
6(3a;+2)"a:+l
V""S'
of
2y2.
ah{m^
the
value
(2)
the
2a"
4a26a_(aa+62.c2)2;
Simplify
the
form
ea^"+6a;+l
into
find
z^ah,
e~a,
(1)
Solve
times
the
0.
x+
113.
digit
is the
in
(a:+7)(y3)+2.(y+3)(a:l)"5a?lly+36=:0;
2a:"+3x+l
112.
a" +
if five
1^1
111.
the
What
that
3, prove
is 9, and
twice
to
(1)
"*
110.
be
2a:y(2ya;)+4a:"2y".
number
added
equations
109.
and
digits of
be
to
common
a:(6a:"8ya)y(3a:"V)
187
V.
g.
*
1.
20""+9a?+l
the
units'
188
ALGEBRA.
""
Ten
114.
train
is
which
of
minuteg
the
travelling
started,
reaches
the
after
express.
116.
Simplify
116.
Kosolve
117.
When
Find
the
into
four
an
miles
rate
at
an
average
distant
less
hours
3}
each
which
train
express
miles
20
per
after
train
the
slow
hour,
arrival
travels.
factors
4,
on
2^0
station
of
departure
c=?,
=2,
find
l,
the
numerical
value
V4c2a(a26rf)Fmd
118.
the
(1)
value
V6*c
116"d".
of
L,
a
L
(2)
:Ur
6 +
2ar3
+
1
a+
"
a6
119.
Solve
(1)
120.
hour
he
liAB
is
overtaken
walkine
at
he
arrives
naif
occupied
equations
150ar"=299a:+2;
^
by
journey
the
a;6
19
the
an
miles
to
by
hour
each
rate
same
sooner
man.
aa:+6y
(2)
walk.
who
as
At
B
than
for
he
end
the
walks
half
the
ay6a:
of
mile
expected,
quarter
per
remainder
of
f^d
a"+6".
of
an
hour
faster
the
journey
how
long
the
EDITION
AMERICAN
Algebra
Beginners.
for
H.
By
S.
HALL,
M.A.,
i6mo.
Cloth.
and
L.
Principal,
Assistant
and
in the
The
many
Brown
by
Algebras
Colleges
and
Schools,
BY
A.M.,
of Mathematics
Professor
School,
Hall
from
Hoboken,
College.
Thayer
Illinois
College.
St.
5.
Naval
Academy,
THE
FIFTH
in
mentioned
School,
Etc.,
Annapolis.
School,
Academy,
School,
Paul's
etc.,
MACMILLAN
66
be
may
Cascadilla
Vassar
U.
introduced
Institute
Stevens
University.
University.
Dalhousle
been
Ypsilantl,
Mich.
University.
Nortiiwestern
Sciences,
have
Normal
5tate
Natural
N.J.
which
among
M.D.,
and
Knight
and
University.
Stanford
KNIGHT.
R.
cents.
8EVEN0AK,
Stevens
Messrs.
S.
60
RBVISBD
FRANK
OF
etc.
COMPANY,
NEW
AVENUE,
I
YORK.
of
Technology.
Ithaca,
Braintree,
Concord,
N.Y.
Mass.
N.H.
TEXTBOOKS
MATHEMATICAL
SUITABLE
FOR
SBLBCTBD
THE
MACMILLAN
of** Trigonometry
for
Trigonometry^
Elementary
American
for
Cloth.
Mawr
etc
Schools
SCOTT,
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Dept.^
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College, Pa,
75
cents.
The
thoroughly good teacher.
elementary truth, that
pervades the whole
principle which
book^ and no
however
Where
of clear explanation.
it seems
simple, is deemed
unworthy
process,
admirable
Mr.
Lock's
advantageous, a rule is given after the explanation.
the present
mathematical
and
of what
work
Trigonometry
to our
mind, models
are,
school books
The
should
be."
World.
Literary
arithmetic
is
common
of
**
ANGAS
of Math,
work
LOCK,
Beginners^*
Arranged
And
Head
B.
J.
CHARLOTTE
Evidently the
SCHOOLS.
FOR
Edited
("
Publishers.
COMPANY,
By
By
OF
USTS
THB
FROM
ARITHMETIC
Author
SCHOOLS.
PREPARATORY
IN
USE
sense,
is the
'
"
FOR
MORE
CLASSES.
ADVANCED
ARITHMETIC.
CHARLES
By
Author
of
**
Algebra^'
Elementary
M.A.,
SMITH,
**A
Treatise
on
Algebra!^
AND
CHARLES
Head
thorough
examples
There
than
Master
and
are
and
of
Dr.
J.
Sach's
1 6mo.
Cloth.
comprehensive
High
THE
there
is also
for
School
OO
School
M.A.,
HARRINGTON,
L.
useful
FIFTH
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York,
cents.
Arithmetic, containing
on
Exchan^,
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Boys,
which
of miscellaneous
COMPANY,
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YORR.
many
are
of
good
more
examples.
THB
OF
AND
RAY,
POINT,
B.
By WILLIAM
PrqflBSSor of
in
Mathematics
the
to
regard
Ph.D.,
Orleans,
of New
University
La.
$1.10.
would
hare
who
America
in
of my
fellowteachers
many
the
NonEuclidean
Geometry,
the
To
CIRCLE.
SMITH,
Tulane
Cloth.
"
GEOMETRY
MODERN
INTRODUCTORY
wish
now
to
qnestioned me
pubUoly
say
in
that
sound.
is entirely
science
in pure
of that
conception
profound advance
I think
be proud.
it
of which
can
has
Smith
Dr.
our
country
given us a book
From
it
examine
to
of
Prof,
of
teacher
the
careftiUy."
geometry
^very
duty
Ph. X". (Johns
Bruce
of Mathematics,
Geoboe
Hopkins), Professor
Halstbd,
Smith's
Dr.
.
"
of Texas.
University
methods
the
of Modem
introducing
How
useftil
of a college course.
Smith's
in Dr.
rable
admito view
methods
these
instructive
and
are, is clearly brought
is one
is in the right direction, and
treatise
step in advancing a
This
treatise.
of
the
whole
in
edifice
to
reconstruct
which
is destined
doctrine
great measure
in
class
this
school
next
I shall make
provision for it in the advanced
Geometry.
Va.
M.
A.M., Monterey,
i^Vom
Colaw,
PrindptuJoav
term.''"
*'
cannot
see
any
textbooks
in
Geometry
cogent
of the
Proofs
the
for
Intended
"
the
M.A.,
serve,
means
in
of
of Conies
to
be
an
Introduction
books
of
to
the
Cremona
MACMILLAN
FIFTH
for
the
Teaching.
and
subject
and
Euclid
to
first place, as a seauel
Eucliaean
Geometry
procedure from
of imaginary
and
points."
66
of Modem
A.
S.
of
Modem
M.A.
RAMSAY,
$1.00.
the
THE
Syllabus
Association
of Geometrical
RICHARDSON,
advanced
more
in the
by the
Cloth.
to
years
Theorems
Improvement
G.
not
GEOMETRY.
issued
Geometry
Plane
By
first
PLANE
MODERN
Being
for
reason
intended
AVENUE,
others.
.
to
;
the
It
Plane
has
Geometry
twofold
and
object : to
systematic
and, secondly, as a
higher descriptive Geometry
COMPANY,
NEW
YORK.
TEXTBOOK
OF
lacluding
Altematiye
Theorems
H.
ELEMENTS.
Exercises,
and
By
HALL
S.
BookB
and
LYI.
Also
Book
EUCLID'S
sold
and
ZI.
separately
and
H.
F.
Additional
arranged
STEVENS.
$1.10.
follows
as
30
cents.
Books
111.71.
50
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Books
V.
75
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Book
75
oentB.
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80
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...
Books
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VI.
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XL
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The
yariety
chief
pecnliaiilyof
additions.
of the
MesBrs.
After
of
which
execution
and
the
minute
labor
THE
have
we
which
important
the
construction
space
been
bestowed
that
has
ELEMENTS
By
ROBERT
author
modification
of
Euclid,
to
Teaching,
and
Committee
and
out
of
reported
the
upon
is
of the
of
first
SyUabus
Association
by
that
MACMILLAN
66
FIFTH
and
extent
the
AVENUE,
mechanical
the
patience,
think
we
it tba
Nation,
GEOMETRY.
M.A.,
Harrow
F.R.S.,
School;
the
for
its
care,
whole,
I%e
"
and
the
of
Improvement
75
cents.
twentyone
of Solid
for
the
propositions
Geometry
Improvement
Committee
with
COMPANY,
NEW
of the
YORK.
eleventh
submitted
by the
of Geometrical
considerable
"vor."
THE
the
Teaching.
Cloth.
extension
developed
in
Master
Association
the
1 6mo.
"A
On
it.
SOLID
Oeometriccd
book
showing
HAYWARD,
Mathematical
of
all
but
edition
this
yet appeared."
OF
President
of
upon
BALDWIN
Senior
Late
mention,
to
no
of Euclid
edition
about
have
edition
usable
most
details
Stevens^
and
of exera
large number
cises
proposition
book
additional
of each
exercises, theorems,
notes,
There
ingenioTis and
great
are
a
interesting.
are
given, and at the end
selected, often
etc., etc., well
number
Hall
each
degree
oi
^flf'^Qorders
^"
Nnfp
".""..."'".
mentary
the
taining
the
Edition
Edition
but
supplied free,
will be
for whose
they
classes
AMERICAN
Smith's
of
will be sent
A
distinctlyordered.
is not
answers
of the teacher
order
Briefer
Algebra^ the
Edition
Complete
the American
for
only
E/e
wherever
pamphlet
con^
the written
upon
required.
are
OF
EDITION
Cbarles
Smith'sElementary
Algebr
FOR
PREPARATORY
THE
USE
OF
HIGH
SCHOOLS,
ACADEMIES,
SCHOOLS,
Etc.
SEMINARIES,
BY
IRYING
Pkofbssor
of
Mathematics,
IN
EDITION
BRIEFER
This
"'
(584
I have
The
work.
our
liked
and
consulted
the
College
Charles
of
Smith's
contains
to
the
would
it to
many
excellent
an
in
bra,
Alge
good
me
book
schools
ing
prepar
satisfactory to
be
have
teachers
already
who
have
me."
W.
E. BYERLY,
MACMILLAN
NE'W
Faculties
$i.3a
Department.
recommended
^Prof.
THE
LXXVl.
Chapters
seems
of
Mathematical
privately
as
edition
use
for Harvard
of
pages)
new
improvements,
College
the
$i.io
same
always
the
and
op
California.
pages)
is tbe
edition
PH.D.,
Dean
and
University
THE
(408
EDITION
COMPLETE
STRINGHAM,
YORK:
OHIOAQOi
Harvard
COMPANY,
66
SOOM
FIFTH
AVENUE.
23, AUDITOfilUlC.
College.
TREATISE
ON
CHARLES
By
ased
in
which
Ohio,
Missouri,
will
form
disappointed.
Its
fundamental
the
notice
those
series
as
with
the
Smithes
expectation
slyle
is
clear
of
expansion."
of
and
this
H.
S.
HALL,
in
Oxford
edition, is
sixth
form
Of
work
high expectations
the
authors'
assert
acquainted.
*"
of
such
of the
Higher
that
It supplies
sequel
is
want
by
far
much
66
FIFTH
California, of
proofs
and
they
of
which
among
the
solid
and
will
of
most
we
may
of
recognition
"
Review.
S.
SCHOOLS.
KNIGHT,
R.
B.A.
$1.90.
the
to it
now
as
felt
AVENUE,
merit
of
best
that
those
Nor
issued.
theh:
has
which
authors,
same
the
MACMILLAN
THE
ibctors
into
and
exceptional
Algebra,'
it
a
by
country,
think
not
alternative
FOR
B.A.,
Algebra,'
of
sections
do
we
practical hints,
expressions
"
and
neat, it gives
Cloth.
'Elementary
Kansas,
conic
on
work,
ALGEBRA
HIGHER
"The
Wisconsin,
the
text
University, University
of
textbooks
abounds
and
it is the
etc.
high
resolution
binominal
By
Michigan,
Mr.
Cornell
University,
of
fact that
leading colleges of
of the
majority,
the
than
is needed
Harvard
of
theorems,
on
work
the
University, etc.,
acquainted
geometry
in
mentioned
Pennsylvania,
Stanford
"Those
be
be
may
of
$ 1 .90.
of this
if not
large number,
among
of
commendation
stronger
M.A.
SMITH,
Cloth.
No
ALGEBRA
already reached
of
by teachers."
the
"
kind
The
Algebra,'
with
which
Athenasum,
COMPANY,
NEW
it wiD
they be disappointed.
Elementary
work
with
acquainted
will
YORK.
we
we
hesitatingly
un
are
TRIGONOMETRY
ELEMENTARY
BY
S.
H.
"if ** Algebra
Authors
B.A.,
HALL,
S.
and
for Beginners"
'*
the
I consider
work
Trigonometry.
to
its
grasp
as
Schools,**etc.
Algebra/or
$1.10.
For
in
subject matter
B.A.
KNIGHT,
"Elementary
Cloth.
of Plane
R.
"
0/ Kansas.
**
The
is
book
angles
and
their
cannot
but
commend
work
excellent
The
one.
is clear
itself
the
to
the
easy,
the
It
should,
BY
REV.
FAR
AS
THE
"A
very
boys;
not
substitute
for
and
complete
childishly simple
it.
The
schoolboy
in
its
TRIANGLES.
cents.
little treatise
concise
too
75
other
than
is, more
anv
I think, give pleasure
LOCK.
B.
OF
SOLUTION
1 6mo.
this somewhat
on
explanations;
difficult
incentive
an
illustrations
The
insulted.
not
encouraged,
with
answers
given at every
are
stage,
have
of which
taken
we
pains to prove.
clear
and
the
easy,
book
subject for
thinking,not
to
is
clear.
Abundant
examples
book, the general correctness
of the work
are
good, the arrangement
Journal
of Education,
of
as
BEGINNERS,
FOR
TRIGONOMETRY
AS
J.
topics such
the
School.
"
WORKS
of
arrangement
teacher.
experienced
relations
fundamental
the
of
treatment
and
which
recall, one
subject that I just now
The
Harvard
student."
John J. Schobinger,
on
the
to
an
functions
at
the
end
The
a
are
of the
definitions
itself well
printed"
"
TRIGONOMETRY.
ELEMENTARY
6th
edition.
the
chapter
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predecessors, l)ut by the
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MACMILLAN
THE
66
FIFTH
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well
worn
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Nature.
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NEW
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has
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avoid
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before
this
the
bo"^
date
should
last
be
stamped
returned
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below
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