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ALGEBRA

FOR

BEGINNERS.

]^^y^^
^9

ALGEBRA

BEGINNERS

FOR

BT

S.

H.
A1TTHOB8

HALL

AND

KNIGHT,

R.

Schools,"

fob

Etc.

Tbigonohetby/'

"Elementaby

Algbbea,"

REVISED

Algebra

"Elemektasy

or

S.

AND

Etc.

SCHOOLS

AMERICAN

TO

ADAPTED

"Hiohsb

BY

FRANK

L.

Pbofessob
THE

Matbematios

of

Stevens
THE

A.M.,

SEVENOAK,
and

School,

Stevens

AssiSTAin?

Academic

Instititte

LONDON

COMPANY

MACMILLAN

1900

All

t*tghtt reserved

"

CO.,

in
of

Technology

MACMILLAN

THE

Pbincipal

Depabtment
of

M.D.,

LTD.

COPTBIGHT,

Bt

Set

1897

up

and

macmillan

electrotyped

and

October,

August,

1896,

June,
1898

Reprinted

1895.

July,

00.

J^^Y*

1899;

IhrcM

NotfsooTi
J.

8.

Cuihing

It

Co.

If onrood

%j^ B

Lcland

Berwick

Hmi.

St

It

"

U.8.A.

iTp'

ford,

Jr.

Smifli

^9^'

November,

PREFACE.

The

Hall

Messrs.

work

to

give

fully

study.

Many

however,

of

class
made

such

only

clearly

which

points,

important

seemed

as

and

better

and

ditional
ad-

that

the
have

we

out

it to

adapt

for

of

bring

to

this

in

needs

written,

was

hope

Algebra

the

meets

it

changes

The

of

schools

made

were

introduced.

fully

the

requirements

changes

so

for

students

in

secondary

their

meet

subject-matter
Beginners,

undertaken
advanced

our

Algebra

Elementary

was

to

would

that

important

Knight

and

able

being

of

the

of

rearrangement

more

American

schools.
reference

With
from

Hall

Messrs.

edition

to

order

has

and

Knight's

of

topics,

preface

the

and

problems;
reference

to

factors
of

desire

side

practical

interesting

most

determined

been

first,

simple

arrangement

quote

we

to

former

"Our

into

the

to

of

expressions.

as

be
have

been

By

and

this
V

noQ

the

the

course

(o

as

sible
pos-

and
all

that

resolution
usual

in

its

of

equations

their

exemplified

siderations:
con-

some

opinion

until

postponed

two

early

and

easy

strong

expressions

compound

Algebra

such

by

as

subject,

the

secondly,

should

introduce

the

applications,

mainly

the

beginner

tions
operaof

case

soon

PREFACE.

VI

becomes
without

learning

attractive

more

As

the

opinion

that

through

all

the

before

and
and

problems.
by
have

which

The

do

not

the

of

American

been

work

some

best

be

that

various

effort

to

text-books

has

Factors,

of

his

equations

easy
been

tions,
Frac-

interest

amply

Elementary

on

to

of

knowledge
of

the

meet

wants

Algebra

ported
sup-

Algebra

the

beyond
usually

subject

of

all

who

Quadratic
covered

"

examination

for

admission

to

the

classical

Colleges.
FRANK

June,

of

published."

found

portion

learner

Multiple,

arouse

of

view

the

young

types

medium

this

equations

Common

the

the

recently

will

require

Equations
in

the

the

favors

rules

Lowest

and

Moreover,

all

mechanical

through

intelligence

teachers
take

to

Factor,

making

of

simple

of
of

wise

Evolution,

Involution,

difficulties

subject.

somewhat

Common

Highest

esses
proc-

something

introduction

not

their

time

experience

is

it

of

many

same

the

early

the

problems,

and

the
of

parts

regards

too

at

algebraical

ordinary

the

encountering

is

he

and

"

with

acquainted

1895.

L.

SEVENOAK.

course

CONTENTS.

CHAP.

PAGS

I.

II.

Definitions.

Substitdtions

Negative

Quantities.

in.

Simple

rV.

SUBTRACrriON

VI.

Addition

Brackets.

Like

op

Terms

Addition

16

Miscellaneous

V.

Examples

I.

19

Multiplication

21

Division

31
....

YII.

Removal

Insertion

and

Miscellaneous

VIII.

Revision

Brackets

of

Examples

II.

Elementary

of

88

42

Rules

44
.

DL

Simple

Equations

52
....

X.

St^ibolioal

59

Expression
.

XI.

XII.

Problems

Leading

Highest

op

Common

Simple

Simple

XIII.

Simultaneous

XIV.

Problems

XV.

XVI.

to

Involving

Fractions

Expressions.

Expressions

Multiple

Common

Lowest

Factor,

64

Equations

Simple

71

only

Equations

Leading

to

77

Simultaneous

85

Equations

89

Involution

93

Evolution
.

XVII.

Resolution

Miscellaneous

into

Factors.

Examples

Converse

III

Use

op

Factors

101

114

CONTENTS.

VIU

CHAP.

PAGE

XVIIL

Highest

XIX.

Factor

CJommon

Multiplication

Compound

op

Division

and

of

116

Expbessions

122

Fractions
.

XX.

Lowest

Addition

XXI.

CoimoN

Multiple

Subtraction

and

Compound

op

op

126

Expressions

Fractions

129
.

XXII.

139

Fracttions

Miscellaneous

XXIII.

Harder

Equations

XXIY.

Harder

Problems

146

i53
.

Miscellaneous

Examples

"

IY.

158
r

"

XXV.

XX

Quadratic

VL

Problems

Equations

Leadinq

162

to

Quadratic

Equations

173
.

Miscellaneous

Examples

Y;

177

ALGEBRA.

I.

CHAPTER

Substitutions.

Definitions.

Algebra

1.

generality

greater
processes

algebraical

have

The

values

of

say

Moreover,
them

we

only

in

we

any

may

symbols

particular

operate

with

Algebra

with

+,

the

"

mean

x,

that

the

value

assigning

indeed

it

is

to

with

the

meanings

same

-7-,

that

premising

Algebra,

have

same

when

concerned.

chiefly
of

all

the

in

considering.

are

we

own

Thus,

without

at

our

have

must

symbols

definitions
will

as

example

value
is

may

numerical

the

to

throughout.
that

the

that

begin

value

of

those

is understood

it

not

particular

to

no

which

them.

restriction

same

do

numerical

operations

"We

the

keeps

a=l,*'

but

always,

such

it

is

represent,

may

work
"let

there

definite

single

gymhoU

by

with

arithmetical

in

one

letters, usually

are

though

and,

symbol

piece

employed

used

have

denoted

assign

but

Arithmetic,

quantities

are

to

in

as

which

figures

choose

we

symbols

alphabet

by

the

quantities

value

any

we

quantities

while

for

denoted

are

value,

of

treats

the
as

in

Arithmetic.

2.
it

may

each

algebraical

An

consist
other

by

of
the

is

expression

one

or

termSt

more

signs

and

of

collection

which

7a+56

Thus

from

separated

are

"

symbols;

"

3c

:F+2y

"

is

expression

an

When

Note.

3.

consists
^

no

l^cpressions
of
H.A.

two

sign

or

more

five

precedes
either

are

of

consists

expression

of

consisting

(me

terms.

the

term

simple

term,

as

5a.

is

understood.

compound.

or

Compound

terms.

sign

compound
expressions

simpte

expression
may

be

[chap.

ALGEBRA.

further
3a

"

2a

"

2b, is

called

36 + c,

4. When

one

three

than

more

terms,

as

terms,

as

terms

nomial.
multi-

more

the

of Arithmetic

notation

of

three

quantities are
multiplied together the
between
One
product.
important difference

or

is called

result
the

two

two

an

binomial

trinomial

expression of
of
expression ; one

Thus

distinguished.

and

be

should

Algebra

remarked.

here

whereas
2x3,
product
of
in any
be written
the
in Algebra
product of a and b may
usual.
most
ab is the
form
the
forms
The
6, or ab.
a x 6, a
in
if
the
a6
ax6
2x3=6
Thus,
6=3,
a=2,
product
; but
Arithmetic
23 means
twenty-three," or 2 x 10+3.
the

Arithmetic

In

of

2 and

is written

"

the

of

5. Each

quantities multiplied together to


of the
factor
a
5,
product. Thus
5a6.
product

is called
of the

factors

6. When

quantity,
Thus

convenient
the

6a

remaining
appropriately
is not
merely

factors,

or

Thus

factors.

product as
product

the

in

called

is sometimes

numerical

be.

of

coefficient

the

called

sometimes

it is
of

word

the

But

and

sense,

factor,

any

are

a,

product
the

coefficient.

literal

la, but

write

not

coefficient

the

When

Note.
do

be

coefficient.

wider

expression is a numerical
of the
remaining factors.

an

5 is the

of the

may
which
coefficient

we

in

consider

to

coefficient

6a6c,

used

also

of

coefficient

expression 6a6,

is

coefficient

factors
the

it is called

the

in

the

of

one

form

is

simply

unity

it is

Thus

usually omitted.

a.

of times,
quantity be multiplied by itself any number
of that quantity, and
is expressed
the product is called a power
the
factors
of
the
number
to
of
the
right
quantity
by writing

7. If

and

Thus

it.

above

is called

the

second

power

of a, and

third

power

of a,

axaxa

and

so

The

called
the

a' ;

a';

on.

which

number
index

its

a^

Note,

is

a^ is read

'*

When

the

the

expresses

Thus

exponent.

or

of

power

quantity is
respectively

any

2, 5, 7

are

a^, a^, a^.

of

indices

a},but

is written

usually

to

the

index

simply

a.

read

fourth

**a
"

squared";

; and

is

unity

Thus

a,

it is

so

a'

is read

"a

cubed";

on.

omitted, and

la, a\ la^ all have

we

the

do
same

not

write

meaning.

I.]

8. The

beginner
index.
and
coefficient
Example
By

3a

we

By a^ we
quantities
Thus,

if

the

product

mean

the

third

a,

If 6

2.

Here

462

whereas

26*

If

3.

Here

The

3x4

in

of

each

a;

3xa

3 and

and

3a

a' ?

a.

is, the product of the

axaxa

we

4x4x4

4x6x5

2x6x6x6x6

5xa;xa:xa;xa;

should

obserye

are

have

units,

12

units

and

1250.

5xlxlxlxl=5.

that

is

every

the

multiplication
3

2h\

of hx^.
=

written

and

2x5x5x5x5

value

the

45^

100;

1, find

64.

4x6x6

of

sets

3x4=:12;

product
4

case

; that

5, distinguish between

beginner

means

of

power

arithmetical

9. In
factors

quantities

5a:*

Note.

of the

between

meaning

4,

a'

Example

in

distinguish between

to

a.

3a

Example

difiference

is the

mean

a,

careful

be

must

What

1.

SUBSTITUTIONS.

DEFINITIONS.

of

power

order

in

immaterial

4x3

in all.

which

For
3 sets

means

1 is 1.

the

instance

of

units

Thus

3x4=4x3.
In

similar

way,

3x4x5=4x3x5=4x5x3;
and

it

is

product
In

of any

like

to

easy

the

that

see

same

of arithmetical

number

for

principle holds
quantities.

the

the
product
Algebra ah and 6a each denote
of the
two
quantities represented by the letters a and 6, and
therefore
the
have
value.
same
Again, the expressions a6c,
the
value, each
same
ac6, 6ac, 6ca, ca6, cha have
denoting the
in
It is immaterial
product of the three
quantities a, 6, c.
of
written
it
is
what
order
the
factors
usual,
a
product are
;
in
them
order.
to
however,
alphabetical
arrange
in

manner

Fractional

which

coefficients

usually kept

in the

form

of

are

improper

greater

than

unity

fractions.
13

Example
Here

4.

If

6,

a?

7,

5, find the

value

T^"^ ^x6x7x5
=

of

273.

aocz.

are

[CHAP.

ALGEBRA.

EXAMPLES
If

5, 6

4,

1,

a;

3, y

12,

a.

2, find

the

1.

2a.

2.

a*.

3.

3z.

4.

z'.

6.

4c.

7.

46*.

8.

c".

9.

7y2.

11.
If

6, 2?

8a3.

12.
4, g

7,

^.

13.
y

6,

a:

14.

1, find

the

of

value

5.

c*.

a:".

10.

Sx,

5z".

15.

7c".

value

of

16.

ap,

17.

3/"g.

18.

3qx.

19.

6/)'.

20.

Saqx.

21.

l?gr.

22.

8agr.

23.

Iqrx.

24.

2a/)a:.

25.

7a:*.

26.

3p*.

27.

8r*.

28.

9npqx.

29.

6*7.

30.

x'^

^hkx.

35.

If A

5, il; 3',a;

4, y

find

the

of

value

31.

J*^.

32.

Ikx.

33.

Jy^

36.

^a:*.37.

-if'-

38.

39. Jy".
ji^A*.

10. When

40.

//.

i^fciry.

different

several

notation

similar

to that

is written

a^b*cd\

And

34.

quantities are multiplied together


of Art.
Thus
aahhhhcddd
7 is adopted.
the
has
la^cd^
same
conversely
meaning

as7xaxaxaxcxc/xG?.

Example

If

1.

16c*d"

Here

The

Note.
of the

factors

3, d

16

3*

If

4, g

5"

(16

been

9,

of IGc^e^.

value

S^) x 3*

observe

has

labour

some

5, find the

should

beginner

2.

Example

that

2000

by

81

suitable

162000.
combination

avoided.

6,

5, find

the

value

of

327r"
81/""

32gr"_32x9x6"_

He

11. If

81x4"

Again,

Note.

of

usually

values

called

if

^=0

ah^xy^^^O when
if c=0,

h may

Eyery

then

0^=0

zero

then

J7=0,

power

is

equal

the

other

of 0 is 0.

to

0, the

factors

product

must

have.

may

factor.
ah^xy^
whatever

; therefore

have.

4*

81x4x4x4x4x4

product

0, .whatever

instance,

For
Therefore

and

to

is

factor

one

equal

factor

_3

^ e

81/?'

be

32x9x6x6x6

contains
be

the

a6V=0,

zero

values

whatever

factor.
of a,

6,y.

values

I.

DEFINITIONS.

EXAMPLES
If

1,

3, "

2, p

2,

36j5.

If ifc=

8aa:.

12.

a^P^,
I, ^

2,

8i?V.

"i

0, 7)

I. b.

1,

a;

7, find the

4.

8.

gV.

9. qz\

13.

6"a8

3, g

0,

3. S/jgz.

7. az*.

6. 36V
II.

10, g

SUBSTITUTIONS.

4,

5, find

of

6agz.

5.

i)icV.

14.
r

value

the

"?".

10.

Sft^^a:*.

15.

SaV.

value

of

value

of

these

each

16.

21.

26.

12.

We
which

contain

dealt

be

can

proceed

now

combining

than

more

with

the

find

to

singly by
the

terms

the

numerical

one

term.

the

In

rules

already given,
of

value

numerical

the

whole

sions
expresterm

and

by

sion
expres-

is obtained.

13.

have

We

of

importance*
with

error

between

confusion

index;
to

already, in Art.
8, drawn
carefully distinguishing between

dwell

beginners
the

on

c*
4c

the

between

of

source
once

unnecessary

6x5x6x5

20

2x6"

2x5x5x6

3c2

3x62

3x6x5

of the

more

4c 4- 2c*

3c*.

625;

=260;
=

76.

expression

626-20+250-75

and

of c*

value

2c"

beginner
sum

5*

the

value

the

the

and
coefficient

fruitful

be

not

14. The

find

c^5,

Here

Hence

such

is

it may

to

distinction.

When

Example.

these

that

attention

must

the

also

note

product

For

is the

the
of

distinction
two

or

more

in

meaning
algebraicsd

product of the two


tities
quanis
obtained
and
value
its
and
by multiplying them
a
b,
of the two
a+6
is the sum
together. But
quantities a and 6,
and its value is obtained
by adding them
together.
quantities.

instance, ab

780.

[CHAP.

ALGEBRA.

Thusif

a==ll, ft=12,
the

11

and

2, 6

0,

which
a

a:

5,

expression

The

Note.

16.
to

style

40 +

two

(2

0 +

do

quantities
careful

not

inexact

sense.

to

Unless

3.
in the

the

be

be

never

work

are

should

4,

remember

should

1,

used

short
very
be placed

clearly brought

out

3, /=

5,

I.

7, h

7c-9A

7c.

5.

S/-2g-h,

c.

8.

2/-3sr

4.

3flF-4^

7.

3a-9"

10.

3/+5^-2c-46

12.

7c

14.

fg-\-gh-ab.

56-4a

to

except
be

in

that

and

vague

signs of equality
under

one

how

connect

particularly

any

the

the

each

other.

step follows
sometimes

be

importance

of

17. /^-3a2-f2c3,

8A +

a.

3gr.

c.

0, find

2.

3/+5*-76.

of

neatness

to

later.

seen

1,

attached

it ; for this
it will
purpose
short
verbal
explanations ; the

add

to

attention

pay

accuracy.

EXAMPLES
If

should

before

be

will

result.

should

be

one

advisable

affect the

beginner

expressions

should

of

equal. Beginners
employ the sign of equality

steps of the
It

3) +

are

the

is

factor

zero

value

the

student

to

should

5^

cannot

The

arrangement.

sign

Sbxy,

the

importance

which

3, find

not

is in itself conducive
The

2.

is, 132.

term.

12, that

150=190.
terms

zero

much

and

neatness

this

working examples
following hints.

Too

1.

from

(5

In

the

4.

23)

is, 23

contains

zero

5a^-ab^-\-2x^
The

12, that

6 is 11

and

term
any
be called

may

If

Example,

6 is 11 +

and

prodiict of

Art.

By

itself zero,

of

sum

the

15.

the

value

+ 2a.

5a.

H.

6A

13.

dh + a-Sg

76

of

3.

4j/-5c-9".

6.

96-3C

+ 4A.

0.

3c-4a

6a

7/+ 9f/.
if+lh.

15,

gb-Zhc+fb,

16.

fh

iQ

68-2A3+3a2.

IQ.

362-26"+4Aa-2^*

hb-Uc.

76.

11.

CHAPTEK

Negative

17.

his

In
to

"

sign
is

prefixed

"

which

is

same

7a

+36

prevail
--2c?

-4c

represent

additive

18.

Arithmetic

In

than

greater
the

were

In

Algebra,

stand

alone,

loses

The

gain

only

additive,

the

result

corresponding

were

$30.
of

his

to
But

trading

algebraical
$100

-$70

$70

-$100=

addition

gain
if

divided

according

by

clearer

he
is

statements

=+$30,
-$30,

two

or

and

first
a

and
and

one

|100

to

always

the

reverse

meaning.
subtractive

the

term

may

intelligible.

be

sign

of

process

made

man

be

would

the

or

of

quite
may

if

subtractive

quantities,
-f-

sum

but

quantities

sign

be

may

may

meaning

actual

any

the

36

is

terms

arithmetical

no

sion
expres-

and

subtractive.

terms

have

the

negative
the

of

Suppose

$100

would

have

yet

subtractive

to

terms.

7a

are

additive

the

not

of

2d

sign
If,

the

using

symbols

and

4c

of

the

result

algebraical

idea

(i^
total

and

with

irrespective
This

the

and

expressed

while

the

additive

the

as

which

to

quantity,

in

the

signs

such

which

to

first

thus

by

quantities

among

Algebra

sum

of

that

all

quantities

the

however,

exceed

Hence

we

sum

the

understand

quantities,

the

case

terms

in

an

those

while

counted

is

prefixed,

notions

and

additive,

are

tomed
accus-

the

expression

the

that

siibtractive,

are

sign

no

The

prefixed

connected
of

value

understands

he

is

the

finding

been

has

student

quantities

numerical
in

7"-3j+6-4^

the

with
and

Terms.

Like

of

the

work

arithmetical

deal

and

l|

Addition

Quantities.

loss

then

gains

into
as

this

they
is

are

quite

subtraction.

trations.
illus-

simple

lose

$70

of

would

positive

be

$70,
and

his
then

[CHAP.

ALGEBRA.

and

the

negative quantity

debt,that is,a sum


quantity, or gainy

second

is

case

interpreted as a
to the positive

of money
opposite in character
first case
the
be said to
it may
; in fact
suotractive
would
quality which
produce its effect

possess
other
on

in the

in

perhaps wholly counterbalance

transactions, or

sum

gained.
to walk
(ii) Suppose a man
starting from a given point were
road
forwards
and
then
100
70 yards
along a straight
yards
the
from
would
be
30
backwards, his distance
starting-point
then
and
100
70 yards forwards
yards. But if he first walks
his
backwards
distance
the
be
from
would
yards
starting-point
the opposite side of it
have
As
before we
30 yards, but on

70
In

each

of

70yards=+30yards,

yards-

100

yards

these

"

yards

100

the

cases

"

30

yards.

absolute

man's

from

distance

but

the

the
and

same
by taking
starting point
positive
;
is a distance
from
30
negative signs into account, we see that
the
but
in
direction
magnitude
starting point eqtuxl
opposite in
Thus
distance
the
to the
+30.
represented by
negative sign
here
be
taken
reversal
direction.
as
a
indicating
of
may

is

the

"

(iii)

The

freezing point

marked

zero,

freezing

point, while

is indicated

19.
be

and

by

15"

other

Many

sufficient

here

the

Centigrade

illustrations
to

might

remind

differ

3a^b\

When

Dbfinition.

only

otherwise
-

their

in

they
4a^b^

the

pairs of unlike

called

pairs

of

be

chosen

student
to

an

additive

like

terms

; and

7a

4a, 36

quantity

is the

not

3a,

it will

subtractive

subtraction

Thus

imlike.

but

that

differ,or
coeflicients,they are
do

terms

numerical

are

are

is

C.

quantity is always opposite in character


of equal absolute value.
In other words
addition.
of
20.

thermometer

of 16** C. means
15** above
the
temperature
below
15"
the freezing point
a
temperature

of

when
called

reverse

they
like,

5a-6, 2a^b
7a^, 9a^b are

terms.

Addition

Rule

I.

The

Rule

II.

If

sum

of

all the terms

of
number
are

Like

of

Terms.
like terms

positive,add

is
the

like term.

coefficients.

10

[CHAP.

ALGEBRA.

EXAMPLES

Find

the

2a,

3a,

3.

66,

116,

5.

2p,

p,

7.

-2x,

9.

11.

of

sum

1.

6a,

4/),

96,

7/),

-6ar,

-21y,

4a.

a,

86,

-4y,

-y,

n.

56.

6p,

12p.

-10a:,

-2y,

-8a;.

-6y,

-5y,

-4y.

-3y,

18y.

2.

^"

4.

6c,

7c,

6.

"^,

9c^i

8.

-36,

10.

-17c,

12.

-4m,

13.

-4",

3",

15.

3a:,

-lOar,

",

28,

-2",
7a;,

17,

2xy,-Axy,-2xy,xyylxy.

19,

a6c,

3a6c,

-".

12a:,

2a6e,

2a:.

5a6c.

the

value

16c,

3rf,

7d,

-136,

4rf,

-9y,

16.

8a6,

-6a6,

18.

5pg,

-Spq,

^^t

-56.

-6c.

-17m,

-69m.

5y,

5a6,

^xyz,

-4pq.

7xyz,

of

22.

36"-26"+76"-96".

23.

-Ila"+3a'-8a"-7a8+2a".

24.

2x^-Sx^-ex^-9x^.

25.

a^b^-'1a^^

26.

a"a:-

27.

2p^q^-Zlp^q^+l7p^q^,

28.

7m*n

8aV"^

9a^h\

Ila2a;+3a2a:-2a23!.

15m*n
-

9a6cd-llo6cd-41a6c(;?.

30.

13pga?
-

5a;pg
-

7y.

-4a6.

Spq,

-9aa+lla2+3a"-4a".

lOd.

6d,

-9c,

-7y,

101c.

-196,

-13m,

21.

29.

18c,

-34c,

lly,

20.

Sx.

3c,

14.

Find

6a;,

^"

^i

3m*".

19gpar.

xyz,

II.

CHAPTER

When

together
same

in

the

by

in

signs

the

case

Thus

b +

"

second

the

the

write
Thus

the

it

illustrate

gain

them

the

+(13

be

It

8.

8 +

to

a+(b+c)

now

therefore

5)

"

if

in

that

resents
rep-

dollars:

b
the

it

loss,

the

add

take

13

is

clear

full

The

here
;

vir.

we

that

8 +

13+5

that

and

13

the

shall

use

deal

and

their

be

may

added

result.
26.

the

added

be

to

are

altering

(13+5)

(6

"

to

the

from
8 +

is

the

or

enclosed

terms

quantity.

one

Chap.

and

13

without

that

means

we

Similarly

to
8

6 +

of

sum

and

is

to

c.

to

are

we

add

added

have

we

the
5

too

of

excess

much,

and

13

over

must

result.

(13-5)

c) means

that

8+13-5
to

c.

Thus

in

a.

Thus

by

as

a+(6+c)=a
(13

18, that

of

precedes

indicate

to

means

Thus
8 +

written

cases.

that

Thus

added

be

Art.

loss

a,

gain

considered

together

Similarly

"b

the

considered

means

or

and

used

are

be

to

to

separately

-we

please.

we

may

in

as

suppose,

may

simpler

+5)

added

sum

( )

will

with

only

"

Similar

gain.

are

brackets

of

in

Hence

order

any

result

result.

expressions.
in

the

of

a.

whether

Brackets

24.
within

the

holds

first

the

to

the

from

expression

dollars,

the

precedes

we

of

immaterial

clearly
loss

this

is

also

the

in

added

expression

the

-b

form

result

This

for

and

a,

algebraical

an

that

appears

equivalent
To

of

terms

a+c-by

6 taken

and

a,

all

to

are

to

from

to

applies

reasoning
may

is added

the

taken.

quantities.

b is taken

expressions

two

connected

are

terms

equivalent

cis

of

value

the

algebraical

of

quantities

the

and

order

whatever

arithmetical

of

number

Addition.

Brackets.

Simple

23.

ni

a+(6-c)=a+6-c.

we

are

16.
to

add

6, diminished

be

12

[CHAP.

ALGEBRA.

In

like manner,

By considering these
Rule.

sign

When

we

led

are

expression within

an

the brackets

results

be removed

can

following rule

the

to

brackets

preceded by the
making any change in

mthout

is

the expression.

25,

The

take

the

b and

expression a-{b+c)
of

sum

b and

c.

subtracted

are

Again,

of b

excess

doing
add

ijb c)

"

over

we

a-K

cto

taken

away

same

Thus

subtract

to

we

are

we

get

the

6 ; but by so
therefore

"

and

much,

too

to

are

whether

c.

"

take

we

we

the

sum.

one

"

from

that

If from

c.

have

in

from

be

will

or

(6 + c)=a

"

means

"

shall

result

separately
a

that

means

The

must

Thus

a-(6-c)=a-6H-c.
In

like manner,
a

the

Accordingly
Bule.

sign

"

When

be

d-e)=a"b

"

When

have
as

be

of

and

sign
We

+(

negative
Now

--

efiect

as

have

in

b, all that
and

now

can

be

leave

the

28.

the

to consider

algebraical sum
be

wider

Arithmetic,

sense

a-b

of
form
of

meaning
the
a

by

them

connect

in the

unlike

two

a-\-b,

expression

an

of

taking
positive quantity
result

it to

is the

a
a.

in

same

b ; thus

subtract

It will

within

term

together we
result
expressed
unlike
are
they

sum

is to

done
result

find
have
to
we
6). Here
with
"b
together
quantity
implies a decrease, and to add

is,the

the

added

terms

the

finding

"

in

the

If, however,
thus

a-\'{ b)
that

preceded by

every

the

and

"

to

of

be

to

are

like

is

Terms.

collected

be

may

term.

of addition

Unlike

like terms

more

collected;

quantities

27

or

they

like

sinale

cannot

the

two

that

seen

enunciated

be

may

changed.
Addition

"26i

rule

c-{-d-{-e.

"

brackets
within
expression
be removed
if the sign
may

an

the brackets

{c

following

the brackets

"

"

observed
than

of

that

a-b

and

in

in Arithmetic.

signifiesthat

6 is

"

Algebra

expressed by
the

Thus, in
is to

be

word
the

sum

6.

is used

language

subtracted

from

of

a.

m.]
and
to

bears

that
the

mean

the

Example

1.

The

meaning

(3a

3a-56

3a

sum

the

2c

by collecting like

following

rule

Bule.
may

in

beginning
3a-56
+

36

4a

2b

the

the

same

that

the

on

5a6

66c

Add

is a, that
column
is zero.

6c

-2a6

76c

down

5a6

the

1.

3a

2.

the

+4ad

terms

in the

terms

in

single

terms

The

columns

the

are

change.

7ac

first

we

that

vertical

same

add

8a6

3ac

columns,

each

column

m.

a.

up

rearrange
like
terms

2ad

of

sum

2y

6z;

a;-3y-32;

3.

4p

3q

5r;

4.

7a-56

3c;

5.

8/-2m

5n;

6.

6a-76

3c-4d;

7.

2a

8.

7a:-5y-7z;

46-5ar;

-2p
lla
-6/

6-7c;

4a-36

26-c;

+
+

7m

66-6c

2b-6x;
4a:+y;

+ 6c.

2x-\-y-3z.

3q-Sr;

p-q
16a

-Sa

6z;

r,

+ 56-2c.

~l-4m-Sn.

4?i;
+

3d;
+

b + 2c-d.

2y;

-Cb

5x-Sy+2z.

the
are

and

separately.

7 ad

3a: +

66c

5ac?

-4a

of the

fourth

so

26-5c;

terms

column

of the

without

Here

EXAMPLES
Find

each

+ 4ad.

3ac-2arf

+4ac

--3a6

the

7ac

"

-2a6

and

third

the

together
6c-3a6

like

the

add

algebraical sum

brought

+ 5arf

8a6

by

left.
The

2.

effected

that

first column

-\-2c-d

4ac

2c-d

in lines so
expressions
vertical
then
columns:

in

26.

26

conveniently

second

-2a6

4a

4a+26)

+
+

more

2c

Example

d,

-d

rf)+ (

.36-rf-4a

is however

with

2a

2c + 2a

36

+ 36

any

c^,

Arrange

be

(2a

56 + 2c, 2a

taken

b without

"

terms.

addition

The

of 3a

sum

2a-4a-56+36+26

it is also

in

two

56+2c)

only

the

relative
Find

; but

Algebra
quantities a and
magnitudes of a and b.

of

sum

to

regard

13

ADDITION.

8x

y.

pressions
ex-

in
then

14

[CHAP.

ALGEBRA.

9.

a~26

7c + 3;

26-3c+5;

10.

6-X-1/;

11.

25a-156

12.

2a-36-2c

13.

3a-5c

14.

p-q

15.

17a6-13A:?-5a:y;

16.

2aa;

17.

3aa: +

18.

3 + 5crf;

19.

6car +

3/y-2

20.

-3o6

29.
thus

1 + 2x1
+

7r;

36y

6q

baV-3ab^
be

This

30.

8um

-4

the

be

must

of

ab-2ry.

unlike

are

and

2^

2ca;-/y.

letter

together

out

9ax,

2cd-Sqr

same

its

be

;
pressed
ex-

2^7^ + 3^.

form

and

-3a6^,

5a^b\
in

terms

Zar^ cannot

left in the

is

cz-^by.

2""-/(7-

Sqr-cd;

lbt/ ;

-3"-4

sum

of 62:^

"6*

is

and

form

simplest

5x, 2a:*,5x,

6a:"-5a:

6a:3_2aJ"+2ar"-3ar"-5a:+6a;+2

4ar"-a:2
is in

2ar^ + 6a:-2a:"-3a:*

convenient

of

powers

together

several

different

powers
all

with

to

of

2a:^,

3a:*,2.

2.

descending

adding

terms

found

the

Find

result

In

Zxy-AU-ah.

6-9";

36.

abridged.

Example.
The

2ry

3" -2a

ax-icz

-Sby

algebraical sum
This
expression

b\

"

lcz;

-2/y

of
powers
of adding

the

Similarly

3/+

Qq-7p.

l-5cd;

single term,

5c +

12kl-5ab;

2hy-ax

7cd-5^r;

hy

9c-6a:-2a.

2d-a;

7xy;

2";

+ 206.

a-c

Iby-^ax-cz;

a;-2y.

q-Zp-r;

2/g-Sst;

result

-4

^b-7c;

r-p;

2cz ;

Different

cannot

a-8-7c.

2a;

13a;

b +

cz-46y;

the

5x

26-2d;

106

2a?;

Sy-2z;

4c-

c;

3c

x.

algebraical expressions
of the

letter, it

same

This

ascending powers
following example.

be

will

be

will

descending

in

expressions

arrange
letter.
that

taining
con-

made

or

clear

by

9a:;

the

Example
4a:-2ar"

1.

3ar^;

Add
3ar"

3a:" +

together
-

9a:

ar" ;

a:

In

ar'

writing
in
of

power
term

The

other

we

6a:*

down

the

same

have

2a:*

X,

in

second
and
does

expressions
so

like powers

expression
highest

the

term

the

power,
in which

way,

first

the

first

highest

last

the

6a:

a:^ + 4.

put

we

next

7 +

that

are

in

of ike

term
on

so

not

the

till the
appear.

arranged
each
same

in

column

letter^

m.]

15

ADDITION.

Example

-2""

Add

2.

together

3a6"

Here

each

6a26-3a5

a"2+

a"

of

powers

+8aS

56'

36" + 3a62

14a26

4a3

EXAMPLES

Find

the

of the

sum

1.

x^ +

2.

2a;2-2a:

-Sx^

3.

53?-x^

4.

a^-a^h+^ah^+h^;

5.

3a:"-9iK2-lla;+7;

6.

ixr^-5a^

7.

49"3+2m2-5m

8.

aa:'-46a~*

9.

py^-9qy

-2x^

3;

loi^

6^8+202/2+3^-1;

11.

2-a

12.

l+2y-3y2-5y8;

13.

aV-3a3ar5+a:;

14.

x^-4x*y-5a^;

15.

a"-4a26

16.

ap^-ebp^

17.

c7-2c"

18.

4A8-7

19.

3a:" +

36a;2

ca;;

10.

c? ;

lcp;

5y"
4aSa:2

-2c7-3c"

llc";
3A4-2A;
+

lOaftc + c^

5-6cp

6" +

3a26

4c"-10c5;

2-^*

7a:3

5y2 +

2ni-6.

2y"-y.

7a:

4.

5a:.

Zj?y^ + Qxy*-y^.

5c5+

a2a:S

3-2a/?5;

7/i-3A3
2;

3y2

56p";
+

4a:.

-3a+7a"-5a2.

Soc*y-i-23i^-Gxy*
-

Zpy^,

-3y"-4

-l+2y3-y;

a^ft

8a:-9.

2ax^+d.

*Jqy-4r;

7a8a;2;

To*

3m;

bx^ + 2d;

2a8-3a2+2a-2;

5a: +

2y2-5a;

2ca:

7a; ;

2a:*

-5m^

-2y+6-7y2;

6a6c;
+

6m2-2;

5ai"^-l^,

15a;2

Sar'-Oa:;

6x;
+

2a^b

5a:" +

-2py^+Sqy-Qr;

8a2-a";

3m3

7;

lr;

43i^ +

5x-4.

h^;

2o(^-5x^+2;

+
+

-5ar"

5;

-a^-lOab^

Sx;

"2-2ar-6.

4:;

2x2-2a:

x-l;

5x

2ar"-3ajy+j^.

xy+2y^;

ascending

a.

b.

following expressions

Zxy-Sy^;
+

m.

2A*

a6c.

2cp-7.
4c7-c".
2^3_5,

9x^+11

5 ;

~Sx

4y^

ex-y^-lSx^-7,
20.

x^

2xy

Sy^;

Sz^

xy+xz+yz-^^-4y^-2a?.

2yz

y^

is

ing
descend-

to

h, and

of

powers
of
powers

and

letters,

two

according

arranged

contains

expression

x^ + Zz^

2xz;

z^-Zxy-Zyz;

CHAPTER

IV.

Subtraction.

31,

The

under

simplest

the

negative.

of

cases

of

[Art.

20.]

Thus

Subtraction
of

addition

head

like

is

subtraction

Since

which

come

some

are

2a,
7a=

"4a,

6a=

"9a.

"

3a

"

already

of

terms,

6a-3a=
3a

have

"

the

of

reverse

addition,

+6-6=0;
.*.

the

-6

subtract

Now

right

thus

we

from

left-hand

the

[Art.

follows

also

side

and

"6

erase

on

get

a-(-6)
This

6.

6"

a=a

from

directly

a+6.

the

rule

for

brackets.

removing

25.]
3a-(-5a)=3a+5a

Thus

=8a,
and

3a

"

"

5a)=

"

2a.

Subtraction
32.

We

may

proceed

Subtract

Example.

of

3a

Unlike

the

26
"

The

in

as

Terms.

following

from

"

3a+5a

"

4a

36

"

6c.

difference
The

expression

=4a-36

5c-(3a-26-c)

first

enclosed

=4a-36

6c-3a+26+c

sign

prefixed,

=4a-3a-36+26+6c+c
=a"

example.

6-f

6c.

brackets

by
Art.

the
20.

the

rules

to

in

brackets

then

like

on

terms

already

be

subtracted
with

removal
are

is
minus
of

the

combined

exclaimed

in

18

[CHAP.

ALGEBRA.

Subtract

9,

3a:-6y-7"

from

2x+Sy-4z.

10.

-4a;-2y+llz

11.

-2a:-5y

12.

Sx-y-Sz

from

13.

w-2"-p

from

14.

2p

from

2g

15.

db-2cd-ac

16.

3a6

from

3^

from

-a:y+yz-za:

18.

-2/?g-3^r+4r"

20.

2n.

4r.

-ah-3cd+2ac,
from

from

ix^'2xy^

3a6

6cd

4ac

66(t

2a:y+za;.
from

llnp-

mn

2y,

from

17.

19.

x+Sy-2z,

6cd-3ac-56d

2y-13a.

-a:

gr-4r".

from

Spm

Inp,

Sxyz

from

take

-ofi+Sos^-x.

2a:V

3icy*

a^

From

21.

a^'-Saj^+a:

22.

-2x3-a:*

23.

a"+2"8-3a6c

24.

take

62ca take

25.

3/)' 2p*g

26.

7 + ar-a?

take

27.

-4

28.

-8a2a;2

29.

p^+r^-Spqr

30.

l-3a^"

31.

2 + 3a;-7a^"

32.

a:"+lla;2

33.

a" + 5

34.

a:* + 3aJ"-a;2-8

35.

l-2a:

36.

x^yz+yhx

37.

4a"ar"

38.

l-a:

39.

-Smn'

40.

33.
on

the

^j^g 3pga
_

gS,

ar^.

-3-2a:2y+lla:yz.
9a2a;2-8ar"-5.

take

r*

s*+3pgr.

3a^'-3a;-2.

take
take

8a~"-5x-3.
8a"

take

2a:* + 3x*-a:+2.

3yhx

lSm^n+n^
-

3x+l.

2xyz^

3aV

take

a:*-a:*-a:'

7.

7a:^-4a;2

a*

2p3

Sa^

take

take

1"^ take

56V.

aJ"-3ar^+l.

3aa:*

36c

+ a~* +

take

3ar" take

a:

take

2a2

take

+ 5ar" + 15

take

The

Vpg^

a;2y.jgy2

68-2a6c.

take

8 + 66c +

a^-x^-x,

x^.

7a2a:8

a*.

a:*-l+a:-a:".

take
take

m^

w^ + 8 wn*

7m%i.

3;?g2 2g".
-

foUowiug exercise
foregoing rules.

cod

tains

miscellaneous

examples

IV.]

19

SUBTRACTION.

EXAMPLES

MISCELLANEOUS

1, When
3x1/, z^.

2,
the

Add

3,

find

5ca

4,

5,

Subtract

6.

When

Sc^ + 8c

a?

3,

262

of

of

sum

5ai^,

From

from

-2y-2i5

the

of

sum

a)-(a-56).

c^

4,

362).

1.

0, find

the

value

2a~"-3ay+4a:2".

(1)

the

a6-26c+5ca.

ca,

and

(26

2 from

2,

-ab

x-y+Sz

3a-26-(26

(2)

value

4z.

36

Simplify (1)

the

of 3z*H-3aH'.

6c-ca,

of

4, find

ab.

sum

-Sx

2a?~5y-3zand

"

value

3a"

"c

the

Subtract

3,

the

together
take

sum

2j y

Also

of

^.

(2)

3y
Add

7.

resultby
8.

3a2-7a

together
3a2

2a'

and

6a

and

-3,

diminish

the

+ 2,

26^-2

Subtract

from

-26

6, and

increase

the

result

by

36-7.
Find

9.

subtract

the

the

What

10.

of

sum

result

from

3a;2-4z+8,

and

2a;-3-ar*,

2a:"-2,

and

62:^ + 3.

expression

be

must

added

to

5a^

3a

12

produce

to

9a8-7?

11,

Find

the

the

result

From

what

arrange

12,
7

be

2a

and

Find

14,
when

15,
from

in

a:

a;

ascending

of

powers
the

must

Sa^ +

3a:", -5x\

-4,

8;

x.

of

sum

5a^-2,

3a

a2,

and

5 ?

6, find the numerical

-5x,

value

of the

of

sum

a:

ar^^

-a:*.

the value

0, 6

Subtract
a:*+ 3:"+

-re*, Sx^, 2,

2x,

expression
to produce

subtracted

When

13,
2a;2-l,

of

sum

a:

1,

the

+1.

of 6ax

2,
sum

a;

(26y

8, y

of a:3

3,

^2^

ca)
z

2x^

(2aaj

36y

4cz)

(cz+ aa?),

4.

7a?, 8a:

2,

air^,2a:"

20

[chap.

ALGEBRA.

2p

be

What

expression must
Sp*, in order
8, 2p2, 2p3

16.
+

from

result

the

is

What

17.

the

4/)*

produce

to

from

taken

of

sum

p^-Zp\

3 ?

-'S2^+2qi^-IIx+6

when

IV.

is subtracted

zero.

By

19.

Find

cube

the

the

Take

of

p^

4pq -p^-

q^
3g^

from

of

2p^

36' +26^

three

the

times

add

from

the

and

zero,

of x,

square

twice

l,

4g', and
6^*.

-8

andx^-x-os^

Spq

and

exceed

sum

x-2ai^,

Subtract

21.

h +

does

algebraic

a;, -2^

of

20.
sum

much

how

18.

remainder

add

the

to

result

the

to

6* -268+36.

2m3-2w2

Find

23.

y*-4a:y*
result

3, fall short

of

the

Sx

must

in

answer

4^+7a:^

ascending

from

7a:'-3a;-6

3m?

3ar^y2+ 2a:V
and

6a:.y*,
the

arrange

be

added

of

powers

and

unity,

"i^-3m,

2m-l,

Ilm3-8m3

of

sum

Give

so

as

to

x,

x-6a^

from

zero,

and

-6,

and

results.

When

26.

57?i +

expression

Subtract

the

add

what
?

zero

25.

-m*

of

sum

7xh/-xy*,
Sx^-ix^y\
+ 3x*yy
ar^y^ x'^-y'^+ a^y^ + xy*-xh^
of x.
descending powers
the

To

24.

4m2

the

in

make

6, 3w3

does

much

how

By

22.

6=3,

a=4,

d=0,

c=2,

3a^-2bc-ad

(1)

find

the

3h^cd.

value

of

(2)

"

9a

27.

Find

the

arrange

the

result

Add

28.

2qi^ +

29.
value

If
of

30.
vftlueof

of

sum

in

4 +

together
x^-7

the

from

a=5x-Sy

a,

-Sa\

descending

z,

4a,
powers

of

Sx^-\-a^, x^-x^-ll,

4a',

7, -18a,

-5a,
a.

7? -23?

!, and

tract
sub-

result.

6=-2a;+y-3z,

6z, find

the

z=5a2-6a-5,

find

the

c=rc-5y

a+6-c.
If
a-

a;=2a2-5a+3,
(y+z).

y=

-Sa^+a+S,

V.

CHAPTER

Multiplication,

34.

in

Multiplication

its

primary

signifies repeated

sense

addition.
Thus

3x5

taken

=3+3+3
the

Here

take

we

is the

and

3x5=5x3;

numbers

it is easy

long

so

shew

to

3 +

3.

and
of

number

the

number

units

the

a-\-a+a-^...,

in

of

times

5.

h times

taken
=a

times

units,

the

as

same

axh"a

Again
Also

contains

multiplier
3

?ja

number

and

of

being

terms

h denote

6.

whole

positive

that

a6c=ax6xc=(ax6)xc=6xaxc=6ac
6x(axc)=6xcxa=6ca.

Hence

show

can
Similarly we
integral
quantities

factors

Example,

When

stand

follows
of

into

so

be

to

in

6a".

multiplied

definition

this

not
together are
multiplication has to
by f, we
perform
on
unity gives f ; that

of
3
on

and

take
the

sense,

include

to

as

2x3xax"

multiply
performed
equal parts

multiplication

that

is, the

of

in

the

the

in

as

of

them.
ah

statement

in

case

every

article

previous

factors

positive

Since, by
.*.

the

which

ha

and

is

the

that
in

same

the

product

whatever

order

of
the

written.

are

36.

positive
order

positive quantities.

number
factors

three

whatever

in

to

when

which

extended
for

It

example

divide

taking
be

can

of

product

same

the

numbers,
For

must

By

the

quantities

operation

is, we

is

2xax3x"

the

modified.
that

a,

2ax3"

positive whole
be

6,

the

written.

are

35.

that

a^

definition, d^"aaa^
a^

index

aaa

of

factors

of

in

the

aaaaa

/.

5a2

7a^

7a^
7

aaaaa

a*

is the

product
product.
and

aJ'"aaaaa

aaaaaaaa

the

5a^=6aa,

Again,

and

7aaa

sum

;
=

35a^

;
=

a'
of

""" ^

the

indices

22

When

the

expressions

of different

powers

6a'6*

Example.

of

6aaabh

40a"63aJ".

those

further

of

Saahxxx

the

Thus

another.

contain

together

is used.

method

be
careful
beginner must
indices
the
of one
multiplication

with

way

8a'6ar^

multiplied

similar

letters, a
x

be

to

The

Note.

no

[CHAP.

ALGEBRA.

observe

to

letter

that

this

in

combine

cannot

in

40a*6'ic*

expression

admits

cess
proany
of

simpUfication.

37.

Rule.

The

rule

To

simple expressions
multiply two
together^
multiply the coefficientstogether and
prefix their product to the
product of the differentletters,giving to each letter an index equal
to the sum
of the indices that letter has in the separate factors.

expressions
Example
The

to

are

extended

be

Find

1.

product

The

be

may

of

product

where

cases

than

more

two

multiplied together.
of

product

the

a;^ x ar*

to

a:^

three

x^, x^,

2;2+3 y^^-

or

v?.

and

a;2+3+8

3.13,

is called

expressions

more

the

tinued
con-

and

3a"*.

product.
Example
The

product

38.

continued

the

Find

2.

hx^-^

8y

^xs^

hxh^^ 8y%^

of

product

V2!^yH^,

m"m-\-m-\-m-\By definition,("x-\-h)

taken

=(7w.+m+m+...
together with

(wi+

6 times

...

+
.

taken

times),

taken

times)

=am+6m.

(a

Also

"

6)m=w

(m+m+w+...

by

{rn-\-m-\-m-\,,.

(a

6+c)wi=am

"

of

the

Examples.

compound
3(2a

expression by
36

4c)

6a

96

taken

times),

taken

times)

compound
expression bv
partial products of each
factor.

that
the product of a
it appears
the
is
algebraic sum
of the
single factor

term

6 times

6m+cw.

"

Thus

"

6771.

am"

Similarly

...

diminished

taken

m+m+

that

12c.

v.]

23

MULTIPLICATION.

V.

EXAMPLES
the

Find

1,

6a:

value

of

2. 3x26.

7.

5. 6c3x7c*.

6. ^jf

9, 3a;x4y.
13,

a.

17, a?xY.ah?.

4. 6xx6a^.

7. Sm'xSm'.

8. 4a"x6a*

11. 4c2x5rf6.

12. 3jo*x55^.

14. 3grx4gr.

15. ahxab.

16. 3acx5ad.

18. 3icV'xV.

19. a36"xa86*.

20.

10.

6aa:x5aa:.

%*"

3. x^xtx^.

5a

662.

21. a2xa86x5a6*.

22. pr^x6jjh-x*lpr^,

23.

6a:3yxa?yx9ary.

24.

25.

6a:y2X 7^2^ X arz*.

26. 3a6c(2

a*

3a663.

7a2x363x5c*.
56ca2

4ca6(2.

Multiply
28. oi^y-oAi+^y^

by a^c.

27. a6-ac
29. 5a2-362
31. a2-268

a26

30.

by 3a62c*.

32.

by Zx^,

5a6

2aar"-63y

33. Tp^q-pq^+l

by 2jp2.

34. m^

35. ary*-3a;2z-2

by 3yz.

36. a^-Sa^a;

Since

39.

by putting

(a
c

"

c? in the

{a

"

6)771
=

place

am

d)

"

=(ac
=ac

If

and

we

the

each

consider
way

term

in which

it

on

the

(~6)x(-c0

of Signs
Bale

results
in

of

enable

us

to

bd)

"

side

of this

result,

that

+ac.

+^.

c) =-6c.
-ad.

(+a)x(-cO=
These

d)

bc+bd.

find

(+a)x(H-c)

(-6)x(

[Art. 38.]

right-hand

arises, we

by 4mhi.

by 2a26a:.

{be

"

ad-

"

by ah:y.

(c-'d)b

"

ad)

"

5mn-3n^

h(c

"

d)a

=^{c

have

we

b){c d)=a{c-

by 3a"6.

6m,

"

of m,

6a

by ar'yz^

state

what

is known

as

the

Bole

multiplication.
Signs.

The

positive; theprodiLCtof

product
two

teniis

of
with

two

terms

unlike

with

like

signs is

signs is negative.

24

[chap.

ALGEBRA.

40.

The

rule

of

signs,and

especially the use of the negative


probably present some
difficultyto the beginner.
be useful
instances
in illustrating
Perhaps the following numerical
may
the interpretation that
be given to multiplication
may
by a negative quantity.

multiplier,will

To

multiply

obtain

to

the

be

taken

But

"4

times

and

the

3x

"

gives

that
first

is

"3

be

to

taken

By

the

Multiply

1.

of

rule

Example
the

Here

absolute

4ax(-36)=

is

product

2a^h^')
=

6a-'63)X (

that

the

a"x)

This

duct
pro-

aiid

Multiply

5a26

and

3a^6,

of

35

12a(

rule

the

by

2a'6',

however,

result,
down

at

once

2a^b^

the

rule

by

product
6a'

5a^b

])roduct is the algebraical


according to the rule enunciated
(6a3

5a^"x^.

3a-b

complete

4.

4a

6a^bV,

is

product

written

The

thus

; also

is 6a"6^.

Example

change

a6*.
be

may
for

6aW,

are

df^x.

product

continued

we

then

12a6.

"

by

the

6ab^x)

6a"63

ab*)

of

positive

the

Find

3.

bah^x

value

.-.

Example

product is negative

the

signs

Multiply

2.

the

signs

Thus

the

"36.

by

4a

/.

and

(-3)x(-4)=+12.

Example

times,

operation gives "12,

multiplication hy a negative quantity indicates


to proceed just as
positive^and
if the multiplier were
the sign of the product

is

negative.

Hence,

Sa^h

and

4) implies that

"

+12.

Thus

of

unity

to

4 times

3x(-4)=-12.
the

sign changed;

second

12

is taken

made

product

indicates

"

is done

what

unity

therefore

the

.-.

Similarly

to

that

means

and

times

do

must

we

negative

taken

"

Now

made

result

to

by

4.

4a62) x (

^b^

of the

sum

in Art.

3ab^)

by

37

is

ab*

of

6a"6^

signs
positive.

the

quired
re-

3a6=.

partial products formed


;

ISa*^^

I5a^0^

Ua-b*.

26

[chap.

ALGEBRA.

I"a=-3,

l, k

0,

a?

5,

find

y=-l,

the

value

23.

-4a

of

22.

-4c-3a:

ac-3cy-yife.

25.

2ay-^+4Ar*.

26.

a*-2c2

27.

-a3-ay

28.

aa:-ya:-cy.

29.

c^-y^-c^

30.

a"-a;2_2y.

31,

cV-2aca+c/r".

32.

acy-y*+2a2.

21.

Sa-2i/

24.

+ 4k.

3y3.

of

Multiplication
42.

^0

From

Compound

^7W3?^A" product ofa

Art.

replacing

2y.

5y-a:.

3y2.

yS,

Expressions*

b and

c+d.

{ai-b)m=am-\-bm;

38,

by c+c?,

have

we

(a + b)(c-\'d) a(c-\'d)-\-b{c-\'d)
=

=(c

d)a-\-(c-\-c[)b

^ac+ad-\-bc-hbd.

Similarly it

be

may

{a

shown

b){c-{-d)=aci-ad

"

{a+bXc
(a
43.

When

together
used.

one

contain

For

"

d)=

b)(c d)

"

both

or
more

"

of

than

ac

"

ac

"

ad

bc

"

be

"

bd;
bd

ad"bc+bd.

the

two

"

expressions

terms

by

a?"

y,

"

we

-}-c)m=aw

6m

"

=a"x

preceding results
multiplying together any

Rule.

be

may

cm

have

={ax

for

multiplied

method

{a-b-iccy,x-y)^a{x-y)-b{x-y)

44.

be

to

similar

instance

(a
replacing

that

The

of the second,
prefix to the
algebraical sum

"

ay-

enable
two

us

{bx

by)-\-(cx cy)
"

"

bx-hby+cx-cy.
to

the

general
expressions.

state

compound

rule

of the firstexpression by each term


vVhen
the terms
multiplied togetherhave like signs,
unlike
the
product the sign +, when
prefix
;
the
the
of
plete
compartial products so formea gives

Multiply

each

ay)

"

c{x-y)

term

"

product,
45.
is

It should

be

noticed

that

the

product

briefly expressed by {a-\-b){x"y\ in


the
that
indicate
expression a\-b taken
the
taken
multiplied by
eiq)res8ion x-y

of

which
as
as

6 and

the

whole

whole.

x-y
brackets

is

to

By

be
the

v.]

above

27

MULTIPLICATION.

value

rule, the

of

the

product
the
partial products +cu:, +bx, -ay,
by the rule
product beiug determined
Example
The

The

1.

Multiply

a:

product

operation

is

more

by

a?

Example

2.

ar* +

(a:+ S){x

x^+Sx

x^+l5x-\-tQ.

result

7a:+56

that

like

dy by

2a;

-3y

4a;

-7y

terms

vertical

15a: + 56.

4a;

as

follows

begin on the left and work


right, placing the second
one
place to the right, so

the

to

2a;

each

'Jx + 66

conveniently arranged

Sx

Multiply

of

7)

same

by addition,

of

algebraical sum
"bt/; the sign of
signs.

7.

We

s^+

is the

7y.

may
column.

stand

in

the

28

[chap.

ALGEBRA.

46.

We

shall

Example
3aj2-

2x

2a?

6ar"-

give

now

Find

1.

the

few

of

product
Each

-5

of greater

examples

3a;^-2a:-5
of

term

and

difficulty.

2a: -5.

first

the

expression is
first term
of
the
multiplied by 2a;, the
second
then
each
term
the
of
expression ;
first expression is multiplied by
5 ; like
terms
columns
and
placed in the same
are

4a;2-10a?

-15a:2

6a:3

10a; + 25

I9a;2

Example

2.

the

25.

Multiply

6 + 3c

by

26

a^-

a6 +

3ac

-26'+

2a6
a6 +

a2+

47.

If

the

ascending

or

will

be

expressions
descending,
found

2a2-

3a6

+462

5a^+

3a6

+46^

are

of

66c

3ac-262+66c.
not

some

arranged according
common
letter,a

product

of 2a^ + 46'

3a6

and

ment
rearrange-

3a6

Sa' + 46^.

is not
re-arrangement
but
convenient,
necessary,
because

6a86-

powers,

The

10a4+15a36-20a262
+^

to

convenient.
the

Find

Example,

26.

6 + 3c

added.

results

9a262 + 12a63

of

8a262-12a63+166*

-.10a4+21a36-21a263

it mak"s

like

the
terms

more

easy.
166*.

EXAMPLES

V.

e.

Multiply together
1,

ar*-3a:-2,

3.

2y2-3y+l,

5.

2a2-3a-6,

7.

Sar^-ar

9.

ar^+a;-2,

11,

2a2-3a-6,

13,

6-c,

2a+3.

2.

4a2-a-2,

3y--l.

4.

3a:2 + 4a?

a-2.

6.

562-26

T, 2a;-7.

8.

5c2-4c

3,

10.

ar'-2a;

5, ar*-2a:

12.

2F-3ib-l,

14,

2a:-l.

a;2-a: + 2.
a^-a
a-6

+
c.

2,

-26

+
+

5,
3,

-3c,

4a; -6.

-26-3.
-2c

l.
+

5.

3ifc2_jt-l.

a-26+3c

tion
collec-

v.]

29

MULTIPLICATION.

ix^-xy+y^,

x^+xy+f^.

16,

a^ -Tax

17^

o2-63-3c3,

-a3-6^-3c2.

18.

t^-^x^-x,

19.

a8-6a

21.

5m2

23.

2a: +

25.

a3 + ar"+ 3aa;2 +

26.

67"*-i?8+4/)2_2/) + 3, jy2_2^

27.

"i"-2m*

28.

a*+l+6a2-4a"-4a,

29.

a2 +

30.

ar*+6a:V' + y*-"4^y-4^"

5, a8

2a:"-3x",

62+c2

22.

Sa^

3a: + 2 + 2x2.

24.

a' +

3a2a:,

a^ + 3aa:2

ar^

a?-\

2^2

a;2-3a:+l.

l, 2y^-^y^-\.
3a,

Sa^ + 1

5a.

fe^-a^fca,a^fe^-a'+fe*.

3a2a:.

3.

4m"-3m5

3m"-4wi^

2m*.

Za-^\

a-b-c.

a6+ac-5c,

'2y*-V

3m2.

6-4m

3-4w,

20.

6a-5.

+ 2ar".

a'+2aa:

+20?,

15.

ar*

y*

6a:V

4a?y* 4a:V-

binomial
two
multiplying together
and
^+8
*7,can
by the
factors, such
as
x
alw.ay8 oe obtained
of
the
it
is
utmost
methods
importance that
already explained,
the product I'apidly
down
learn
should
the student
to write
soon
6y inspection.

48.

Although

the

of

result

"

This

is done
in

terms

the

by observing in
product arise, and

combination

the

nomiials

which

the

of

what

coefficients

that

noticing

they

coefficients

numerical

in

of

result
the

the

from

two

bi-

; thus

multiplied together

are

the

way

{x-8){x-1)=a^-8x-7x+56
=^2-

15^+56.

(x+8)(X'-*7)=x^+SX'7x-56
=x2+x-56.

(^-8)"

7)=ar'-ar+7a:-56

=x^"x-56.
of these

results

The

product

consists

of three

The

first term

is the

product

In

each

1.
2.

binomial
3.

4.

The

The

numerical
terms

that

notice

terms.

of

the

first terms

of the

two

expressions.
third

binomial

two

we

term

is the

product

of

the

second

terms

of

the

sum

of

the

expressions.
middle

term

has

for
with

its
their

coefficient

quantities (taken
proper
binomial
two
expressions.

of the

the

signs) in the

second

30

[chap.

ALGEBRA.

The

intermediate

products

down

the

in

step

written

at

be
omitted, and
may
the
following examples

work
in

as

once,

v.

the
:

(j7+2)(47 + 3)=^4-5a:-f-6.
(a;-3X^+4)=ar^4-^-12.

{x"^y){x
{x

extension

By an
easy
the
product of
Thus

%y){x

"

of

4y)

these

\^xy+^OyK

a?*

%xy

24^^.

"

principles

we

down

write

may

binomials.

two

any

=a^

10^)

+ 3yX^
(2.t7

-y)

^-\-^xy-2xy''^y^

=^^+xy-Zy\
(3^-4yX2^+y)=6^-8^

3^-4y^

=^^

bxy

"

Ay^,

"

(^+4X^-4)-=^+4:f-4^-

16

=^-16.

{2x+by){^x-by)^Aa^+\0xy-\0xy-2^
4r^-25/.

EXAMPLES

Write

the

down

values

V.

of the

f.

following products

2.

(a-7)(a-6).

3.

(a:-4)(a?+5).

(6-6)(6+4).

5.

(y-7)(y-l).

6.

(a-l)(a-9).

(c^5)(c

8.

(a:-9)(a:-3).

9.

(y-4)(y

10

(a-3)(a

13

{k-Q){h-Q).

16

(p

19

{x-Za){x

22

(a

25
28

(a

3Ka-2).

4).

7).

12.

(a

7)(a-7).

(a-5)(a+5).

15.

(c

7)(c + 7).

17.

(z+5)(z-8).

18.

(a;-9)(a?+9).

20.

(a

21.

(a;

23.

(c

24.

(p-2g)(i?

(2a:-3)(3a:+2).

26.

(3a:- l)(2a? + l).

27.

(5a:-2)(5a:+2).

(3a; + 2a)(3a:-2a).

29.

(6a;+a)(6a:-2a).

30.

(7a: + 3y)(7a?

3).

9)(p-10).

4c)(a

2a),
4c).

11.

(a?

14.

5)(a;

8).

26)(a
5(/)(c

25).
5d).

4y).

4y)({r

25).

y).

CHAPTER

VL

Division.

49.
the

object

The

by

qnotient,
the

produce

is

find

to

divisor

the

is

the

thus

above

inverse

statement

of

divisor
-r-

quantity,

called

multiplied

so

to

as

multiplication.

divisor

dividend

or

is

be

must

briefly

be

may

quotient

It

the

out

dividend.

Division

The

division

of
which

better

sometimes

to

written

dividend,

quotient.
this

express

last

result

tion
frac-

as

thus

dividend
..

quotient.

-^rr".

divisor

Examjde
when

or

4x

Shice

1.

divided

is

by

4^-7-x

Example

27a'

Divide

2.

27a*

by

and

We

2^aaaaa

ikui

dividend

the

the

divisor

both,

factors

just

as

in

mon
com-

metic.
arith-

3a2

27a"

36a"6M

Divide

The

that

9aaa

Therefore

3.

from

remove

to

Example

follows

9a*.

and

it

4x,

4.

quotient
9a'

is

is 4,

quotient

the

otherwise,

The

of

product

the

quotient

-f

9a"

by

3a*.

lat^c^.

^^^"^ if

'

^-^
=

5aa

6a"c.

"a

bo

In
letter

the

each
in

of
the

dividend

these

quotient
and

it

cases

is

divisor.

the

should
difference

cc
,

be

noticed
of

the

that

indices

the
of

index
that

of

letter

any
in

32

[chap.

ALGEBRA.

50.

is

It

to

easy

of signs holds

rule

the

that

prove

for

division.

a6-a="-*=^=6.

Thus

-a6-;-a=^="-^"-^"=-6.
a

a6-H(-a)=.g^J-")^(-^)=
-6.

in division

well

as

"a

"

Hence

"a

"

multiplication

as

signs produce +,
signs produce

like

unlike

Bnle.

To

of that

the index

of

the

of
coefficient

2.

Example
If

Kote.

the

by

Thus,

we

7)

quotient

that

from

by subtracting
the dividend.

in

its proper
sign the
that of the divisor.

by

%^a^x^

by

quotient

\2a^x.

Or

a^'h?-^

is obtained

at

once

mentally,

-7aa;2

^oa^^x^M
the

apply

of the

power

same

the dividend

Divide

1.

quotient

so

another

prefixmth

obtained

the result

Example
The

letter in the

letter in the divisor

To

"

simple expression by

one

of each

index

The

divide

"

letter

divide

to

are

led

-i-a^

a'-r a^

a^

rule

rule
we

Sa^fta:*.

Qa^ftar)

to

a^

of a letter
power
any
curious
conclusion.

by

the

a" ;

a?

but

also

.i

=1,

a^
:.

its

full

will

somewhat
appear
significance is explained

result

This

[See Elementary
Rule.
divide
sum

This

the

follows

Examples.

AUjebra^

in

to
strange
the
Theory

Chap,

the
of

beginner, but
Indices.

xxxi.]

compound
expression by a single factor,
that
term
factor, and take the algebraic
separately by
partial quotients so obtained.

To
each

of

aO=l.

divide

at

(9x-

12y

(36a"62

Art.

from

once

3z)-r(--3)

24a2i*

38.

-3a;

20a^62) -f \a:^b

4y-z.
=

9a6

66*

Sa^ft.

34

[chap.

ALGEBRiL

The

entire

operation is

written

compactly

more

a?+6)a;2

lla:+30(a;

a;^+

follows

as

6a?
5a: + 30
5a: -I-30

The

dividend

is

and

the

separated
complete
parts
many
may
found
of all the partial quotients.
quotient is
by taking the sum
the
above
is
^"2+lla:+30
separated into two
parts,
By
process
and
each of these is divided
by :r+6 ;
namely a:^-h6a:,and 5^+30,
obtain
thus we
the partial quotients +a: and
+5.
into

the

for

reason

as

is this

rule

be

as

Divide

2.

Example

24a:"

the

convenient,

65a:y + 2ly^ by

8a?

Divide
8x

3y )24a;2

65a;y +21y2(3a:

-56a:y
-56a;y

7y

7y,

Divide

2ly2.

the

second

Example

the

Divide

3.

under

result

first terni

of the

term

by

IGa^

whole

place

the

dividend.
obtain

we

by 8a:,and

this

of the

the

the

subtraction
of

this

8a?;

first term

quotient. Multiply
divisor
by 3a;, and
By

-56a:y

24a:'

gives 3a;, the

21y*
21y2

3y.

obtain

so

quotient.
-

46a^

8a-3)16a"-46a2
-40a2

39a

by

8a

39a-9(2a"-5a+3

39a

3.

-40a2+15a
24a-9
24a-9

Thus

the

quotient

is 2a'

5a

EXAMPLES

3.

VI.

b.

Divide

1,

a' + 2a

by

1,

2.

62 + 36 + 2

3.

ar" + 4a; + 3

by

a:

I.

4.

t/^+ 5y

5.

a;' + 5a;-6

by

a:-l.

6,

ar' + 2a;-8

7.

p^

3/7-40

by

p + 8.

8.

^^^-4^-32

9.

a-

5a-50

by

11,

ic2+ aa;-30a'

by

+
a;

10.
+

6a.

10.

m'

12.

a'

+
+

7m

6 + 2.

by
by

y + 3.

by

a?-2.

by
78

9a6-366'

g + 4.

by

by

6.
+ 126.

VI.]

35

DIVISION.

Divide

13.

-a:'+18a:-45

15.

2ar2-13a?-24

17.

ear' + 5a; -21

19,

-5x^

21.

I2p^

22.

4m2

23.

12a2

24.

-25ar"

25.

21;"2+ llpg

26.

8a:S + 8ar"+4a;+l

xy

by
by

74pq

49"'

31a6

H-

2m

206^

by

4a

-5a:

by

12a"+aa;-6a:2

20.

Ba^

30.

Sx^

the

Tlie

divisor

Example

1.

by

14ar+21

process
consists

of
of

a;-2a.

by

2a:

Art.

51

3.

is

than

more

applicable

two

a*-2a'-7a2

Divide

-5c

-a?+6.

by

6a:"y-arV^-7a:3/S + 12y* by 2a:+3y.

52.

2a

l.

29.

by

3a-2a:.

5g.

ar^ + aar"-3a2a:-6a"

12ar"

by

350^

ac-

3.

ar+

7y.

28.

by

-21.

56.

2a: +

-2a:'+13ar"-17a:+10

27.

18.

a?

12g.

40g2 by Sp

5ar" +16ar

by

+ 7n.

49y3 by

-^x-y.

I2q^ by 2p

16.

2a: + 3.

6y^ hy

a:*

2a: -3.

by

42a? +441

14.

a:-16.

to

cases

in

whicli

terms.

8a

a2-a-6)a*-2a"-7a2+8a

by

12

a'-a-6.

12(a2-a-2

a^-a8-6a^
-a'-a2
-a^

8a

+ a^ + Qa

-2a2+2a+12
-2a2

E3cample2,
First

arrange

4a:*

Divide
each

of the

2ar"-a;+3)6aH"-

2a

5a:2 + 6a:*

12

15

expressions

a:*

a:

by

descending

in

3 + 2qi^-x.
powers

a:*+4x"-5ar"-a:-15(3a:*+ar"-2a:-6

6ar^-3a:*

9a:g

2a:*-5ar^-

5ar"

2a:*-

Sx^

x^+

-4ar^-

8a:^-

-4x^+

2a~"-6a;
-10ar"

5a:-15

-10ar"+5x-15

of

a:.

36

[chap.

ALGEBRA.

Example

Divide

3.

ar"-7a:

^Q(^-27^-~A7r^

6)ar'-2a:4-4a:3
x^

23ar8-31a;+12(a:2_2a;

-2a:*+3a:3

-2a;*

+14a;2--10a:
4a;'''
-21a;

In

that

divisible

not

all

until

on

in the

the

highest

that

is not

division
-

exact,

in

power

the

is a:*

quotient

division

the

where

cases

the

12

a;^,so

by

; thus

further
any
4a;2- 3.

on

remainder

carried

is

+15

-21a;
4a;2

4a;*

b.

i8a;2-31ar

3a;"

Now

5a^"

-Ix^^

3a:3+

carried

by ^-Ix

V2-^Q[^-Z\x

the

the

work

remainder

be

cannot

2a; + 3, and

there

should

is lower

is

be

than

divisor.

53.

be
Occasionally it may
expressions in ascending powers
2a3

Divide

Example,

10

found
of

16a

convenient
some

to

arrange
letter.

common

39a2

15a*

by

2a3+15a*(

2-4a-5a2)10-16a-39a2+
-25a*

10 -20a

2a3

4a-14a2+

8a2--10a3

4a-

6a2+12a3+15a*

6a2+12a3+15a*

EXAMPLES

VI.

c.

Divide

1.

a3-6a2+lla-6

2.

ix?-4x^+xJtQ

3.

y3 + y*-9y+12

4.

21m^-m*

5.

6a3-5a2-9a-2

6.

6ifc3-F-14ifc

7.

6a;3_j.iia:2_39a._65

8.

12a;3

by
by

by

3.

a;2-a;-2.

by

by y2-3y

+ m-l

8cuc2

a2-4a

by

7wi*

3.

+
+

2m+l.

2a2-3a-l.
3F

by

27a2a; + 1 Sa^

4A;-1.

3ar^+13a;+13.

by

Ga;*

13aa; + 6a".

4a

5 + 2a-3a2

ba^,

the

VI,]

37

DIVISION.

Divide

9.

16x3

i4a:2y

10*.21c3

5^2^

^^^^

3ocP

2"Z3

3a:*-10a:3+12ar^-lla;

12.

30a*

13.

7?"7?-%x-\^

14.

15.

21m3-27m-26m2+20

16.

ISa:^ +

3a3+6-10a2

iOa^x

Qcux^

3y*-4y3+10y2

18.

6a3

19.

12a:*

20.

/)*-6/"3+13p2-10;?

21.

28a:*

22.

5a5-7a*-9a3-lla2-38a

23!
25!

10a*-4aa

l +

69x

x3-8a3

43/* by

27.

a8

64

28.

16x"

29.

4m5-2"w-36

15x*

31.

3a2

32.

9x2-42^^+42^-22

33.

4c2-12c-d2

34.

9i"2-16g2

35.

a^-x^+x^y^-oi^

36.

x^+x*y-ar^y^

37.

a3"3

38.

ix^+l

40.

a:"-6x*-8x3-l

22

32x3
-

4x2

30x

40

by

by

x3 +

2c

^-y^

363

x2 +

by

133..

-5a2+17a-10.

26.

9a*-4a2

9y2

81

by

y2-3y+9.

by

3a2-4a+2.

9.

by

3c2

by

wi^
4x

2m2

3m

4.

5x2.

a+26

3c.

2y-z.

rf-3.

-3p-4g-5.

oi^-2xy^
+

+.5

y*

by

-3x

by

3^+2.

24.

6m*

50x2

by
9

86c

3()p+25

a6-9-"*

by

4x2

6x

8a6+462+10ac

ISoa:.

8.

8m2-7m3

30.

by

4a2.

by

p^-Sp-{-2.

35x2

81

2a-4.

4x^-x-5.

by

a4-4a2

36x2

9xr^

x2+2xy+2y2.

by

S.

lm^-^

2/^-^2

by

Tla:^

ci^.

by

i6

x2+2ax

by

ar* +
+

3y".

5a3-2a+l.

by

5a:3_33a;2_3a.+

3cd

3a2

Sm

by

3y_2

"Tlxy

3a;+3.

17.

Sar^-x

by

by

%x^

a2-4a+3.

by

24aS

a:2 +

by
48

by

Tc^

lla"-82a2-12a

by

by

11.

\r^

by
by

x3-x-2^.
x^ +

xy-y\

36-a*-3a3-3a
l.

x3-2a;-l.

39.

by
2a"+2

3-6

by

o".

a^ +

2a^+2a+l.

CHAPTER

Removal

54.

Insertion

and

are
Quantities
that
they must
in the
expression
the
4a
expression

all

Thus

2a

from
It

When
the

"

convenient

which

have

brackets

treated

here

to

as

whole

same

has

to

way.
indicate

brackets

"

26

"

within

be

can

be

to

Arts.

tracted
sub-

making

removing

and

24

25.

the

preceded by

is

without

for

rules

in

given

brackets

removed

the

quote

been

already

expression

an

the

in

operated upon
(4a
26) the

36

brackets

within

36.

be

will

brackets

2a

enclosed

be
-

Brackets.

of

sometimes

indicate

that

Vn.

sign +,
in

change

any

the

expression.
When

brackets

the

brackets

be

Example.

be

mny

removed

Simplify,

expression

by removing

part
this

purpose
brackets

Tlie

in

When

56.

dealing

is

46)

46

(6

6 +

the

sign

"

the

within

term

convenient

common

use

2a).

like

terms.

within

brackets

brackets

brackets.

within
of

For

different

forma.

(),{},[].

are

two

are

expression

enclose

to

already
to
employ

the

2a

by collecting

or

generally best
each
pair in

with

l^rackets,

enclosed

usual

there

it is

removed,
In

it

3a

is

expression

an

(3a

86,

it

Sometimes
of

36

36)

2a

55.

the

if

by

preceded
sign of every
is

changed.

(2a
The

brackets

within

expression

an

begin

to

of

pairs

more

succession

with

the

apply

we

bi'ackets
innermost
the

rules

to

be

pair.
quoted

above.

Simplify,

Example.

by removing

brackets,

a-26-[4a-66-{3a-c
Removing
the

all

brackets

expression

At

Note.

mitil

the

the

first

the

brackets

26

[4a

66

a-26-[4a~66-3a

a-26-4a

2a,

have

{3a

66

been

will

find

removed.

c)}].

it

+2a

c-2a

3a-c

by collecting

beginner

expression

one,

(2a-46

by

one

the

like

best

46

c}]

46-";]

2a-46+c
terms.
not

to

collect

temit

VII.]

CHAP.

REMOVAL

OP

EXAMPLES

a+2b

2a

(a:-3y)

{x-Zy

2a+

Vn.
and

brackets

Simplify by removing

-36

-(2a

(2a:-4y)-(ar-8y).

2z)-{z-

(6

26).

3a)

iy "\-2x),

(4a

86)

(66

m-(w-p)-(2m-2p

11

a-6

12

6x

13

(p-g)-(g-2p)

14

2ar"-(3y2_a:2)-(ar5-4y2).

15

{w?

16

(ar-2a)-(a:-26)-{2a-a:-(26

17

(a

18

2"2 2^2

19

a:-[y

21

2"-|"-(g+p)-{/3-(2/)-g)}].

22

3a:-y-[a:-(2y-z)-{2a:-(y-z)}].

23

3a2

!24

[3a

(ly

(2n2

{2a

(a

of

Example

7a:-2(a:-4)

3.

6a-4[10a-3a:-9a]

4a:

{2y

2x)

(3a? oy).

2p).

a:)}.

5a

(2p2

g2)}.

(a-6)-{a-6-(a+6)-(a-6)}"

(2a

before

when

2a: + 3a:

there

7a:-2a:

is to

is

12
8

that
plied
multimore

used

as

removed.

12.

5a: + 8.

3{a;

or

be

must

being

6a;

be

two

are

coefficient

indicates

bracket

bracket

4[10a

bracket

any
the

within

own

6)}].

2(a

a:)}].

expression

3(a: 4)

Simplify

8.

26-3c-(6-a-4c).

An^).

prefixed

its

2.

6a

"

when

2a: +

5a

36).

(6 + c-a).

but

1.

6a

c)

{3a

expression

considered,

"

6.

(2a

2a2)}],

placed

coefficient

be

to

the

that

Examples

6a

a-2-(4-3a).

20.

6)}] [4a

multiplier only

(3m2

+ 3^2
{;"2

{862 ^9^2

coefficient

brackets

The

4,

25

(3a:+ By).

3m2)

(2i?-g)-(p-2^).

((^2
+ 2p2)

[6a2

by
a

7a:)

{a:-(y-a;)}].

term

every

(2y

2.

36)-(6-3a)-{a+26-(2a-6)}.

+
-

57.

3a:)

2"2)

3w)-(w-m

c-(a+c-6)-(a+6

terms

5a).

10

a.

collecting like

(2a-Sh).

39

BRACKETS.

4[10a

3{a:

4[10a

3{

4[a

3a:]

4a+12aj
12a:.

a:

2a

3a}]

On

removing

bracket

each

2a:}]
by

-2.

Then

by 3,
its
other

bracket

the

the

term

innermost
is

multiplied

before

multiplying
expression within
is simplified.
The

steps will

be

easily seen.

40

[CHAP.

ALGEBRA.

58.

Sometimes

line

called

thus

symbols

to

be

connected

meaning

as

(6 + o),and

lience

Note.

line

The

fraction

is

the

is drawn
is used

b+c

"

a-b

and

^^

Thus

the

over

with

the

same

c=a-b-c.

numerator

of vinculmn.

kind

between

vinculum

denominator

equivalent

is

of

to

l{x

6).

Find

4.

Example

of

value

the

84-7[-lla;-4{-17a:
The

expression

84

7[

1 la:

The

59.

3(5a:-l)}]

84-7[-lla:-4{-17a:

84-7[-lla:-4{-2a:-3}]

84-7[-lla:+8a:+12]

84-7[-3a:+12]

84 + 21a:-84

21a:.

the

For
Arts.

24

for

on

25

page

these

Rule.
brackets
brackets

1.

and

practice the number

brackets

of
be

may

easily

have

Am/

c=a-\-{b

"

"

"

b+c=a-

the

results

of

steps

the

are

deduced

converse

from

established

been

them.
in

c=a

"

c)y

"

(b+c\

"

(b

c).

"

follow.

rules

be enclosed
within
of an expression
may
the
prefixed^ the sign of every term within

part

the

sign 4remaining unaltered.


a-6
a:^

Rule.
within

15a;-3}]

Examples.

brackets

Brackets.

equivalents
a+b

From

of

12, and

little

insertion

following

and

5a:)}]

rules

given

9 +

84-7[-lla:-4{-17a:

Insertion

of those

17a:

3(8

the

be

4{

beginner has had


considerably diminished.

When
may

3{8-9-5a;)}].

+ c-rf-e

6a:

aa:

a6

a-6

(ar^ ax)

(c-d-6).

+
-

(6a: a6).

within
be enclosed
Any part of an expression may
the
prefixed, provided
sign of every term
sign
brackets
be changed.

2.

and
the

the

Examples,

"

-b

xy

ax

-by

d
+

ah

{xy

{b
-

c)

by)

{d

e).

{aa:

ab).

42

[CHAP.

ALGEBRA.

23.

Multiply
2x-Sy-4{x-

2y)

5{dx

3{2y

by 4x-{y-x)In

each

the

y)}

S{x

y)}.

following expressioas bracket

of the

that

2{x

signs

brackets

the

before

the

be

may

of

powers

(1)

a;

so

positive,

(2) negative.

24.

ax*

25.

cux^+aV-h3i^-5x^-cx^.

2x^-cx^

2x^-bx^-x*.

MISCELLANEOUS
the

of

1.

Find

2.

Subtract

l-a^

3.

Simplify

4.

Find

continued

the

What

5.
what

sum

26

3c

6.

7.

Multiply 362

8,

When

2a^

i,y

5^^

2c)

of

to

c), 3a

(36

3a^,

2a

Find

10.
value

the

Simplify
when

-x

2a

a:

of 2a:^

7, 6

12.
result

ax^

and

5x

of 3aa;,

3,

+ a;^

36)

a:

7a?z, 4aa:,

4c-2rf,

and

add

the

by

-^xh/h^

and

4xz.

find

its

difference

to

the

unity.
and

divide

the

by Zxyh\

14.

Simplify

15.

Find

-2a-36

(5a

nothing,

Simplify by removing

16.

q^1

2a:z,9aa;,

*S3i^y-4xi^z+2xh/h^

Multiply

And

2^?

4.

4 from

13.

result

2d-

5a:V^.

36.

of 1

value

sum

make

to

pl^+ 2pq

"

+ Sx^.

by

9a-(26-c)

Subtract

11.
sum

algebraic

Ixy^^

p + q

a:*.

2c).

1 +

9.

2y

to

2xy^,

to

make

6 + 3c.

result

the

added

3pq

2, find the

3a

he

p^

1 -6ar*+5a;3

a:

(6

(a

add

product

to

36

1, and

must

added

Divide

26 + c,

from

quantity
be

must

EXAMPLES

by

the

a;

of

2x-*Jy

and

{a:

Sy^) + 4y^ + {5xy

-{2xy-

product

5[x

3(2a:
a~^

2x^) +

3a:+8y,

and

the

of

sum

+26,

-5c

11a; + 2

by

3a

-2d,

3e +

5c-2/.

i7.

Divide

18.

If

3a? +

2) }].

{2xy

6y2).

multiply

the

2y.

Find
+

2a:2

brackets

ar*
-

4a:3

1, 6
ad

2,

igx!^
c

ac-a2-crf

0, d
+

1, find

c2-a+2c

a:^
the
+

7a: + 1.
value

of

a26+2o*.

5/,

6-a+2(^

vn.]

MISCELIANEOUS

EXAMPLES

Simplify 3[1 -2{1 -4(1 -3a:)}], and


be added
to it to produce 3 -8a;.

find

19.

the

Divide

20.

of

sum

I0x^-7x{l

what

quantity

and

x^)

43

II.

S{x*+3c^

must

2) by

3{3^+l)-{X+l).

Simplify 5a:*

21.
the

result

If

22.

4a:*

from
a

0, 6

8a:"

1,

(2a:a 7)

Find

the

24.

Subtract

25.

Express by

(a" + 4) + (a^

excess

over

y{x

a^Ta; +

(a"+ 4)(a"

from

2)

amd

2y)

y )

2y\

2).

symbols
is

the

times

greater
of

sum

of b and

product
26.

of

means

Three

(2)

of Ix^

product

(1) 6's

subtract

of
3, d=-2,
2, find the value
e
(S) e+aK
(2) (c + a)(c-a) + 62;

(l)3c*-d";
23.

(ar*+ 5) + (3ar" x), and

2.

a: +

than

and

26

by 7.
by

is less

the

than

c.

Simplify

3a2-(4a-62)-{2a2-(36-a2)-26-3a}-{56-7a-(ca-62)}.
the

Find

27.

continued

product of
xy-\^y^, T^-xy + y^^

a^ +

Divide

28.

If

29.

30.

4flM; + c^

3, 6 -2,
(1) c(a+6)

From

much

rod

32.

boy

then

0, d

2a

36

2, find

the

of

value

c) + a(c-6);

inches

a+6

buys

(2) a"+d'".
inches

long 6-c

marbles,

off;

cut

are

how

Simplify

33.

Divide

34.

Multiply
2/
y^ over

35*

2a

{5a

loses

the
+

how

has

many

times
times

of

sum

equal
=

2, 6

id

3a:*-5a:y

to
=

diminished

taken

and

the

value

of

2.

2xy-y^

the

1,

6)(c

c
-

of

and

the

by

0, d

of

excess

6) + (oc

hdf

find
+

and.twice

6 is

times

equal

to

z.

five

d.

of the

-l,

three

and

of y

sum

their

multiplied by

difference
=

by the

from

product

the

times

by a:2-2a;+l.
of

sum

find

algebraical symbols

Three

(2) Seven

If

3ary.

in

(3) The

(26 + a)] }, and


[8a
6(a+6)] when
a=l,

5a:* +4a:"

1-

Express
(1)

36.

6, and

wins

(a-6)[a2

3x^

6(a

by

remains?

31.
he

Aa?

xi^-xh/^ + y^,

of

squares

the

(c^

of

value

d)(2c

6).

difference
and

n.

is

Vin.

CHAPTEE

Eevision

[If preferred,
on

Simple

chapter

this

and

Equations

Eules.

Elementary

of

be

may

been

the

until

postponed

have

Problems

chapters

read.]

Substitutions.
62.

quantity

given

expression.

The

is that

the

of

the

is denoted

of

equal

of
fourth, fifth, "c., root
any
fifth,
"c., power
third, fourth,

cube,
whose

quantity
expression.

9*

simply

more

the

to

is 9, because

81

J/a, or

by

is

power,

root

square

expression

proposed

any

second

or

square,

Thus

of

root

square

whose

root

square

Similarly
the

The

Definition.

is that

81.

sja.

expression
equal to

is

given
The

roots

Examples,

The

VS2

3^

27.

because

2"

32.

V(6a36^c)

the

called

value

the

^, J/, Ij,"c

symbols

because

sj is also

Find

1.

the

by

y27

symbol

root

Example

denoted

are

of

radical
when

J{Qa%^c)y

V(6

33

V(6

27

V(3x27)x(2x8)

1*

sign.
a

3, ^=1,0

8.

8)

8)

=5x9x4
180.

Note.
the
of

line
the

expression

above

being

2.

expression

of

the

as

as

3,

X/{a^cx)

V(-4)2(-l)4

^(-64)-

7x(-4)-3x9

-66.

is often

\/6a^b*c

written
the

indicating

square

root

whole.

4, 6

vinculum

,J{Wh^c)

form

used

t(3c"n

expression

Example

The

An

s/W

3^81

1, /=

"

0,

a;

4, find

^iPx).

\/(

3)*{

1)2+

the

valueof

VIII.]

CHAP.

REVISION

ELEMENTARY

OF

EXAMPLES
If

4, b

ly

6, d

Vm.

Of find

45

RULES.

the

a.

of

value

1.

n/"*.

2.

\/9^.

3.

V6Pc.

4.

\/9^P.

5.

'M*?.

6.

V6^^.

7.

a\/9^.

8.

36j/3^.

9.

^/^-^/9?.

If

-3,

3Va3^-dN/2^+\/6^.

10.

2,

-l,

a;

-4,

0, find

the

valae

of

11.

^/^2c^.

12.

n/3^.

13.

\/6^.

14.

5v^.

15.

V3SP^.

16.

\/a^^.

17.

1^6^.

la

\/3H^.

19.

\f^ac-"Jcx-\-"J"cx,

20.

VcV+\^^-\/9^.

21.

If

a;

100,

81,

find

16,

vf22.

If

-6,

2,

-l,

2v/^"cx

2\/a^64xV

already explained in the case


the coefficients
applicable when
Example

Find

the

of

value

of

Indices.

and

which

rules

coefficients

have

been
still

are

fractional.

\7^

the

N/8a26.

integral

are

of

sum

0, find

The

Coefficients*

Fractional

Coefficients

Fractional

63.

-4,

of

Viz.

Vy+
a;

value

the

Jy^

lxy-

-7^-

\xy

2y",

|a:'+ia:y-ly"
Here
and

by

Example

Divide

2,

\x

\y ) W

each
the

the

column

up
coefficients

rules

of arithmetic.

Jar^+yV^^+T^^
+

is added

fractional

by

^x+\y,

i^xjf^ + i^y^ ( ^x^-\xy+\y^

iary^

xVy*

separately,
combined

46

[CHAP.

ALGEBRA.

Fractional

64,

indices

the

and

fractional
a~^

"

Indices.

4a~^x

been

all

such

indices

negative

the

integers,but

3.v^ may

be

dealt

discussion

of

the

"

complete

have

In

as

with

examples hitheii^ explained


expressions involving
a*, ^~^, Za^+x^
2,
"

by

the

rules.

same

For

the
student
theory of Indices
will
It
xxxt.
Elementary Algebra, Chap.
here
sufficient
to
that
the
rules
for
combination
point out
indices in multiplication and division
given in Chapters v. and
are
universally true.
a

referred

It

will

be

from

seen

indices

combining
expressed by
where

integral

in

these

two

a*"xa"=a"*+",
have

n
may
fractional.

shall

now

and

that

the

division

rules

be

may

be
of
vi.

for
cisely
con-

statements,

and
or

illustrations

multiplication

the

(1)

We

65.

is

the

to

give

any

(2)

a"*-T-a"=a"*-";

values

positive

involving compound

examples

some

negative,

or

expressions.
Example

Multiply x^

1.

3a;^+

x^-Sx^+

2a;*

by

1.

2a;*-1
^

2a;

Sx^

-6a;^+

x^+

.3a;*-4

2a;

Example

Multiply

2.

c"

-7x*+lla;*-4
+

2c

"

*
-

by

3c

"

2c*.

-7+2c-*

c*

Here
2c"

3c-*

+6-

2c^-14c*+
+

been
4

5c* -35

the
expressions have
arranged in descending
of

powers
+

10c-*

noticed
the

2c2"-

3 + 21c-*-6c-^

9c*-34+31c-*-6c-2*

and
terms

c,

+5

it should

and

that

in

this

numerical
stand

involving

ment
arrangeterms

between
c*

be

and

the
c"*.

Vin.]

Example

47

RULES.

Divide

3.

24a;^
-

Arrange

ELEMENTARY

OF

REVISION

16a;"

+ a;*

and

divisor

16a;"^

in

dividend

by 8x"^

bx^

descending

2a;^+x^
-

of

powers

4x^.

x,

a.l_2a;^_4a;i+8a;"^)a:^-5a:^
24a:^-16a;'^-16x~^(a;^-3-2a;'*
+
x^-2x^-

4x^+

EXAMPLES

Vm.

1,

Find

the

2,

Add

together -|a-i6

3,

From

4,

Subtract

\a^ -hiab- {b^

5,

Multiply

ia;2+ l2/2by ^x-^y.

6,

Find

7,

Divide

ioc^-^y^ by ia;-^y.

8,

Divide

a^

9,

Simplify J(2a:

of

suni

the

-Jm

take

^h-^c

of

product
2a?h

3y)

10.

Find

the

sum

11.

Find

the

product

of

\x-\y

12.

|wi

Jw,

|c, ^-^,

from

^2

27n

".

T"ff6-f
Jc, -Ja+Aft-^^,

a6 +

1
_

and

^a^-ix+l
-l^fihy

i(3a:-f 2y)

b.

^a-fr-f-^c.

^^^^

-H

in,

Sx*

^52,

ia;-f-^.

a?-^

IV^,

,3j(7a; 5y).

of

and

^{z-\y)

^{x

z)

\{y

\x).

brackets

Simplify by removing

8(|-^).5{2.-3("-|)}.
13.

Divide

14.

Subtract

15.

Add

16.

Multiply

17.

Divide

IB.

Simplify 6{a: t(y

\2?

\lx^

^[Ix

a;

i by

9y) from. \{x

together (a: iy K^a;


-

|a3

36a2

fa;

\a^x

-f-y)

and

J62-|-^-4a6-6a-f

+
-

i.

3y)

iar" by |a

(2a:
-

2a:).

iy)(ia:

2a:.

i" by 6a-i6-i.

i)} {i(2a: y) -h 2(y


-

\{y

1)}.

y).

48

[chap.

ALGEBRA.

19.

|a2-^

Multiply
when

20.

Multiply

21.

Divide

22.

Find

23.

Multiply

24.

Divide

25.

Divide

and

by a2+Ja6-|A2,

the

verify

result

2.

x^y^+y

by

1-1

a:*-a:'y*+y
and

x^y+y^

of

product

the

a;^y^+yby a;^-y^.

a:-

x^

6*

1, 6

7r-y^.

a*- a:^ by c^ + x^.


by

c-"-8c-i-3

c-i-3.

4x^y-2_i2ariy-i+25-24a:~*y+16a;'V
by 2a:*y-i-3+4ar"V
of

26.

Find

the

value

27.

Find

the

square

28.

Find

the

29.

Divide

30.

Multiply

31.

Find

"

of

The

Example.

of

a+6

of 3a

"

^x).

^6

"

"

^x, aa:*

Cases

a^h

3a6c

by

is
a+6

y^-{-(?{a?-ab-ac

a?h-aJtf^-

c.

a^c +

ab^

2abc

abc-ac^

ab^-

abc

ac^ +

a^b
be

are

o^c

yc

-l^c-bc^

arranged in descending
alphabetically ; thus
3a6c.

+ oc^-^^c

abc

taken

precedes a^c, and a^c precedes


observed
throughout the work.

b^

+68

a^

is

l"^-hc+"^

abc

-a?c

work

of notice.

worthy

+ a?c

the

6.

a^b-a^c-3abc

letters

Division.

in

in division

6^ + c'"

c)a"-3a6c+

Here

aar

(3a:"y-*-a:-'"y")(a:"y-a;-"y-i).

a^ +

a*-f

other

6^, and

5 + a2-2a-2.

following example
Divide

3a

"

^.

by

Important
66.

ia:)(aa;^

x^y^+ x^y^ + x^y^,

by

value

product

a2 + 2a-2-7

the

"

a^-\-a

continued

a;-y

(aa;

ac^ +

bc-+

(?

axi^ +

bc^+

"?

powers
in the

similar

of
first

a,

and

the

remainder

arrangement

will

60

[CHAP.

ALGEBRA.

and

Dimension

68.

Each
of

the

the

degree

three

of

the

the

or

numerical
each

69.

of

The

or

composing

the

is called

letters

involved
abc

the

product
degree ; and
fifthdegree,
is not

coefficient

counted.

is said

Thus

sion
dimenis called
be

to

oar* is said

third

the

of
of the

term

of

number
Thus

term.

dimensions^

"fivedimensions^

are

and

term,
of

letters

Degree.

of
q/^

be

to

Sa^ft* and

a*6*

dimensions.

seven

of

degree

is the

expression

an

of

degree

of

the

term

a*
contained
in it; thus
8a' + 3a
5 is
highest dimensions
the
a^x
and
IhV
is
an
fourth degree^
an
expression of
expression
it is sometimes
useful
to speak of the
of the fifth degree. But
dimensions
of an
of the
one
expression with
regard to some
letters it involves.
the expression ax'
For
instance
d
6x^4- ex
"

"

"

"

"

is said

to

homogeneous
is useful

by

(2a2

Sab

Art.

the

product

of

5a2 + 3ab

is

462)

lOa* + Sla't

that
is

instance
the

divisor

homogeneous
of two

2la^b^ + 166*.

expressions each
homogeneous
expression of four dimensions.
homogeneous
of

two

expression by
homogeneous
quotient of one
is
itself
homogeneous.
expression
homogeneous
For

is

homogeneous

two

the

Also

when

homogeneous.

product

dimensions

two

x.

47,

46^)(

the

Here

that

notice

to

is also

expressions
Thus

in

expression is said to be homogeneous


8a""
a*"2+9a6^
of the same
are
degree. Thus
the
sixth
degree.
expression of

all its terms

It

dimensions

compound

70i

of three

be

in
is

of

the

example
homogeneous

of

three

Art.

of

66

and

the

dimensions.

Vm.

EXAMPLES
1,

Divide

a^ + 30a6

2,

Divide

a^ +

3,

Divide

a^-lr^+l+Sab

4,

Divide

IBcd

y^-z^

12568
+

by

San/z by

1 + 27c^

by
-

Srf^

a-6

by

c.

56 + 2.

y-z,
+

1 +

may

dimension,

one

dimensions,

it

1.
3c

2rf.

be
the

quotient

of

another

noticed

dividend
geneous
is homo-

vm.]

OF

REVISION

actual

Without

following

cases

}^.

9.

division

1?^*.

10.

2 +

^J!".
In

17.

which

terms

18.

the

of

term

some

of

(3a^"
it

heing
20.

the

bxy

known

that

down

ah'^ +

Write
5a^

the

The

Introduce

two

16.

1253c4

,^..
ar'
+

y"

which

will

65c,

make

of

dimensions

there

expression

whole

the

the

the

correct

product,

terms

them

given

the

of

3a^-2ab-b\
in

of

the
the

that
b

of

powers

respectively

dimensions.

in

46ar^y

taken

of

value

the

having

letter

mistake

no

square

the

24a:*

^x^y^

l^xf

Sy^,

coefficients,

given

having

descending

that
of

powers

1.

quotient

the

3y2)
is

are

a^-y^-l-

x^ +

make

^\

degree.

eighth

ascending

in

arranged

4,

down

3a^",

22.

the

of

-2,

-12,

21.

15.

Jiomogeneoits

are

'^){%x^ -2xy-

coefficients

are

12.

statement

Write

9,

the

considering

following

^^T^.

oft^c

of

power

homogeneous

By

the

expression

7a36c2

19.

11.

which

and

like,

each

introduce

in

quotients

expression

are

In

the

the

^.

14.

Sy

down

write

l+a

13.

61

RULES.

ELEMENTARY

ocy +

into

coefficients

25,

Sxy

0,

by

3a^b
of

the

9, 6,

a:

when

terms

1.

and

5a^-cLb^

is

y^-y+l.

dividend,

homogeneous

of

product

divisor,

and

expressions

quotient
of

three,

so

one,

as

to
and

CHAPTER

IX.

Simple

71.

An

do

we

equation

Thus

the

briefly

or

The
of

employ

an

of

called

are

Certain

symbols

and

of

present

value

the

The

root

74.

the

denote

upon

is

degree
unknown

The
the

The

called

of

equals

by
a

the

of

when

the

the

to

is

is

word)
above

object

an

equation
satisfies

find

is

its

found

only

example
The

to

an

which

involved;

finding
so

^=2,

which

treat

value

of

usually

equation.

of

is

of
it.

called

value

is

called

the

letter

in

quantity

unknown

is

It

equation*

simple

usual

to

x.

equation

depends

only

equals

the

to

2.

If

from

3.

If

equals

are

multiplied

by

4.

If

equals

are

divided

equals

we

values

symbols

In

the

If

equals

the

value

1.

we

and

equation,

more

required

process

simple

solving

add

is

involves

axioms

following

sign

equation.

quantity

process

how

The

the

which

equation

the

always

the

equation

an

the

the

it

of

true

or

use

discover

value

of

only

symbols.

explain

equation.

the

of

satisfy

to

whose

solution

An
first

the

order

is

ordinary

to

quantity.

solving
or

in

letter

unknown

called

sense.

equation,

particular

condition,

the

is to

chapter

is

values

the

of

is said

kind

simplest
73.

is

left
the

of

for

true

identity

the

(in

values

particular

307=6,
the

of

be

equation

the

the

left side.

and

3a; =6

an

whatever

an

ioT

true

Thus

and

sides

only

equation

an

side

are

employed.

true

whereas

so

identical

an

right

or

right

Consequently

equation.
always

the

as

the

to

members

equations

called

is

equation

an

distinguished

the

is called

wide

which

4=ar+7,

have,

may

equation

but

equal,

are

in

identity.

parts

72.

expressions

two

word

a7+3+:F

value

equality

are

the

statement

whatever

true

that

asserts

usually

not

Equations.

take

equals

by

sums

the

equals
the

are

equal.

remainders
the

products

quotients

equal.

are

are

are

equaL
equal

IX.]

CHAP.

the

Consider

75.
It

SIMPLE

7a: =14.

equation

is

required to find what


satisfythis equation.
Dividing both

sides

53

EQUATIONS.

by

numerical

value

x=2,

sides

by 2,

in the

terms,

equation

7a;"

have

we

12,

"

2a:"

To

This

quantity

3a:

differs

occurs

its

changing
Subtract

any

sign.

a;

the
sides

term

from

both

appears
side
one
Hence

as

we

a:

It
in

an

and

appears

+x

the

term

may

by changing
from

this

equation, and

8,

and

we

from

removed

been

has

"8

the

by simply
get

[Axiom

2]

[Axiom

1].

side,

one

removed

and

from

following

rule

side

one

change

may

the

of

the

sign of

equation

every

equation; for this is equivalent to transposing all the


the
left hand
then
members
making
right and

term

terms,

change

places.
Example,

Take

the

equation

Transposing,

"3a;"
"

a;

12=

+24=

a"

24.

3a; +12,

3x+12=-a;+24,

or

which

is the

original equation

other.

transposedfrom
sign.

that

ever,
how-

can,

we

12,

=12

been

other;

be

We

have

has

its

unknown

other

the

to

the

show.

to

of the

sides

+ 8 on
as
appears
enunciate
the
may

Any

other

that
on

"a:

and

Rule.
to the

see

side

one

sides, we

8 to both

we

10, by collecting

"

preceding in that
of the
equation.

3a: -a:
Thus

15

of Terms.

proceed

we

3a:

Adding

3]

12.

both

This

from

from

on

transpose

[Axiom

4a: =28.

solve

case

=23

a;

Transposition
76.

4].

get

we

a:

Again,

[Axiom

-^"

both

multiplying

to

get

we

Similarly, if

have

must

with

the

sign

of every

term

changed.

64

[cHAP.

ALGEBRA.

77.

To

f-3=^+f.

solve

Here

be

it will

convenient

begin by clearing the equation


of fractional coefficients.
This
can
always be done by multiplying
both
sides of the equation by the least common
multiple of the
denominators.
[Axiom 3.]
to

Thus, multiplying by 20,


10a'-60=5^+4^;

transposing,

1 Oo;

6:f

We

equation

can

give

now

with

for

general rule
quantity.

unknown

one

60

:f=60.

.*.

78.

4r

solving

simple

any

Rule.

clear
First^ if necessary,
of fractions ; then transfpose
the
unknjovm
side of the
terms
containing
quantity to one
Collect the terms
equation, and the JcTiown quantities to the other.
each
both
sides by the coefficient
on
side; divide
of the unJcnown
and
the
value required is obtained.
quantity,
the

all

Example

Solve

1.

5(a: 3)
-

brackets,

Removing

5a:

7(6

15

.-.

Example

2.

Forming

the

Solve

24-

9a:

64;

a:

6.

(a:+ 1 )(2a: 1 )
-

products,

term

27^
a;

on

It

habit

of

-5a:+

self-reliant
In
when
we

the
we

obtain

and
case

applying

substitute
the

such

side, and
=

16 + 47 +

9a:

63;

a:

7.

same

47.

value

result.

of

own

15 + 47.

1;

beginner
the

tends

tests

simple equations
the

16+42-3;

transposing,

13a:

iti his

confident
of

24 + 3a; ;

2ar"-13a:

for the
useful
extremely
verifjring, that is, proving
of

(2a: 3)(a: 6)

is

habit

the

each

.-.

79.

24

x).

have

we

2ar^ + a;-l-6a:
the

5a:

3(8

24+

/.

24

7a: + 3

42 +

5a:+7a:-3a;

transposing,

Erasing

a:)+ 3

truth
to

acquire

to

of

make

his
the

the

results;
student

accuracy.
we

in the

have
two

only

to

show

sides of the

that

equation

rx.]

To

Example.

that

show

a;

7,

side

right

{2x

these

since

(a;+ 1 )(2a; 1 )
-

5)

results

two

47.

oa;

(8x13)

-35

(llx2)

69.

47

(14-3)(7-5)+47

Thus,

3){x

equation

(2a:-3)(a:-5)

(7 + l)(14-l)-35

The

left side

the

the
satiafiea

*7

(a:+ l)(2a;-l)-5a:
When

55

EQUATIONS.

SIMPLE

the

are

47

69.

same,

satisfies

the

equation.

EXAMPLES
Write

down

the

1.

7a?

5.

12a: =132.

9.

4a; =18.

13.

6a:

17.

3.

9a: =18.

6.

33

7.

4a:

-12.

11.

30

-6a:.

lla:.

15.

3.

19.

11a:.

26.

14.

-2a:.

18.

6a:

42.

following equations

5a:-7

25.

4a:-7

21.

24.

15

37 -11a:.

27.

3a:-18

29.

3a:

31.

8a:-3-5a:-5

33.

5a:

34.

7a:-21-4a:+13

2a:

35.

15-7a;-9a:-28

14a:-17

36.

5a:-6a:

37.

5(a:-3)

39.

3-7(a:-l)

41.

15.

7-2a:.

7-2a:

8.

7a:.

1 7 + 3a:

6a;

30-7a:

+
=

41-5a:-7
=

21-3a:

10-7a:

2a; +

4.

5a:

8.

-10

12.

4a:

0.

3a:

-27.

lla:.

16.

15a:.

20.

-24

23.

13

ll.

26.

7a: =18

28.

4a: =13

30.

32.

7a:

-2a:-

11 -2a:

--

13

7-

5a:

40"

5-4(a:-3)

5.

a:-2(a;-l).

8(a:-3)-2(3-a;)

42.

4(5-a:)-2(a:-3)

a:-4-3(a;

43.

lx-,lx

44.

l--l-=l-^l

45.

--|-^ 3-.|.

46.

i-|-4=^-+2.

47.

(a;+ 3)(2a:-3)-6a:

48.

(a:+ 2)(a:+ 3) + (a:-3)(a:-2)-2a;(a:

49.

(2i+l)(2a:+6)-7(x-2) 4(a:+l)(a:-l)-9a:.

50.

(3a:+l)2+6+18(a;+l)2

2)-5(5-a:).
+

2).

4)

12.

l)

7(5-6ar).

2(a:+

(a;-4)(2a:

10a:.

5a:-20.

5-4x.

-2a:.

13-9a:+8a:.

ll(5-4a:)

2ar.

10.

12

6a:.

38.

x.Z.

-8a:.

-5a:.

28.

4(a:-2).
=

5.

1 1 5.

8a: +

22.

6a: +

following equations

3a: =15.

12a:

the

of the

a.

2.

10.

Solve

21.

solutions

IX.

9a:(3a:-2) + 66.

0.

56

[CHAP.

ALGEBRA.

Show

51.

that

5 satisfies the

5x-Q{x-4:)
Show

52.

that

0?

is the

15

7(25
53.

Verify

that

2a;

that

Show

54.

{Sx
80.

shall

We

Example

bx

5x-l2x^
the

6{x-Sf

7)(Sx

35)

term

4lx~S5

12ic2

thus

each

on

the

the

Q-l2x^+39x-2:7.

Solve

2.

7a;

9);

35;

2.

bracket
not

affects
the

remove

within

term

every

until

brackets

we

1"
=

least

brackets,

.352

"

1 1 a: +

-11a;-

and

collecting terms

multiple

common

transposing,

4a;-44;

99

4a;

4a;

-44-

changing signs,

this

equation

"

44

15a;
a;

In

14 ;

352-ll(a;-9)

Note.

1).

9)(a;

transpose

6-27

do

we

the

Multiply by 88,

removing

difficulty.

products.

the

Example

of "work

and

before

sign

first line

formed

have

3(4a:

a?

it, in

6-3(4a;2-13ar

side

.-.

Since

of greater

5a; + 41a;-39a:

Note.

5)

1.

brackets

by removing

Erase

5).

equation

equations

re.

have

we

5ar-(12a:2-41a;
and

(2a:+l)(a;

some

(4a?

Simplifying,

the

equation
25)

equation

\){2x-1)

give

now

Solve

3)

4 satisfies

the

2(3a:

the

5{x-4)-6,

of

15

3 satisfies

2(a:+l)(a;

6)

solution

a:)

equation

2{x

of the

denominators

352
=

495

oo.

99

is

regarded

as

single term

with

the

minus

sign

In

it.

before

fact

it is

equivalent

to

-(a;

9), the

vinculum

or

effect

same

In

certain

as

the

bracket.

by

in two

the
or

and

numerator

denominator

having

the

[Art. 58.]

it will

cases

throughout
of fractions

between

line

more

be
l.c.m.

found
of

steps.

more

the

convenient

denominator,

not

but

ply
to multito

cleax

68

[CHAP.

ALGEBRA.

Solve

11.

the

equations

]^^-i

ar+3+^"-

12.

5x-2.

IQ
^^'

1R

^^-

17

TQ

ly.

IX.

7+2a:.

a;-6_a:-4_,

a;

~r

"^"'

4(a:-7)

^7-6a:
,

^^

a:-l_2a:-31
-^o"""i^
3~*

oa

^^'

12*

9-7a:_5(a?-l)
~2
6

~5

,"

.3a:-l

**2

ll-6a?

,."

T"

gla:

~6~

lO*

a;+5_a?+l_a?+3
~6

a:+12

,.

^^

"6""^

4-5a:

l-2a:_13

l-2a;

2-3ar_|l.a;

2"^?

"

~T"

21.

?(a:-6)+j^.
|(a:-l)-|(a:-4)

22.

l(a;-l)-2.
|(a:-4)-l(2a;-9)

23.

4)-l(a:-3) ^(3a:-5)-?(a:-6)-i(a:-2).
^(a:

24.

^(38a;) ^(72a:) ^

25.

l(5a:-l)-l(6a;-13)H-8.
i(a:+4)-^(20-a:)

no

fy"

1(1

6a:).

5x

x+l

10a: +

a:

a:_13a:
8"n[8

f,

a:-12

6^K

6(a;-4)
4""

^'*

^""^7

28.

"^-^--(^-3)-:^(a:+10)+?^0.
=

51

^'

ri'*'44''"2(n~3^3)"66'*'3(^"^}

31.

^a:-

33.

3-25-c--75a:

35.

-Sa:-

37*

Find

38.

3-35

6-4 -3
=

2a:.

9+l-5a:.

-63:= -753?-

of

(3a:-l)(4a:-ll)

and

What

equal

value
to

of

337

x
-

-63:+

-25 +'1

34.

"2a:-

-013:+

0053;

36.

'43:

-SSa:

11.

value

the

32.

which

makes

G(2a:- l)(a:-3)

will

8(3a:

make
-

l)(a:+

the

the

"?

two

"4a?.
11 7.

'3.

expressions

equal.

expression 77a;

1) ?

1 -26=

3(2a;

1)(4"

2)

CHAPTER

X.

Symbolical

82.
the

In

solving

of

means

will

would

question

question

second

is

than

greater

83.

the

find

by

The

the

them

is

50+6,

the

and,

than

60

in

the

answer

just

number

the

as

number

the

so

an

answer

greater

gives

self-

which

is

07+0.

will

examples

the

readily

number

be

not

may

of

this

choice

be

perhaps

arithmetical

of

the

After

chapter.

the

best

first

duction
introleave

we

should

instances,

he

necessary.

Example
Take

numerical

the

InBtaDce

of

excess

Similarly

the

Example

2.

Example

3.

does

much

defect

If

If

of

a;

is

a;

is

one

from

is

is

17

a:

of

part

17

the

46

of

one/oc^or

equal

does
to' 27

exceed

27

17

*'

17.

17.

is

17

17

much

how

which

10,

over

exceed

by

'*

is

obviously

answer

Hence

how

By

1.

The

by

is

the

to

answer

"

course

hint

necessary

subject

student

which

60

following

to

to

than

greater

addition

the

supplies

case

which

question,

symbols

arithmetical

the

by

of
"find

of

process

would

who

beginner,

The

6."

by

than

greater

by

question

similar

Thus,

of

difficulty

the

algebraical

difficulty.

no

arithmetical

analogous

when

puzzling,

number

the

to

found

in

proposed

question

present

find

"

chief
of

conditions

the

express

be

frequently

evident

to

symbols.

the

problems

algebraical

is

beginner

Expression.

45

the

x.

other

part

other

is 46
-

factor

is

2;.

3r.
X

Example
4

miles

an

In

hour

Id

hours

How

4.
hour

far

can

man

walk

in

is,

4a

hours

he

he

walks

walks

miles.

times

as

far, that

miles.

at

the

rate

of

60

[CHAP.

ALGEBRA.

If

6.

Example

is divided

$20

equally

the

y persons,

among

share
20

total

is the

of each

divided

sum

the

by

of persons,

number

or

"

spends

man

of

Out

6.

Example

quarters

containing

purse

in

; express

y half-4ollars
left.

and

i^x
the

cents

sum

$a;^4ic quarters,
and

y
.-.

half-dollars
the

=2^

quarters;

left=(4x+2y"

sum

26

2;) quarters,

(4x + 2y

EXAMPLES

X.

a.

1.

By how

much

does

2.

By

how

much

is y less

3.

What

must

be

added

to

to

make

7 ?

4.

What

must

be

added

to

6 to

make

h ?

5.

By

6.

What

7.

By

what

8.

By

how

9.

The

what

what

10.

The

The

is the

12.
what

The
is the

13.

How

14.

The

what

15.
what

The
is the

other

17.

of

other

18.

How

hy

2 ?

get

2a: ?

is

and

numbers

of the

one

is 10 ;

numbers
third

is 100

if

of them

one

and

is 25

of

two

factors

is 4a; ;

if

of

two

numbers

is p,

times

is

of the

one

is 4,

factors

and

of

one

is

them

many

difference

2y

numbers

is 8, and

the

greater

numbers

is a:, and

the

less of them

of

them

?
of two

difference
other

in

contained

of two

other

is the

is 6 ;

number

to

product

sum

make

to

3 is divided

divided

three

product

The

when

numbers

is the

other

number

15 ?

sum

What

16.
each

of two

than

6a: exceed

does

is a:, what

11.
what

6a; be

much

5 ?

multiplied

quotient

must

sum

exceed

5 be

must

is the

is the

another

is

2) cents.

"

is less

of

12

equal

numbers

many

than

30

by

numbers

each

y ?
is 48a; ; what

equal

to

to

must

be

is the

value

taken

to make

of

15a:y ?
19.

If there

are

numbers

each

equal

20.

If there

are

5 numbers

each

equal

to

2a, what
x, what

is their
is their

sum

product ?

X.]

SYMBOLICAL

21

there

are

each

numbers

61

EXPRESSION.

If there

22i

are

books

each

is their

to p, what

equal

worth

what

dollars,

product

is the

total

cost?
If

23.

of

books

value

equal

cost

dollars, what

does

each

cost?
How

24,
for

If

26.

What

27.

If

spend

for

sold

at

price

in

cents

dimes

be

can

will

what

dime,

of

of

out

be

of

sum

six

at

oranges

30.

If

each

in

31.

How

have

left

hour

must

bought

the

in

cost

cents

how

$5,

score

dimes

many

many
that

so

to

who

man

in

bill of

pay

must

man

order

will

$y,

$12

earns

to

$6

earn

of

sum

equally to
equal
may

take

to

travel

hours

at

the

days,

what

it

is the

what

of

out

pay

contribute
must
persons
the subscription of each

hours

many

work

man

of

?
at

dimes
many
?
30aj cents

$x,

week

combine

persons
dimes
?

How

33.

days
day
a

35

How
of

in dimes

daily wage
6 days a

many
dimes
y

of

32.

How

rate

an

dollars

two

is the
What
28.
working
p weeks,

29.

to

worth

I left ?

the

of

are

is the

26.

have

in

each

apples
apples

of y

cents

books

many

y dollars

%"

so

fund

as

sisting
con-

y quarters

miles

share

10

at

miles

34.

How

35.

If I

36.

How

far
call

I walk

can

walk

miles

in

will

days

many

in p

take

it

rate

is my

travel

to

of q miles

hour

an

rate

per

miles

at

day

miles

day?
We

84.

subjoin

Example

1.

What

numbers

The

of which

Example
will
In
will

be

the

sum

product

the

2.

half

that

is

boy
of his

five years
the boy
be
2(a;+ 5),

then

therefore

be

2a; +

least

the

10

will

or

371 + 3.

n{n

years
how
be

22? +

are

a:

10

1 )(7i+

old,
old

2a; + 5 years.

product

of

three

secutive
con-

l and

+
+

2;

2)

2).

and

five years

is the

5 years
years

in full.

out

(71+ 1) + (n

(2) the
is

father:

or

to
+

worked

examples
sum,

consecutive
.*.

And

harder

is (1) the

numbers

two

few

old

old;

father
;

his

hence

his

age

now?

therefore

present

his

father

age

must

62

[CHAP.

ALGEBBA.

3.

Example

and

and

with

that

has

What

has

.'.

hasp"x

has

Thus

q dimes.
now

the

the

3 times

as

has

won

goes
of 25 miles

The

coach

is

travels

begins with

fp
fact

the

equation

an

miles

by

and

coach

b miles
and

hour,

an

the

in 1 hour

by train;

the

journey

train

take

at

-hour;

.*

dimes.

lOx

a5)=3(g+10x).

long does

7 miles

travels

is g+

that

7 miles

how

dimes,

10(p"x)

10(p"

of

rate

hour,

per

is

that

dollars,

+x

the

by

lost ;

equation

at

; A

money

B.

as

dollars,

man

coach

rate

much

q dimes

4.

axe

required

Example
if the

playing for
wins. $x ; express

7
that

is,

Incurs.

7
tntin

Similarly the
/.

Example
what

How

5.

do

men

whole

the

time

6 miles

in

is

^+

occupied
will

men

many
hours

in np
hours

np

travels

be

is the

time

hours.
"

required

occupied by

to

men

qxnp

do

in j" hours

;
men;

1^^

hours

is,p

hours.

.*. 1 hour

that

men.

Therefore

the

required number

EXAMPLES

1.

Write

2.

Write

three

down

of

X.

b.
of which

numbers

consecutive

is qn.

men

is the

least.

down

four

consecutive

numbers

of

which

is

the

down

five

consecutive

numbers

of

which

is

the

greatest.
3.
middle

Write
one.

number

4.

What

is the

next

odd

5.

What

is the

even

number

6"

Write

down

the

one

is 2^; +

7.

How

old is

8.

How

old

9.

In 2x

middle

of

three

1 ?

before

next

product

2n

2n

odd

of which

numbers

the

1.
a

was

years

after

a
a

who

man

man

man

will

will
years
be

be

ago

y years

years
if his

old,

old

in

present
what

15

years

age

is his

is

years

present age

?
?

X.]

SYMBOLICAL

his

son

In

of

from

has
each

B^

who

man

20

years

boy

will

6 years
a
father
if he

his

12.

is

aged

now

11.
age

old

How

10.

63

EXPRESSION.

in

%ra

and

has

the

same

be

twice

dimes

after

has

in

as

present

won

this

Express

amount.

old

as

is the

as

has

will

years

old ; what
years
?
old as his son

be

is twice

dimes

algebraical

symbols.
A

13.
X

has

dollars

he

dollars

25

then

has

and

four

13

has

times

dollars

much

as

; after

A.

as

has

won

this

Express

in

algebraical symbols.
How

14.

in

1 mile

15

15.

How

miles

in

16.

How

miles

required

do

to

fly in

if he

walks

if he

walks

minutes

50

walk

hours

21.

22.

What

23.

What

remainder
If

is

miles

the

at

of 2 miles

rate

in

receives

/)

day

goes

train, how

by
and

boat

the

hours

how

hours,

5a;

be

to

men

will

men

many

mow

of com,

acres

if each

number

when

which,

divided

by

a,

gives

c.

remainder

the

if

divided

if when

quotient

in

dollars

many

spends
is

does

in

%x

; express

and
What

equally

dollars

has

man

cost

it take

many

How
week

in

l^ill is shared

y cents

26.

y miles
miles
30

and

train

by
is

gives

quotient

divided

by

there

is

25.

in

work

remainder

how

cents,

down

is the

24.

will

acres

h and

quotient

boat

by

if the

work

same

long
r

miles

take

do
the

Write

plums

walks

men

mows

27.

in

to

man

pigeon

journey

How

20.

%x

take

it

travels

hour

an

If

can

man

the

miles

19.

75

if he

far

will

mun

minutes

30

18.
10

in

walk

man

can

will

long

How

walk

man

q hours

7 minutes

long

miles

minutes

can

many

in

17.

miles

many
minutes

the

dime

his

purse,
dimes
the

does

y quarters
total
and

n
among
persons,
billamount
the
to

cost

of

plums

he

he

man

6a5

nuts

three

are

in

save

calendar

month
and

each

pays

25
away
has
left.

pays

sum

and

dimes,
if he

year,

and

earns

4x

times

plums,
as

when

expensive

x
as

nuts?

28.

If

page,

how

words

on

an

many

average
pages

there
will

be

are

words

required

in
for

line, and

book

which

y lines in
contains

CHAPTER

Problems

85.
to

The

solve

of
the

Example

xhe

Their

the

Find

by

conditions

is

which

{x-{-4),

then

a;

is

a;

.-.

and

numbers

$10

II.

Let
a;

than

more

the

and

-1-8 dollars,

and

$47
B

the

Hence

has

$8

24

is

the

thus

methods

and

28,

whose

$7,

$15,

28.

16,

of

between

the

A,
than

more

of

8-1-10

his

test

question
B,

$25.

by

solution

C,

so

or

that

finding

not.

have

may

C.

dollars

that

dollars.

10=47,

.-.

has

greater.
to

x+(x-|-8)4-(x+84-10)=47;

express
we

12,

4=

to

number
x-h

is

3x=21;

that

the

by

sum

equal

x-|-x+84-a;+8-h

80

question

28;

conditions

Divide

5,

represent

and

x,

16.

advised

is

satisfies

Example

12

are

beginner

and

be

to

a:

it

as

solved

whose

2a:

whether

be

can

number,

a:

The

the

of

numbers

two

smaller

the

the

symbol,

4.

sum

that

IX.

Hence

BO

employed

be

now

may

follows

as

which

Chapter

I.
is

chapter

quantity

equation
in

given

dififereDce

Let

unknown

simple

last

is

procedure

language

symbolical

already

the

Equations.

problems.

method

obtain

Simple

to

of

principles

Represent
in

leading

various

The

XL

x=7;

has

then

has

66

ICHAP.

ALGEBRA.

Example
exceeds

FV.

one-sixth

Let

be

the

One-half
of ^'s

mtmher

of ^'s

years older
by 8 years

4
age

of years
is

age

by ^x

age

is

of B'b

in B'a

multiplying by

Ja;

8 ;

a:

48

2a:

36

18.

3a; -h 12

.-.

double

of the

72

may

18.

What

by

by

two

so

is 22

years.

that

three

is

age

4 years.

a;

and

one-sixth

times

one

part

may

three

part

number

is the

one

be

may

much

as

the
28

to

increased

then

so

number
that

find

the

by 5, and
it.

resulting number

double

whose

number

and

times

added

be

added

that

60.

is doubled

must

the

such

parts,
is below

other

1 than

the

whose

exceeds

its half

seventh

part

that

part

by

9.

exceeds

its

eighth

1 ?
Divide

of the

into

much

Find

age

parts,

number

times

17.

^'s

and
two

the

is less

19.

into

48

two

parts,

so

one

be

may

three-fifths

other.

and

If -4, Bt

20.
double

of ^'s

and

of
^

22.

'^

23.

is 8

38

to

square

25.

years
age,

'I'he

difference
find

shall

We

by

B,

and

their

share

that

so

A*b

and

is the

5's

of A^s

share

and

^'s

one-half

^'s

24 years
one-third

of

is

money
of each

age

?
be

shall

together.
is

equal

B, and
^'s, and

than
of

older
(7b

than

C;

together

ages.
numbers

[See

7.

between
the

C,

A^

they

are

consecutive

smaller

find

two

is 31

old

and

than

younger
one-half

of the

numbers

86.

how

them,

three-fourths

younger
;

years

Find

24.

Aj

C*b share

years

of ^'s

one-sixth
amount

16

between

of ^'s, what

between

of A^s

one-third

one-sixth

^'s, and

is

$76

have

(Ts

^11

Divide

21.
one-third

to

122

How
be

^'s

other.

certain

result

16.

into

twice

as

15.

part

75

Divide

14.
above

the

is 18 years,

Divide

13.
be

age

ages.

by J(a:-|-4)years,

.-.

age

^^s

years.

J(a;+ 4)

B's

their

then

half

and

B,

find
;

age,

represented

Hence

Thus

than

whose

product

Art.

84, Ex.

1.]

the

squares

of

two

exceeds

the

consecutive

numbers.

give

now

examples

of

somewhat

greater

difl"culty.
I.

Example
from
much

did

certain
B

win

has

sum,
2

$6,
A

and

has

B
then

has

six

dimes

five-sixths

of

; after B has won


what
B has
; how

XI.]

Suppose
has

LEADING

PROBLEMS

6 +x

that

wins

TO

dimes, A

67

EQUATIONS.

SIMPLE

has

then

60"

dimes, and

a;

dimes.

Hence

60-x=l(6-\-x);
360-6a;=30

6x,

lla;=330

x=30.
Therefore

wins

II.

Example
times

old

as

Let

B^s

Ten

years
; thus

years

is twice

; what
he

age

dimes,

80

as

old

^'s

ten

ages

years

is 2x

age

2a;-10=4(a;-10)

he

ago

four

was

years.

respectively

were

ages

B,

as

present

then

years,

their
ago
have

we

ifS,

their

are

or

and

10

x"

2aj"

10

2aj-10=4a5-40,
2x=30

a;=16,

.*.

so

that

is 15

old, A

years

30

years.

EXAMPLES

finds

he

he

had

six

lost

has

A's

; how

play each
of -4's, what

with

$15

; if

lose

between
much

as

does

them
money

; A
B
as

certain

of

$28

times

as

7,

old

as

is 20

years

; find

their

old

How

it will
^

will

is
be

is twice
are

father
be

as

in
as

their
is 24

two-fifths

much

as

win

play

they

to A

sum

did

much

till JB's

gives |3

much

; find
older

as

money
had
; what

times

is four

father

; what

ages?

twice

only

of what

9,

times

three

twice

be

8,

had

6,

age

have

has

4,

only

old

to

; after

b.

to

much

] how

and

then

had

each

first ?

5,

old

begin

and

3,

and

is four-elevenths

money

at

is

2,

$12 and B has $8


only three-sevenths

has

1,

his money

XI.

as

old

as

their

ages.

than

B^

and

; after

each

his

at

years

$3

to

first ?

; in

son

giving

16

years

ago

was

he

twice

will

as

ages.
man

15
old

whose

present

10

years

ago

was

three-eighths

years
as

age

; 5

ages

years

ago

he

three

was

times

as

older
than
years
of his father's

his
age

son

; in

; what

7
are

the son's
years
their
present

68

[CHAP.

ALGEBRA.

III.

Example
ducks
the

; if each
total
number

he

goose
of

and

dimes,
bought

birds

in

$66.40

spent

person
cost

how

108,

was

buying

duck

each

and

geese
and

dimes,
of

many

if

did

each

buy
questions of this
quantities expressed

kind

In

it will

instance
Let

be

the

each

Since
And

since

in

it is of

of

number

to

the
express
money
108"
then
a; is the

number

7x

dimes.

geese,
7 dimes,

costs

goose
duck
each

importance

denomination

convenient

be

essential

same

the

costs

geese
108"

cost

dimes,

in

ducks

have

to

in

the

all

present

dimes.
ducks.

of

3(108"

cost

x)

dimes.
the

Therefore

amount

is

spent

dimes.

7x4-3(108-x)
But

the

question

that

states

the

is also

amount

$56.40,

is 564

that

dimes.
=564

7x+3(108-x)

Hence

7x+324-3x=564,
4x=240,
.".

108"

and
Note.

In

all these

quantity
and

student

the

represents

of

number

of

geese,

x=48,

the

number

of

ducks.

it should

kind,

the

statement

so

be

"let

x=J.'s

vague

and

found

easier

IV.

Example
9 of them

how

many
Let

16

and

be

eggs
the
cost

eggs

cost

spends

woman

much

as

did

she
of

price
16x

cents
.-.

25

over

the

dollars, ducks, years,


solution
a
beginning
share''

**let

or

known
un-

etc. ;
with

x=the

inexact.
not

$1

cents

to

put

in

buying

as

16

eggs,
under

cost

finds

and

75

cents

buy
an

that

equal to the
other
to some
quantity involved
the equation is often
simplified.

quantity directly required, but


in the question ; by this means

that

avoid

to

noticed

be

of

number

careful

be

sometimes

It will

the

examples

must

a
supposition
ducks,'' or any

x=60,

egg

in

cents

; then

0 eggs

cost

9x

cents,

9x-25=76-16x,
25x=100;

Thus
=

the

price

of

an

egg

is

cents,

and

the

number

of

eggs

100^4=25.

10.
men

number

A
each
of

$30 is divided
receiving 75 cents,

sum

each

of

sex.

between
and

the

50
women

and

men

50

women,

cents;

find

the
the

XI.]

The

11,
the

price of
yards

worth

sorts, part
; how

pound

13,
pay
had

days

shall

$1

for

he

worked

15,
dimes

; the

of

pound

of

by

$68

what

he

their

have

of

$46,

22,

23,

pound.

12

each

is

day

idle

; how

$90

he

many

which

either

are

ters
quar-

half-dollars, quarters,

in

four

was

of

times

dimes

and

the

; how

and

number
were

many

and

cents

all gets

in

of

80
24

which

money
it, and

for

cents

lbs.

; how

greater

was

gained

between

in

heaps

marbles

has

of

$18;

thereby

as

one

arranges

There

36

are

ages

other

than

9 each.

each

the

less

years

them

combined

the

old

and

A
A

of his

their

; in 24
father^s

three

persons,

two

years

sons,
their

age

; find

at

16

lost

for

certain

number

number

at

If 8 lbs.

of tea

much

as

gained
and
45

24
lbs.

find
;
of

lbs.
of

; how

4 cents
of

$3,

them

and

the

apples
for

three

of

and

and

B
each

and

finds

that

cost

under

60

quarter

$1.50

of

J., B,

them,

share
for

oranges
cei\ts as 16

bought

were

is the

of

24

over

between

$42

; what

$53
number

man

between
have

have

that

bought

as

40

at

sum

is divided

eggs

cents

five cents

cost

as

oranges

sixteen

tea

be

much

as

of

of

coins,

of

tea

tunes

times

bought

three-fifths

24,

received

30

used

other

is four

and

buying
15

for

he

day

each

many

that

way
C

many

By

ages.

cost

for

end

marbles

the

; how

person

; how

dozen

he

paid

horse

of money

for

240

each,

will

sum

of them

cents

ages

that

$16.10,

he

price

age
is three

and

21,

cents

have

boys

such

in

C,

each

and

spends

the

man's

for

number

coffee

horse

for

respective

20,

for

paid

the

buy

the

pay

of whom

combined

12

sold

altogether

19,

two

?
that

half-dollars

he

he

half

his in heaps

heaps

of

up
60

condition

of
up
there

was

times

buys

man

Two

18,

one

of
ten

did

than

did

the

are

$11.46

person

on

made
worth

rest

as

each

17,

days
but

is made

many

respectively

much

sort

the

$10

yard.

per

is

$68,

and

each

price

than

of

each

16,

at

number

quarters

there

board

$6

and

60

$2,

; how
sum

for

receive

his

of

sum

dimes

or

of

is hired

of

less

much

as

the

worth

tea,

pound

is there

he

14,

of

is

; find

69

EQUATIONS.

SIMPLE

cloth

$20

cents

much

of

yards

exceeds

80

man

works

shall

TO

hundredweight

12,

13

of 27

price

he

LEADING

PROBLEMS

selling

number
at

cent

four
;

many

cost
sugar
find
the
sugar,

of
for

them

at

eggs.
a

cent, and

by selling
apples did
$7.20, and
price of

them
I

at

buy

if 3 lbs.
each

pei

70

bottle

of

26.
and

of

divide

10

which

is

divided

tlie

entire

eldest

old

as

find

of

part

idnd

divide

it

quotients,

the

his

the

by

the

farm

number

and

10

obtain

we

increased

number

then
result

20

by

when

of

$16

the

having
he

which

numbers

the

at

B.

quotient

the

numbers.

should

enough

and

and

$3.50

pay
to

$2.60

per

other

as

of

his

of
the

for

pay

yard

it ;
and

buy

each

to

are

15,

he

money

quality

did

yards

if

that

inferior

an

is

and

by

is 4 ; find

less

found

one-half

one-third,

received

numbers

by

-4, B,

persons,
than

more

than

more

two

silk

three

$10

amounts

greater

many

two

$10
the

between

buying

between

receives

; find

the

lack

; how

man^s
of

the

is 3

women,

and

3,

to

number

of

women

was

bought

man

at

of

for

total

the

and

of

of

at

10

child

each

the

number

than

twice

of
the

persons.

apples

them

gaining

more

and

women,

twice

as

be

ages.

and

$1,

sons,

times
will

ages

men,

than

number

of

cent,

some

woman

less

respective

was

number

to

each

children

four-fifths

sold

He

cents.

remainder

$2,

of

find

given

was

number

combined
their

three

and

youngest

their
; find

age

men

ages
the

as

years

receiving

number
the

10

$34.50

man

The

cents.

of

sum

each

old

as

father^s

their

combined

the

times

; in

son

than

The

children,

Is twice

age

whom

second

less

33.

of sherry,

if

is 100.

32.

of

receives

purchased

Find

the

third

we

the

divided

that

$10

in

would

left

sum

34.

is

person
he

is

dividing

31.

$89

fourth

the

if

add

quotient

way

which

therefore

years

difference

$26

the

than

that

and

money

amount,

yard

whose

of

The

30.

such

the

to

from

29.

cost

sherry

bottle

than

more

less

acres

number

such

remainder,

50

the

sum

in

arising

of

10.

C,

than

more

acres

number

equal

and

had

50
10

by

cents

dozen

farm.

the

by

28.

he

sells

Find

27.

per

per

man

in

acres

three

XI.

dozen.

remaining

has

and

port
26

costs

port

of each

price

of

dozen

Four

25.
a

[CHAP.

ALGEBRA.

the

at

for

cents

of

rate

and

cents

; how

the

did

many

for

he

buy?
36.
2".

and

B
D
of

farm

350

five-sixths

owns

one-sixth
acres

of

owned

as

much

by

acres

was

much

as

as

each.

A,

owned
as

B,

^,
and

by

four

four-fifths

A,

men.

together

as

B,

much

; find

C, and
as

the

ber
num-

B,

XIL

CHAPTER

Elementary

algebraical
[Art. 68]
The

abbreviation

words

highest

89.

In

factor

can

be

Example

1.

Example
a%^

h*

a^

is the

written

sometimes

two

highest

without

them

or

sions
dimen-

remainder.

used

instead

of

the

of

factor
of

power

h that

of

power

factor

common

highest

highest

common

inspection.

common

highest

the

the

expressions

by

highest

The

is

simple

down

The

highest

will

a^, a?, a^,


of

that

divide

a^6*,
6^

"

is

a%^c^,

divide

will

6^

a^

a^b^c

is
a*

a^, a\

and

aK

is not

factor.

common

90.

If

the

Arithmetic

the

to

Example.
la^xy

(1)

the

(2)

the

greatest

highest

it consists

greatest

common

highest
the

power

given

of

the

highest

measure

of

each

letter

common

factor

2.

^y^,

5.

a%^c,a^hc\

6.

Sa^ft, 9a6c.

9.

12a"6c2,

ISaftV,

13.

14ftc2, 636a^

15.

Hxy^z,

Ga^y,

lOdtth^,

h\xyz\

the

21a*ar^,

Z^^x^,

numerical

which

Zn.

.3a62, 2a6".

8aa:,

as

2"ahnf

coefficients

divides

every

one

2xy^,

of

expressions.

1.

11.

it

by

of

product

EXAMPLES
Find

of

prefix

and

find

factor.

common

factor

the

coefficients,

measure,

highest

common

of

numerical

common

algebraical

The
for

have

expressions

their

coefficient

is

of

case

2.

for

of

factor,

common

the

is

H.C.F.

of

of

factor

expression

each

divides

Expressions.

common

is the

expressions

which

Simple

of

highest

The

Definition.

bb.
more

Factor

Common

Highest

Fractions.

5662c.

Uxhp.

^xh/,

a.

of

3,

6c", Sft^c.

4.

^^,

7.

%xYz,2xy,

8.

ISy^, Sxy^z".

10.

loi^y^zS 2\xh/7?.

12.

aVy,

14.

loar^y, COar^y^^s^ "l^oM.

16.*

TTaSft^c^, SSa^ftSc*, aif^ifi.

h^xy\

cvS^,

72

[CHAP.

ALGEBRA.

Lowest

91.

Oommon

Multiple
lowest

The

Definition.

of

algebraical
is divisible hy

The
words

lowest

92.

multiple

can

Example
Example
aHi^

1.

The

2.

The

quantities a^
of

each

Dy

93.
eflBcient

least

(1) the

lowest

the

power
" is the

and

least

power

for

have

the

lowest

it consists

multiple

power
of that

of

aryz,

4.

4a2, Sahx*,

7.

win,

instead

lowest

common

of

a'6*, a6*,
by each

of

that

of the

numerical
which
in the

occurring

coefficients

8.

abc.

4a*bc^, 5ab\

5.

is divisible

by every
given expressions.

^x^y, ^xyh.

6.

2a6, ^xy.

^yz^t Ssx^.

9.

2xy, SyZy

I6xh/, 2Dxy:^.

12.

^,

11.

3.

9ab^

14.

6aa;", 6cy, laV(^z,

15.

15a263, 20oarV, 30ar".

16.

72;"V^"

highest

2a62, 3a26", 4a^6.

20.

57aary, 76a:y2.7.

22.

51mV,

pn,

factor

common

18.

34mnp*.
^

24.

eea^ft^cxS ^dab^xyh,

b.

ZII.

2.* a^\

17.

by
co-

multiple of 21a*a:^, 35a^x*y,


of the product of

27a8, 8168, X8a266.

of

is

of the

coefRcients, find
multiple, and prefix it as a
common
multiple.

13.

multiple

a^"

is divisible

P'qr, q^p^, Ipq.

the

a* is a".

a*, a', a^,

10.

both

the

multiple of

common

nZ, Im,

Find

of

is divisible
power

letter

each

letter

3y".

1.

sions
dimen-

numerical

EXAMPLES
Find

lowest

or

",

common

common

that

lowest

common

lowest

420a*a;*y ;

is

(2)

of

multiple
of

algebraical lowest

The

Example.

two

remainder.

usei

multiple

common

expressions

the

to

lowest
lowest

their

without

sometimes

common

quantities b*, b\

the

Arithmetic

lowest

a^

a,

the

If

2Sa^xy

written

a' is the

; for

expression

simple expressions the


down
by inspection.

of

case

be

of

multiple,

common

the

In

is

L.C.M.

abbreviation

of

multiple

of them

each

which

Expressions.

common

expressionsis the

more

Simple

\2\^\

and

Ib7^y\ ^x'^yz^

4zx,

2\a^c.

lOSp^gV.
the

lowest

19.

common

2a*, Sa^feSc?.

21.

Z^a^'h^

23.

49a*, 566*c, 21acS,

4"a'bc\

74

[cHAP.

ALGEBRA.

mvltiply cdgehraiccdfractions :
for a new
multiply together ail the numerators
denominator,
all the denominators
for a new
To

Bnle.

96.
and

Fractions.

of

Division

and

Multiplication

by cancelliDg like factors


2.

Lxample

"

"

all the

factors

97.

Bole.

proceed

denominator.

ib^
each

divide

To

nmnercUory

1,

_-

3a^

cancelling

and

divisor

_-

bc^

and

in numerator

metic^
Arith-

in

as

by

fraction

one

in

as

other.

invert

another:

the

mtdiiplication.

T^^^^:^^^

Example.
^

4x^y^

5a"2

4x"y2

bai^

I5b^xy^
28aV

?".
=

all the

other

factors

cancelling each

other.

EXAMPLES

Simplify

ab
n

^'

^*

ab

6aV

fl^^2ccP

6V

3a"2^15"V

"

^'^

'

5ax*

"*-^'

Reduction

98.

In

must,

order
as

denominator

multiple

to

in

of the

Q^

find

Common

the

sum

it is most

a:"y

ISfe^

l4cP^81d"

40c

^6^'27c^'

Denominator.
difference

or

first

them

reduce

convenient

denominators

'

'

iV

,"

to

x^i^*

y^^l7y^3V
za:^

Arithmetic-,

; and

Sp^q^^pq
8a'262

"*

SaH\9aT'^xy
'2Ei baH
^S

,,

4a^

"

in

3a:"'

4ar^

bbc'""
l^bc

"""

2aV^10".^"V

25fa

7c^

^*

9a26

Sfe^c

yz"

Sp^^'i^'

^
'

4^2-

3^5

2acc"

"^^

a63-

9my

'"

we

^
"*

7a6a''l2aa;*

d.

^4c"rf*

2^

146^0

*"

following expressions

a^l^

xy

the

Xn.

of the

to

take

given

of

fractions,

any
to

the

commou

lowest

fractions.

mon
com-

xn.]

ELEMENTARY

Example.

Exprees

76

FRACTIONS.

lowest

with

denominator

common

fractions

the

3a?y' 6x^3* 2i/z'


The

lowest
the

make

to

of each

numerator

its denominator

The

Note.
lowest

of

multiple

common

Gxyz,

6^'

6^*

would

common

multiplying
quotients.

the

plying
Multi-

6xyz.

which

is

required

fractions

equivalent

Sex

6^
of

each

by
corresponding

equivalent

as

is

factor

the

obtained

XLL

fractions

with

by dividing

denominators

the

by

numerators

EXAMPLES

Express

the

clearly be

denominator

and

by

have

we

2az

result

same

denominators

the

fraction

the

in

the

turn,

respective

e.

denominator

common

1.

5.

9.

12.

99.

To

Rule.

add

The
rp,
The

least

2.

-^

retain

the

is 12.
5x

15a?
="

T*

j^
Sab

ab

db

bx

2x

10a;

Simplify
0

6a6-5a6-o6

t\

rrii

The

expression
^

^-

10a;

common

',^"'
^"

20a; + 9a;-14a:

Example

and

denominator

common

expression

all
the
fractions: express
denominator
algebrai; form the cal

common

Simplify

1.

Fractions.

subtract

or

fractions with their lowest


of the numerators,
sum
Example

of

Subtraction

and

Addition

r^r-

10a;

0.

denominator.

76

[CHAP.

ALGEBRA.

Example
The

3.

expression

Note.

-^_

Simplify

The

^~^^,

^r^.

and

of

admits

he

must

beginner

XII.

careful

simplification.

further

no

between

distinguish

to

Example 2, and
erasin^Tequal
of
in the
cancelliziffequal factors
course
multiplication, or iii
tions
in simplifying fracterms.
Moreover,
reducing fractions to lowest
factor
from
remember
that
he
must
a
can
only be removed
and

nomerator

Thus

be

cannot

signs,

it divides

when

denominator

^^75^,

in

different

with

terms

as

taken

each

cancelled

in

because

it

a^

only

whole.

divides

cv

3a'c*

and

not

whole

the

because

it

fraction

is therefore

When

be

only

and

6aa;
its

in

is

the

not

simplest

denominator

no

Similarly

numerator.

divides

cannot

whole

be

cancelled

numerator.

The

form.

expressed

the

denominator

1 may

understood.
Sx

Example^.

before

""".

4y
If

^-^^" ^^

fraction

r^^^^^R
Example^.

"r

4y

in its lowest

is not

combining

4y

it with

a^

other

_ax

---^----

terms

it should

fractions.

x_Sax-2x
^-.

EXAMPLES

Xn.

f
.

Simplify

the

following expressions:

be

simplified

XIII.

CHAPTER

Equations.

Simultaneous

the

Consider

100.
unknown

equation

contains

which

2^iH-5y=23,

two

quantities.
transposition

By

get

we

5y=23-2^;

y=?^^'

is,

that

this

From
to

there

jc

be

find

to

the

one
as

for

that

appears
be

will

able

satisfy

it

(1).
value

every

corresponding

of

of

values

as

pairs

many

choose

we

value

to

Thus

y.

we

please

we

give
shall

which

equation.

given

21

For

if ^=1,

instance,

(1)

from

then

obtain

we

v=

"

27
if

Again,

J7=

if also

But

have

we

quantities,
have

we

If

from

now

the

such

equation

"

of

values

the

containing

same

known
un-

(2).
which

(2)

must

be

satisfy both

tions,
equa-

identicsd.

23-2x^24-ar

Therefore

Multiplying

across

92

So?

Substituting

this

value

1 20

1 5.r ;

7^=28;

.-.

in
8 +
/.

the

5y

equation,

first
=

have

we

23;

5y=15;

^=4./

and

Thus,
of

on.

"

and

and

(1)

in

so

3a;+4y=24,

as

y=

of

values

; and

==-"

second

this

seek

we

then

2,

and

if both
y,

there

equations
is

only

are
one

to

be

solution

satisfied

by
possible.

the

same

/alues

TS

[CHAP.

ALGEBRA.

101.

Definition.

the

by

simultaneous

When

two

the

unknown

of

values

same

equations are
quantities they

proceed to explain the different methods


equations. In the present chapter
the
in which
attention
to the
simpler cases
involved
in the first degree.
are
In

method

this

of

is

which

that

of

object
only of

readiest

since
formed

equation

any

values

and

will

always

the

unknown

The

103.

to

To

1.

eliminate
coefficients

practice it

will

solution.

It

be

the

of

meaning

in

we

found
be

must

either

cause

called

Addition

by

Solve

the
that

borne

of

elimination.

the
We

known
un-

shall

of

we
a;

Subtraction.

(1),

6a;+2y=16

(2).

multiply (1) by 5 and (2) by 3, so as


equations equal. This gives

to

make

in both

35y=135,

29y
.*.

substitute

48;

87 ;

6y

subtracting,

X,

or

3x+7y=27

\bx+

find

used

two

15a: +

To

the

our

quantities

have

of

by which
disappear is

Elimination

the

contine

methods.

two

Example

but

mode

shall

we

unknown

we

illustrates

taneous
solving simul-

simultaneously true,
equations are
will be satisfied by the
by combining them
the
which
original equations. Our
satisfy
involves
be to obtain
one
an
equation which
quantities.
the

process

quantities
consider

best

equation ;

the

for

already worked

example

solution

rarely

mind

in

the

simidtaneoiis

term

called

are

equations.

*We

102.

satisfied

more

or

this

3.
of

value

eitTier of

in

the

given

equations.
Thus

from

3ar + 21

(1 ),

27

and

When

Note.
which
the

of

one

of the

equations we
present example, if we
the

unknowns

has

use

substitute
5a; + 6
.'.

been

complete

to

3 for

as

solution.

y in (2),

16;
2,

it is immaterial

foand,
the

before.

we

have

Thus,

in

xni.]

SIMULTANEOUS

7a: + 2y

Solve

Example2.

it will be

and

from

6a:

(2)

4y

95

.*.

Substitute

value

this

a:

35+2y
.*.

Note.

when

Add
in

coefficients

the

when

; subtract

sign

5.

in (1),
.'.

unlike

1 ;

19a:

adding,

y.

4y-94,

14a; +

Multiplying (1) by 2,

(2).

to eliminate

convenient

more

(1),

47

5a;-4y=
Here

79

EQUATIONS.

47 5

6,

of

one

unknown

coefficients

the

equal

are

and

equal

are

and

in

like

sign.
Elimination
Solve

3.

Example

Substitution.

by

(1),

2a;=5y+

(2).

24-7x=3y
Here
from

we

eliminate

can

by substituting in (2) its

/.

3y;

48-35y-7

6y;

41=41y;

.-.

from

104.

(1)

a:

Any

sufficient
will

of

one

sometimes

the

Solve

given above

certain

are

shorten

arithmetical

that

coefficients

28a;-23y

multiple

of 28

and

28
of

and

63

in the

63

if

Thus

we

contain

that

and

is,
therefore

from

(1),

found

artifices

which

(1),

17

(2).
factor

common

equations equal
multiply ( 1 ) by 9 and
-

207y

=.

252a:-220y3

subtracting,

be

22

two

252a:

will

work.

63a:-55y

Noticing

3.)

methods

the

there

but

Example.

the

obtained

Thus

(1).

l)
24-^(5y

and

value

1 98,

68;

13y

130

10,

a:

9.

to

7,

shall

we

the

(2) by

least
4.

make

common

80

[cHAP.

ALGEBRA.

EXAMPLES
Solve

1.

the

equations

4.

a;+y

10.

60,

4a; +

41.

25,

3y

6a:+4y

51.

7a:+5y

46,

19.

8.

5,

11.

14.

17.

4a;-3y

0,

7a;-4y

36.

20.

13a:-y=14,

6,

0.

6.

9.

3a:+2y

41.

6a:+4y

7,

4a:+5y

2.

4a:+5y

4,

5a;-3y

79.

lh

a:-y

-9.

a5-y

25,

l3.

+ y

y=10,

4a:+

7y

6ar +

12.

15.

22,

6a: +

0.

63.

lla:-7y

la

21.

9a;-8y=14,

47.

3a:-7y=l,
4a?+

2a;+3y
2y

x+y

a:+5y=18,

4.

3.

23,

x-y
x

3ar+5y

2a;-3y
16.

5.

0.

7a?-6y

13.

a?+y
x-y=

24,

a:-y=

7.

2.

7.

x-y=

a.

19,

a:+y=

XTTT.

43,

2a;-3y

13.

7a: + 3y

65,

7a:-8y

32.

14a: +

13y

36,

21a: +

19y

66.

2a:-7y
22.

5a:

25.

23.

21a:-9y

76.

13a?-9y

46,

12y

6y-6a:
4a:

31.

15x-14y

7y-21,

11a:

28.

9.

26.

lla:+13y

solve,

33y,

10x

7y-16.

17.

29.

We

add

it will

be

10=6y,

7y

4a:+13.

Example,

few

to

necessary

Solve

in

17.

7a:-9y-3(a:-4y)
6a: +

7a;

(2),

9y

3a: +
4a: +

(3),

By addition,

80

wheuce

a;

47 + 3a:,

6a:

30-16y.

19a: +

17y

41a: +

37y=17.

7,

to

14

(1),

38

(2).

8.

(3).

12y

38

3y

38

42.

6a;-3y
10a;

2a:-y=14

/.

Prom

4y

-lly=14;

10y-3a;
.-.

From

3.

proceeding
equations.

the

simplify

66,

before

which,

6(a:+2y)-(3a;+lly)

From(l),

33.

13a:-17y=ll,

cases

12y.

7a: + 8y

30.

ll,

lly-lla:

7.

29a:-39y
a

27.

3a: +

32.

7,

21y

5a;-7y
18x

6a:-5y=ll,

13a:+lly=17.
105.

7y-22.

24.

66a:

28a? +

ll,

20.

From

(4).

(3)

we

obtain

2.

82

[CHAF.

ALGEBRA.

13.

3(a:-y)

14.

3(a:+y-5)

15.

4(2a:

16.

7(2a;-y)

17.

^=y=i

W-

i-^r^,

?-l
=

jB

108.

2(a?+y)

6)
+

3(a?+y)+2(a;-y)

3(a:-y-7)

2(y-a:),

15,

3(3a;

5(3y-4x)

2y

30

y-

20.

a;

In

order

21.

one

of

equations^and then eliminate


Two
equations involving two
he

solved

then

by

the

rules

the
the

already

found by substitutingin

same

any

equations which
that

we

order

solve

given.
one
of

The
the

thus

two

taneous
simul-

quantities

from any
unknown
from
are

contain
have

must
to

unknown

unknowns

unknowns

8,

?+?=-3|.

have

Eliminate

^-?
o;

seen
quantities we
that
find
in
equations. Similarly we
three
contain
equations which
three
have
must
equations.

Rule.

6(y-2a;).

unknown

two

3y+4.

^=y^=?^

simultaneous

to solve

0.

13.

3)

S7.

I_?

2".

18.

2x-fy+4.

l)+4a?

5(y"a;

0,

2(a:+ y-2)

2(a:-y

5),

25.

we

pair of the
another
pair.

obtained^

which

unknown

remaining
given equations.

may

is

Xin.J

SIMULTANEOUS

Solve

Example.

2y-3z

5a:-4y
unknown

the

as

4z

be

to

Multiply (2) by 5,

20a: +

lOy

Multiply "(1 ) by 2,

14a: +

lOy

8ar +

4y

Multiply (4) by 2,

used

(4)

14z

12a:

of

modification

Some

with

6z

the

35;

2z

35.

22

32

a;

3.

2,

from

the

equation

from

the

equation

have

^- 1

|+ ^

2y+3z

Eliminating

whence

from

(1)
a;

rule

may

often

be

10| y

|+

?+2,
7

1,

7a:-2z

from

3.

3a;-y=12

have

and

foregoing

equation
.

we

(4).

16
0 ;

?-l=|4.l

Solve

have

And

advantage.

ji

we

16

the

Also

0 ;

find

we

Example.

we

(3).

(2),

From

35

15z

by subtraction,

109.

eliminated.

13a;

by addition,

from

(2),

6a:-4y+4z

(3),

and

*"...

Multiply (2) by 2,

From

(1),

6a;-z

by subtraction,

from

-%

Ix + hy-lz4a: +

Choose

83

EQUATIONS.

18.

(2) and

(1).

1+

42

13,

78

2,
(2).

have

(3), we

21a; +

4y

282;

12a;

4y

48

Also

by

(3).

substitution

in (2)

we

obtain

14.

84

[CHAP.

ALGEBRA.

EXAMPLES
Solve

1.

the

equations

3a;-2y
2x

Sy~-z

x+

3.

a:

y +

2y

4,

S,

8.

c.

2.

3a?+4y-6z=
4x+

4.

3y

14.

3a; +

4y

4a; +

3y-

0,

6.

6x-3y+2z=12,

9a:-

3a;+2y-52=
7.

0.

3y-62-5a;
22

-3a:-

a:-2y+2"
9.

4,

8,

IK
15.

22

4a: +

l(2-.y) 11,
=

a:-z

a:

l.

|-*

3.

z+2y

3a;+8

4y+3z.

z-3.

;^

2a:-y-2_2y-z-a:_2z-a:-y

2z

84,

62

13.

9,

2=

5z=

16,

2.
5a:

a:-y-a-6.
"

3y

21,
3,

y=

2a:

|-|=y+|=a;+y+z+2=o.

|+y

1(2

|(z-4a:)

1(3- z),
|(a;+y)

2,

y-^

6,

39.

i--Jy-5-Jz,

10.

Z"yz^

16.

l",

2z

2y

2a:-l(2-2y)

1.

2=

8a?-3z+

y-92=l.

12.

14.

3y

0.

^a:+l(y
z)

13.

8.

11.

24,

a:+4y-32=

\x^ y^\z \.

a:+

y+

x-

6a: +

7a;-4y-3z=

y-

27,

7a;+8y-9z=

16,

a:-3y-2z=

32=:32,

4a:-5y+6z

5.

Zni.

xm,

0.

"

y.

").

Problems

In

110.
unknown

leading

to

Simultaneous

Examples

discussed
have

to

quantities

problems

of

XIV.

it is essentisd

that

seen

the

CHAPTER

in

the

have
chapter we
are
equations as there
many
the
statement
Consequently

as

determine.

to

Equations.

last

give rise to simultaneous


conditions,
as
independent
many
the unknown
quantities, as there

contain
between

which

equations
different

or

must

relations

quantities

are

be

to

determined.

of

fifth
Let

Find

1.

Example
whose
be

is

11, and

one-

is 9.

sum

the

difference

whose

numbers

two

number,

greater

then

the

less

(1).

x"y=:ll

^"i^=9,

Also

(2).

aj+y=45

or

By

addition

The

numbers

and

$15.50,
find

the

If 15

of

price

Suppose

lbs.

25

each

pound

and

per

pound.

of

from

the

question

10

lbs.

of

coffee

of

we

1550

102/=

and

75a;+

have

we

=7750,

ll2/=385,
2/=35.
15x+350=1550

(1),

whence

1 5a;
.-.

*.

the

cost

of

pound

of

tea

1200

a=80.
is

80

cents,

35

cents.

and

the

cost

of

pound

of

(1),

302/ =7365.

Subtracting,

from

cost

$24.55

(2).

3,

(2) by

75a; +502/

And

cost

25x4-13y=2455
(1) by

together

together

have

15x4-

Multiplying

coffee

cents,

coffee

and

Then

cost

to

tea

lbs.

13

2y=M.

17.

and

tea

tea

of

and

28

of

lbs.

subtraction

by

therefore

are

2.

Example

; and

2a:=56

coffee

is

86

Example
twice

the

black

balls

Let

We

white

of

number
four.

by

be

bag containingblack
of
equal to a third

iR

whole

balls;

In

3.

of

number

How
of

balls

the

bag

have

the

following equations

x+y

(1) in 2,

and

from

Thus

there

student
number

3y

12

%.

number

of black

(2).

4;

balls.

black

12

are

x, y^

the

such

number

as

whose

435

the
of

its value

is

digits beginning

units

tens+^

+y

100^+10^+0.

number

certain

A
Example,
and
digits,

digits

hundreds

=x

if 45

of its

three

Similarly

10+5.

left

the

of

number

100+3

lind

contain

Consider
X

the

of

number

obtain

and

bag

the

the

and
;

problem involving the digits of a number


should
in which
the value
carefully notice tne way
of its digits.
is algebraically expressed in terms
In

111.

from

8 white

are

times

black

2y

(1),

the

of

3y+4

we

whence

three

did

balls, half

balls.

then

Substituting from

white
number

the

balls, and

white

contains

and

exceeds

many

number

the

balls

2(a;+y)

[chap.

ALGEBRA.

be

of two

added

digits is three
digits will

it the

to

times
be

the

sum

reversed

be

Hence

the

digit in

have

we

the

the

tens'

place, y the digit in the units' place


will
be
number
then
the
represented by 10a: + y, and the number
the
formed
by reversing
digits will be represented by lOy + a:.
Let

number.

two

equations
10a: + y

3(x

10y+a:

y)

(1),

10a; + y + 45

and

lx-2.yi

From(l),
from

Thus

y-x-b.

(2),

From

these
the

(2).

equations we

number

is 27.

obtain

2,

7"

XIV.]

LEADING

PROBLEMS

EXAMPLES

1,

Find

2,

The

numbers

two

87

EQUATIONS.

SIMULTANEOUS

TO

XIV.

wliose

is

sum

64, and

whose

their

difference

difference

is

12.

the

is 97 and

numbers

two

of their

of

is 51

find

farmer

6,
have

price

Twice

7,

A's

of

sum

of

8,
tliree-quarters
each

and

3,

one-third

is

and

14,

half

their

cows

7 horses

and

worth

are

What
and

of

for

cows

for

cows

while

$131,
value

is the

the

same

three

each

cows

animal

could

$330.

He

money

; find

the

exceeds
is 61

ages
^'s

of

B^s

old

of

^'s

5's

11

by

by

age

they

are

quarter

exceeds

age

times

how

years,

exceeds

age
B^a

three

; if

years

?
1

by

age

j find

years

and
year,
the
of
age

?
In

9,
and

in

how

eight hours
miles

In

10,
the

coach

bill

11,
three

times

the

and
else

13

sum

each

15,
reversed

exceeds
are

goods
this

that

9 carts

are

will
; how

each

of

used

be

the

and

number

of

and

five

?
and

times

to

does
than

more

quarters,

twice

quarters
seven

hour.

per
and

exceeds

used

hours

train

miles

half-dollars

are

hours,

in six

than

more

travels

rate

with

paid

each

of

tons

and

require

10

many

tons

dimes,

the

number

in

carried

given to 17 boys
given to 13 boys

of $14.50
have

boy

is

been

and

certain

digits,

is

each

in six

does

of

carts
and

wagons

each

can

ters
quar-

and

ons,
wag-

14

carts,
and

wagon

carry

could

of

of

many

the

does

D
C

mile

one

half-dollars

many

$8.70

hour

with

paid

of

of dimes

wagons

14,
much

of

; find

is

$15

it is found

cart

amount

hours

number

Forty-six

13,

13

than

train

the

than

more
more

per

travels

hours

number

6 ; how

by

of

walk

coach

in

9 miles

each

in

6 ; how

bill

12,
times

each

the

by

quarters

does

but

does

walks

9 hours

hours,

3 miles

walks

hours

seven

many

in

the

numbers

two

^66.

age

their

Half

is

animal.

each

of

of

seven

horses

numbers

two

numbers.

worth

bought

10

bought

of

numbers.

sum

the

and

sheep
sheep are

five

the

the

; find

is 13

Four

5,
and

or

; find

One-sixth

difference

difference

the

is 17

sum

4.

the

of

One-fifth

3,

"

of

sum

numbers.

of

number

if 36

find

the

be

16

girls;

the

20

girls j

find

same

how

girl receives.

each

and

and
and

taken

number.

two

from

digits
the

is

seven

number

times
the

the

sum

digits will

of
be

88

certain

and

if 27

16.
digits,
find

the

the

find

of

dollar

how

dimes.

the

of

how
Two

again

of

buy

100

the

sum

by

versing
re-

equal

are

of

sum

the

to

digits

much

as

and

men,

and

quarters,

then

for
180

have

?
4

women,
a

as

girl,

would

he

first

at

find

oz.,

half-dollars

the

changed

he

he

quarter

If

ounces.

half-dollars,

in

half-dollars,

have

boy

and

quarters

235

has.

he

If

and

is

weight

oz.,

silver

had

and

sugar

of

of

of

and

and

half

boy

and

boys,

woman

each

of

lbs.

coffee

coffee

girls,

girl,

each

much

as

as

and

$2.50,

cost

find

$3.80,

cost

J5, he
?

number

of

$22.50

the

have

and

half

and

the

cost

10
of

lb.

per

have

6.

Find

of

and
men

five

16

and

each.

women;
6

women.

receives.

spends

spent

19

and

exceeds

number

men

among

sold

again

dollars

the
11

among

are

much

of

dollars

of

consisting

number

woman

person
as

coins

divided

been

man

articles

by

divided

is

$23.80

would

half-dollars

each

bought

to

respectively

had

of

for

lbs.

could

much

he

he

of
10

of

sum
sum

26.

If

lbs.

number

same

per

value

24.

the

formed

half-dollars,

their

coins

the

each

shall

and

852,

between

amounts

the

lb.

coffee.

half-dollars

Find

reversed

times

six

and

10

dollars,

coins.

70

of

and

The

23.

worth

as

17

and

times

the

girl.

sugar

sugar

$22

$100

If

22.

is

times

half-dollar

quarters

much

as

is

of

all

man

and

man

be

number

between

silver

in

kind

many

each

woman

the

in

Divide

that

100

the

exceeds

oz.,

has

How

lbs.

coins

has

and

21.

of

sum

number.

number

the

each

man

He

coins.

so

will

digits

and

10

the

number

$380

of

many

20.

of

find

has

weighs

dimes

the

number.

man

number

the

the

19.
the

times

four
the

exceeds

number

by

digits
and

other,
8

number

the

between

the

digits

The

18.

by

is

digits

two

to

number

and

digits,

each

of

added

be

certain

the

number

XIV.

number.

17.
of

[CHAP.

ALGEBRA.

for

20
in

$6.50
of

$9.00.

and
What

cents

buying

and
such

one-third

weight

30

as

of

cents

articles.

each

much

did

90

[cHAP.

ALGEBRA.

ExampUa.

(-2a^*)"
(

=-32a:i".

3a6")" 729a"6"
=

_16a^6"

/2a6"y

8laV'

\3x2y/
It will be

that

seen

operated

are

in the

last

the

case

down

the

numerator

and

nator
the denomi-

separately.

upon

EXAMPLES
Write

"
.

XV.

of each

square

of the

a.

following expressions

1.

a%.

2.

3ac8.

3.

^xy^.

4.

66V.

5.

4a26c".

6.

-3a:y.

7.

-2a263c.

8.

-3da:".

9.

10.

?^

11.

??-!.

12.

-?^

14.

g.

.6.

-^

16.

13..

Write

down

the

cuhe

of each

of the

following expressions

-^^
:

17.

2a:.

18.

3aR

IQ.

42r".

20.

-Sa^fc.

21.

-4xY.

22.

-62cd".

23.

-6y*.

24.

-4/?"g".

27.

-^3.

28.

-g^:*.

^5.

26.

^.
Write

down

the

value

30.

29.

{ab^)'.

(i.)"""

--^2^.

of the

following expressions

31.

(-a:V)^

Square

By multiplication

i-W)'- ^
To

115.

of each

Zm^n^.

32.

(-arVf.

(-")'"'"" (-I-)*

Binomial.

have

we

(a + 6)2=(a
=

6)(a

6)

a2 + 2a6 + 62

(i).

(a-b)^=(a-b)(a-b)
=

a^-2ab+b^

(2).

XV.]

formulae

These

Rule
the

91

INVOLUTION.

of

sum

"Rule
to the

The

2.

Example

1.

Example

2.

quantities is equal

two

ttcice their

by

follows

as

to

product,

differenceof two quantitiesis equal


by twice their product.

the

of

of

sum

increased

square

of their

sum

of the

The
square
their squares

1.

verbally

enunciated

be

may

diminished

squares

{x-\-2yf

ix^+ 2

(2a8-362)2=

2y+{2yf

2a^

(2a8)2-2

36H

(362)2

=4a6-12a86H9"*.

Square

To

article

By the preceding

116.

(a+"H-c)2={(a

the

In

same

we

way

Multiuomial.

6)+cp

(a + 5)2+2(a

aH

6)c+c3

c2 H- 2a6

6H

2ac + 26c.

prove

may

(a-6+c)2=a*H-"Hc2-2a6+2ac-26c.
(a+6

c+flO^="^+^Hc2+c?2

each

In

of

these

instances

we

2a64-2ac+2ac?+26c+26c?+2cc?.
that

observe

the

sists
con-

square

of

(1) the

expression

the

taken

terms,
the

si^n

have

bke

The

sum

with

is

or

or

square

laws

same

expression

of

squares

the

several

Ex,

Ex,

1.

2.

the

given

to

be

products two and two of the several


their
signs ;,that is,in each product
proper
according as the quantities composing it
signs.
of

the

terms

hold

always positive.

are

be

whatever

the

of terms

number

in

To

(a:-2y-as)2

multinomial
twice

the

the terms

the

of
sum
product {with tJie
that follow it.
:

to

a?3 +

43^ + 92*-2.a:.2y-2.a:.32+2.2y.3z

ar* +

4y2 + 922.4a;y_6a"

12yz.

(l+2a:-3a;2)2=H-4arJ+9a:*+2.1.2a;-2.1.3ar"-2.2a:.3a:*

by collecting like

the

squared.

find the square


of any
the squares
add
of the several terms
each
each
into
term
sign) of
of
proper
Rule.

of

terms

"

unlike

The

Note.

the

twice

(2)

of

sum

terms

9ar* + 4a;-6a:2-12a:"

l+4a:'^

l+4a:-2a;2-iac8
and

rearranging.

9a:*,

92

[chap.

ALGEBRA.

EXAMPLES
Write

down

the

ZV.

of

square

of

each

1.

a?+2y.

5,

3a

9.

2 -ah.

10.

a6c

13.

l-a:".

14.

S+2pq.

17.

b-e.

18.

a-6-c.

20.

2x-y-z.

21.

a: +

23.

3ar +

24.

26.

x+y+a-b.

27.

h.

following

a?-2y.

3.

6.

a:-5y.

7,

2m

l.

36.

7n,

4.

2a-36.

8.

9-a?.

11.

oft-cei.

12.

2ab

15.

a:" -3a;.

16.

2a+a6.

2a+6+c.

22.

x^+x

l,

l-2a:-3a:a.

25.

2-3a;

ar".

m-n+p-q.

28.

2a+36+a;-2y.

3y-22.

(o+6)3=(a

xy.

Binomial.

multiplication,

actual

expressions

19.

Cube

To

By

b.

2.

2;?-g.

117.

the

XV.

have

we

6)(a+6)(a+6)

==c^+3a^b+3ab^+b\
Also

(a
the

observing

By
results

we

can

Example

1.

Example

2.

")3

down

(2a:+ y)"

2aa)"

Ba^ft +

of

law

write

(3a:

a^

down

1.

P +

5.

a?

9.

""-l.

the

cube

the

q'

2.

m-n,

3y.

6.

a?

10.

53,
the

of
of

in

terms

these

binomial

any

(2a:)"+ 3(2a?)2y+ 3(2a:)y24- y*

8ar^ +

(3a;)" 3(3a;)2(2a2) + 3(3a:)(2a2)2 (2a")"

27a:"-54ar"a"+36a"*-8a".

12ar^y + 6a;y3+ yS,


-

of each

cabe

formation

EXAMPLES

Write

30^2

y-

2ar^-^y".

XV.

of

the

c.

following

expressions

3.

0-26.

4.

2c+d.

7,

2a:y-l.

8.

5a+2.

11.

2aS-363.

12,

4y3-3.

CHAPTEE

XVL

Evolution.

118.

number
The

of

operation
of

reverse

119.

(1)
or

of

root

expression is
the
requisite

proposed
being multiplied
quantity which
by itself
of times
produces the given expression.

that

the

The

Definition.

By

(2)

Rule

of
of

root

"ve7i

negative

Signs

odd
every
quantity itself.
It

is

has

quantity
sign.

Evolution:

it is

we

that

see

either

be

may

positive

(3)

Kote.

called

is

root

positive quantity

negative quantity

no

the

Involution.

the

any

finding

any

of

root

the

sign

same

that

remark

as

the

positive
opposite

every

but

magnitude,

in

equal

roots

root

even

has

of

worthy

square

an

quantity

especially

two

have

can

in

tJ^oM

Example,
In
the

the

tja%*

XI

-7^

V81^2

(2)
index

(1)
the

c*, because

3a;', because

the

Examples.

the

Find

proper

Divide

of

because

the

a:*)'
=

(c*)*

our

attention

to

we

of

a^h*.
-

a:*.

c"

(Sa:^)*

foregoing examples
extracting any
proposed root

Bnle.

prefix

the

From

for

(a'fe*)*

a'ft^,because

=.-7?^

Vc2o

120.

confine

shall

we

root.

Examples.

rule

"3aa;'.

chapter, however,

present

positive

%\x^.

may
a

deduce

simple

general
expression :
a

of the coefficientby Arithmetic,

root

and

sign.
of

exponent

proposed

factor of the expression by the

every

root.

V-64a:"

-4ar*.

Vl6a?=2aa.

5Ig^V9a:"
s/'
5^
26c*

94

[CHAP.

ALGEBRA,

EXAMPLES
Write

the

down

XVL
of the

of each

root

square

a.

following expressions

1.

9a:V*.

2.

25a"6*.

3.

49c2d".

4.

a"6V".

5.

36a:"y8".

g^

i6a:".

7.

a?Vz'.

8.

9;?V'-

42^

a3"

Write

down

the

A*.

13.
"*"'"

-a""".

144

,"

of the

following expressions

Sx^,

15.
^*

1^"~'

"

of

the

16.

-27a:".

'^"'

~""^"~*

27c"

of each

value

the

of each

root

"'^^'

down

Write

cube

14,

27'

lex"

,,

,^

following expressions

21.

V^.

22.

V^^8.

23.

24.

V64^.

25.

V^^^^6^

26.

27.

28.

Vsl^.

29.

V^V^
V32^W^.

121.
the

ar"yw.

By

square

formulae

the

in

Art.

115

(2^ + 3y)*
=

4^?^ +

12^

Example
The

Thus

the

Thus

Find

{5x)^

at

down

write

of 25a^

root

square

(6a;

complete

an

iOocy

is 5a:

root

16y^.

4y.

of

root

square

-^^

"*"'*"*'~5I*

)' (2)' 2(.^|*)


(|f
+

required square

root

+2.

is
a/

sion,
expres-

square,

4y)2.

square

the

of

terms

20a:y + (4y)3

+ (4y)a
(5a:)2-2(5ic)(4y)
-

the

once.

Find

expression

the

the

required
2.

down

written

expression

Example

The

1.

ar"y".

9f.

of
Conversely, by observing the form
sometimes
be
it may
recognised as
root

to

binomial.

of any

Thus

its square

able

are

we

and

XVI.

95

EVOLUTION.

b}^
easily determined
the
in
rule
the
to
must
explained
recourse
inspection we
is quite general, and
next
applicable to all cases.
article,which
and
But
the stvdent
is advised, here
elsewhere, to employ methods
of inspection in preference to rules.
122.

Find

To

found

the

the
is

first term

Now
and

this

the

b.

Thus

by

to

term

new

The

work

double

may

be

can

of a^.

loot

powers
is a.
root

is 2ah-\-b^

we

be

arranged
a2+2a6

first

product
; if

2a

of
the

of

term

found

follows

as

as

given

6.

already
complete divisor

the

obtain

2a

the

term

a.

down
the

is the

divide

we

the

of

(2a +6)

or

letter

this

a^ from

remainder

the

one

Set

Subtract

root.

of

of

to

its square

obtain

to

the

root,

given.

square

2ab

the

of

terms

cover
to dis-

have

a^-\-2ab-\-l^,we

", the

remainder

first term

" is

required

the

remainder

is

a^,and

of the

and

expression

Expression.

Compound

according

terms

first term

of

and

a, is the

first term,

Arrange

2a

of

square
which

be

cannot

Root

by
process
when
a^+2ab-\-lP'

The

the

root

square
have

Square

the

Since

123.

The

the

When

add

we

b.

62(a+6

a2
2ab

2a+b

b^

2ab+b^

Find

Example

the

root

square
9ar"-

of 9a:^

^2xy

42a;y + 49y* ( 3a;-

49y'.

7y

93?

|-42a:y+49y"

%x-ly

|-42a:y+ 49y'
The

Explanation,
of the

term

"y
we

to

and

the

this

Divide

get

7y,

root

the

and

subtract

remainder

root

of

^v^

is 3a;, and

this

is the

first

root.

doubling

divisor.

square

new

the

obtain

4i2xy,
term

divisor.
the

and

we

result
root

the

62;, which
first term

in the

Next
from

root, which

multiply
the

has been

the

to

be

complete

of

term

remainder,

has

first remainder.

found.

first

is the

of the

by

annexed
divisor

There

is

the
and

%x

both

by
now

ly
no

96

[cffAP.

ALGEBRA.

124.

The

rule

be extended

caii

obtained

before.

as

the

remainder^

doubling

terms

first

term

of

divisor,

and

and

in the

the

last

the

of

the
If

Find

Example,

the

in

descendlDg

1 6a:*

16a:* + 4a*

of

the

new

in

the

root

complete
product

divisor

the
the

continue

by

by

from

the

root

has

process.

of

root

12a""

term

remainder

we

second
divide

then

the

no

now

remainder

We

next

the

subtract

is

square

2"x^a^

Rearrauge

and

there
is

as

multiply

next

the

is obtained

first term

the

be

will

root

down

divisor

already
by the

of

root

square

the

brought

new

result

root

; if there

found

been

We

of

found.

root

the

divisor.

term

the

remainder

down

set

find the

terms

have

we

the

to

as

two

of

part

or

remainder.

last

When

first

the

the

first

The

multinomial.

any

so

of

powers

24xi^a

25ar^a2

24a:3a

253:2^2

24a^a.

x.

1 2xa^

4a*

163:2^2 _i2a?a5

4a*

16a~^a2-12a:a3

4a*

( 4ar"

3aro + 2a^

16a:*
8ar*-3a5a

-24ar^a+
8a:2-6a;a

2a'

When

Explanation,
4a:^

3a;a,

have

we

9zr^a^

obtained

have

we

16ar2a2-12a:a3
the

Double

8a:^-6a;a,
of the

term
+

as

2a^

we

the

complete

and

the

125.

first

Find

the

expression

whence

the

the

root"

by

and

2a^

found

and

place

the

result,

divisor.

Divide

16a:^a',the

first term

of

divisor

the

to

4a*

and

root

subtract.

the

Now

divisor.

There

the

following method

is

by inspection
62+c2

the

root

square

no

; we

first

get

multiply
remainder

4a*

4a6

4a2

4a("-c)

(2a)2 +

square

root

2.

4ac

+
+

6^

of

2bc +

of

a,

c^

(6-c)2

2a(6-c)

ia2a

used.

4a6-4ac-26c.

in

terms

be

may

descending powers
letters be arranged alphabetically ; then
the

in

terms

is found.

4a2

Arrange

8a:^,the

oy

divisor

the

of

already

root

both

annex

Sometimes

Example,

the

part

remainder,

which

root

of

terms
the

two

remainder

{b-c),

(6-c)2;

[Art. 121.]

and

let

the

othej"

98

[cHAP.

ALGEBRA.

If

and

preferred,

taken

at

To

be

can

j"rst term
the

is

and

expression

and

6.

Thus

by
of the
1.

obtain

to

three

following

we

three

6, the
is

of

terms

have

we

the

root,

given.

to

of

powers
root

Set

a.

down

this

a^ from

Subtract

root.

letter

one

then
the

as

the

given

is

(Sa^+ Sab

or

the
b

times

found

Having

of

Expression.

of a\

root

remainder

first term

the

postponed

be

may

a^-{-Sa%-^^ah^-\-",

and

its cube

required

the

is

3ab^+b^

Za^b + Sab^ + b^
Now

chapter

Compound

cube

and

a\

the

this

of

according

terms

of

term

of

is the

first term

first

cube

by
process
when
a^-\-Sa%

Arrange
the

the

Root

which

found

The

of

stage.]
Cube

the

Since

discover

remainder

later

Find

126.
to

the

remainder
divide

we

the

terms

of

term

the

mainder
re-

found.

already

term

divisor, which

the

3a^

product of

first

of the

square

b.

b^)x

is the
the

complete

can

consists

Three

times

the

square

Three

times

the

product

of

a, the

of

term

the

root

already

found.
2.
term
3.

this first term

of

the

a, and

new

b.
The

The

of b.

square

work

be

may

arranged

as

3(ay

=3a

3xax6=

follows

3a^6

3a62+63

+3a6

(6)2

+62

3a264-3a62

Example

Find

1.

the

cube

root

of 8ar"

Sx^

3(2a?)3

3x2a:x(-3y)=

12ar"

SQx-y

63

54a;y2

S6a^y

54xy^

36x^y

5ixy^

54xy^-27y"

21y^

4-V
l2siP-lSxy

dy'

-S6a^y

27

y^,

2^1y^ ( 2a?

-ISxy

(-3y)2=

3y

XVI.]

99

EVOLUTION.

I
CO

u
o

"

"1

"

4a

S^

"IjCCJ

"

i-H

'^

53 -e

1i

I
I
"^
43

-"*
o
GO

CO

-^

o8

"'H

ns

4J

eg

I-H

4-

""
.ja

"

1i
o
I

o
o

CO

CO

CO

Od

GO

CO

5-3.2
S

"0
a^

00

.^-^^-^

i'%
CD

"43

"

"

00

+
CO
CO

S
o

"

43

"^3

.2

f-l

-*3

.a

00

ti

O
I-H

II

1^^

'1

II

II

"
08
^

"

S--*

'd
o

II

II

II

,_^

43

00

d
CO

"Bgr%

tH

iSP^

^5tg

?."

d
e8

dp^

CO
'fH

CO

." ^

cc

I"

fl

CO
X

"

"1

""^
-^

"^

Id

""'

"

CO

-n""H,ia

043

d
e8

100

[chap,

ALGEBRA.

XVI

EXAMPLES

Find

cube

the

of

root

of the

each

c.

following expressions

1,

a3+12a2

64.

2.

Sas^ +

l2a^

3.

64a:3_i44a45+io8a:-27.

4.

8i3"

36;?*+ 54p2

5.

m5-18m2

6.

a:"+6aV

7.

l-3c+6c2-7c8+6c"-3c"

8.

8 +

9.

216-108A;

48a

108m

36m

66m2

48y"

11.

64+192)fc+240P

12.

x^-6xh/-Sxh

127.

The

the

Find

consists

of

the

lies
its

27.

12xV+%*-

m".

8y"-80y".

for

ifc8.

Sxz^-Sy^--l2yh-eu:^--^.

Elementary

upon
The

Algebra,']

and
extracting square
methods
algebraical
following
example

cube

the

roots

explained
is

to

given

process.

cube

of

614125.

512000

and

root

between
cube

l2xyz

see

arithmetical

(90)^

9m^

60it*+12A:"

rules

based

chapter.

614125

Since

(80)^ and

l2xy^

are

Example.

160P

ordinary

the

33m*

6(y-9(y-27
+

present

illustrate

63m"

l.

c".

examples

Arithmetic

in

additional

[For

in

108y

-216.

6x

342P-109P+171ifc*-27P+27ifc".

10.

xvl

lies

root

between

that

729000,
80

and

is

and

90

between
therefore

figures.

two

614125(80+5

b
=

85

512000

3a2
3xax6

62

(80)2

3x80x5=
6x5=

19200
1200
25

20425

In
other

Arithmetic
modifications

the
of

102125

102125

ciphers are
usually omitted, and
the
algebraical rules.

there

are

XVn.

CHAPTER

Resolution

128.

When

Definition.

of

product

two

called

is

is

quantities

the

called

of

resolution

its

into

expression

the

these

of

determination

the

it, and

of

factor

the

ties
quanti-

latter

these

of

each

is

expression

algebraical

an

expressions

more

or

Factors.

into

factors.
In
the

this

chapter

resolution

be

shall

we

of

explain

their

into

expressions

by

which

factors

may

rules

principal

the

component

effected.

Expressions

in

which

Each

Term

divisible

is

by

Common

Factor.
Such

129i
term

separately

brackets

; the

Example
factor

expressions

3a

1.

factor, and

by this

terms

of

the

placed

the

3a^

expression

within

quotient

outside

as

Qah

each

dividing

coefficient.

have

common

;
.-.

ExampU

2.

5a^bic^

3aa

I5ahx^
-

6a6

into

factors

3a(a

20b^x^

EXAMPLES

Resolve

by

simplified
enclosing

being

factor

common

The

be

may

26).

Sbsc^ahic

ZVIL

4^),

-3a-

a.

1.

ar^+oar.

2.

2a^-Sa,

3.

a'-a^.

4.

a*-a^b.

5.

Sm^-"mn,

6.

F^+^p^q-

7.

JC*-5ar".

8.

y^

9.

5a"-25o"6.

10.

12ar

12.

27

13.

tx^yh^+Sxy,

15.

2a"-a2+a.

16.

3ar^ +

6o V

17.

7i5'-7p"+14p*.

18.

46"

6a"6"-262.

19.

a:y-"*y2+2ay.

20,

26a"6"+39a*6",

-162a;.

48arV.

xy.

11.

10c"-25c*d.

14.

17a:* -51a:.
3o"a:.
-

102

[CHAP.

ALGEBRA.

Expressions

in

contain
The

130.

1.

Smce

terms

{o^"ttx)

x{x -a)

b{x

=:

(x-a)

{x-a)

taken

{x-a){x

6Ji^-'9ax-{-4bx-6ab

Example

Resolve

3.

into

into

factors

(6x^-9ax)

Sx{2x

(2a:-3a)(3a; + 26).

pq-\-qr-pr-r^.

4a6

3aa:'.

{l2a^-4ab)-(3aa^'bx^)

4a(3a

(3a-6)(4a-ar').

6)

ar"(3a 6)

ZVn.

b.

26y.

11.

aar-2ay-6a:

13.

ac^

a.

15.

a"-o2

17.

a^"aby-\-2ax-2by.

a-l.

Trinomial

result.

I2a^ + ba^

3a)

ab-by-ay

9.

Chap. V.

in which, in
way
coefficients
of the

2b{2x

8,

b + bc^ +

{4bx-6ab)

3a)

6a5.

bn,

am-bm-an

4bx

a6 + 26.
ax

9ax

Sq-Sp+pq-p^.

7,

In

62:^

6.

2a'\-2x

131,

times

oi^.

5,

the

b times

a) taken

a^ +

a" + 2a

{x+b)

plu8 {x

4.

3,

times

x^-ocz+xy-yz.

ar'+ary+ax+yz.

we

2.

1.

x, and

factor

common

have

b).

EXAMPLES
Resolve

factors

12a^+bx^-4ah--Saa^

following examples.

a)

factors

into

to

{bx-CLb)

taken

Kesolve

2.

b,

as

x'^"ax-\-hx"ab.

contain

factor

grouped

so

is Common.

that

the

factors

terms

common

a^'-ttx+hx-db

Example

into

Resolve

in

be

can

Factor

is shown

first two

the

Terms

the

Compound

method

Example
last two

which

Art.

forming
different

48

4a

ac

4c.

y^.

10,

2mx

12.

2a2 + 3a6

14.

ac^

16.

2x!^ + S + 2x+3x^.

18,

axy-\-hcxy"az"bcz.

nx

2a

2my+ny.
2ac

36c.

fec^+ 26.

Expressions.
attention
the
terms

has

product
combine

of

been
two
so

as

drawn

to

the

binomials, the
to give a trinomial

XVII.]

RESOLUTION

Thus

We
the

propose
resolution
of
the

on

trinomial

1.

The

first term

2.

The

product

equal

to

the

third

15

is the

that

equal

of

the

the

the

product
of
of

sum

+24,

and

its

of

their

sum

of

in

and

factors

two

; e.g.

of

trinomial

(2) above
(3) we

is
we

in

see

be

a:^ +

the

two

factors

; e.g. in (4) the


of ^
in the
nomial.
tri-

coefficient

will

easily understood

from

11a; + 24.
be

must

It

the

terms

the

factors

+11.

x.

"3

the

factors

the

"3.

in

laws

into

is

second

gives -2,

+3

terms

and

which

that

and

and

the
of

coefficient

Resolve

second

The
is

namely,

notice

terms

"5

+6

application of these
following examples.

Exa'ffiple 1.

those

to

identities,into

trinomial

of

The
the

similar

above

factors

second

of

term

and

"5

the

of

problem

converse

results, we

of both

product

the

to

of

sum

above

algebraic

The

3.

is

is the

15

(4).

factors.

the

By examining

(2^
(3),

expression,

side

right-hand

binomial

component

the

consider

to

now

that

(1),

(x+5){x+Z)=j:^+Sx+l6
(^-6X^-3)=a:2-ar+15
(:F+5X.r-3)=^+2:F-15
(:F-5X^+3)=ar^-2^-15

occur

see

103

FACTORS.

INTO

is clear

such

that

their

that

they

must

product
be

+8

+3.
a:"+llar

.-.

The
is

second

it is easy

their

to

sum

Example

Example

be

must

The
is

second

lOa^,

and

terms

their
/.

Note.

his

In

results,

Chap. V.)

of

the

sum

factors

this

he

the
has

that
both

their

product

be negattve,

and

4.

(a?

9){x

(a;

9)2.

(a;^+ b){7? + 5)

(a;2+ 5)2.

x^
must

Hence

ar"-llaa;+10a2

examples of
by forming

of the

factors
11a.

such

must

6 and

factors

into

Resolve

5.

they
-

"

Example

be

24=(a;-6)(a;-4).

a;*+ lOa;^ + 25

4.

10a; + 24.

mast

Hence

18a; + 81

a?^

factors

ar"-10a;

x^

(a:+ 8)(a;+ 3).

factors

10.

they

.-.

3.

the
-

that

see

into

of

terms

and

+24,

Resolve

2.

Example

+ 24

kind

llaa;
be

they

lOa*.

such

that

must

be

their
-

10a

product
and

a.

(a;-10a)(a;-a).

the

product
chosen.

9)

student

should

{mentally,

as

always verify
explained in

104

[chap.

ALGEBRA.

EXAMPLES
Kesolve

factors

into

XVn.

3.

y"+7y+12.

S,

6.

6^-6ft+6.

136+40.

9.

z"-13z+36.

1.

a^+3x+2.

2.

y^+5y+6.

4.

a^-Sa+Z

5.

a^-^

7.

62 +

8.

6"-

136+42.

10,

x^-l5x+56,

11.

ar"-15a:+54.

13.

62-126+36.

14.

a"+15a

16.

x"+9x+20,

17.

ar"-10a;+9.

19.

y2-23y+102.

20.

y*-24y

22.

a'+10a6

23.

a2

25.

m*+8m2+7.

26.

w*+9mV+14n*.

28.

64-15a

29.

13 +

a2.

consider

Next

132.

is

The

Resolve

1.

of

and

their

algebraical

required

and

their

to

second

terms

their

opposite signs,

give its sign

to

The

be

a^-

18.

x^-\6x+^.

21.

y"+64y+729.

24.

a2-23a6+13262.

27.

6-5ar+a:".

30.

216-35a+aa.

third

the

the

to their

12a

+27.

of

term

the

nomial
tri-

35.

be

such

of

that

Hence

+2.
them

the^
be

must

their

product
have

must

positive

in

order

(x

5.

7)(a;-6).

7^-Zx~^,

factors

be

must

such

that

Hence

-3.

sum

of

greater

7 and

them

they
negative

product

must

be

must

their

in

have

order

sum.

therefore

are

ic2-3a:-54
in

that

opposite

x^ + 2x-

sum

factors

into

required terms

have

the

must

therefore

algebraical

and

Remembering

factors

x2+2a:-35

.-.

miLst

14y+y2.

greater

are

of

terms

and

-54,

15.

sum.

Resolve

2.

Example

the

the

/.

The

factors

into

terms

opposite signs,
to give its sign

is

1162.

where

case

22 + 152+44.

95.

12a6

second

-35,

The

56.

12.

negative.

Example
is

+ 2162.

these

signs,if

9 and

6.

(a;-9)(a:+ 6).
the

cases

preferred,

the

numerical

following

quantities
method

may

adopted.
Example
Find

23.

two

These

positivemay

3.

Resolve

numbers
are

35

into

12;

predominate,

"V^

2^

product

whose
and

factors

we

23jcy

hence

23xy

is 420,

and

inserting

the

420.
whose

signs

have
420

(ay

35)(a:y 12).
-

differenceis
so

that

the

106

134,

The

select

the

to

[chap.

ALGEBRA.

enable
will

combine

so

resolved.

Bkample,

Resolve

and

fails to

third

*loi^ 19a;
-

the

Thus

135.

negative

mental

these

1.
second

sign
2.

second

that

3 and
for

-6

combination

be

will

if

correct

insert

we

(7a;+ 2)(a;-3).

it will

work

be

not

to

necessary
will soon

find

and

the

that

the

If

third
of

terms

is the
If

same

the

ing
follow-

two

factors

its

that

as

of

term

Resolve

is

negative,
opposite signs.
14a;^ + 29a;-

factors

into

then

that

And

since

signs

in each

down
write
(7a:
may
have
5 must
opposite

we

case

3 and

have

we

(1) the

positive sign

in

(2) the

negative
14ar"
143-^

29a;

only

now

29a;

16

(7ar

16

(7a;+ 3)(2a;

5)

as

first

trial,

signs.

predominate,

must

(2).

3)(2a;

factor.

In

Therefore

29,

the

(1),

15

14a:2-29a;-lo
each

the
this

trinomial.

of the

term

trinomial

the
have

of its factors

1.

middle

is

the

both

have

of the

positive,then
same
sign, and

trinomial

the

of

term

third

terms

noticing

the

unsuitable

the

to

down

put

Example

In

2
the

predominate.

at

steps

hints

sion
expres-

term.

student
length. The
different
be
cases
rapidly reviewed,
may
combinations
at
once.
rejected
attention
It is especially important to pay

all

chosen

multiplication.]

actual

In

11, the

middle

the

factors
shall

7a;2-19a;-6

[Verify by

trial, noticing
factors
give Ix^ and
first

of

easy
will

alone

6.

7x2-3x1

since

19, these

that

so

it is not

Practice

2)(a; 3).

7x3-2x1

signs

coefficient

correct

try (7a;

Since

But

terms.

the

give

Next

the

factors

into

(7a; 3)(a; 2) for


opposite signs. These

have

first

that

first trial.

down

Write
must

to

the

at

pair he has
glance whether
any
give the correct coefficients of the

at

as

be

find

frequently

factors

proper
to detect

him

to

will

beginner

3)(2a; + 5).
-

5).

to

insert

the

proper

XVILJ

INTO

RESOLUTION

Resolve

2.

Example

into factors

107

FACTORS.

52:^+173;

(1),

5ar"-17a:

+ 6

(2).

In

(I) we

In

(2)

And

notice

that

which

factors

the

for

(1)

we

write

may

(2)
since

5x3+1x2

17,

5ic2 +

In

each

1 ; but
wonld

and

stndent

When

an

136
"

both

are

positive.

17a; + 6

By

expression

this

is

of

one

reject at

+ 6

).

(5x-

)(x-

y.

(5a:+ 2)(a;+ 3).

(5a;-2)(a;-3).

third

6 also

term

referred

cases

admits

to

of

above

factors

which

the

nnsnitable.

is the

multiplying

)(x+

the
as

once

Expression

the

(5a;+

that

see

we

5a;"-17a;+6
Hote.

negative.

therefore

And,

give

Difference

by

a"

we

of Two
obtain

Squares.
the

identity

(a+6)(a-6)=a2-63,
a

result which

may

be

verbally expressed

The

is

product of the sum


equal to the differenceof

and

the

may

at

any
once

expression
be resolved

follows

differenceof

any

two

quantities

their squares.

Conversely, the differenceof the


is equal to the product of the sum
quantities.
Thus

as

which

squares
the
and

is the

into factors.

of any two quantities


differenceof the two

difference

of

two

squares

108

Resolve

Example,

Therefore

second

the

factor

intermediate

steps
1

Example.
difference

The

of

into

factors

and

4y.

be

by

(329

500

79000.

7c").

numerical

aid

quantities

of the

171)(329-

4y).

omitted.

two

the

171)

XVn.

f.

1.

a2-9.

2.

a2-49.

3.

^2-81.

4.

a2-100.

5.

a^"-25.

6.

ic2_i44.

7^

64-a:2.

3^

81-4ar".

9.

4y2-l.

10.

y2_9aa.

4y2-25.

9y2-49ar".

12.

13.

4m2-81.

14.

36a2-l.

15.

ifc2-64^2^

16.

9a2-2562.

17.

121-16y2.

Ig.

121-36a;2.

19.

25

-c*.

20.

a^b^-2^y\

21.

49a*-10062.

22.

64a:2-49z2.

23.

4/)2g2-81.

24.

a*6*c2-9.

25.

a:"-4a*.

26.

ar*-25z*.

27.

a^^-p^qK

28.

16a^"-96".

29.

25ari2-4.

30.

a"68c4-9ar".

Find

the

factors

by

of

value

31.

(39)2-(31)2.

32.

(51)2-(49)2.

33^

(1001)2-1.

34.

(82)2-(18)2.

35^

(275)2 -(225)2.

36.

(936)2

When

If

137.
and

if

We

is the

Expression

an

we

have

we

divide

divide

a'"

is

formula

158

EXAMPLES
Kesolve

of 5x

(i + 1c^){l

(329)2-(171)2

Example.

4y,

usually

squares
found

conveniently

sometimes

and

(5a;+ 4y){5x

may

49c"

the

of

6y2

{4y)\

of 5x

sum

difference
1

16y'.

{5x)^

is the

is the

253^*

/.

The

IQy^

first factor

the

25a:'

factors

into

25a;2

and

[CHAP.

ALGEBRA.

a' +6^
6*

therefore

by

the

a"

Sum

by

or

+6

6 the

following

Difference

of Two

the

(64)2.
Cubes.

quotient is a2"a6+
quotient is a^'\-ah+h\

identities

62.

a8-6"=(a-6)(a2+a6+"2).
These
which

results
can

be

enable

written

us
as

the

to

resolve
sum

or

into
the

factors

difference

any

expression

of two

cubes.

XVII.]

middle

The

Note.

Example

We
the

8ar^

1.

Example

term

omit

usually

may
factors

at

{2xf

(2a:

is the

%xy

64a3

2.

27y3

343a"

27a:"

S3^+129

(4a)"+ (1 )"

(4a

5.

Sa^

9.

l-8a8.

21a2a;

{7a^- 3a;)(49a*+

2.

a" +

6.

^-Sz\

XVII

63.

6' -8.

9a^.

g.

a:8.

3.

I +

7.

a" + 2763.

27 + a:".

11.

4.

l-y".

8.

xY-U

12.

64

a:V

17.

512a3-l.

18.

a^b^(^-

8a:"-343.

20.

x^ +

21.

a:*-27z3.

w"-1000n".

23.

a' -72963.

24.

125a"+

19.
22.

l.

l.

We

138.

shall

of this

processes

Example

1.

The

of

sum

(a

.-.

the

factors

give

Example

and

26

26)2

4a: is

26)*

26 + 4a:,

26

(a

+ 26

terms

simplest

343.

27.

51263.

16a:*.

4a:.
+

4a:)(a + 26

4^),

be

they should

collected

form.

(2a: 3y )*
-

+ 7y)
3y )} {(3a:

{(3a:+ 7y) + (2a:

(3a:+ 7y

(5a:+ 4y)(a:+ 10y).

(a

like

in its

(3a:+ 7y)*

2.

1 6a:2

contain

result

the

factors

is

difference

their

into

Resolve

2lGy^,

-p".

harder
applications of the
give some
exercise
in which
miscellaneous
by a
chapter will be illustrated.

now

foregoing rules, followed


all the

down

write

15.

1000a:"

to

step and

216-6*.

16.

as

l).

14.

125a"

If

Sy.

10.

13.

and

l)(16a2_4a

9y").

(2x^+d){4x^-l8si^+Sl).

factors

into

as-6s.

of 2a; and

product

EXAMPLES

1.

3y )(4rc2
+%xy

once.

Examples,

Resolve

(3y)"

intermediate

the

109

FACTORS.

INTO

RESOLUTION

2a:

3y)(3a:+ 7y

2a: +

(2a: 3y)}
-

3y)

so

110

[chap.

ALGEBRA.

139.

By suitably grouping together


often
be
expressions can
expressed as
and

squares,

Example

be

so

resolved

Resolve

1.

factors

iki?-'C^+4cx-4x^

Example
Here

Resolve

the

2bd

terms

of

arrangement

into

the

The

140.

following
Resolve

Example,

141.
than

(3a)2-(c-2a:)a

(3a

2ck;

of

two

4a^,

4x^)

2x)(3a

c +

-a*-c*

2a;).

6' + cP+

the

suggest

2cm;.

preliminary

proper

Thus

is

6"+26ci+da-a"

6" + 26d

(" + d)"-(a-c)"

{h+d+a-c){h+d-a+c).

2ac-c'

cP-(a"-2ac

c2)

important.

factors

x^ +

xh/^ + y*.

(a:2
+ y*)"-(a:y)"

{(X^+ y^-^xy){x^ + y^-xy)

(a:"+

a:y +

expression

an

2M

factors

case

into

Sometimes

(a~"
j/^)
-

be

may

ary +

y2).

resolved

into

more

factors.

two

Example

1.

Resolve

into

16a*

Example

2.

When

Kote.

of two

1^

an

into

explained

however,

be

factors

(4a2

(4a2 + 962)(2a + 36)(2a

{x

or

as

Arts.

found

simplest

difference

of two

36).

i/^){x-y){ix^+xy+y^,

be

can

arranged

difference

136,
to

afi-i^,

y)(x^-xy

the

962)

y^)

expression

W){Aa^

factors

{x^ + y^){a^
+

16a*-81"*.

squares,
in

methods

the

816*

Resolve
3ifi

factors

cP + 2ac

c^ + 4cx

9a^-(e^-4cx

expression.

26d-a2-c*+6"

9a^

and

terms,
difference

factors.

into

into

compound

the
the

137

first

squares.

use

either

as

the

ference
dif-

of two

will
the

be

cubes, each of the


It will,
applicable.

rule

for

resolving into

xvii.j

RESOLUTION

142.

In

taken

where

cases

factor

simple

all

an

to

common

outside

bracket

Resolve

ExampU,

INTO

of

factors

into

60arV

into

two

(x-{-yf-z\

(a

3c)2-l.

16a:

4a;V(7a:-5)(a; + 3).

XVn.

first

GOix^.

^xhf[lx^

be

129.

factors

more

or

in Art.

contains

should

this

28a:*y + 64ar^

EXAMPLES
Resolve

resolved

be

to

its terms,

explained

as

2%3i*y+ Usi^y

expression

each

HI

FACTORS.

15)

h.

2hf-c^

2.

[x-yY-zK

3.

{a

5.

{2x-\f-a?,

6.

a''-{h

cyK

7
10

(18a; + y)2-(17a7-y)2.

U.

(6a

12

4a2

-^Z,

x^-{2b-^c)\

14

(x

15.

(3a;+ 2y)2-(2a:-3y)2.

16

a2-2aa:

17^

ic2 + a2 +

18

l-a2-2a6-63.

19^

\2xy

20

c^-a?-h'^

21.

a;2

22

ar* +

23.

{m

24

aHa2

27

16a"62_56^

30

a26"-81a26.

(2a

36)2.

yf-{m-n)\

ar2-462.

2ab.

2^-z*-a*

2a:3y2-2a2z2.

33

2166"

36

(u?

ax^

38

m*

40

6x^y^+l5xY-^^xy\

a363.
-

w2

4mn

j?)2 (m

71

256a;*

28.

6477i7-wi?i".

29.

x^-x*yK

31.

4ma?x-7?,

32.

l-7293/".

34.

25023

35.

1029

4n*p*.

z2.

2^-^x^-^.

4)2.

26.

240ax,

4m2"2p2

2aa?

2a; +

(oa

a*h^-\Q,

'25.

l.

3)2

2.

37.

o^^

39.

8a:y-a:".

41

2 wt^rt*

^c^

33^.

^'

4?i8.

43.

a262_a2-62

45.

{a

48.

119+10m-w2.

50.

240a;2

51

52.

x*-\-y*-7x^yK

53

54.

a:^+ a;* + l.

42

9Sx*-

44

x^-2x^-x

46

a?y?

47

2p

49

24a262

7 x^y^-y*.

Sahf

3^

[For

2.

^''^^

additional

hf

i.

l.

3252y3.

4/?2 9g2.
30a63

366*.

examples

see

a:y-a;^V-

Elementai'y

Algebrar\

4n\

+p)\

-Sly*.

"^^

7 w*"^

112

Converse

143.
often

The
be

actual

be

converse

in

as

resolving
useful

observed

into

enabling

as

and

1.

2a
Hence

the

product

Find

2.

Example

the

by

and

{2a+ (36

(2a)2

4a2_(962-66c+c2)

4a2-962+66c-c".

the

the

in

their

formula

is
squares
the
product

for

equally
of

the

c.

(36

c)}

cf

ar*-2a:+4,

with

36 +

of

product

first factor

c)}{2a

(36

x-2y

once

student

the
useful

2a-(36-c).

2a
thus

arranged

(36-c)

x+2,

Taking

be

may

two

at

as

can

of factors.

quantities.

36

of

down

write

2a

division

which

chapter are
just
application. Thus

of two

Multiply

formulae

the

difference

the
to

us

expressions

that

direct

difference

the

Example
These

their
factors

multiplication and
by a skilful use

of

this

in

Factors.

of

avoided

wholly

exemplified

seen

Use

processes

partially or

should

It
has

sum

[CHAP.

ALGEBRA.

the

sB"+2r+4.

third, ai\d

second

the

with

the

fourth,
the

product

{(x + 2){x^ -2x

(ar'+ 8)(a:"-8)

a:"-64.

Examples.

by

Sx^

the

4)} {{x

2){x^ +

of

product

2a? +

4)}

2oi^ + x-6

and

Qa^-Sx

6x-2.

Denoting
the

Divide

the

division

required
quotient
^
^

by

of

means

fraction,

(2^^+^-6)(6a?^-5a:-H)
=

Sx^

_(2a;-3)(a:

bx-2

2)(3a;-l)(2a?-l)

(3a:-l)(a: + 2)
=

by cancelling factors

(2a:-3)(2a:-l),

which

are

common

to

numerator

and

ator.
denomin-

114

[CHAP.

ALGEBRA.

MISCELLANEOUS

1,

Find

2.

If

the
a

1,

=-

lOa;^

of

product

1, 6

EXAMPLES

2,

gg-b^

Simplify 2[4a:-{2y

4,

Solve
(I)
^

the

5,
6.

Find

the

f^^

8,

Find

in

9,

Find

the
a

5, 6

the

of

price

a:*

of

root

3,

25,

5a: +

7.

Sa^b^c, 12a*6V,

Sa:* + 24ar"
the

jb-c)^
^

a+b

articles

bk

1, find

{cL-bl

8a

at

15a"5"c

each.

cents

32a: +

16.

of

value

{a-c)\

b+c

a+c

11.

13-|(a:-l).
Solve|(7a:+5)-7f

12.

times

as

is

twice

old.

Find

old

as

their

13.

Simplify (1

14.

The

2a:)

of

one

How

15.
father

now

16

them

is 2a^' +

old

is

aged

40

Find

the

Find

the

twenty

years

ago

he

was

three

ages.

{3

of two

product

as

(4

Qxh/^

3a:y + 2y^

boy

6a:)}+ {6

expressions

6a:* + 5x^1/ +
and

2y

a2-2a6+263.

by

square

of

3a:-4y

'

5.

a? +

L.C.M.

and

dollars

of 2a:*

square

0*4-46*

of

y)}].

(a:+

'

15

H.C.F.

Divide

If

3
the

value

3abc'

a?-3_2-ar_l-2a?.

down

7,

10.

the

3a^.

2x-4k

(^-b^

(2a; -y)-

equations

6
Write

0, find

2b^+cd

b^

and

3a:

h^~cd

a^ +

3.

12

m.

who

2a:

8a;)}.

is

5xy^

find

(7

other.

the

years

6y*,

ago

was

half

old

as

as

his

lowest

multiple

common

of

2a^j Sab, 5a'6c, dabr^c,laPh,

17.

(1)

13.
third

Find
of the

two

factors

of

ar^-a:y-72y2.
numbers

greater

exceeds

which

(2)
differ

one-fourth

by
of

the

6a:2-13a;

11, and
less

6.

such

by ?"

that

one-

xvn.]

MISCELLANEOUS

If

19.

1,

EXAIMPLES

1,

c-d

hd

_c^-cP

a^

ac

b^'

Simplify

|'B-y-{5te-ly-7-(|-4)
(2-iar)}

21.

Solve

equations

the

(1)

(3a;-8)(3a;

(2)

^+"+y

takes

Find

23.

travels

at

'

(1)

will

2'

an

the

hour
of

rate

takes
a

trsdn

2/'

factors

into

12ar"+aa?-20a8;

a"-16-6aa:+9:c".

(2)

(1)

a:+l+2(a;+3)

(2)

4a;+9y

12,

Find

6a:-3y

7.

f,"^i,\~^f

of

value

the

4(a;+6);

"

26.

Find

27.
divided

by

262c

"3

^'s

by

of

each.

-S" aJ^"l

-4"

28.

$8,

29.

Find

30.

Simplify

the

when

quotient

the

^*v"

and

removing

the

3
of

product

between

share

root

a?

c*

and

share

is

ft' +

h^-"?

c'.

^168

C*b

square

by

2bc^

?.

when
,

a;(l+3a:)-ar

share

miles

p
be

Solve

25.

than

of

rate

what

of

24.

|(y-a:).

the

(a;-3)(a;+7);

sum

Kesolve

l)

.+y-5

stations

hours

the

^,

two

2)-(4a;-lI)(2a:

which

train
between

hours

which

IS

of

value

the

20.

22.
q

find

0,

ad-hc

a-b

2,

115

III.

is

of

9oi*

them

-4*8

three-fourths

12a?*
-

brackets

a^
-

of

22ar*

[(6

c)^ -{(^-{a-

a:^ +

12a:

greater

Find

^'s.

the

4.

6)'^.

XVni.

CHAPTER

Highest

144.

Definition.

The

algebraical

more

which

The

Note.
instead

of

Algebra
is
with

object
to

the

term

is

two

numerical

greatest

values

algebraical
common

of

for

highest

it

common

We

have

inspection

be

already

resolved

easily

Example

It

be

be

shown

factor

is

not

for

incorrect,

divisors.

solely

to

the

always

The
metical
arith-

that

trial

by

in

which
concerned

not

are

their

confined

ought

into

Find

1.

the

will

be

follows

as

the

greatest

the

Example

H.C.F.

2.

Resolving

each

the
+

a^

the

H.C.F.

2c^
the

factor

highest

6a26
is

compound
or

enable
ex"

which

of

factors

2ca^{x

2c)

if the

factor

common

a^ +

a^-^aJb\

will

^c^ot^,

common

ic^x^

9a6,

simple

more

factors,

3a2

therefore

of

product

common

and

expression

a^ +

of

factor

common

the

is 2cx^,

Find
3a2

or

method

by

down

factors.

out

2cx^

therefore

two

analogous

An

write

to

of

factor

highest

pick

to

easy

arranged

how

explained

the

4"S(^

are

we
or

used

dimensions

highest

easily

highest
common
expressions.
[See Chap, xii.]
readily to find the highest
us
pressions which
are
given as

sions
dimen-

sometimes
is

usage

of

to

can

highest

or

measure.

145.

can

this

expressions, and
the
expressions

measure

common

quantities,

but
factor

the

more

or

is

mejdsurt

common

find

to

of
expression
remainder.

two

without

facUyr}

common

of

factor

common

the

is
them

greatest

highest

our

of

each

term

common

highest

expressions

divides

Factor.

Common

into

its

ea^ft

9a6

9a62

a{a

Zh)[a

Oab^

a{a

36)(a

a(a+3").

3a(a

ga^a.

factors,

of

we

have

3"),
-

3ft),
36)

expressions

XVIII.]

CHAP.

When

146.

there

different

the

two

are

of the

powers
careful
to notice

be

COMMON

HIGHEST

or

expressious coutainin^

more

highest common
compound factor

factor

the

of the
highest power
given expressions.

should

student

compound factor, the

same

that

117

FACTOR.

which

contain

must

is

to

common

all the

Example

The

1.

highest

x{a-xf^

Example

a(a-a;)?,

Find

2.

the

a7p+2a^x

Resolving

the

2ax2

Therefore

2a^x

4aaa?

3(aa:+ a2)2

factor

into
a^

6a"

of

^ax+a^^.

%a\

factors,

have

we

aJ{7?+2ax+a^)

a{x+af

20(2-5

2a(a: + a)(a;-3a)

(1),
2aa?

3a")

(2),

3{a(a?+a)}" 3a2(a;+a)a

(3).

(1), (2), (3), by

from

factor

^a^x

{a-x)\

is

2"Lx{a-xf

common

2ax^

expressions
ax^

and

highest
a\

of

factor

coDimon

inspection,

the

highest

common

i8a(a;+a).

EXAMPLES
Find

the

highest

1.

^-y^y

3.

3a3-2a26,

5.

c^-c(P,

7.

a^7?{a

9,

ax-hXf

XVm.
factor

common

x^-xy,

3a2-2a6.

c*-c2cP.

x)\
a*x

2a^x^[a
+

x)^.

ax,

11.

7?+x^,

13,

{a^-ax)\

15,

a?-7?-4^2Xy

17.

o"-36a,

19.

2a:2-9a;+4,

21.

4m*-9mS

22,

3a*a:"-8a"aJ"+4a2a:3^ Sa^ar^

7?+xy,

x^+aey^,

{ax-x^)\
ar* -49a:2

o"+2a2-48a.
3x2-7a:-20.

of

a2-2a6

2.

3(a-6)s,

4.

^^-^h\

6.

vf^-x^^,

ix?y^+x^,

8.

2x2

8a; + 8,

6".

^h,

(x-

2)".

a^y^+ y*, xy-y\

10.

^x^-y^t

12.

ix^y^-y^, y^ipcy-^^f,

14.

{abc-U^)\

jg^

{3i?-b7?)\

18.

3a2 + 7a-6,

20.

3c*+5c8-12cS

6m*+5m"-6m2.

6m"-6m2-6m,

3aV+16aV-12a2a:".

a.

llaV

6aV,

{a^c-ac^)\
ar".-8ar*+15a:".
2a2+7a

3.

6c"+7c*-20c".

118

[chap.

ALGEBRA.

factor should
highest common
always be determined
but
it
when
will
sometimes
by inspection
possible,
happen that
be
into
factors.
find
To
readily resolved
expressions cannot
the
factor
in such
we
highest common
adopt a method
cases,
used
for
that
in
Arithmetic
to
finding the greatest
analogous

147.

The

of two

measure

common

We

148.

shall

algebraical process
the
proof of the
Algebra^

work

now

of

principles,which

two

the

which

examples

the

reader

the
We

here

may

student

the

examples illustrative of the


factor
highest common
; for
consult
the Elementary
may

out

finding

rules

102, 103,

Arts.

numbers.

more

or

conveniently

should

bear

certain
If an
a
expression contain
expression is divisible by that factor.

expressions have a
and
their difference;and
multiples of them.
If

XL

their

mm

of any

two

Find

Example.

the

highest

H.C.F.

the

First

Explanation,

in

highest

is made

Again,
divisor,

the

as
\i'e

the

second

when

quotient

the

the

Arithmetic,

last

the

of

is

vrill divide

the

difference

of
63a;

39.

a;

'expressions
take

we

coefficient.

2a:^

the

to

is

-3

for

divisor

Arrange
ia?

the

left of the

the

to

3a:

right

and

highest

so

tnat

work

the

5a:

21

dividend.
made

is in turn

to

arranged

so

first remainder

the

quotient

placed

divisor

expressions according

The

order,

same

remainder
2

multiple of

it

and

sum

2ar"

given
x.

When
the

put

8a:"

smaller

above.

divisor

the

factor

the

powers
of the

has

power

parallel columns

reading

-3.

arrange

descending or ascending
having their first terms
whose

a:

factor^

aUo

and

is

factor^ any

common

common

43fi-Sx^-24x-9

Therefore

enunciate

in

follow.

I.
the

in mind

on.

the
As

in

common

factor

the

compound

required.
149.

This

method

is

only

useful

to

determine

of the
highest common
Simple
the
be
first removed
from
them, and
given expressions must
factor
of these, if any,
be observed
and
must
highest common
the
into
factor
the
rule.
multiplied
compound
given by
factor

of

the

factor.

factors

xviil]

HIGHEST

Find

Example,

the

24a:* -23(?We

24a;*

have

18a:*

and

39ar"

factor

and

32a:

18a;

18ar*

3a;

3a: have

the

factors

2a; and

3a:, and

reserving their

Art.

Gar^

2a;2

(6a;"
-

factor

common

39a;2

a;2

2a; and

in

of

2a;(12ar"

Also

as

119

FACTOR.

common

32a;

60ar"

6ar"

highest

60ar"

2a;3

COMMON

30a;

16),

13a;

18a;.

6).

the

Removing

x.

factor

common

simple

continue

a;, we

148.

2a;

-2

C. F.

Therefore

the

H.

150.

far

the

So

applicable
But

in

many
will

method
understood
the

of Arithmetic

found

necessary.
if it is remembered
contain

must

1.

has

we

that,

as

the

highest

3aJ"_13x2

23a;-21

3a;'-13ar*

23a;-21

have
of

the

will

be

at

every
factor
of

[See

seeking.

are

Find

These

factor

and

on

27a;*

making
in

3a;'-

90a:

noticing that 27a:'


and
also bearing in

90a: + 63

work

H.

contains

seeking

is contained

have

We

the

may

8a:^-10a:+7.

no

63

mind

F.,

we

in the

every
conclude

therefore

the

factor

work,

highest

II.]

21.

63

find
that
it
divisor, we
an
integral quotient.

written

in 9(3x2 ^n)x^i).

reject

itself

the

46a;-42

remainder

that
C.

with

maybe

simple factors,

therefore

stage

a;2-44a;H-21

6a;3+

13a;2 + 23a;-21

clearly

more

of

27a:2-90a;

Here

arithmetical

of the

6ar^ + a;2-44a:

6a;^-26a:^

contained

exactly

considered.

148, 1. "

Art.

common

found

been

we

modifications

certain

cases

factor

Example

(3a;+ 2).

algebraical expressions

be

remainder

common

a:

process

the

to

is

in

that
But

their
9

form

the

H.

and

course

the

H.

two

original

go

on

But

9(3a;2- 10a;

the

C. F.

is not

C.F.

can

have

with

of
we

7),

the
are

sions
expresnone.

divisor

120

[chap.

ALGEBRA.

the

Resuming

work,

have

we

3x2-10ar+7

3a:"-10a:"+
-

3a:"+16a:-21

Sar'+lOx-

-I

The

highest

the

Therefore

been

2 has

factor

3a:*-

^x

7a:

2) 6a:-

14

3a:-

3a:+7

common

factor

removed

on

the

-1

3a;+7

is 3x

7.

grounds

same

as

the factor

above.
the

Sometimes

151.

expressions

arranged

are

Find

Example,

is more
convenient
process
in ascending powers.

the

and

highest

of

factor

common

3-4a-16a2-9a"

(I),

4-7a-19a2-8a5

(2).

cannot
we
expressions stand
begin to
The
without
other
using a fractional
quotient.
suitable
obviated
factor, just as
by iiitroducing a

As

found

with

divide

the

it useful

the

to

division

common

we

multiply

when

ordinary

way.
their

in the

factor,
of them

either

Multiply (1) by

4 and

hence

by

use

Sa^

20

-35a-

95a2-

20

-28a-

48aa

40a"

40a3

47a2-

7a-

-6

difficultymay
last

in the

could

case

H.C.F.

be

cannot

affected

12-16a-64a2-36a8

35a

284a2

235a2

84a^

49a2284a2

200a3

284a'

l+o
the

H.C.F.

is 1 +

a.

we

given expressions have

The

divisor

be

longer proceed

no

7a2-12a"

5a5-

7a

5+

5a
-12a

35a-

Therefore

by the

12-21a-57a2-24a'

7a

we

one

simple factor.

any

(2) as

19aa-

7a-

4-

factor

remove

simple

no

the

when

12a

-12a2

-12a2
-

12a2

-12a

if

XIX.

CHAPTEE

Fractions.

The

153.
be

applied

Reduction

ply

divide

or

the

fraction

by

fraction
factor

common

the

if

this

Reduce

1.

be
be

to

lowest

to

the
in

expression

lowest

-^.
"

expression
^

=
-

2x

; x^

-,

3y{3x-4y)
The
has

convenient

both

expressed
form,

by

be

should

beginner

numerator

resolution

into

EXAMPLES

Reduce

Sxv

terms

2x{3x-4y)

he

12aV

9xy-l2y^
rvu
The

until

terms.

-2a:*

"

Note.

any

factor,

Qx^
to

by

3a

Reduce

valent
equi-

an

=
.,

2.

to

terms
-

Example ^

quantity.

same

common

lowest

ISa^x^

The

muLtir

toe

denominator

highest

its

if

reduced

and

numerator

factor

the

by
be

therefore

is said

fraction

resulting
Example

denominator

may

dividing

now

may

fractions.

altered

is not

fraction

and

numerator

algebraical

An

of

xviii.

of

Terms.

Lowest

to

value

The

Rule.

154.

Chapter

simplification

and

reduction

the

to

in

explained

principles

to

lowest

terms

factors

XIX.

begin

denominator
where

cancelling
in

the

necessary.

a.

a^-2a

Sah

"

^'

iix'-'Sxy

and

to

not

3a;"
1
""""

careful

x-.

3y

4a3-8^

^'
Qa^''

b^

2ai/l'

most

XIX.]

CHAP.

Bedace

to lowest

*"

6arV

123

FRACTIONS.

terms

10A'

6arV-i^

3^+6"'

"

13.

,^

"

7r-:k

TK

of

factors

15.

i-^"

3ar'-12a:-16

the

When

156.

the

^'

2ar^+lla:+12

denominator

and

numerator

be reduced
by inspection, the fraction may
nator
denomiand
its lowest
numerator
terms
by dividing both
which
be
found
the
by
factor,
by
highest common
may
rules given in Chap, xviii.

determined

be

cannot

the

"

,k

14.

""

3ara+iac

to

,-

"

-"

2ic3 + a?-3

ar"-2a;-16

a:*-4a:-21

TO

Reduce

Example.
^
The

and

numerator

a:^

respective quotients
3a:"-lSar"
153c3

If

38ar"

5x^

by
a:

(3a;

numerator

factors

we

3a; -7"

lowest

a;

3)

5ar"

denominator
the

use

obtain

we

ar"-2a;

3)
""

7)(5ar"

or

may

to

7.
as

3.

(3a;-7)(a^"-2a;

2a; + 21

Reduce

Example.

denominator

2a: + 3 and

is 3a;-

either

into

denominator

23ar-21

Thus

resolved

and

of numerator

Dividing

^^fZ^^^t^^^l]'

terms

15a:*-38jB2-2a;+21

H.C.F.

156.

lowest

to

can

following

+ 3
a:

3*
-

readily be

method.

terms

7a^-18ar"+6a:+5
The

Of
a;

numerator

a;(a;2+3a:
the

factors

these

Hence,

1.

only

arranging

4)

a;(a;+ 4)(a;

which

one

be

can

denominator

the

1).

so

as

common

to

factor,
.,

the

..

fraction

ss"

a;(a:+ 4)(a;-l)
/
,/
y
7a:*(a; 1 ) 1 la;(a: 1 )
"

3-

^r

a;(a;+ 4)(a;-l)

,.

5(a;

1)

y(a: + 4)

"(a?-l)(7ar"-lla;-6)"7a;2-lla;-6

shew

divisor
a;

as

is
a

124

[chap.

ALGEBRA.

EXAMPLES,
Reduce

to lowest

a?^-a?^

3ar*-|-7x2

a^-4a^

y"-2yg-2y-3
4y2

a^-2a"

R
""

m^-m'^-m-2

2W

9a^-a^x-2a^
^
^"

a3-4a2ft-21a62'

'"

ar*-21a?

"'

8,

"*""

+9a:s'

2-a:

[For additional

"

examples

Mnltiplication
157.

Rule.

multiply

the

}or

To

together

for

a
T

In

for

number

any

the

the

Example,

fractions:

more

and

nators
denomi-

the

bd
ace

of fractions.

application of
of

course

the

this

work

rule

is

factors

modified

which

are

by

moving
re-

common

denominator.

and

numerator

or

_x^x^=j^;

practice
in

ac
r^

ace

Similarly,
so

j=

and

two

denominator,

new

Thus

Fractions.

of

numerator,

new

4a:3_5a^*

9ar5 +

4a: +

Algebra.']

Division

multiply

numerators

4 +

Elementary

see

and

rni

ct*

y" + 63A+2y^zM
t/^+7y^ + Sy^-Uy

^^'

6c2d-28ccP-24cP'

2c3 +

,^

""

8a:*-21a?^

c3-f2c2d-J2ccP-9rfs^

23:3-30-^+1*

to

3a^-l0ax^-7a^x-4a*'

5a^-4x-l

"

5a-e

*"

i*

m^-m^-2m

4y

^*

*^'

3y3

a^+a

#"
'

b.

2a:-2

1
"*""

terms

XIX.

Simplify

The

-^"x^^^"^^.

expression
^

^(^+5)x^|2a-^)
4a3

6(2a

3)

_2a-3
12a

by cancelling those

factors

which

are

common

to

both

numerator

and

denominator.

158.

Rule.

divisor^and

To

proceed

divide
as

in

one

fraction by

multiplication.

another:

invert

the

XIX.]

FRACTIONS.

rrx%

125

d__ad

Example.

d^h

'

Simplify
^

rpi.
The

631^

expression

Xj^o

"

-2a^

ax

."

_3aa?

t^-s*

2a-

aa;

a^

^r-^"r-,

dai^

2a)(2a;
(3a; -2a){2x
-

^a?

2x-^a

a)

-j~j

a{x

a)

{Sx

2aj{^x

2a)

(5;;v 2a)
2a; f

1,

all the

o^^s

"

x-a

=
_

since

be'

factors

cancel

each

other.

EXAMPLES

XIX.

c.

Simplify
"'""

x^ + Sx
r.

'

x' +

2c^ +

3cd^

4c2

9rf2

4a2-12a6

c +

"

2cd

*'

3d2*

12y2

"*

ar" + 4x
ar^ +

"

4'a;

5y-10y3^1-2y

^*

9a?+20^ar"

36-4a
7a;+10

ar' +

08 + 27

Q
^'

a;'-^
+ 3a? +

y^-y-

Id
"*"*"

-5

640^68-1

^4m^

3m2

8w

8a36

a;-7
a^a;

8a2-

a^-7a6

_^2a:g+

1262

30a2

ar^+ aa?-20a'
aa~^ + 9a-a:

^a:g-8aa;+16a'

20a3

'

x^ + 8aa: +

(a-6)^-c^

a^ + a6 +

a2-a6

(a-c)--^-62

(a

examples

Elementary

ac

[For additional

ar!

see

Ho6"

o2-3a6-46"'

sc^-ax-

5a:

a3+a26

a^-b^

16a"

a2
a; +

a^ + 8o6-96"

oar'

"

(a

+
+

loa*^'

6)^-c^
6 +

'

6^j?g-2jP-15

ar^-49

a2 + 6a6-2762

,p
^^*

Sm^-m-2
,p

17.

9*

3a2-5a-2*

a:'-a-Q

^63-56-^+256'

4ar^ + 4a;-15

ft
1
"*"""

y=*+ 6y

2o^-3a-2^.3ag-8a-3
*

25b^

JC3-X-66
^^

12^y2-2y-24

y^-lG
,^

2/?8+ 4/?^pg-5p

,Q

'

'

"*""*""

56-*+246

2^h^

a2-49

6^+125

2'

_^o^~4a-21

a2 + 9a+14'

'

6^-25

"*

'

5a; + 4

6y3

^*

2'

"

'"

aW-'i'

c)2*
Algehra.l^

w+2

m-^
'

XX.

CHAPTER

159.
or

which

The

lowest

resolved

into

factors,

\2a^{a

xf

power

or

it

The

1.

the

L.C.M.

(2)

the

lowest

of

that

Example

Find

2.

each

numerical

occurring

in

lowest

3a^

Qah

18a62
-

Therefore

Example

the

6a^b

is

L.C.M.

Find

3.

9a62

iyz^-xyz)^,
ilesolving

each

y^{xz^
z*
Therefore

the

2a:z8

L.C.M.

ar*)
tx^z^

is

a;)',

is

of

multiple

its

divisible

expressions.

given

a^

6a^b

factors,

9ab^.

have

we

Sa{a

Sb),

2a{a

3h){a

a{a

36)(a

a(a

36)2.

36),

36)

its

{yz{z

i/^xiz^

z^z^

xy^z^z

z^+2xz^

factors,

x)}^

a^)

2xz

of

multiple

common

into

xyz)^

the

y\xz^-3?)y

expression
(yz^

a;)^, 8a'(a

6a(a+36)2(a-36).

lowest

the

6a:^(a

which

common

2a3
a3

factor

into

expression

easily

inspection.

coefficients

2a^-lSah\

9a6,

be

of

each

the

of

multiple

of

power

by

can

x)K

the

which

or

dU-

which

expressions

found

readily

product

of

3a2

Resolving

the

factor

factors,

common

2iaV{a

of

(1)

be

can

lowest

is

consists

of

product

two

lowest
remainder.

without

them

compound

of

of

expression

of

each

by

multiple

the

as

Example
and

divisible

common

given

are

is

the

is

of

multiple

common

expressions

algebraical

mensions

lowest

The

Definition.

more

Multiple.

Common

Lowest

xy^(z

xf(z-x)^.

have

we

V(z

ar^)

x^\

z^{z

x)^,
x){z
+

+x),

x)\

by

every

CHAP.

XX.]

COMMON

LOWEST

EXAMPLES

Find

lowest

the

XX.

1.

a", a^-a\

2.

^,

4.

6ar", a:* + 3a:2.

5.

Y,

9a26-6,

9,

m2-5w

a.

of

multiple

common

x^-Zs?.

3.

4m",

^. ^'^'

6.

ar*-4,

10.

y^

14, a:2 + 4a:-12.

12.

a:^ +

14.

c^-Sca;-

ar^ + g.

Sy*, y^.g^s^

5m-14.

6, ma

6m"-8m"

ifc^-ifc+1,ifc'-l.

8.

6a2 + 2a.
+

127

MULTIPLE.

x^ +

27y8,

xy-^\

11.

a:2-9a:

13.

62 + 95 + 20,

15.

a2-4a-6,

16.

22^^

17.

3a:3_i2a2a;, 4ar^+lGaa;+16a2.

18.

a"c-aV,

(a^c + oc*)*.

19.

(a^a; 2aar^)2, (2aa;

20.

(2a-a2)3,

4a?--id-+a\

21.

2a;2_ar_3^

22.

2a^'-7a:-4,

23.

10a;y(a:S-y3), I5y4(a:-y)3, 12a:8y(a: y)(a:" jr*).

24.

2a:2 + a._6^

25.

6a"

a"-8a

4a:y

16y=,

ar'

3ar*

6a:y + 8y2,

4ar")2.

18a;2, c"-8ca:+12a:".

15, a?-2a^-Za,

12y".

(2a:-3)2, 4a;2-9.
a:3_8a:2+16a:.

6ar"-7a:-5,

7a2a;

Ta-' + llar-G,

Soar',

the

When

160.
cannot

be

finding

the

determined

highest

Find

Example.

2a:* + a:*

The

62 + 5_20.

highest

20a?2

Therefore

3a;"
the

ea:^, lOo^

21aa;

lowest

that

their

be

factors

resolved

factor

of

multiple

common

2a:* + 3a:"

and

7a. + 24

10a^".

is a:^ + 2a7

.Sa~"
-

7a; + 15.

3.

obtain

we

2a:* + aJ^
2a:* +

factor.

common

common

By division,

Uaar*

given expressions are such


by inspection, they must

the

lOa^ic

(7ar^-3a:)2.

20ar"
13a:2

L. C. M.

7a; + 24
7a: +
is

15

(a:^+

(a:"+

2a;

(a:2+

2a:

2a:

3)(2a:a

3a:

3)(2a:2

a:

3)(2ar"
-

3a;

8).

5).

8)(2a;*
-

a:

6).

by

128

LcHAP.

ALGEBRA.

EXAMPLES

Find

the

lowest

1.

ix^-23^-lSx-lO

2.

y^

3.

m^

4.

2x*-2x^-\-x^

5.

Find

multiple
6.
{ax

7?i

yS

and

ar'-y,

24.
_

11m

4:X*-2x^

6.

3x-9,

factor

common

{aiP

8.

gy

6m^

and

lowest

the

m^

^x-Q

highest

{x

3^2

the
of

Find

Find

7.
6a:^

H.C.F.

the

and

the

lowest

common

a^-oi^.

T^fy

multiple

common

Find

multiple
9,

the
of

a^

{a^-a^x^f,

of

{a^

axY,

to

W,

a^-4Jb\

of

product

the
the

and

11,

product

of

given

two

Find
of

the

[Sa^

multiple

factor

common

Find

the

highest
-

2axf,

common

l-ar^-aj^

of

{a^-Acbb^)^,

of

factor

common

2a?x{9a'^

lowest

4ar^),

and
iSa?x

mvltiple

common

additional

examples

see

the

sions.
expres-

lowest

the

the

aH^

of

T^

x^y

Elementary

Algehra.'\

common

Qaoi^,

and

{a? "\-2a^h)\

lowest

IZa^x^

7?y-\-7?\^-\-X}f^,
[For

multiple

common

that

a^-3db^-{-2l^,

common

highest

lowest

factor

common

lowest

the

the

and
show

2abx)\

multiple
12,

and

equal

is

bdb

the

Find

x-ll

highest
+

factor

common

Qxr

L.C.M.

Find

10,

highest
and

5a;-6
and

{a^x

3m2

and

a^-x^.-lOx-

x^)\

of

and

b.

of

multiple

common

Sy^-Sy-9

ZX.

XX.

xy^^

^-y^y

"

130

[chap.

ALGEBRA.

We

163.
those

discussed

already

Example
The

with

begin

Find

1.

lowest

the

the

value

^^"f^^.

?^"?

of

denominator

comroon

Therefore

in

is 9a*.

?f^i2"+a)"l^zi"?

expression

"

9a*

Example

Find

2.

the

^^^

of

value

lowest

Thus

the

denominator

common

^(^

expression

2y)

9a*

^Ez^.

^^^Z^
+

xy
The

of

illustration

further

in
examples
Chapter xii.

aas

ay

is a;xy.
+

^(3y

^)

"

y(3a:

2a)

ttxy
ax

2ay

^xy

Zxy

-ax-

2ay

a"xy

0,

since

the

To

Note.

brackets

in the

terms

in

as

the
accuracy
first line of work

ensure

the

a-2

a-1

-3"+
+

"'

z-x

y^

IT

"

12

3ar"''

"

a;

a:

2x

a:-5a_

za:

ys
2a*

t^

a^

a^-W-(?

-a*

9a'
+

"

3a

2a

ary
a^ + 3a*

-5a

"

10.

a?

a:-v

a^

563

2ay-a:y

4a?

ah-he

i_a
"

2a;y

2a;"

"

Zxy

a^_2a*-a6
"

"3c~

26c
,^
^^*

6a:y-4a:'

J-^"

152^

"

y
,"

'
-

6a

-+

3a"-3c"

"*"'""

^Q
^^'

,,

w-5^
"^

a;

x-y

-3"

m+3

""

35

2m-5

-6-

"

"

"^

"

"

JO^

""

lue

2ar-l

a? +

1-

7fe + 3

6-3

2fe-l

to

a.

3a;-l

o
^-

+^6-

^'

XXI.

^-

recommended

above.

of

value

the

other.

is

beeinner

EXAMPLES
Find

each

destroy

numerator

2a6
2c*

6-c

a^a6

-oc
'

'

d'b

'

be

"^

XXI.]

We

164.
of

shall

lotpest

he written

consider
denominators

down

lowest

Hence,

multiplying

expressions.
always

shoidd

-2a

the

"

is {x

2a){x

by

numerators

a;

a).

and

x-'2a

tively,
respec-

have

we

the

compound

denominators

possible.

denominator

common

subtraction

2a?-3a_2a?-a

Simplify

The

the

and

addition
are

multiple of
by inspection when

common

ExampUh

the

131

FRACTIONS.

OF

SUBTRACTION

now

whose

fractions

The

AND

ADDITION

(2^-3a)(a;-a)-(2a:-a)(a:-2a)

expression
^

{x-2a){x-a)
23^-5ax

Za^-{2a^-5ax+2a^)

2a){x

{x2ar"

3a V

5ow: +

2a;

2a)(a:

(a?
-

a)

5aa?

2a'

a)

a'

(a:-2a)(a;-a)

In

Note.

findiug

the

value

the

will

brackets,

the

remove

be

able

Mmmple

to

2.

take

as

Find

Hence

lowest

done.

After

the

little

and

then

practice

he

^"^

?^^

of

value

denominator

expression

brackets,

steps together.

the

common

in

product

x^-lQ
The

as

2a),

the

have

we

both

expression

an

(2a; a)(a;

first express

should

beginner

of such

is

(Sx+2){x

(a:+ 4)^

(a;-4)(a;+4)^.

4) +

{x-^)(x-4:)

\X

_3a:^

^f\X

"

14a: + 8 + ar^-9a;+2Q

(a:-4)(a:

^4ar'+5a:

4)a

28

"(a:-4)(a;
+ 4)a*
165.

If

fraction

simplifiedbefore

is not

it is combined

in

its

lowest

with

other

terms,
fractions.

it

should

be

132

[chap.

ALGEBRA.

Example,

The

Simplify

5a:y-4y^

/-yV

g^^^-^y'

expre88ion

y^^-'^^^)

_a:^ + 5a:y-4y'_

ar^-16y^
a:^ +

hxy

4y^

4y

a; +

y(a;

4y)

_
"

^^16y3
a^ +

5xy

4y2

4y"

ary +

__
"

a:2_l6y3

^a^ + 4xy
a:*-16y^

ar(a:+ 4y)

a:

(a:+ 4y)(a;

EXAMPLES
Find

1.

the

value

'"

"

x-a

x-o

x-l

ar^-l*

a(a

-^-.

17

"""'"

jg^

",

2a; + y

6)

"

,r;
TVs'

10"
"^^*

2a? -y

ar*-y2'"(a;+yj2'
ay

a?

13.
"^"*
3
r-r---;

a?+y

4a

2^^6^6a"2STF

1_

F+8'^6+2'

;;"

3x(a: + a)

-^i" o+^^^'^
y2-2y-3"^y2-y-6*
36

16.
^''^
6 +

jir.

(6 + 1)2
"~2c

6a-26c

^^^*

ca

a" + 2a

a_

a2 + a-2
a^

00

".

.^

,p
"^"'

x^-4y^'^x+2y

2a;(a:-a)

(aj+y)''

^q

2a

r-rv

^"^^

3a

2a;
"

aj'-a^

4a2-"^

26-4
QQ

^^'

71

l-a"^(l-a)2'

ary-y*
"^^^

-'f

1
i

^'

2'

,,

.,.
(a;-2)(a;+ l)'

-.

14.

a-3

a-3

2'

a-x

"*

a2-4

a+3

D.

"

'

b-2''b

a:-2

3.
"'

a+x

ob-x
a

'

-rt

12.

b.

x^

0"

i*

a(a-6)

a;

'-'
x-4

XXI.

2.
^'

a-2'^a-'6'

4y)

of

1+1

4.

4y'

a:3+i-a.

_^-V_

"**"

ar" + a:y +

l*

1
+

l-

^y^-V
y2+ a^V^

5^.1-

XXI.]

Find

x+2-^.

27.

2 +

The

additional

a;+l

^
x

practice in

^^-^^+'^.

Simplify

expreaaion

furnish

following examples
the simplificationof fractions.

"^

A+
ar*

n,

The

E^n.ple.

29.

n^

166.

133

FRACTIONS.

4+^-2a.

28.

a;-l
1

OF

of

value

the

SUBTRACTION

AND

ADDITION

^-^-^j+g"5

_20(6-l)-6("

l) + 7"

-1)
16(6'-^
216-21

21(6-1)

15(62-1)
167.
two

of

the

Sometimes
the

the

the

of

denominators

finding

at

once.

*~^^

Simplify
S{a-x)

Taking

by combining
simplified

instead

together,

of all the

be

will

Example,

5(6+1)*

15(62-1)

work

fractions

multiple

common

first two

S{a

fractions

^a'^

x^)

together,

3(ci+a?)-(a-a;)

expression
^

x)

a-2x

=
_

8(a*

x')

a+2x

{a

4(a2 + ar")

a-2x

2x){a^

2x){a^-a^)

x^) -{a-

4(a*-x*)
_a^

2ah;

ax^

2x^-{a^-2ah:'-aa:^+2x*)
4(a*

4a'a? + 2a3i^
^
"

ax{2a

X*)

a?)

'^a*^x*)

'

2{a*

X*)

the

lowest

134

ALGEBRA.

[CHAP.

EXAMPLES
Find

the
6

c.

of
3

2-3a?

2a;n

value

XXL

2x

l+2a_3a'

ix^-l'

2a+3c
.

9-6a;

a'

rr

(a+l)^

__L_-__L_
1

1-2

z(z-l)
2

a;
-

(a;-2)2

13'^*

19
J-^-

a2_i-

z(2+l)

(oTI?'

1,1

10

11
"^"^'

(a+1)*

a-3
^

ah

27-12a:a*

6 + 4ar

fl
"*

(a;-a)"*

(a;-a)"

4a:^-9a;
_

Kl.2a,a"
a;-a

*'

'

2-2aa

4a^-9d^'

2a-3c

2a7

3-3a

6c
^

2a

^*

ar"+4

a:-2

3-a

(2+a)(3-a)(l+2a)
y-2

14

(3-a)(l+2a)*

2(.V-3)

y-4

(y-2)(y-4)'^(y-2)(y-3)*

(y-3)(y-4)
1

nf-

2 +

2 + 3x

a?

3a:'

1-x

(l-a;)(2-a;)(3+a:)*

(l-a;)(2-a;)
2

10

1
^

5a

17

a+1
,

6(a2_lj

2(a2+2a-3)

ar-5

IR
"'""*

2a:

ar"-4a:-6

19.

"^

ar' +

3(6

-X)

6a+3*

_3a?-6

2a;

a:-6'

a~" +

b^

_a

a-6~a2

3a2

a^ + b^

ft2"a"-6"*

a6 +

J^-S_

^"*

i2-3x

a:" + 27
1

21.

3*

1
a^ +

a:

22.

4a:y

2xy

y^

a)*

jc^

"

1
J.

2^'^2+i

a:*-2aV+y*'

gar

(a:
"^^^

a;

\x-y)^

OQ

a*

(a:
-

3_
4+a:"*

a)^*
QA

^^

_"
Hl

x)

4(1

-xy

2(1+^)'

XXL]

ADDITION

2a-6

135

FRACTIONS.

OF

SUBTRACTION

AND

2a-3

no

9R

ft^

"

tt

97

^''

a-6

a^

a+6

a;-3_a7-6

OQ
"

a:-6

a;

x-S'

1-1
+

168.

find

To

a+6*

3(a+2)

3(a-2)

a-6

for

meaning

the

^^,

fraction

is

define

we

it

as

"

the

(ar-2)a'

a:-2

a;-4

g-3_

a?-3

30

ft^*

a?-3_a;-l_

no

'^"'

quotient resulting from the division of


obtained
by dividing a by 6, and, by the

"

by

rule

"

this

6 ; and

of

signs, prefixing

+.

^=

Therefore

-^

Again,
b ; and

by
of

is the

signs, prefixing

rule

-^

6 ; and

of

by 6, and, by

is obtained

this

the

rule

(2).

by dividing

the

by 6, and, by

the

A=-?

(3"

enunciated

be

may

of

division

follows

as

and
denominator
(1) If the signs of both numerator
whole
fraction will
fraction be changed, the sign of the

(2)

"

"

Therefore

results

of

quotient resulting from

is the

signs, prefixing

These

division

-=^= -?

Likewise

the

-.

by

from

by dividing

Therefore

(1).
0

quotient resulting

is obtained

this

+?=?
0

"

alone

If the sign of the numerator


fraction icill be changed.

be

changed,

the

of
be

changed,
un-

sign of

the whole

(3)

of the

If

sign of the
fraction will

whole

Example

1.

hj:a

be

{b

changed.
a)

alone

-b

^a^^

-y

x-y

y-x

x-oi^
vt
7
ExampUi.

denominator

the

-^^

-{y-x)
+

-x

a^

x^-x

^.

be

changed, the sign

136

[CHAP.

ALGEBRA.

Sx

Sx

Example

"

4-x^

Example
Here

-4

it is evident

fractions

sign

of the

that

is ar^

lowest

a^, therefore

denominator

the

-?^+?^(^Z^

the

aP-4'

x^

Simplify -^

4.

two

Thus

Sx

3.

in the

expression

be

convenient

first

of the
to

alter

the

fraction.

third

-?^

_^+

denominator

common

it will

^^^^-^1
_

x^-a^

x-a

a{x -a)+

2x{x

a)-

a(3x

a)

~~

"

x^-a?
ax

a^ +2x^

"

2ax

Sa^

a^

a^-a^
2x^

a^-a^'

Example
^

5.

Simplify
^
^

Here

in

observed

finding

that

considered

the

there

; for

L.C.M.

of them

"

{h-'C)(h-a)
of

the

differ

{c-a)(c-b)

denominators

different

six

not

are

three

=;;

{a-b)(a-c)

"

from

compound
the

other

it

three

be

must

factors

to

only

be
in

sign.
Thus

{a-c)
(6

"

a)=-(a-6),

{c-b)
Hence,

replacing the
we

may

second

write

the

and

the

in

each

in the

L.C.M.

expression
^

-{h-c).

expression

{a-b){c-a)
the

factor

Now

-{c-a),

is

c){c

by its equivalent,

(6-c)(a-6)
(6

denominator
form

{c-a){b-c)

a){a"b)

--("-c)-(c-a)-(a-")
=

{b-'C){c-a)(a-b)
-b+c-c+a-a+b
_

ib-c){c-a){a-bY
=

In

Note.
arrange

the

b by c, and

0.

it will be found
convenient
to
examples of this kind
that
that
is followed
is, so
a
expressions cyclicaUy,
by b,
c by a.

138

Find

the

a-b

h^

a+b

a^-a:
1

7^"^.+

{x-a){a-b)

3^.

17

'

h+e

"

o^

20.

2a; +

a;-a

3x+a

(b

c){b

"

'
"

a)

(c

a){c -b)

g-^

l +

4(a

a:)

^^-a:**

2(a:2 ^2)
_

1_

"

2a*
.

2a3(a

28.

{r'p){r-q)

1
Oft

'^'^*

Q7
^'*

4(a:+a)

l +

{q-r){q-p)

c)

{z-x){z-y)'

{y-z)(y-x)

{p-q)(p-r)

Qfi

^-y

"^^^

b){a

1+p
"

(a-

{x-y){x-z)

24

(z-a;)(z-y)

.+

y-g

23

^r"
,-."

(y-2)(y-a;)

(x-y)(x-z)

a:)

2a"(a:-a)

aV^

a:^) 5^^:^*

_JL_-_L_+^^"^+-^-^^5"
^rp

a2 +

62^64-a*

^,+7.^.+-^'
a?-2"^(2+a:)a^(2-a)*

--.

(a

'

a:+2

a^
_

22.

ah

a-3x

x-a

21

a^

-^-,A-+-^+

y-z
_

-i-+.

a-2a:

a+a:

{b-af

2/)(a a?)

,p

J-f

[a-b)^

(a;
-

a^6

ah

ar-z
*

19.

a-b

iig

(6-a)(6-a?)

2a

^^

{a-b){x-a)

2x-l

g-fc

IR

a;)(6 a;)'

1^

(l-a:)2

a;-l

(a

(x-b){a-b)

13.

st^-t/^

%"r,-,

y"-a:"

,2

11

12.

'^"*

b^^W^^

a^ +

a^-b^

ar"-l*

a:-a:"

aha

Q
^

'"

XXI.

of

value

ct

""

[chap.

ALGEBRA.

6)(aa+"")

(y-a:)(y-a)
b^

XXIL

CHAPTER

Miscellaneous

171.

Definition.
are

fraction

fraction

numbers

of

which

is called

the

-,

"

Thus
X

are

the

last

of

these

b and
of

c,

in

the

to

the

as

caJled

are

it

is

and

dy

middle

two

line

to

separate

convenient

write

to

numerator

complex

forms
a

in

proved

ale

his

ir

Simpliflcation
is

the

means.

sometimes

lb

It

quantities,
while

extremes,

the

"r^

172.

outside

horizontal

the

using

denominator,

fractions

Fractions.

the

types

referred

Instead
and

is itself

Fraction.

Complex

are

Fraction.

denominator

or

minator
deno-

sometimes

quantities,

Simple

numerator

and

numerator

In

whose

is called

Complex

-,
0

fraction

whole

Fractions.

of

the

Complex

Fractions.

Algebra,

Elementary

Art.

141,

that

_a

d_ad

a
.

'

bo

d
The

should

student
be

able

should
to

the

notice

write

down

the

lx-=-.
a

"

r
.

,
=

particular
readily.

results
b

,
-=l-i.-

following

cases,

and

140

[chap.

ALGEBRA.

173.

The

illustrate

following examples

the

simplificationof

fractions.

complex

Example

^.

Simplify

1.

a"

The

expre8sion

a:"-rt*

a:3+a"

(a:-f )-f(a;-^j

"

a?*

T^-cfi'

a*

?+^2
Example

2.

Simplify

'^

6^2"o
Here

the

fractions

reduction

above

effected

simply

he

may
below

and

which

6a,

by

by multiplying

is

the

L.C.M.

of

the
the

denominators.

Thus

the

expression

^^t^*~V^
a^+3a

18

"

_2(o"-6o+9)

"(a

Examj^eZ.

Simplify

2(a

6)(a-3)~

3)

+ 6

^Jl::^L-iilt-^
a+o

a"o

a-b~a+b
The

^^^^

ia'-^^)'-ia'-^?

numerator

similarly

the

"

denominator

{a

h){a-h)

4a^b^
Hence

4ab

the fractions

{a^ + 62)(a2

^
"^

62)

4a26a

b)

(a

6)(a

(a

6)(a-6)

(aH62)(a2-62)''

4ab

ah

"a^
Note.

To

denominator

simplily

ensure
are

each

accuracy

somewhat

separately

^aand

neatness,

complicated,
as

in the

above

when
the

the

numerator

beginner
example.

is advised

and
to

XXII.]

the

the

In

174.

Find

Example,

of

value

the

we

from

begin

simplify step by step.

fraction,and

lowest

Fractions

Continued

of

case

141

FRACTIONS.

MISCELLANEOUS

0"^"-

"

24
1-a:
1

The

expressions

4_3(l-ar)

42-2a:

2-x

a?

3a;"'5-a

1-a:
1

8-4a:-3

2-x

2-a:
2-'X
5

"

XXn.

EXAMPLES
Find

1.

the

of

value

-1-.
*+-

2.

-2-.

4^.

3.

^^'.

7.

'ya;
a:~y

11
a:a

-5

i-1-1

y-

le.
3

"

"

"
n-

"

a;

"^^*

"

a:-2+_5_
+

6-2
3

^-i

^
"

fe +

,"

,.

^-^^6T3

^-^"*-?T3
c+d

P^" 1^

6""^

9^

"

4'
Ir

al

a^

1Q

8.

y-3+l^

a+6_6

IX*
I

.^^
1-a

a^

6.

:^-l

6-^

"3

4.

j._c

y
2

5.

a.

a^

^6+6^

x+S

a^b

c-d

6^

x+3

"

ic-

c-d
c

+ d

T/j

1+i
a

19.

0:+-!-.
"-!
a;

20.

a?

a?-3

a;-3

a;-l

1-ab

i+-i^.

"""

i_"^i^LZ^^

c-d

c-d"^c
18.

1 -ah

2"

i..

4-^
ci

142

[CHAP.

ALGEBRA

Find

the

of

value

1-1

"+?

^-^

24.

1"1^

l_.

d^?

"^-^

28.
,

|_3(a-c)

a;-l

as

3a-2c

it is convenient

Sometimes

175.

to

single fraction

express

of fractions.

group

'"lOa:V

lOxV

"2^
176.

"

26.

"

^7j

27.

25.

i_i

Since

lOarV
2ar"*

a:

represents the

fraction

lOarV

quotient of

often

by the denominator, we
may
equivalent form, partly integral and
Example
^

1.

""7,(x
x

ExampU2.

2) +

5^j

a
express
fractional
partly

_5_^

17,3.

3(x+5)-15-2^3(a:+5)-

"

Examples,

+ 2

2ar"-7g-l

that

^gar-l

a?-3

x-3

By

actual

division,

x-S)

2x^

7a;

1 ( 2a:

2a:3-6a:
ar-1

ar

-4

Thus

the

Therefore

quotient

is 2a;

1, and

?^rl^=2a;-la:-3

remainder

the
^

aj-3

H
x+6

x-\-5

x+5

Shew

the

fraction

"

4^

rator
nume-

in

an

xxn.]

MISCELLANEOUS

177.

If

the

denominator,
result

in

be

numerator

we

of

lower

still

may
which

form

whence

the
division,
perform
express
and
fractional.
integral
partly
partly

is

^^^'
'^-^

""

that

"

-"-"

the

division

quotient,

and

remainder

if

Thus,

we

whose

carried

stop

can

fraction

to

on

is the

is divided

to

quotient

-A

"

-t;

a^

four

which

"

terms,

and

remainder

the

most

of

following

1-ar^

a~h

g
*

of

the

thus

if

quotient

x^
are

is
-j..

have

x^^

following exercise

the

fractional

terms

-tt:,

illustrate

Simplify

should

we

ci}^

the

contains

processes

EXAMPLES

ft

be

may
four

x^^

The

178.

a^

quotient
a^, the first

ofi

x^

last

l+3ar"*

the

in

by

aP

a^

remainder

for

divisor.

1 + 3jc3
terms

in

please by taking

we

any
numerator

of terms

=2a:-6a:"+18x"-64a;7+^^^^

The

number

any

term

is the

the

on

at

whose

denominator

carried

we

be

may

the

and

found,

follows.

result

the

Here

our

the

and

division

By

the

than

dimensions

the

^^

Prove

Example,

143

FRACTIONS.

4a6

'^-d^'

x^-l_x^+x^+l
Qt^+x+V
x-l

fractions

miscellaneous
connected

XXn.

examples

with

fractions.

b.

12a^i + ar-l

^l+6a?+ftg"

2a

aa-46a"

a2-a6-263

{x+y?_(x-y)^^

'

sp-y

x+y

144

Simplify the following fractions


n

[chap.

ALGEBRA.

ahx^

hxy

OCX

1/

cy

p
*

aa^+Qcy-aa:-y

\_

*
_

'

x\a-x

a-^Sx)

^
a

Sx'

2+35

9.

7^-6x+S

a:"-9a:+14'

a2-lla;+28

^+"'

1
Sa3a

in

12.

"^

cd{a^

18.

3a^-3(a^-27a;T54)

JL.-1

x-\

-iM

^"^

TT^'
JL.

1-

x+\

\-x

W)+ah{(^+"P)

,-

1
_

a:*

Soar* + 4a*

a:*-aa:*-4a^+4a'*

a'+4

"^-4

17

2a:^ + a?^-3ar

5ieg-8ar-21

2a:"-3a:-9
,

"'"^'

35ar^ + 24a:-35

a:8+ 7a:-^-8a:

g+y-P

20

\\x-y

aa +

^^'

\a;-y

b"-(c-a)g

)-

^ra^-4a

V3a

y
+

x^

xy-'ip

xy

x+y

a^-9

3^/
\a*

^ag-a-2\n

a2 +

"

a^ +

llj*

"*

"

2^^/

2a:2y+2ary*

y/J

c"-(a-fe)^

a-6'La2-4a+4*
"^

\2i

y/

xl\y'^-x^l

gg-l

{r-p){r-q)'

'

(^\y'](

^^

p + g-r

{q-rM-p)

jc +

a^-("-c)8

\y

7ar'+ 61a:-40

r+p-g
^

(i"-g)(2"-"*)

OA

,.

23.

1\

2/.

S^r-9)

~2~

Q9

^l+a:\_l

16.

10

n-t

3a^/

6a"(a; 2a)(a;
-

3a)*

XXm.

CHAPTER

Harder

also

we

which

of

The

others

add

following
the

already
difficulty,

more

by

worked

full

will

serve

as

explained
the

solution

artifice.

special

some

in

will

chapter

methods

sufficiently

trate
illus-

methods.

useful

?^

Solve

1.

this

the

facilitated

examples

most

Example

of

presenting

be

often

will

in

equations

revision

for

exercise

but

the

of

Some

179.
useful

Equations.

??^.
=

of

Clearing

fractions,

have

we

(6a:

3)(a:

6a:2 +

5)

(3a:

27a:-15

6ar"

2)(2a?

7),

17a:-14;

IOa;=l;

.-.

""

To'

"

By

Note.

the
case,

form
the

in

simple

which

the

across

Example2.
^
Multiplying

or

many

above

equation
is

simplification

necessary
"

reduction

miitiplying
Solve

up,"

20,

readily
it

as

given.

is

we

3a;+4

have

8a:+23-??i^^"?l=8a;+12-20,
3a:+4

By

transposition,

Multiplying

across,

31

93a?

124

84

/.

^^^^'

20(5a;

7a;;

ar=12.

2),

be

can

brought

When

completed

sometimes

is

?^-|^=?"+3.i^
20

by

eq^uations

this

by
called.

is

to
the

ing
multiply-

XXIII.]

CHAP.

180.

HARDER

When

they

two

should

ExampU

or

be

?iz^

By transposition, we

and

together

ator,
denomin-

same

simplified.

_??_

?^zi?

the

have

fractions

more

taken

Solve

1.

147

EQUATIONS.

13.

have

8ar-49_^,"_28-(24-5a:).

'T^r^'^^^

"

^:^

3-5a:_4

'

5ag

a:-2*

4-a;

Multiplying

across,

have

we

3a;-5a:'-6
that

10ar=16-4a:+20a:-6"";

is,

3a;

22

X-

-.

..

Example
This
the

^-

Solve

2.

f =^

^
+

equation might be solved

work

by proceeding
The

be

would

be

may

written

(a:-10)+2

(a:-6)

form

(a:-7)

+ 2

(a?-9)

2,

"*"

x-%

x-9

x-1

have
2

2
,

a:-10

gives

"

a;-6

x-9

1
.

a;-6'

x-1

10

a:-

"

x-1

_A

a:-9'

x-1

a:-10

Transposiug,

a;-6

"

*"

which

clearing of fractions, but


will be much
simplified

"

x-\0
we

once

solution

in the

"*"

whence

at

The

^.

follows.

as

equation

by

laborious.

a:-9

(a;-10)(a:-7)""(a;-9)(a:-6)
Hence,

equal
that

since

the

numerators

equal,

are

the

denominators

is,

{x

\Q){x -l)

ar"-17a?

.-.
"*"

9){x

6),

{x-

70

ar"-15a:+64j

16

2a:;

x^S.

must

be

148

[OHAP.

ALGEBRA.

XXTTT.

Solve

the

following equationa

1.

6.

4a:-10*

6.

'

x+7

3ar+7

2a:+r

"

3a; +

42"

14

21

7^^T4

-6

24^^*

8~

2i

14.

1
_

Sx+6'

x+3

x+2

x+l

15.

6'

10

5a;-17_.2a;-ll_23_3a;-7
13 -4a;

18

3^

_
_

3a;-18

a;-4

4a;-16

x-6

2a;+10

6(a;+4)"

16.

3a;+12

a;+6

17.

a?-l_a;-5_a;-3_a;-7
ar-2

x-6

1"

a;-8'

a;-4
'

+.

a;-9

a;-ll^^=lS'

a;-17

1.11.1

19.

2a;-l

20.

fl?-l_
a;-2

21.

a;-l

2"^

2a;-3

2a;-7
a?

7a;+2

10.

_a;-4_a:-3
x-o

a;-

4'

5a;-64_4a;-55_2a;-ll_a?-6

a;-13"a?-14"

x-Q

x-f

3a; -T

9a-22_3a?-5
2a;-6

8a?-19_l_3a?-4

"'^"'^*

"'

8.

8'

4a: +

0.

17a:+3

8a?-l_4a;-3
6a:+2

22a?~12_o

4a:-10

IQ
^^'

6 -5a;

5a?~8_5ag+14'

4x-13'

4.

8a:-6

9.

6ar-17

7^3-4a;
4^^5?
9

x-4:

7.

2.
6x-9

8.

a.

2a;-7

_1

3(a;-l)"3

6a;~l

3"+T

3.

XXIII.]

Solve

HARD"R

the

following equations

2a?-13

5a?+3I_2a7+9_a:-6

oQ

149

EQUATIONS.

'

x+5

x+Q

12a?+l

Qo

a;-5

x-Q

ll-H2a?

ar"-9

[For

a;-3

a;+3

additional

examples

Elementary

see

Literal
the

In

181.

equations

have
involve
will

literal

have

we

numerical

we

have

"a;

oa?

{a+h)x
"

2.

SlmpUfying

Solve

the

-^-

-A-

x-a

x-b

left side,

a{x -b)-

"*"

"

oc,

=:

a^i

"
-

r^?^.
x-c

have

we

h{x

a)

x-c*

(x-a)(x-b)
{a-b)x

_a-b
.

{x

x-c'

a){x -b)

(a;
-

Multiplying

When

supposed

c{a+ c) ^ {x

whence

Example

the

hitherto

quantities.
are

(x+a)[x+h)

Multiplying out,

discussed

to

be

across,

a){x -b)

x-c

Qi^-cx-o^-ax-bx-\-ob^

ax+bx-cx

{a+6-c)"
.

"

ab,

a6;
'"

"
-

a-j-b-c

efficients
co-

equations
known, and

solution.

Solve

Eqnations.

these
coefficients,

in the

appear

Example

been

Algebra.^

c){x+c)

ab.

150

[chap.

ALGEBRA.

Example

Solve

3.

simnltaneons

the

equations

(1),

CKC-ftyaC
px+qy
eliminate

To

g and

multiply (1) by

y,

thus

ctqx

hpx
By addition,

(og

hqy

bqy

hp)x

+
+

"

"""

"

(2).

(2) by h

cq,

6r.

cq+hr;

"

="

ag

"

op

of a; in either of the
might obtain
y by substituting this value
ing
conveniently found
by eliminatequitions (1) or (2) ; but y is more
We

follows.

as

X,

i? and

Multiplying (1) by

(2) by

apx

apx

By subtraction,

(ag

hpy

cp,

aqy

ar.

ar-cp;

hp)y

0/1 +

op

XXm.

EXAMPLES
Solve

1.

the

have

we

a,

following equations

b.

oM+h^^a^-hx.

2.

a:*-a2

(2a-ar)".

3.

a\a-x)-\-ahx=h\x-h).

4.

("+l)(a:+a)

5.

a(a; + 6)-6"

6.

i^x-cP

7,

a(a:

a)

a2-6(a-a;).

h{x

6) + c(a? c)
-

2(a6

dh:+"?,

6c + ca).

10.

ar+(a:-a)(a:-6)+a"+6"s=6+a*-a("-l).

,,

2a;-o_3a;-6_3a^-86'

^o

g-a?_6-a?_a^

'

^Q

ax

COO

15.

^bx

*a-ba

ab

^a

ex

,-

(6-l)(a:-a)

a?4-a
ar

ba^-b^'

-6_ar
64-c

6'

a:

6-c

l"(i"-a:)-?(x-gr)"-p(jp-2)+W?-iy
a
=

van,]

16.

following

the

Solve

ttx+hy

'+l
3
2

19.

equations

simultaneous

17.

b,

x-y-a

cx-dt/

0,

"+y

21.

0,

t-^=^+K

Thus

is

surd

quantities
termed

are

rational

183.

actly
ex-

surd.

irrational

an

surds

be

cannot

quantity

surds.

are

called
not

of

is called

root

""6x4- ay

"2

Eqnations.

root

\/a2TP

sometimes

which

x-y

o^-"^

6y_I_

6a: + ay

Surd

the

indicated

VA

oa:

gg

or

If

^/2, V5,

",

^+^+^=^+^3.

Depinttion.
the

''ty

Irrational

obtained

c.

*+y-^^=o.

23.

2a?--6,2y+a_3a?+y
a+26*
b
a

182.

hy,

^=".

a(a+x)^b{b-y).

OA

ax

x-y

?+|=2.

"+y=6.
22.

18.

2c.

c^+cP,

1-1

20.

a+b.

151

EQUATIONS.

HARDER

for

are,

sake

the

and
quantity;
of distinction,

quantities.

Sometimes

quantity

equations
appears

the

under
the

which

in

proposed

are

radical

sign.

student

For

the
a

known
un-

fuller

BlC'
equations
may
Here
shall
we
a
Algebra, Chap, xxxii.
only consider
mentary
be
solved
ing
few
can
by the followgenei-ally
simple cases, which
of
the
side
to
method.
a
one
single radical
Bring
equation
term
by itself : on squaring both sides this radical will disappear.
in turn
remaining radicals can
By repeating this process
any
of

discussion

be

surd

consult

removed.

Example

2Va;-V4a:-ll

Solve

Transposing,
Square

both

aides

; then

4a:

1.

^/ar

V4a:-ll.

^a? +

4a:

4Va:=12,
^/a: 3,"
=

.-.

a:

9.

11,

the

152

[CHAP.

ALGEBRA,

Solre

2.

Example

2+

Transposing,
Here

cvbe both

must

we

sides

Vx-5

13.

fjx -5

11.

thus

x~5

whence

1331

1336.

Multiplying

across,

have

we

(6Va:-ll)(Vx+6)
6aJ-llVa:+36Va:-66

is,

11

^i^^==?JV^i^

Solve

ExarnpU^.

that

xxin.

V"+36n/"-

Vx

22^/a;

3Va?(2/s/a?+l);

6a:+3Va:,

66,

66,

^/a: 35
=

EXAMPLES
Solve

the

equations

1.

Vi^=l.

4.

2^/x+I

3.

7.

sf]T5x

3^fr^.

9.

N/4a:*-lla?-7

^/6^^2^=7.

3.

V?^=2.

5.

3N/r=2"=-l.

6.

8.

V""-3ar"+7a;-ll

1+

18.

N/4a:+13 + 2V"

IR

2.

2a:-3.

11.

:#:"ii

s/g-l,

"v^a?-3

^/a:+3

~V^

a:.

13.

2n/6x^-7"/x
3

12.

s/x^^=

14.

3+

6a:.

^x-l.

\/l2a;-33

^/g +

0.

N/iT7i+4?

10.

""/"

l/2i.

2\/3S;

Va:4-5

i
_

"^^*

3^/a:-8

2Ja:-3_^^^"S
17.

19.

"/l+4x+2V"

21.

fJ^c+l"

fJx+Ts

-;^.
\fx-3.

22.

3Vx-7*
1^

^g^

hJlzl.2+.

20.

N/g+\^a;-3=^"
^"

V4a;-3-

V"+3

/s/"^

154

"=^+33,

Hence

".
;.

Thus
If

the

the

4 and

is 36

time

will

5 o'clock

take

also

20

gains

13,

33;

36.

there

4.

past

asked

follows

as

be

the

* '

what

At

between

minutes

13

consideration

into

behind

divisions

is 13

a:

nlinutes

be

question

must

we

[caA^.

ALGEBRA,

the
In

hour-hand.

the

when

case

this

between

times

case

hands

two

the

minute-hand

the

minute-hand

"

7 divisions.

or

x=^+'J,

Hence

7
which

gives

a:

7
11

7'

Therefore

the

times

7:^^past

are

11

for

3.

Example
$2.60
at

how

;
a

much

by
gain

of

30

per
did he

the

of

number

respectively

currants

lbs.

of

loss

of

The

cents

on

the

his

the

of

price

the

figs is

"

outlay

pound

of

is

cents.

15a;-f28y=260

loss upon

rants
cur-

outlay

?
in the

cents

cent., and

per

30

each

; then

16a;-f 28y
Therefore

10

lbs. of currants

28

figs and

clears

for

pay

36' past 4^

cent., he

pound

per

X, y denote

Let

figs and

buys 15
figs at a

grocer
selling the

4, and

"

\hx

(1).
and

cents,

the

gain upon

the

is

currants

"

28"

cents

therefore

the

total

gain

is

10

^y-??cente;
6

that

is,

From

28y-6aj=

(1) and

8 cents

cost

Example
two
places,
at

the

will

rate

have

we

pound,

4.
c

(T\

Two

miles

of p

and

the

persons
apart, and

miles

walked

find

an

hour,

before

he

'

that

100

a;=8,

currants

A
walk
and

and

and

B
the

at

start

rate

of

q miles

figs

from

simultaneously
direction.

same

the

is, the
pound.

; that

y=6
5 cents

cost

in

overtakes

(2).

travels

; how

far

XXnr.]

HARDER

Suppose
A

has

walking

? hours;

walked
the

at

and

will

being equal,

times

of

rate

miles

travel

then

miles,

155

PROBLEMS.

has
hour

an

miles.

x-c

will

travel

^^

*in

miles

x-c

walked

these

hours;

in

miles

two

have

we

x_x-c
"

ZT'*

fif

qx=px-pc;

whence

-^^.

p-q

Therefore

Example

5.

Had

rate.

the

speed

miles.

travelled

train

less, the

and

hour

an

had

have

distance

certain

6 miles

been

occupied 4 hours less


journey would

have

-^-

travelled

has

more,

the

hours

uniform

journey

been

speed

occupied

at

the

6 miles

would
hour

an

Find

more.

the

distance.

Let

the

occupied
by xy miles.
'

be

hours

first

the

On

time

of the

speed
be

taken

train

; then

the

speed

In

hours.

miles

distance

supposition

Is y

be

the

hour, and let the time


per
traversed
will be represented
hour

per

this

the

case

6)(y 4) miles.
second
the
supposition the distance
by {x 6)(y + 6) miles.

represented by (x
On

is

a:

distance

miles,

and

traversed

the
will

traversed

will

be

sented
repre-

All

these

.-.

From

these

xy

{x+ 6)(y

equations

(1) and

Hence

the

(2)

we

distance

6y-4a:

24

a:y-6y

6a;-36,

36

6y

obtain
is 720

a;

and

If the
if the

fraction.

numerator
denominator

of

equal

6)(y + 6).

is

24,

(1);

(2).

30, y

24.

miles.

EXAMPLES
1.

4a:

6a;-6y

or

From

("

xy

or

jcy

4)

be

must

have

we

ary

and

distance

for the

expressions

fraction

increased

XXIV.
is increased

by

by

it reduces

5 it reduces
to

find

to

},

the

156

2. Find a fraction
and
its denominator,
If

3.
i

to

[chap.

ALGEBRA.

is added

it reduces

that

reduces

"

to

from

is taken

unity

if 3

snch

numerator

which

becomes

3 from

of

denominator

the

sabtracted

if 7 be

subtracting

on

th^

to

to

fraction

it reduces

to

from

its numerator.
it reduces

required

the

fraction.

4.

Find

and

fraction

subtracting
4 from

5.

If

6.

to

what

At

When

7.

8.

At

9.

what

11.

At

the

26

per
for

he

gave

he

bought.
14.

males

The

and

and

of

11

clock

12

and

minutes

o'clock

apart between

the

hour-hand

six

is the

o'clock

of

hands

the

are

between

right angles

at

read
3 per

gain of
clears $6.76

at

he

$1446

of

the

hands

the

are

loses

he

26

per
; find

baying

certain

20

the

consist

of

females

find

the

$76
at
of

each

cent,

per
the
number

per

and
horses

tlie

price
land

each

33000, of

each

of the

per cent,
animals
many

canvas

of

price

at

for

canvas

and

the

is
of

of

yards
cent,

horses

district

These

of all

cent

and
16

By selling the
$1140 ; find how

write.

nor

in

disease

cows.

receives

he

1 o'clock

of cloth

yards

through

population

16.

Two

miles

apart,

C
persons
and
walk

ana

walked

far

they

can

will A

and
to

mile

one

when

A
16.
gives

how

of

whom
of

835
all the

of

midea

females.

hour,

he

of the

them

neither

can

cent,

20
cloth

spends

each

$20

at

cows

hands

cent,

per

dealer

13.
and

buys

selling
of 20

gain
yard.
at

the

fraction

between

times

person

By

and

1
line

hands

right angles

12.

$36.

the

are

be

will

6 ?

what

at

tracting
sub-

on

between

the

are

and

10

straight

same

of 5 and

watch

clock

minute-hand

time

When

10.

of

between

time
of the

in the

o'clock

10

fraction

certain

denominator

the

numerator

to

denominator.

the

7 to
a

and

5 to the

reduces

6 ?

what

At

hours

adding

numerator

hands

the

are

ahead

watch

and

of 5 and

minutes

the

between

time

together

hours

and

numerator
to

adding

{ on
denominator,

the

from
by ) ; if 6 is taken
" : required the fraction.

increased

watch

the

is added

reduces

1 from

from

simultaneously

start
each

other

hour

faster

; if G walks
far
than
G, how

places

two
p

miles

will

per

have

meet?

walk

start

of

have

per

D
meet

miles
c

miles,

walked

hour

per

and

when

faster
that

he

than
walks

overtakes

supposing
miles

per

that

hour,

XXIV.]

HARDER

A,

17,

miles

+26

and

Find

18,
the

19,
acres

had

$18

cost

did

he

pay

20.

quarters

takes

C
hours

A
he

more

76

cents

did

he

man

buy
A

and

22,
one-half
what

of

his

still

has

The

23.

largest
the

middle

the

other

have

42

been

of

qualities
A

than

of

eighths
how

B
of

$72.50

more

an

per

acre

yard

per

with

field

actual

amount

same

more

rent
and

has
find

than

for
pays

six
the

had

of

and

field

$1.76

per

and

one-fourth

size

of

the

buying

than
acre

acres

fields.

the

per

;
one

of
and

would

area

of

the

area

large,

as

obtains

of

the

total

he

more.

more,

begin

area

twice

of
and

$10,

the

dollar

loses

quarter

they

more

cost

won

twice

each

cents

tons

game

did

in

two

many

one

and

of

yard

how

has

the

size,

the

of

60

ton

wins

been

and

B,

cost

acres

had

tance
dis-

had

acres,
30

by

three-

each

amounts

616

and

hour.

first

he

area

; he

less

much

certain

the

in

what
is

more

if
more

it is ; find

spend

more

acre

acre

how

B,

per

playing,

three-fourths

$28

than

bought

each

than

ton

tons

three-eighths

pays

than

but

second

the

their

spend

each

pays

fourths

cents

dollar

less,
4

exceeds

than

each

cease

fields

half

each

if

money

smallest

the

less

acres

does

much

25,

If

obtains
a

fields

cloth.

and

three

fields

jB, C

A,

24.

of

field.
two

in

they

than

smallest

walking

tons

for

but

more

less

more

of

received

When

area

and

coal
2

playing

money,

$26

had
if

walk

To

hour

an

rates

for

have

are

has.

then

in

perform

can

and

acres

faster

CI

than

of

received

would

he

15

hour

per

their

$90

have

less

increasing

If he

less,

$4

cost

faster

find

pays

would

the

at

journey

hour

land.

obtained

mile

three-quarters
A

of

quantity

have

hour

per

than

more

21,

26

A,
A

by
the

per

how

half

mile

miles

+6,

when

perform

speed

walked

towns

a,

after

overtake

may

have

can

have

would

land

walk

can

of

the

would

he

the

train

of

rates

hours

they

two

certain

acre

more

for

they

starts

then

the

at

more.

buys

each

B
that

between

reducing

1 hour

person

more

will

hour,

per

by
in

journey

the

and

less,

hour

far

distance

the

place

same

order

in

start

how

7 miles

speed

the

respectively.
C

must

instant,

same

from

start
hour

an

after

long

B,

157

PROBLEMS.

fields.
different

yard

less
five-

pays

yard

less

three-

has

pays

but

pays

158

[CHAP.

ALGEBRA.

1.

When

2.

Solve

3.

3,

=-

5,

equations

the

1,

=-

lx-^yS-29:,

(2)

1 =y

value

the

of

3-y;

2(z+a;)

0, find

ly-3a:

(1)

IV.

EXAMPLES

MISCELLANEOUS

3(a:+y).

Simplify
^x^

a-x

fy.

-3a

a^-x^

x-a

6^

6^-36

Find

4.

the

of

root

eqnare

"-30^""-3""-106

f5

6.

In

base-ball

are

one-fourth

are

one-third
5 ; find

the

errors

runs,

and

in the

the

The

runs.

in the

score

c"i

f7

match

of the
of the

f"

in

is

score

first four

the

first four

last five

innings

16, and

the

innings
the

errors

errors
ber
num-

innings.
1

6.

Find

the

-iilz^x^.

of

value

!-_?.+ I
a^

7.

Find

the

value

ax

as^

of

|(a2)-3(l-l6)-|(2a-36
|)+36.4(la-|).
+

8.

Kesolve

(1)

into

factors

3a2-20a-7;

(2)

a*b^-h*a\
J

9.

Reduce

to

lowest

^^ ^^ ^^
"^

terms

4^^^ + 52:2 -7

a?

-2

XXIV.]

equations

the

Solve

10,

(1)

(2)

a:+y-z

T^-T'

0,

dx

x-y+z

^fzJLr+^friZ^r:
/
c

purse

of

receiving

half

12.
remainder

and

sovereigns

the

13.

If

one

divided

is

and

them
and

third

the

Find

ife=

2,

0,

"i

Find

the

(2)

16.

square

root

l-6a+5a2

Simplify

17.

"

; if

given

to

sum

$8
each

is

of

1,

of

ro

find

-3,

value

the

of

Vihk

g2), Mp^-^-pq

to

will

be

17a:

6'

x-'S'

is to
each

q^), 6(i""-g3).

"!"

money

"

x-S~x-9

given
there

number

the

'^
_L

'

x-'i

18.

the

the

12a3+4a".

^
(0\
^

persons,
half
of

of

equations

Find

six.

i5^.^i9^^6^12x^ +

the

Solve

second

of

L.C.M.

15(7)8+ g3), 5(/"a-^g


15.

three

the

contained.

purse

the

+ 2l

amongst
more,

one

fn{l-h)-2hm^+
14.

ar^-10a:

ar^-9a;+14

more,

^=-1,

20;

1.

sovereigns
of

-,

ar"-6x

firbt

5a:+y+a

4,

_^+?__^+2

Simplify

11.

"

ax

,-""

(3)

159

IV.

EXAMPLES

MISCELLANEOUS

be

there

$2

over

divided
will
:

among
be

^3

find

the

short,
number

number
and
of

of

sons
perif $7.50
is
persons.

160

[chap.

ALGEBRA.

19.

Resolve

into

2ar"-3a6

(1)

21.

(a-66)ar;

2x'

result

the

arrange

expression x^
according

Ill the

20.

factors

3x

the

to

ix^

(2)
-

Axy

4, substitute

descending

I5y*.

2 for a;, aivl

of

powers

a.

Simplify

22.

Find

H.C.F.

the

of

3a:8-lla:"+a:+16

23.

in the

Express

5a?"-7a:"-2(te*-llx-a

and
form

simplest

ay

(1)

/a^-1

(2)

a:

y_y+a;

24.

A
as

person
much

of each

amount

26*

95000

possesses

at

3^ per

kind

Simplify

ic+1/

jb+I/

\ar-l

times

\x-l

a^+lUf

'

cent.,

of stock

the

and

stock,
the

3 per
at
cent., four
the
4 per
cent.
: find
is $176.

some

at

rest

his income

when

expression

-3[(a+6)-{(2a-36)-(5a+76-16c)-(-13a+26-3c-5d)}],
and

find its value

26*

Solve

27*

the

when

following equations

(1)

lly-a:

(2)

a:+y-2

Express

1, "

2,

the

3, c^

llar-lOly

10,

3,

a;+z-y

following

fractions

110

6,

y +

in their

4.

;
"-a:

simplest

form

x+-

2-a:

28.

equal

What
to

the

value

product

of

of 6a

will
+

11

make
and

the
3

product
4a

of 3 -8a

and

3a -f 4

CHAPTER

XXV.

Quadratic

Definition.

185

Equations.

An

which

equation

contains

the

square

"

of

quantity,

unknown

the

equation,
If
of

the

the

equation

the

only

contains

unknown

of

Thus

2a;*^"

the

5x'=3
5x''^=20

and

is

an

is

in

which

the

the

the

he

to

first
if

;
"

pure

as

power

it contains

quadratic.

quadratic,

Equations.

Quadratic

considered

be

may

unknown

the

simple

is to

quantity

tion
equa-

be

found.

25

Solve

Example,

x2-27

Multiplying

x^-n
99

9x2

across,

the

x2=36;
of

root

square

676

16x2=576;

.".

taking

26x2

.-.

and

and

quadratic.

pure

square

ratic
quad-

degree.

square

it is said

affected

of

called

affected quadratic

an

quadratic

pure

is

power,
second

the

unknown

Pure

186.

of

both

it is called

square

higher

no

equation

an

or

but

equals,

these

have

we

x="6.

[In regard

But

sign

the

to

For

these

a-=+6,
two

before

the

the

-6,

all

included

in

6.

of

on

+2;=

are

an

square

Hence,

when

equation,
root

of

both

various

gives

"x="Q

the

the

sides,
four

-x=+6,
the
we

two

side.

to

and

write

shows

this

cases

of

the

prefix

the

sides

two

ought

we

cases

"6.

"x=
to

be

necessary.
un-

-x=-6,

already
the

extract

it is sufficient
one

of

that

seem

the

119.]

root

square

might
of

Art.

see

H-x=+6,

x="

sides

sign

quantities

examination

an

and

double

it

x^=^Q,

equation
double

the

extracting

In

187.

to

to

put

given,

square
the

root

double

namely
of

the

sign

XXV.]

CHAP.

Affected

163

EQUATIONS.

QUADRATIC

Quadratic Equations.

equation a;^=36 is an instance of the simplest form


be
of quadratic equations. The
equation (x" 3)2=26
may
of Doth
in a similar
root
solved
; for taking the
square
way
have two simple equations,
sides, we
The

188.

"5.

^-3=

the

Taking

the

taking
the

.'.

the
be

may

a?

sign,

a:

lower

solution

Now

sign

upper

"

is

"

^=8,

given equation (^
x^

written

a?

5, whence

^=

8 ;

2.

"

"2.

or

3)^=26

"

(3)^ 25,

6x+

"

5, whence

0:^-61^=16.

or

Hence,

by retracing our

the

equation

each

side, and

that

learn

steps, we

.r2-6a7=16
be

can

solved

extracting
side

each

the

is that

adding (3)^ or

first

by

square
this

the

root

and

the

to

we

add

left side

makes

why

reason

quantity

added

to

quantity

be,

the

then
9

to

it

perfectsgtiare.
Now

whatever

may

472+2ar+a2=(ar+a)',
a^

and
if

that

so

x',

has

trinomial

unity for

without

a:

equal

therefore, the

is

2oux;-\-a^=(a:-df;

the

square

completed by adding

the

Solve

2:^+143;

The

of half

14

square

.-.

that

is,

is

are

coefficient

given, the

are

of half

term

If,

x.

may
coefficient of x.

the

a:"+14a:

(7)3

a;+7
.*.

a;=

.'.

a;

32+49;

81;

"9;
-7

2,

+
or

9,

or

be

-7-9;

16.

an

of z^ should

of

square

expression is a perfect square, the


always positive. Hence, before completing the

coefficient

the

(7)^.

(a;+ 7)2

When

the

highestpoiDer^

have

32.

.*.

189.

square

Example.

half

its

always

must

of

in x^ and

terms

and

perfectsquare,

we
coejicient,

its
to

"

be made

equal to

1,

square
square

terms

the

164

Example

\,

Transpose

Solve

so

as

*Jx
have

to

7?-%,

the

involving

terms

Thus

ar"-7a:
the

Completing

a:*

square,

7" + (

8.

8 +

Example

Clearing
bringing

r?

of

fractions,

the

terms

Divide

3a: +

12a; + 4

to

is,

a;2+8

^T^

10.

a!"+

13.

a:"+4ar

a?

8.
6.

32.

4-3;

"l;

3,

a:

obtain

we

or

1.

XXV.

a.

3.

(7+a:)(7-ar)

3^-*(^+^"-

6-

(3a:-2)(2a:-f3)

ar"+ 6a;

40.

9.

a:2+35=12a:.

2.

(a?+8)(a:-8)

J.
S"

8.

17.

11

2-

a:"+2a:

1.

1
=

-3;

a:-2

EXAMPLES

1 ;

/.

6a:2.

-9.

/.

(a: 2)2
-

7(a:'-7)

side,

one

ai2-4ar+(2)2

equations

or

Sa:^ + 5 ;

a:2-4a:

the

8,

3 ; then

by

/.

a;

involving

throughout

2-2'

3ar'-12a:

7.

the

3a~"+5

Solve

2.

3a:+l

*'

and

"^

/.

1.

side,

""

Solve

one

on

(^-2-)'
T'

is.

that

positive.

term

square

that

[CHAP.

ALGEBRA.

"v

^./^.

a?(3a:+5)+21

11.

x^-\b^

x,

12.

lla; +

14.

9a: + 36"=a:2.

16.

a:'+ 16a:

12

24.

_,

a~'.
34

0.

XXV.]

QUADRATIC

Solve

the

equations

17.
i(a""+7)-(6-a?)=|(ar'+3).
|"|=^-^.

16.

x-2_

x+S

,"

^-^

20-

190.

We

have
the

this

to

coefficient

Example

that

shown

the

of

coefficient

by dividing

square

All

cases
unity.
throughout
equation

may

by

pleted
com-

be
the

of ^.

I,

Solve

32-S3^

l0a.

3iB2 + 10a:=32.

throughout by 3,

bo

to make

as

coefficient

of a^

/6\^

10

Completing

the

f*'+?"^

Thus

the

^+-o*+(

square,

32

"

"I- "'i
a:=-|"y=2,or-6i.

:.

Solve

25

) ""o''*"q'

"""

ExampUi.

readily be

may

a;^ jg

the

Transposing,
Divide

a!"-4!c+II5_,

,(|

^+2.

when

reduced

""

6"*+lla;=12.

Ua: H

*" +

Dividing by 6,

Completing thesquare, aP+llx+


that

166

EQUATIONS.

(11J=^+
121
.

i*+Io)=iOo'

18.

19

..

a!"-j^"jg g,or-3.
-

unity.

166

[cHAP.

ALGEBRA.

191.

solving

We
an

(1) If
x^ and

then

see

affected
necessary

the

following steps
quadratic equation :

simplijvthe

on

are

that

side of the

one

equation

that

so

equation-,arid

the

for

required

are

the

terms

in

vjithout

term

the other.

091

the coefficient
(2) Make
of x'^ unity
throughout by the coefficient
of x^.

(3) Add

coefficient
of

side

each

to

the square

(5) Solve

the

be

the

positive by dividing
the

equation

of half

square

the

x.

(4) Take

192"

of

and

resultingsimple equations.
the

When

of each side,

root

coefficients

literal

are

the

method

same

maj

used.
Solve

Example,

7"*

Simplifying,
that

7(a:+2a)^
+

2Sax

Sa*

28a"

5a{7x

Sa^

7ar"-7aa:

is,

x*-a"x

or

the

Completing
that

23a).

S5ax

1 15a*

84a2,

I2a\
+

a^^ax+(^j

square,

16,

V^"2/

12a2

"~4~'
a_.A.7a.

^-2-*T^
^

"

.*.

whence

tUK"

Thus

solution.
is the
we

cases

if

only

solution.

it convenient

find

to

the

equations

1, 3a:8+2a:
4.

or

-3a.

hitherto

quadratic

the

there

however,
then

is

(^-1)^=0,

Nevertheless, in this and


say that the quadratic has

roots.

ZZV.

EXAMPLES
Solve

4a,

Sometimes,
a^-2x+l=0,

roots.

two

considered

instances

had

07=1

equal

the

have

equations
only one
similar

all

In

193.

a;

3-lla?

7. 15a:"-6"

21.

4ar".
=

9.

b.

2.

5ar"

5. 21a~"

8*

4a?'

8a:+21.

3.

6a:2-a:-l

2a:+a

6.

10 + 23a:+12a:=

9.

Sar^

Ua:

15.

19a:

=0.

16

0.
0.

XXV.]

QUADRATIC

Solve

the

equations

10ar^+3a:=l.

10.

13. ar"+

2aa:

15a".

16.

116a: + 20ft2

19.

(a:-3)(a:-2)

3a;-.

H.

12a:2+7a:

14.

2a:2

17.

9ar^

7x-3_3a:

a;

it

that

appears

quadratic

every

where

a,

therefore

6,

we

can

by

2a2a:a

Ix+l

lc{2h

after

see

Elementary

From

aa;+l.

10).

3a?-l_2a?-9

2(3

be

can

the

reduction

aa^ + 6^
a;^+

2a:)

written

_^

"

"

preceding examples
and
transposition
in

the

values
can

form

whatever.

solve

any.

_.

--j
\2a/

4a^

b^

(^+i)'=

"

4ac

4a^

square

5a:).

Algebra."}

have
numerical
may
any
solve
this quadratic we

a,

extracting the

0.

(a:-2)2.

suitable

equation

is.

^^
2

that

3(3a:a+lla;

.^+iF

Formula.

Transposing,
dividing

18.

6ca:.

a?

(a:-4)(3a:+l).

examples

by

3ar" =

qa

Solution

15.

ar-1

27. 3(2a:+ 3)2 + 2(2a;+ 3)(2-ar)

194.

I5aa:.

26.

[For additional

20a:2

2a;(2a;+ 3).

qq

28. (3a:-7)"-(2a;-3)2

12.

20. 5(a;+l)(3a:+5)

?^=?-5.

25.

143c2

12.

Sa^

2(ar"-4).

21. 3a:a^i3+(a._i)(2a;+i)
00

167

EQUATIONS.

root,

b_
2a~

"V(6"-4ao)
2a

6"V(6'-4ae)
.

'

; thus

If

168

[chap.

ALGEBRA.

195.

In

it must

be

of

cannot

of

do

make

It

6'^

expression Jih^ Aac)


quantity h^ 4ac, taken as a
unless

know

we

In

5jb^

13a; -11

such

is the
whole.

numerical

these

values

the

case

exact

determined.

be

0.

therefore

c=-ll;

the

that

happen

perfect square.
equation cannot

6, 6=-13,

"

of the

Solve

Example.

"

sometimes

may

Aac

"

solution

the

the

5, o.

a,

numerical

Here

that

compound
simplify the solution

values
not

^^''f"" JQ"^'^)

result

remembered

root

square

We

the

the

by

formula

have

we

^-_("13)"\/(-13)^-4.5(-ll)
2.5

_13"n/169+220
10

13"y389
^

10

Since

has

389

thus

simplified;

not

exact

an

the

two

13

Solution

obtaining
found

the

of

solution

shorter

than

Consider

the

Clearing

of

either

of the
^

equation

fractions, 3^

by resolving the left-hand

-a:

if either of

zero.

the

the

Hence

3:r

method

one

will

be

already given.

2.

into
+

(1);
factors

we

have

3)=0.

2, a?+3

"

of

sometimes

7^-6=0

side

factors

still

which

methods

(aF-2)(a?
Now

is

Tliere

quadratic

'

lO

Factors.

by

be

cannot

^/389

"

10

196.

result

are

V389

13+

this

root

square

roots

be

zero,

is satisfied

quadratic equation

their

by

product

either

of

is

the

suppositions
aF-2=0,
Thus
It

the

appears

roots

from

orjF

3=0.

"3.

are

-,

this

that

when

quadratic equation

has

been

brought to the form of equation (1),its solution


simplified and
if the expression on
be
the left-hand
can
readily obtained
always

170

[chap.

ALGEBRA.

Example

Form

2.

the

whose

equation

roots

and

are

3,

x^-Sx^zS.

6.

Sa^ + 7x

9.

12a:2 + io

Here

ora;

a,

--;

the

.'.

that

{x-a)(x+ ^]=0;

is

equation

is,

{x

a)(Sx

6)

^-3ax-^bx-ab

or

EXAMPLES
Solve

1.

ar^+ 2a:-3

4.

32-5-20;

7.

4ar*-14

Solve

ar*

1.

5.

2a:2-9a:

3a:.

8.

6a^-3'7x

resolution

by

ix^- 9x^90.

13.

2ar"-3a:

16.

5ar5-lla:

19.

12a:2_

21.

24a;2 + 22ca;

2.

+ 2

2,^2,2.+ 1062

the

2a;(a:
+ 9)

24.

(2a;-l)2-ll

25.

6(a:

4.

ar"-lla:=:152.

14.

3x^+5x+2

17.

a^-a^^O,

23a?.

0.

12.

ar"-85=12a:.

15.

4ar5-14

a;.

18.

ix^-7ax

SaK

20.

3ast^+2bx

22.

JC^- 2a: +46

0.

1x.

26a:.

6a: +

(a;-3)3.

x){x

1.

2) + 6ar"

6(2a:

1).

27.
2a:-la:+la?

^-?=-^".

29.

JL
+

^^+jy

'^-"|+1(^)=3.
--3
6
a: +

a;

"

-^-"^

3ar

e,

a;-4a;a;-5

80.

0.

a;-6a;-6

28.

c.

0.

11.

0.

(a:+l)(5-a:).

2)2 + 13(1

2a:

21c2.

equations

23.

28.

0.

factors

into

2.

0,

XXV.

equations

0.

10.

Solve

the

formula

by

2.

"

3("+6).

"

"^"^

31.
'

83.

3(a;+4)

"3-5-6-

XXV.]

Solve

the

equations

3a!-

"+8

o"

41.

=2.

(X- !)"=

examples

a:

the

from

If

Eqnations.
and

value

of

either
of the

one

of the other, then


stitution
expressed in terms
by subobtain
second
a
quadratic which
equation we
of
methods
the
by any one
explained in this

be

can

be

involve

0/

AlgehraJ]

Elementary

see

Qnadratic

which

equations
in

(*-'Y".
\c

Simultaneous

miknowns

"

additional

two

may

2(a:-l)

x-b

198.

-^

ar'-l

0-a

x-a

[For

""

12

.Jk.+

37.

-5-+

40.

of

""+J+#^="

86.

171

EQUATIONS.

QUADRATIC

the

solved

chapter.
Solve

Example,

the

simaltaneous

4a^+Socy-2y^

6a?+7y=l,
the

From

first

equations

equation,

"

="

^,

and

lO.

by

therefore

substitution

second

in the

equation,

have

we

4(l-7y)^
whence
that

66y

is,

3y(l-7y)_go-,io.

196^8 +l%-105y2-60y2
4

0 ;

y2-y-6

0;

(y-3)(y+2)

0;

41y

/.
.-.

.'.

From

the

first

equation,

we

3,

see

246

or

-2.

that

if

y=3,

260;

then

a;=

4,

"

and

2, then"=3.

y="

Homogeneous
199i
y=mx
x

and

The

most

in each

obtain

convenient

of the
a

Equations

of

method

given equations.

quadratic

to

determine

the

Same

Degree.

of solution

By division
the

values

is to substitute
eliminate

we

of

m.

if

172

[c^AP.

ALGEBRA.

Example.

Solve

Put

and

mx

equations

Bimultaneous

the

substitute

a^^(5+ 3m2)
and

ir2(l-m+2m2)

By"^ division,
that

-^^"

(1) Take
From

3 and

m=

32

mx

.*.

Solve
+

3y

x-2y

9,

6.

3a:

mx

2.

5.

8.

a:y

a:

11.

16.

3.

(1).

Thus

x="2.
+

2.

2,

2,

3.

6,

=9,

+y

---

d.

14.

3a:2+7y2=55,
=

9.

a:"+2a:y+2y2

a"*-9ajy-y*

17,
119.

5,

6x^-xy

2.

2a;-5y

=1,

"-|

=3,

a:y-y2
12.

3.

4.

^-1=1.
''-I-'-

16a:y-3a;2= 77,

15.

7a?y+3y2=110.

60.

2a:+y

x^-Sy^==1.

9.

l-t-

14-'7a:y

3aj

1.

"

XXV.

3a;-4y

(2).

or

10a:y=l.

24.

1-^ 2.

(1)

whence

3xy-y^

29.

0;

"

in

xy

1,

--y=

2x2

16

a;=

equations

3,

ar"+42r'

13.

-^ 5

t"

whence
=

32

simultaneous

the

xy

10.

(2).

either

EXAMPLES

16

-1.

in

l)

or

substitute

1 and

Sa^

4.

"

3,

substitute

/.

(2) Take

"i

S2x^

(1),

a:

(1),

2/71^

7n

(w-3)(m
.*.

1.

32

wi2-2m-3=0;

is,
/.

'

=
=

'

Thus

equation.

each

in

XXV.

17.

21ar^ +
6a?2 +

2ar" +

Sy^

143,

8a:y + 3y3

195.

3a:y-y2
3a:y+5y2

371,

266.

XXVI.

CHAPTER

Problems

200.

Leading

shall

We

quadratic

to

speed

hours

two

time

1.

been

less

travels

is

the

give

rise

uniform

rate

would

journey

if the
taken

have

train.

the

at

at

the

more,

of

rate

miles

300

hour

an

the

train

occupied

travels

train
miles

find

the

Suppose

which

problems

some

equations.

Example
had

discuss

now

Equations.

Quadratic

to

of

rate

miles

per

the

then

hour,

hours.

300

supposition

other

the

On

the

is

time

ar

a^

whence

750

5x-

0,

0,

25,

(a:+30)("-25)

or

.*.

the

[For

miles

25

30.

or

the

hour,

per

negative

value

did

he
be

2.
all

$2.52

Let

the

is

but

the

buys

man

two

buy

the

value

negative

see

at

of

number

articles

apiece

cents

for
than

more

$2.40,
they

and

cost;

sells
how

number

cents,

"

and

articles

of

sale

the

bought

then

is

price

cents.

"

x"2

252

240
_o.

.
"

"

"

^A

-^-~

"

X'-2

thatis,
^

of

meaning

Algebra.']

Example

many

of

explanation

an

Elementary

each

travels

inadmissible.

being

for

train

300_300_2.

Hence

hours

m.^m^i.
x-2

the

cost

price

of

174

[cHAP.

ALGEBRA.

After

simplification,

6a; + 240

a:2-8a:-240

OP

thatxa,

(a:-20)(a:+12)
/.

Thus

the

number

A
Example 3.
larger pipe

cistern

cistern, find

Suppose
in

and

a;

in what

that

the

0;

20,

be

by

or

; then

they

filled

by

each

fill (

will

and

minute,

one

) of

"

the

in

of the
a:

Thus
The

the
other

smaller

0,

(a:-75)(3a:-20)

0;

75,

pipe

solution

running together they

75 minutes,

6".

or

the

larger

60

minutes.

is inadmissible.

6"

it will

Sometimes

201.

takes

cistern

15

3a:(x-15),

.-.

"

100

1500

cistern

^,

100(2a:-^15)
3a:* -245a:

fill the

would

minute.

-15

a;

fill the

pipe singly.

and

when

one

1+_1^

Hence

to

therefore

cistern

in 33} minntea

smaller

the

singly
fill

will

pipes

respectively in

12.

two
than

pipes running

two

15 minutes

it will

time

0;

2ar,

less

minutes

15

filled

be

can

takes

a:^

is 20.

required

if the

a;

be found

convenient

to

use

than

more

unknown.

one

Nine

Example,
of
second

the

side

the

of

one

foot, and

by one
square
exceeds
twenty-nine

square
foot : find

square

Let

times

second

the

length

of

times

side

exceeds
square
the
six times
the

of each

area

the

area

first

meter
periof the

by

y feet represent the sides of the two


is 4y feet ; thus
of the second
square

squares

9a:-4y=l.
The

areas

of the

two

squares

are

t^ and

6y"-29ar"=l.

one

square.

feet and

perimeter

of

the

square

feet ; thoft

then

XXVI.]

PROBLEMS

LEADING

QUADRATIC

TO

9a:"

From

Bubstitntion

By

that

first equation,

the

in

the

second

is,

(a;-6)(ll2;+ l)

whence

a;

the

5,

value

negative

Also,
Thus

the

lengths

?^

Find

2.

Divide

number

which

into

16

05
inadmissible.

ll.

ft.

11

XXVI.

is less

two

0,

EXAMPLES

1.

1
"

being

and

5 ft

are

"

equation,

lla;2-54a;-5

or

175

EQUATIONS.

than

such

parts

by 72.

its square
that

the

of

sum

their

squares

is 130.

Find

3.
squares

equal

Find

4.

numbers

two

is

to

Find

5.

such

the

that

of

sum

their

233.
which

number

reciprocal of the

differing by
when

increased

by

is 68

13

times

the

number.

numbers

two

differing by

such

that

their

product

is 330.

6.

The

length,
7.
its

breadth
the

and

One

8.

of

Find

is 13
two

is 374

area

side

diagonal

of

rectangle is five yards


yards : find the
square
is 7

rectangle

yards

find

the

longer

yards

shorter

than

the

sides.

than

the

and

other,

area.

consecutive

numbers

consecutive

even

difference

.the

of

whose

procals
reci-

is s^,

9.

Find

two

numbers

difference

the

of

whose

reciprocals is 7^.
The

10.

is

numbers

11.

he

12.
pace

walk

per

find

them.

-^^^ :

the

bought

farmer
he

than

more

buy

of

disease

through
each

difference

certain

lost 10, but

he

gave

reciprocals

for

of

two

of

number

consecutive

for

sheep

by selling the remainder


them, be gained $75 :

odd

at

how

75

$315

cents

many

did

By walking
hour, a man

29|

miles

what

three-quarters
finds

that

is the

he

of

mile

takes

ordinary

more

\\

rate

hours

than

his ordinary

less than

usual

to

176

[CHAP.

ALGEBRA.

13.
less

cistern

than

cistern
could

filled

be
A

14,
been
twelve

The

find

wheel

the

small

boy

cent

dozen

per

the

boy

lawn

A
round

width

of
out

which

the

running
the

in

cistern

had

they

two

for

more

?
foot

one

in

more

ference
circum-

less

revolutions

48

per

wheel.

each

worth

cents'

12

to

consequence
market

the

if

that

bought

makes

buy

to

had
than

more

and

have

is

carriage

wheel,

master

both

in

calculates

and

eggs,

of

are

utes
min-

price.

pay
How

He

apples.

of

the

at

of

rate

apples

many

did

buy

17,

dozen

sent

was

his

taps
time

the

in

pipes

two

pipes.

circumference

and

two,

the

the

find

he could
cheaper
the
price per dozen

is

large
the

16,
ate

of
a

what

than
mile

each

dozen

per

When

minutes

buys

cents

16,

by

man

cent

in

of

larger

the

by

smaller.

the

by

filled

is

filled

be

can

XXVI.

feet

45

it ; if

and

long

the

of

area

40
the

broad

has

is 60

path

uniform

of

path

find

yards,

square

its

width.

18,
a

finds

woman

she

Four

the

length

the

the

person

money

22.

of

their

23.
the

by

is 280

greatest

of

the

5^

is less than
times

second

the

by

did

each

of

more

the

perimeter
of the

area

feet

9 square

the

four
is

less

than

that

find

their
of

the

than

first
find,

by tha

by

the

price had
interest

more

is 1008

square
the
and

other,

froir.

feet

on

the

difference

sides.

which

the

by

second
If

9.

is

than

greater

the

product

the

product

of

all

numbers.

the

integers

represented

the

third
find

greatest,

consecutive

the

of

if

i)er cent,
stock
?

one

buy

rectangles

two

numbers

three

and

he

stock

cent,

per
received

is 3 feet

times

Find

24.

square
eleven

much

how

two

have

of

are

one

dozen

per

did,
does

square.

price

is 8 feet

There

of

area

some

would

breadths

first

three

its

buys

area

one

less

feet, and

each
of

what

at

The

length

two

its

$5 less he

his

cent

formerly

she

that if it be divided
digits such
if 27 be subtracted
digits the quotient is 7, and
order
of the digits is reversed.
(Art. 111.]

number

been

of

number

of

21.

side

the

side

Find

product

of

of

gets

than

cent

by 12
square
five times
the

than

20.

she

for

apple

more

dozen

times

secoDd

is less

one

that

get per

now

19.
of

selling

By

such

number

that

which

has

the

two

of

the

least

for

digits.
25.

Two

and

"

reaches

trains

which

and

260

miles

Z' in 4" hours

after

are

start

simultaneously

apart.

they

meet

reaches
:

find

the

from

in

rate

two

stations

3f hours,
of each

and

train.

178

ALOEBRA.

13.
and

Add

3(25
14.

Find

2(36

a)

what

3 exceed

2a; +

a-{6+c-

together
a)

the

+6)}+c,

(a

value

of

product

of

make

will

1 and

a;

6"+8-125c"+306c

15.

Divide

16.

Simplify

2(3a+25)-4(J+2a)-c,

e.

the

2a; +

of

produat

by

a;

+3

and

14.

6-6C+2.

by

13aW

87c*"P^266cd.

,,.

/ ahcc^

2aa?

a^hx

a^hh^

.n\
_

17.
times

18,
and

as

will

old
old

his

as

bought

two-thirds

a
son

that

for

man

be

then

aged

certain

of

twenty-five

at

How

12

in

m
x

of

cents,

gained

at

pears
for a

four

at

18

years

ago

was

years

number

number

who

years

three

cent

How

cents.

for

cent,

selling

by

many

pears

them
did

buy?

19.

Solve

the

equations

lIz:3"_4"+2^5_g^^7x+U.

(1)

g"y.3g-6y^o

(2)

^+1.=1.

^^24
20.

Divide

21.

If

find

the

22.
and

the

horses

value
Find

lowest

had

60

24.

of
the

Also

23.

ahfi +

If

Z=13a-66+9c,

and

(2ac

b^

worth

are

of

each

value

of

divided

boy

r=5a+46-6c,
calculate

of

26

2ab^c

362

amongst

cents.

vahie

12a'6c^

sheep,

b^d
150

'''^'
6a'^b^^

children.

many

7c,

r-(X+r)

15a^6*;

18ac*.

-^-

+
of

worth

$2.

Sa^b^c,

How

X=-3a-96
the

are

iab'^c^, I2a^b,

-"^-

$49

bx\

cows

is worth

factor

common

18

az*-^c-

and

sheep

multiple
the

c^ by

x* +

h cows,

when

highest

gentleman

cents,

14

horse

common

find

'

Each

boys

were

girl
there

r=20a+76-6c,
+

Z.

MISCELLANEOUS

25t

Solve

the

equations

3(6

m
^

EXAMPLES

_
""

50

Find

a?

a2-a-182;
4, y

3, find

28.

The

29.

4a;+2y+z

as

and

When

money
much

find
;

; after
as

money

much

How

30.

Find

the

square

31.

Find

the

value

to

is

had

of

root

(a;+ 2y)' + (3a:+ zf, and

play,

wins

time

of

one

other.

sit down

B.

the

value

the

expressions

of two

product

is

1.

V3{a:(ar"-z2)_i|.

Vi^iv" '2^)'X^}+
of them

2a:

8a:"+13a;-6.

(2)

5, and

a:)

of

factors

(1)
If

i(y

the

'

125

a:+l,
^(a:+y)

(2)

27.

'

26.

36

3a:

63a:

5a;)

179

V.

has

$15,

and

each

at

two-thirds

then

he

as

much

twice

has

as

first ?

16a"+4a+4-

16a8+a2-8a*.

of

^{z-l(x-3)}{x-p+2)}{.-l{"-l)},
and

subtract

the

result

from

Find

the

square

root

32.

a:*

(a:+2)(a;-3)(a:+4).
of

2x^

Ux^,^,

4-X-36~'^'''^i6'
If

33.

2a

35

Separate into

34.

Solve

the

(1)

36.
and
same

to

farmer

another

sum

what

value

their

sells

to

a:"-4a:y"-a:V+4y".

(2)
:

one

and
the

factors

simplest

(a:-l)(a:-2)(a:-6)

6 horses

of

Oa^

equations

was

the

1, find

x^-xy-Qu^;

(1)

35.

4c?

(a;-3)";

person
13

price

cows

of

each

horses
the

at
?

same

and

cows

prices

for $375,
and

for the

180

ALGEBRA.

37.

When

3, 6

Solve

38.

the

l + I-

(2)

6a:+3?/

7a:*-4ar"-21a:

From

42.

Find

distance

value

the

he

from

45.

can

miles

47*

places

if its

3^

speed

for

hours

the

{x~a)(x-b){x+a+b),

of

i^+Sxy-l

6a:2_5a;+x

3,
"

72-^+23:

3jc"+

by

minutes

from

Find

from

walk
an

the

at

and

sc+y-l,

the

extract

square

longer

Find

to
he

rate

for

and

back

walks
of
the

miles

double

in

the

at

hour

an

time

certain

rate

journey.

of

miles

from

What

to

at
an

A^

is the

to B^

highest

the

the

Solve

^
If

hour.

factor

common

1x*'l0aa^-^3a^x^-4a^x

46.

take

5 hours
take

the

x^+Sx+2

/?, and

to

10

requires

distance

in

it would

between

5ar-3^3ar"-10ar

a^ +

man

of 4

rate

hour

and

a:*-3x"+iiK34.2a?+^.
A

44.
the

6a!^-\-2a!^~l5x-6

of

places

two

hour,

an

x{x-j-a-h)(x-a+b)

I^ivide

of

9y+90.

factor

between

x^-9x

root

10a;

common

3 miles

is the

2ar" +

43.

of

120,

highest

by

what

41.

value

1=7.

travels

increased

journey

the

12.

coach

40.
were

7, find

b + 2c

equations

the

{c-(3c-26)+26}.

(1)

Find

39.

a-c

4c +

(2)

2,

equations

4a\

of

8.'r*-13aa:"+6aV-3a"a?

(1)

l(2x-57)-6;
.-(3x-?"zS)

(2)

a:-2y+z

the

lowest

0,

common

9x-8y-j-Sz

multiple

of

0,

2a;+3y+5z

36.

3a\

MISCELLANEOUS

when
is it

expression ax-^Zb

The

48.

is 7

a;

equal

49.

is

is its value

what

to

Find

equal

when

to

'when

30

is 1 ; and

a;

181

V.

is 3, and

value

for what

42

to

of

zero

lowest

the

4(a2
Extract

50.

EXAMPLES

the

12(0^2

ab),

4ar"

h^),

12a:

62),

^IGa"

24a
OK

a^

lS{a^

of

root

square

of

multiple

common

x^

61.

Beduce

to

lowest

terms

12a?* + 4a:"-23a:"-9a;-9

8a:*-14a:"-9

62.

Solve

equations

2a:-y+3z=l,

(2)

53.

the

4a;+3y-2z=13,

6a?-4y

20.

Simplify
d'b-b^'

a-^b

h
1

(2)
ar"+8a:+15
The

64*

of the

sum

reversed

the

Find

number.

the

55.

Solve

digits of

two

number

new

the

a:2+lla;+30
a

number

is four-sevenths

equations

of

is 9 ; if the
it was
what

(1)

^y^^l^^l.
4a:-|(6y-4)=l,

(2)

3a;+4y-ll=0,

66.

Find

the

5y-6z=

value

of
2

3a?

67*

Resolve

into

(1)

factors

a-x

a
_

72-8a:-13=0.

-8,

ar*-a*

(a

a:)^'

a:"-2a:*+JB"{

(2)

a"+a*-a"-l.

digits

are

before.

se

182

ALGEBRA.

68f
One

rode

later

per

^wo

the

hour.

60.
divide

the

at

than

69i

started

persons

the

Find
each

What

63.

Find

9y"

15yz

Ifea

5z^

factor

of

ftr*-2a:5+9a:*+9a:-4

and

highest

will

the

Simplify
^

make

the

How

"

many

which

will

exactly

9a?*+80a:"-9.

expressions vanish

these

"

0.

X'2

_\hx^+%xy-\2y^
3y*

35x2+47a:y+6s^

of

value
x

2a

the

cents

eggs

16a6

"ahnaj-^^
oTF

4l^-tx^'

x-2b

10

B t

of

x+2

14ic2-23a:y

five times
at

hour
miles

25z"'

3^1-5^

x-l

egg-dealer bought

and
per
score,
sold
whole
the

an

of 30

B.

6^-5a:y-6y"

a;+26
An

both

equations

^'

half

rate

to

{"*.^.)(5")'
factor

of

the

from

16a:*

dimensions

highest
expressions

x-2a

66.

and

common

value

Find

6igy

(2)
'

65.

between

9y'

64.
"*"

at

lepi^

the

the

Solve

train

4x*_x_

"

62*

by

go
arrived

of

root

to

and

hour

per

distance

time

same

travellea

square

the
of

miles

7i

who

is the

What

Find

of

rate

other

the

at

did

per
he

certain

number

dozen,
buy ?

number
at

75

cents

of

eggs
per

gaining $3.24 by

at

16

hundred
the

cents
;

tion.
transac-

he

MISCELLANEOUS

If

67,

-l,

-2,

EXAMPLES

-3, rf

a^-b^-ahc

a?-2

2c

bc-2ad

simultaneoiiB

the

Solve

y-f 12

x-y-l

x+y

ad'

equations

of

value

h + c-da

2a^^(il^-3ahc_a-

68.

find the

-4,

183

V.

_
"
"*

14

5(y+l)

g+7.y-5_|
the

Simplify

69i

fractions

(y-g)"

x-y_^x-z_

(1)

'

"-"

(z- a:)(y re)

sc-y

"?-^

1-1

a?

"

..

70.
$50

put

IB'rom

was

taken

find

the

71.

certain

in its stead.

If the

its stead.

Find

the

lowest

Solve

the

equations

amount

a*+3a"c

+ 3aV+ac".

-225

'36

-OOay-lS

-150: +
"03

'2,

7-2ar'

10a?+^
m
^'

,ll~5ar

'9

4ar-3i

"

14(a:-l)""

21

'

15

SimpUfy
a:"~4a:-21

a:'-h6a;'-247x_^a:"-20a:+91
^
'

a:

What

must

7?-x-\2

17
be

the

value

(o

of
+

a:-4
ar

in order

2ar)"

a2 + 70aa;+3a;*
may

be

was

"135a:-

74"

was

equal

to

1) when

is

equal

to 67

that

taken

one-fourth

multiple of

common

4a"-8a*cH4aV,

(1)

73.

part

increased

thus

sum

original sum.

(a*-aV)2,
72i

the

$70 put in

and

one-third

of money

sum

From

now

and

part

$120,

184

ALGEBRA.

75.

Find

"x^+2T

the

on

78.

equations

(2)

(a

farmer

he

five

of

sold

Find

the

b)x-'ay

bought

them

for

find

value

he

the

H.C.

Also

the

L.C.M.
the

the

Solve

(1)

t^

$30.

per

He
cent,

bought.

.ty.
^
'

'

of

2a

'StT'
2o-66

2a

of 21a:8

F.

Zb

36

-3^

2a

a^J-^a

ea^a^

26ar" + 8a? and

2a2ar.

a^-lx^+Qx.

aar"+2a4C-3a,

x^-x,

ah^

expression

c)(a-6

sheep for
profit of 20

2a~()6

x-y

Find

Simplify

made

2a

a^-^_ar

(a+6

81*

$27,
many

a*,

of

number
and

ahy

"

of

a:a+y2

80.

certain

'

h){x-a-h).

{a? + h^)x

a\

how

a?+y

l\\

{a

_x+y

x-y

79.

a{x-a)-h{x-h)
+

8x^+27,

of

multiple

common

and

6a^"-5a?-6.

(1)

all but

those

the

lowest

16a:^+36a:^+81

of

factor

common

the

and

81,

Solve

77.
sold

find

and

16a:*+36a:"

76.

highest

c)-{(a+c)"-6"-(a2+62+c2)}.

equations

I+"_2^=3y-6, ^+4^
*

18-6*;

"

"

(2)
3ar-2

82.

the

Extract

2a; + 3

l
root

square

of

+5.

83.

Find

value

the

of

0+6

84i
silver
coins.

a-b

bag contains
of $144.
Each
each
coins, and
How

many

180

gold
silver

coins

are

46^-6a"

4a"+663

4a+66_^6a-46

a^

a^-b^

gold

and

coin

is worth

coin
there

silver

as

many
of

each

b^

coins

a.s

a*-b*

of

cents

as

value

the

cents

many

kind

206*

as

there

there
are

gether
altoare

gold

186

ALGEBRA.

95.

five times
my

as

Find

the

replied,

age

but

twenty

Ten

"

I was
years
ago
he will be half

hence

years

age
of

value

?^

his

son,

my
is his

What

age."
96,

being asked

person
old
as

\{a-x){a

x)

'^

L)x

+-L"
x-a

..

a)

x-aA"

97,

When

4, 6 =-2,

1, find

=-

the

value

of

a"-6"-(a-6)8-ll(36+2c)(2c"-^V
98.

Find

the

of

root

square

99*

Solve

the

(1)

equations

2^

J^-

2;

Simplify
V
J

3y)-3(a:

y)

2(a: + y-l)-(l
What

101.

3x2+

(2)

22a?

493.

2a;-l

x-\

100.
aw.

value

of

will

make

2y"

a;)

the

of

sum

J^~\^
2(a-6)

equal

to

102.

man

returning by a
7i minutes

104.

"*" ^^

3(a

6)

2 ?

takes

103,

and

Find

place at the rate of 8 miles an hour ;


road
3 miles
longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour he
in going : how
than
long is each road ?
longer
drives

the

to

product

(1)

3a:--4a:y

(2)

X'-1y\

Extract

the

certain

of

a:2-2ary

square

Zx^ -^ ^xy +

7y^

root

2y2, 7^

of

16

1^

2y\

ar"+

2a:y+2y".

MISCELLANEOUS

105.

Find

the

EXAMPLES

factor

highest

106.

Tlie

of the

sum

digit in the tens'


place, the number

107.

If

108.

Solve

place
will

the

inverted.

number

(2)

1-7*"^

If

a?

"^~*
-

6i-at;

h+e,

Express

Resolve

y
+

in the

3(2;-2)

y* +

z'

2a:y

simplest

factors

12a:"+7a:+l

l)+m{a^+b^).

fractions

1+%"1
equations

75-a:
(n
^

'

3(x+l)
(2) "/a;+12-

1-?

80a:+21,

23

6(3a;+2)"a:+l
V""S'

of

2y2.

ah{m^

the

value

(2)

the

2a"

4a26a_(aa+62-.c2)2;

Simplify

the

form

ea^"+6a;+l

into

find

z^a-h,

e~a,

(1)

Solve

times
the

0.

x+

113.

digit

is the

in

(a:+7)(y-3)+2-.(y+3)(a:-l)"5a?-lly+36=:0;

2a:"+3x+l

112.

a" +

if five

1^-1
111.

the

What

that

3, prove

is 9, and

twice

to

(1)

"*

110.

be

2a:y(2y-a;)+4a:"-2y".

number

added

equations

109.

and

digits of
be

to

common

a:(6a:"-8ya)-y(3a:"-V)

187

V.

g.
*

1.
20""+9a?+l

the

units'

188

ALGEBRA.

""

Ten

114.
train

is

which

of

minuteg

the

travelling

started,

reaches

the

after

express.

116.

Simplify

116.

Kosolve

117.

When

Find

the

into

four

an

miles

rate

at

an

average

distant

less

hours

3}
each

which

train

express
miles

20

per

after

train

the

slow

hour,
arrival

travels.

factors

4,

on

2^0

station

of

departure

c=?,

=-2,

find

-l,

the

numerical

value

V4c2-a(a-26-rf)Fmd

118.

the

(1)

value

V6*c

116"d".

of

L,

a-

L--

(2)

:Ur-

6 +

2ar-3

+
1-

a+
"

a-6

119.

Solve

(1)
120.
hour

he

liAB

is

overtaken

walkine

at

he

arrives

naif

occupied

equations

150ar"=299a:+2;

-^

by

journey

the

a;-6

19

the
an

miles

to

by

hour

each

rate

same

sooner

man.

aa:+6y

(2)
walk.
who
as

At

B
than

for
he

end

the

walks

half
the

ay-6a:

of
mile

expected,

quarter

per

remainder

of

f^d

a"+6".

of

an

hour

faster

the

journey

how

long

the

EDITION

AMERICAN

Algebra

Beginners.

for

H.

By

S.

HALL,

M.A.,

i6mo.

Cloth.

and

L.

Principal,

Assistant

and

in the

The
many

Brown

by

Algebras
Colleges

and

Schools,

BY

A.M.,

of Mathematics

Professor

School,

Hall

from

Hoboken,

College.

Thayer

Illinois

College.

St.

5.

Naval

Academy,

THE

FIFTH

in

mentioned

School,

Etc.,

Annapolis.

School,

Academy,
School,

Paul's

etc.,

MACMILLAN

66

be

may

Cascadilla

Vassar

U.

introduced

Institute

Stevens

University.
University.

Dalhousle

been

Ypsilantl,

Mich.

University.

Nortiiwestern

Sciences,

have

Normal

5tate

Natural

N.J.

which

among

M.D.,
and

Knight

and

University.

Stanford

KNIGHT.

R.

cents.

8EVEN0AK,

Stevens

Messrs.

S.

60

RBVISBD

FRANK

OF

etc.

COMPANY,
NEW

AVENUE,
I

YORK.

of

Technology.

Ithaca,
Braintree,
Concord,

N.Y.

Mass.

N.H.

TEXT-BOOKS

MATHEMATICAL
SUITABLE

FOR

SBLBCTBD

THE

MACMILLAN

of** Trigonometry

for

Trigonometry^

Elementary

American

for

Cloth.

Mawr

etc

Schools

SCOTT,

Bryn

Dept.^

1 6mo.

D.SC,

College, Pa,

75

cents.

The
thoroughly good teacher.
elementary truth, that
pervades the whole
principle which
book^ and no
however
Where
of clear explanation.
it seems
simple, is deemed
unworthy
process,
admirable
Mr.
Lock's
advantageous, a rule is given after the explanation.
the present
mathematical
and
of what
work
Trigonometry
to our
mind, models
are,
school books
The
should
be."
World.
Literary

arithmetic

is

common

of

**

ANGAS

of Math,

work

LOCK,

Beginners^*

Arranged

And

Head

B.

J.

CHARLOTTE

Evidently the

SCHOOLS.

FOR

Edited

("

Publishers.

COMPANY,

By

By

OF

USTS

THB

FROM

ARITHMETIC

Author

SCHOOLS.

PREPARATORY

IN

USE

sense,

is the

'

"

FOR

MORE

CLASSES.

ADVANCED

ARITHMETIC.
CHARLES

By
Author

of

**

Algebra^'

Elementary

M.A.,

SMITH,
**A

Treatise

on

Algebra!^

AND

CHARLES
Head

thorough

examples
There
than

Master

and
are

and

of

Dr.

J.

Sach's

1 6mo.

Cloth.

comprehensive

High

THE

there

is also

for

School

OO
School

clear, well-arranged explanations.


and
chapters on Stocks
Bonds, and

ordinary value, and

M.A.,

HARRINGTON,

L.

useful

FIFTH

AVENUE.

Hew

York,

cents.

Arithmetic, containing
on

Exchan^,

collection

MACMILLAN
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Boys,

which

of miscellaneous

COMPANY,
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many

are

of

good
more

examples.

THB

OF

AND

RAY,

POINT,

B.

By WILLIAM
PrqflBSSor of

in

Mathematics

the

to

regard

Ph.D.,
Orleans,

of New

University

La.

$1.10.

would

hare

who

America

in

of my
fellow-teachers
many
the
Non-Euclidean
Geometry,

the

To

CIRCLE.

SMITH,

Tulane

Cloth.

"

GEOMETRY

MODERN

INTRODUCTORY

wish

now

to

qnestioned me
pubUoly
say

in
that

sound.
is entirely
science
in pure
of that
conception
profound advance
I think
be proud.
it
of which
can
has
Smith
Dr.
our
country
given us a book
From
it
examine
to
of
Prof,
of
teacher
the
careftiUy."
geometry
^very
duty
Ph. X". (Johns
Bruce
of Mathematics,
Geoboe
Hopkins), Professor
Halstbd,
Smith's

Dr.
.

"

of Texas.

University

methods
the
of Modem
introducing
How
useftil
of a college course.
Smith's
in Dr.
rable
admito view
methods
these
instructive
and
are, is clearly brought
is one
is in the right direction, and
treatise
step in advancing a
This
treatise.
of
the
whole
in
edifice
to
reconstruct
which
is destined
doctrine
great measure
in
class
this
school
next
I shall make
provision for it in the advanced
Geometry.
Va.
M.
A.M., Monterey,
i^Vom
Colaw,
PrindptuJoav
term.''"
*'

cannot

see
any
text-books

in

Geometry

cogent

of the

Proofs

the

for

Intended

"

the

M.A.,

serve,
means

in
of

of Conies

to

be

an

Introduction
books

of

to

the

Cremona

MACMILLAN
FIFTH

for

the

Teaching.

and

subject
and

Euclid
to
first place, as a seauel
Eucliaean
Geometry
procedure from
of imaginary
and
points."

66

of Modem

A.

S.

of

Modem

M.A.

RAMSAY,

$1.00.

the

THE

Syllabus

Association

of Geometrical

RICHARDSON,

advanced

more

in the

by the

Cloth.

to

years

Theorems

Improvement
G.

not

GEOMETRY.

issued

Geometry

Plane

By

first

PLANE

MODERN
Being

for

reason

intended

AVENUE,

others.
.

to

;
the

It

Plane
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Geometry

twofold

and

object : to
systematic

and, secondly, as a
higher descriptive Geometry

COMPANY,
NEW

YORK.

TEXT-BOOK

OF

lacluding

Altematiye

Theorems

H.

ELEMENTS.

Proofs, together with


classified

Exercises,

and

By

HALL

S.

BookB

and

L-YI.

Also
Book

EUCLID'S

sold

and

ZI.

separately

and

H.

F.

Additional

arranged

STEVENS.

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follows

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30

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Books

111.-71.

50

cents.

Books

V.

75

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Book

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oentB.

70

cents.

80

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...

Books

I. and

Books

L-IV.

n.
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VI.

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The

yariety

chief

pecnliaiilyof
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of the

MesBrs.

After

of

which

execution
and

the

minute

labor

THE

have

we

which

important

the

construction

space
been
bestowed
that

has

ELEMENTS
By

ROBERT

author

modification
of

Euclid,
to

Teaching,

and

Committee

and

out

of

reported

the

upon

is

of the
of

first

SyUabus

Association

by

that

MACMILLAN
66

FIFTH

and

extent

the

AVENUE,

mechanical

the

patience,

think

we

it tba

Nation,

GEOMETRY.
M.A.,

Harrow

F.R.S.,

School;

the

for

its

care,

whole,

I%e

"

and

the

of

Improvement

75

cents.

twenty-one
of Solid
for

the

propositions

Geometry
Improvement

Committee

with

COMPANY,
NEW

of the

YORK.

eleventh

submitted
by the
of Geometrical

considerable

"vor."

THE

the

Teaching.

Cloth.

extension

developed

in

Master

Association

the

1 6mo.

"A

On

it.

SOLID

Oeometriccd

book

showing

HAYWARD,

Mathematical

of

all

but

edition

this

yet appeared."

OF

President

of

upon

BALDWIN

Senior
Late

mention,

to

no

of Euclid

edition

about

have

edition

usable

most

details

Stevens^

and

of exera
large number
cises
proposition
book
additional
of each
exercises, theorems,
notes,
There
ingenioTis and
great
are
a
interesting.

are
given, and at the end
selected, often
etc., etc., well

number

Hall

each

degree

oi

^flf'^Qorders

^"

Nnfp

".""..."'".
mentary
the

taining

the

Edition

Edition

but

supplied free,

will be

for whose

they

classes

AMERICAN

Smith's

of

will be sent
A

distinctlyordered.

is not

answers

of the teacher

order

Briefer

Algebra^ the

Edition

Complete

the American

for

only

E/e-

wherever

pamphlet

con^

the written

upon

required.

are

OF

EDITION

Cbarles
Smith'sElementary
Algebr
FOR

PREPARATORY

THE

USE

OF

HIGH

SCHOOLS,

ACADEMIES,

SCHOOLS,
Etc.

SEMINARIES,
BY

IRYING
Pkofbssor

of

Mathematics,
IN

EDITION

BRIEFER

This

"'

(584

I have

The

work.

our

liked

and

consulted

the

College

Charles

of

Smith's

contains
to

the

would

it to

many

excellent

an

in

bra,
Alge-

good

me

book

schools

ing
prepar-

satisfactory to

be

have

teachers

already
who

have

me."

W.

E. BYERLY,

MACMILLAN
NE'W

Faculties

$i.3a

Department.

recommended

^Prof.

THE

L-XXVl.

Chapters

seems

of

Mathematical

privately

as

edition

use

for Harvard

of

pages)

new

improvements,

College

the

$i.io

same

always
the

and

op

California.

pages)

is tbe

edition

PH.D.,

Dean

and

University

THE

(408

EDITION

COMPLETE

STRINGHAM,

YORK:
OHIOAQOi

Harvard

COMPANY,
66
SOOM

FIFTH

AVENUE.

23, AUDITOfilUlC.

College.

TREATISE

ON
CHARLES

By

ased

in

which

Ohio,

Missouri,

will

form

disappointed.

Its

fundamental

the

notice

those

series

as

with

the

Smithes

expectation

slyle

is

clear

of

expansion."

of

and

this

H.

S.

HALL,

in

Oxford

edition, is

sixth
form
Of

work

high expectations
the

authors'
assert

acquainted.

*"

of

such

of the

Higher
that

It supplies

sequel

is

want

by

far

much

66

FIFTH

California, of

proofs

and

they
of

which

among
the

solid

and

will
of

most
we

may
of

recognition

"

Review.

S.

SCHOOLS.
KNIGHT,

R.

B.A.

$1.90.

the

to it

now

as

felt

AVENUE,

merit

of
best

that

those
Nor

issued.
theh:

has

which

authors,

same

the

MACMILLAN

THE

ibctors

into

and

exceptional

Algebra,'

it
a

by

country,

think

not

alternative

FOR

B.A.,

Algebra,'

of

sections

do

we

practical hints,

expressions
"

and

neat, it gives

Cloth.

'Elementary

Kansas,

conic

on

work,

ALGEBRA

HIGHER

"The

Wisconsin,

the

text

University, University

of

text-books

abounds

and

it is the

etc.

high

resolution

binominal

By

Michigan,

Mr.

Cornell

University,
of

fact that

leading colleges of

of the

majority,

the

than

is needed

Harvard
of

theorems,

on

work

the

University, etc.,

acquainted

geometry

in

mentioned

Pennsylvania,

Stanford

"Those

be

be

may

of

$ 1 .90.

of this
if not

large number,

among
of

commendation

stronger

M.A.

SMITH,

Cloth.

No

ALGEBRA

already reached

of

by teachers."

the

"

kind

The

Algebra,'
with

which

Athenasum,

COMPANY,
NEW

it wiD

they be disappointed.

Elementary

work

with

acquainted

will

YORK.

we

we

hesitatingly
un-

are

TRIGONOMETRY

ELEMENTARY

BY

S.

H.

"if ** Algebra

Authors

B.A.,

HALL,

S.

and

for Beginners"

'*

the

I consider

work

Trigonometry.

to

its

grasp

as

Schools,**etc.

Algebra/or

$1.10.

remarkably clean and clear presentation of the principles


that will lead him
the beginner, it is a book
step by step
". Miller,
a
most
satisfactorymanner."
UntversUy

For
in

subject matter

B.A.

KNIGHT,

"Elementary

Cloth.

of Plane

R.

"

0/ Kansas.
**

The

is

book

angles

and

their

cannot

but

commend

work

excellent

The

one.

is clear

itself

the

to

the

easy,

the

It

should,

BY

REV.

FAR

AS

THE

"A

very

boys;

not

substitute

for

and
complete
childishly simple
it.
The
schoolboy

in

its

TRIANGLES.

cents.

little treatise

concise
too

75

other
than
is, more
anv
I think, give pleasure

LOCK.

B.

OF

SOLUTION

1 6mo.

this somewhat

on

explanations;

difficult

incentive

an

illustrations

The
insulted.
not
encouraged,
with
answers
given at every
are
stage,
have
of which
taken
we
pains to prove.
clear

and

the

easy,

book

subject for

thinking,not

to

is

clear.
Abundant
examples
book, the general correctness
of the work
are
good, the arrangement
Journal
of Education,

of
as

BEGINNERS,

FOR

TRIGONOMETRY
AS

J.

topics such

the

School.

"

WORKS

of

arrangement

teacher.

experienced

relations

fundamental

the

of

treatment

and

which
recall, one
subject that I just now
The
Harvard
student."
John J. Schobinger,

on

the

to

an

functions

at

the

end

The

a
are

of the

definitions

itself well

printed-"

"

TRIGONOMETRY.

ELEMENTARY
6th

edition.

(In this edition

the

chapter
16mo.

"

Mr.

The

having
of

his

is

Logarithms

has

been

carefullyrevised.)

$1.10.

large collection of good (and not too hard) examples.


a
very
Trigonometries are in the field,on
congratulated, when
so
many
himself of the labors
for he has not
merely availed
good a book;

contains

work

Lock

on

to

be

so
produced
predecessors, l)ut by the

study of it with

interest."

"

treatment

MACMILLAN

THE
66

FIFTH

of

well-

worn

subject

Nature.

AVENUE,

COMPANY,
NEW

YPRS:.

has

invested

the

To

avoid

or

fine,
before

this
the

bo"^

date

should
last

be

stamped

returned

on

below

lOM

"

""40