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Extraction is a process where one or more

solute(s) are removed from one liquid phase

(technically called a diluent) by transferring

that/those the solute(s) to another liquid phase

(or a solvent)

Since this is the operation between the two

liquid phases, no vaporisation is needed; thus,

extraction can be performed at low temperatures

Accordingly, extraction is suitable for separating materials that may decompose or denature at elevated temperatures

1

The separation of penicillin from the

broth (the liquid phase obtained from

biological processes)

The separation of aromatic-ring hydrocarbons (e.g., benzene, toluene) from

paraffins using sulpholane

It is important to note that, in many applications, the downstream process that separates

solvent from the solute(s) is usually more expensive than the extraction operation itself

in Figure 9.1

liquid-liquid extraction process

(from Separation Process Engineering by Wankat, 2007)

contains the first solvent (or the diluent) and

the solute is sent to the extraction unit (or the

extractor)

Another solvent (commonly called the solvent)

is also fed into the extractor, with the purpose to

remove the solute from the diluent

3

is called the raffinate phase, while the second

solvent + the solute is called the extract phase

then sent to the solvent recovery unit, to

separate the desired solute from the

extract phase

recover the second solvent, which can be

reused or recycled to be used again as the

solvent

employed in various industries; examples are

illustrated in Figure 9.2

(from Separation Process Engineering by Wankat, 2007)

5

is the counter-current system, depicted schematically in Figure 9.3

(from Separation Process Engineering by Wankat, 2007)

the raffinate and extract phases are fed into the

system in the opposite directions

of the solute A and the diluent D is fed into the

system from the right hand side (RHS), with

the total flow rate of Ro (or R ) and the concentration (in mole or mass fraction of the solute)

of xo ; note that the flow rate of just the diluent

is FD

The extract phase consisting of pure solvent

S or the solvent S with some amount of solute

A, with the total flow rate of EN +1 (or E ) and

the concentration (in mole or mass fraction of

the solute) of yN +1 is fed into the system from

the left hand side (LHS); note that the flow rate

of just the second solvent is FS

7

The raffinate phase exits the extraction system with the concentration of the solute of x N ,

while the extract phase leaves the system with

the concentration of y1

9.1 McCabe-Thiele Diagram for Dilute

Extraction Systems

R FD , as R is the combined flow rates

of the diluent D and the solute A

E FS , as R is the combined flow rates

of the solvent S and the solute A

(i.e. the extraction system in which the concentration of the solute is low), we can assume that

R FD

E FS

Note that

R = raffinate flow rate

E = extract flow rate

FD = diluent flow rate

FS = solvent flow rate

Additionally, if the solvent and diluent are

immiscible () in each other, FD and FS

can be assumed to be constant throughout the

system

9

In order to be able to use the McCabeThiele approach for the extraction operation,

the following assumptions must be satisfied:

The system is isothermal

The system is isobaric

The heat of mixing is negligible

The diluent and the solvent are immiscible

the above assumptions, the species balance (for

the solute A) equation for the envelope shown

in the Figure 9.3 can be formulated as follows

Ey j +1 + Rx o = Ey1 + Rx j

10

(9.1)

Re-arranging Eq. 9.1 to obtain the operating equation for the extraction process yields

y j +1

R

R

= x j + y1 - x o

E

E

(9.2)

R

the slope for the operating line i.e. is

constant

The operating line can be plotted on the

McCabe-Thiele diagram, in which

x represents the concentration in the

raffinate phase

y represents the concentration in the

extract phase

11

can be expressed as

Kd =

yA

xA

or

yA = Kd x A

(9.3)

assumed constant throughout the operation of

the extraction system

crucial for the extraction system

12

be able to dissolve the solute more than

the diluent

be immiscible to the diluent

be highly selective for the desired solute

not be selective for contaminants

have a high value of a =

Kd

desired

13

Kd

Kd

desired

undesired

and

non-toxic

non-reactive or chemically stable

non-corrosive

non-flammable or non-explosive

readily available

inexpensive

environmentally friendly (i.e. green)

14

Example A feed of 100 kg/min of 1.2 wt% mixture of acetic acid in water is to be extracted

with 1-butanol at 1 atm and 26.7 oC

The desired outlet concentration in the exiting

stream is 0.1 wt% of acetic acid

The solvent of pure 1-butanol is fed contercurrently to the feed with the flow rate of 75

kg/min

Determine the composition of the exiting

1-butanol phase (i.e. the extract phase)

Also find the number of equilibrium contacts

(stages) needed

15

In this case,

the inlet concentration of the feed

(raffinate phase) is given as 1.2 wt% of

acetic acid (or xo = 0.012 )

the outlet concentration of the raffinate

phase is given as 0.1 wt% of acetic acid (or

x N = 0.001)

The solvent is pure butanol; thus, yN +1 = 0

The flow chart for this operation is as follows

16

75

The concentration of the exiting extractphase stream can be computed using operatingline equation (Eq. 9.2) as follows

y j +1

yN +1

R

R

= x j + y1 - x o

E

E

R

R

= x N + y1 - x o

E

E

17

100

100

0=

0.001) + y1 -

0.012

(

(

)

75

75

y1 = 0.015

Thus, the co-ordinates for the operating line

are

(

) (

)

(x , y ) = (0.012, 0.015)

x N , yN +1 = 0.001, 0

o

The next thing to do is to establish the equilibrium relationship between acetic acid in

water (x ) and acetic acid in 1-butanol (y )

From literature [e.g., Table 13-3 (Page 506)

in Separation Process Engineering (3nd ed.) by

P.C. Wankat], Kd for acetic-water-1-butanol at

26.7 oC is 1.613

18

y = 1.613x

(9.4)

(i.e. McCabe-Thiele diagram on the next Page)

and stepping off stages yields 6 equilibrium

stages

19

0.025

yacetic acid

0.020

0.015

0.010

0.005

0.000

0.000

0.002

0.004

0.006

0.008

xacetic acid

20

0.010

0.012

0.014

Extraction

In addition to counter-current cascades or

counter-current extraction, which is the most

common extraction scheme, there are some

other types of extraction cascades

One type of such other cascades is a crossflow cascade illustrated in Figure 9.4

(from Separation Process Engineering by Wankat, 2007)

21

an extract stream) is fed to each stage

assumptions are identical to that of the countercurrent flow

stage (i.e. stage j ), a material balance is performed as follows

Rx j -1 + E j y j , in = Rx j + E j y j

(9.5)

y j = - x j + x j -1 + y j , in

Ej

E j

22

(9.6)

R

cross-flow extraction, with the slope of Ej

Since each stage is (assumed to be) an equilibrium stage, x j and y j are in equilibrium with

each other

line and the equilibrium line is at the point

(x , y )

j

has the concentration of x j -1 or the input of the

stage j + 1 has the concentration of x j

23

) (

The McCabe-Thiele diagram for the crossflow extraction can be depicted as Figure 9.5

may not be equal to one another, as the value

of the flow rate of the extract phase (E j ) at

each stage may vary

24

cross-flow extraction

(from Separation Process Engineering by Wankat, 2007)

25

of the protein (or enzyme) alcohol dehydrogenase from an aqueous solution of 5 wt% polyethylene glycol (PEG) with an aqueous solution

of 10 wt% dextran

The entering dextran solution contains no

protein, and the PEG solution has a flow rate

of 20 kg/h

Assume that the two aqueous phases are

immiscible; note that the dextran solution is

denser than the PEG solution

Determine the following:

a) If 10 kg/h of dextran is added to a

single-stage extractor, find the total

recovery fraction of alcohol dehydrogenase in the dextran-solvent phase

26

stage of a cross-flow cascade with 2

stages, find the total recovery

fraction of alcohol dehydrogenase in the

dextran solvent

Given the protein distribution coefficient as

K=

(wt. fraction of protein in dextran, y )

= 0.12

(i.e. a solute) that is extracted from the

raffinate phase into the dextran solvent phase

(i.e. the extract phase)

27

raffinate phase is Rxo

The final (outlet) amount of solute in the

raffinate phase is Rx N

Thus, the amount of solute extracted from

the raffinate phase is Rxo - Rx N

The fraction of solute extracted from the

raffinate phase or the total recovery fraction is

Rxo - Rx N

Rx o

or

1-

Rx N

Rx o

28

assumed to be constant (for the dilute immiscible extraction), the total recovery faction can

be reduced to

1-

xN

xo

as follows

(when for 2-stage operation)

29

K=

x

= 0.12

y

(9.7)

follows (by re-arranging Eq. 9.7)

30

x

y=

= 8.33x

0.12

(9.8)

entering each stage with no protein (i.e. no

solute)

Thus, yin = 0 for both stages 1 and 2

(a) Only stage 1 is operated

Given data:

R = 20 kg/h

E1 = 10 kg/h

yin = 0

31

Unknowns:

xF

xz

y1, out

the fraction of protein (alcohol dehydrogenase)

extracted into the dextran solvent phase; i.e.

1-

xz

xF

Eq. 9.6:

y j = - x j + x j -1 + y j , in

Ej

E j

(9.6)

stage 1 as follows

32

y1, out

= - x z + x F + y in

E1

E1

(9.9)

into Eq. 9.9 gives

20

20

y1, out = - x z + x F + 0

10

10

y1, out = -2x z + 2x F

or

y = -2x + 2x F

From Eq. 9.10, when

y = 0, x = xF

x = 0 , y = 2x F

33

(9.10)

(x

This operating line intersects with the equi-

(x , y ) in this Example

z

1, out

follows

8.33x = -2x + 2x F

Solving Eq. 9.11 for x yields

34

(9.11)

8.33x + 2x = 2x F

10.33x = 2x F

x = x z = 0.194x F

y = -2x + 2x F

(9.10)

y = y1, out = 1.613x F

using the Figure on the next Page

In this case, x z = 0.194x F ; thus, the total

recovery fraction of alcohol dehydrogenase in

the dextran solvent phase is

1-

xz

xF

= 1-

0.194x F

xF

35

= 0.806

carried out in Question (a)

36

written as follows

y2, out

= - x 2 + x z + y in

E2

E2

(9.12)

values into Eq. 9.12, it results in

y2, out

20

20

= - x 2 + x z + 0

10

10

(9.13)

Hence, Eq. 9.13 becomes

y2, out = -2x 2 + 2 (0.194x F )

y = -2x + 0.388x F

(9.14)

37

y = 0 , x = 0.194x F

x = 0 , y = 0.388x F

Hence, to obtain the operating line for stage

2, we draw the line between the points

(0, 0.388x )

F

2 with the equilibrium line can be calculated as

follows

Equating Eq. 9.8 (the equilibrium-line equation) with Eq. 9.14 results in

38

(9.15)

8.33x + 2x = 0.388x F

10.33x = 0.388x F

x = x 2 = 0.0376x F

Substituting x = 0.0376x F into Eq. 9.14 and

solving for y yields

y = y2, out = 0.313x F

= 0.0376x F

Accordingly, the total recovery fraction of

alcohol dehydrogenase in the dextran solvent

phase is

1-

x2

xF

= 1-

0.0376x F

xF

39

= 0.962

diluent or the solvent is low (but still immiscible), we can assume that

the flow rate of the raffinate phase is

constant or can be replaced by the flow

rate of the diluent, or vice versa (i.e.

FD = R )

the flow rate of the solvent can be used

for the flow rate of the extract phase, or

vice versa (i.e. FS = E ); in other words,

the flow rate of the extract phase is

constant

40

raffinate (x i ) and extract (yi ) phases can be

used for species balance, as described and illustrated in the previous sections

However, when the concentration of the solute is large (i.e. cannot be ignored), the flow

rates of the raffinate and extract phases are no

longer constant, as

the solute is removed from the raffinate

phase, which makes the flow rate of the

raffinate phase decrease

the solute of extracted into the extract

phase, which results in an increase in the

flow rate of the extract phase

41

the flow rate of the raffinate phase (R )

must be replaced by the flow rate of the

diluent (FD )

the flow rate of the solvent (FS ) must be

used in lieu of the flow rate of the extract

phase

Additionally, the mole or mass ratio must be

employed to describe the concentrations of the

solute in the raffinate and extract phases

As per the absorption or stripping operation,

the mole or mass ratios in the raffinate (X i ) and

extract (Yi ) phases can be calculated from the

mole and mass fractions (x i and yi ) as follows

42

Xi =

Yi =

xi

(9.16)

1 - xi

yi

(9.17)

1 - yi

and the operating-line equations (e.g., Eqs. 9.2

and 9.6) can be written as follows

FSYj +1 + FD Xo = FSY1 + FD X j

(9.18)

FD X j -1 + FS Yj , in = FD X j + FS Yj

j

(9.19)

and

Yj +1

F

X j + Y1 - D Xo

=

FS

FS

FD

(9.20)

43

FD

FS

FD

Yj = Xj +

X j -1 + Yj , in

F

FS

S

j

j

FD

(9.21)

(note that the slope for the operating line is -

FD

FS

same

Systems

based on fact that the diluent and the solvent

are immiscible to each other

44

partially miscible to some degree, and when the

miscibility is not negligible, the analysis using

the McCabe-Thiele approach is no longer appropriate (if we try to do so, it would not yield an

answer with an acceptable accuracy)

the system with 3 components: a diluent, a solute,

and a solvent) are to be analysed

45

species), mass (or mole) fraction of each component/species can be shown as a three-component diagram, which can be presented in the

form of

equilateral triangle, or

right triangle

demonstrated in the following Example

46

the mass fraction of A and B (at equilibrium)

at 25 oC as follows:

yA = 0.40

yB = 0.30

Locate the exact point of this mixture in a treecomponent diagram

In the 3-component diagram, the summit or

the tip () of each corner represents a 1.0 mass

(or mole) fraction (or 100%) of each substance

or species

The edge or side () opposite to the tip

represents a 0 mass (or mole) fraction (0%) of

the substance

47

specified component is sufficient to locate the

exact point on the diagram

In this example, species A has a mass fraction of 0.40 and species B has a mass fraction of

0.30, which can be depicted by the solid and

dotted lines, respectively, in the equilateral 3component diagram on the next Page

line and the yB = 0.30 line; note that, at this

point, yC is read as 0.30, which corresponds to

the fact that

48

B

0.0 1.0

0.1

0.9

0.2

0.8

0.3

0.7

0.4

0.6

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.5

0.8

0.9

0.4

yB =

0.2 0.30

0.3

0.1

1.0

0.0

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

A

yA = 0.40

The right-triangle 3-component diagram can

also be used to locate Point A as shown on the

next Page

49

B

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

yB =

0.30

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.6

yA = 0.40

Exercises

Try locating the following points yourself

1) yA = 0.40, yC = 0.60 Point P

2) yA = 0.20, yB = 0.50 Point Q

3) yB = 0.25, yC = 0.35 Point R

50

the diluent A and the solute B

A+B

could be homogeneous (i.e. all species are

mixed together into a single phase)

51

below

C+B+A

A+B+C

the diluent A; the solute B, with less amount

than the starting point; and some amount of

the solvent C (this phase is, in fact, the raffinate phase)

Another phase (e.g., the upper phase) comprises the solvent C, the incoming solute B, and

some amount of the diluent A (this phase is the

extract phase)

52

the system is divided into 2 phases are illustrated in Table 9.1, which is the ternary system

of water (the diluent), acetone (the solute), and

chloroform (the solvent)

(raffinate) phase and the chloroform (extract)

phase] are connected together by a tie-line, as

illustrated in Figure 9.6

53

Water phase

Chloroform phase

(Raffinate phase)

(Extract phase)

xD

xS

xA

yD

yS

yA

Water

Chloroform

acetone

Water

Chloroform

acetone

99.2

0.8

0.5

99.5

83.0

1.2

15.8

1.3

70.0

28.7

73.1

1.3

25.6

2.2

55.7

42.1

62.3

1.7

36.0

4.4

42.9

52.7

45.6

5.1

49.3

10.3

28.4

61.3

34.5

9.8

55.7

18.6

20.4

61.0

A is the diluent

B is the solute

C is the solvent

54

0.0 1.0

0.1

0.9

0.2

0.8

0.3

0.7

0.4

0.6

0.5

0.5

0.6

0.4

0.7

0.3

0.8

0.2

0.9

0.1

1.0

0.0

A 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Tie line

Composition in the

Composition in the

raffinate phase

extract phase

Overall composition

of the mixture

55

mixture of the raffinate phase and the extract

phase for a given tie-line (will be discussed in

detail later)

extract phases are plotted (a tie-line of each

pair is depicted, in Figure 9.6, as dashed lines),

a solubility curve is established

mixture (e.g., Point M) will always be divided

into 2 phases (i.e. the raffinate phase and the

extract phase)

56

point M is dictated by a tie-line

For example, if the mixture has the composition of z A = 0.42, z B = 0.18, and zC = 0.40

(i.e. Point M), which is within the solubilitycurve envelope, it will be divided into 2 phases:

The raffinate phase with the composition

of x A = 0.80, x B = 0.10, and xC = 0.10

The extract phase with the composition

of yA = 0.15, yB = 0.21, and yC = 0.64

57

which is the point where the composition in the

raffinate phase is equal to that of the extract

phase (note that the plait point is NOT necessary to be the highest point of the solubility

curve)

If the composition is NOT within the solubility-curve envelope (i.e. outside the solubilitycurve envelope), the system will be a single

phase

again, by letting

58

the mass of the raffinate phase

E as the point on the extract phase and

the mass of the extract phase

M as the composition of the mixture and

the mass of the mixture

Since M is divided into 2 phases, the raffinate phase (R ) and the extract phase (E )

Thus,

R +E = M

(9.22)

the diluent (A) can be performed as follows

59

x B R + yB E = z B M

(9.23)

x AR + yAE = z AM

(9.24)

zB =

x B R + yB E

M

x B R + yB E

R +E

(9.25)

zA =

x AR + yAE

M

x AR + yAE

R +E

(9.26)

composition of any species at Point M when the

compositions of the raffinate and the extract

phase are known/given

Eqs. 9.23 and 9.24 can be re-written as follows

60

x B R + yB E = z B (R + E )

(9.27)

x AR + yAE = z A (R + E )

(9.28)

R (yB - z B )

=

E

(z B - x B )

(9.29)

R (yA - z A )

=

E

(z A - x A )

(9.30)

Since

yA - z A or yB - z B is the distance between

Point M and Point E (i.e. the distance

ME)

z A - x A or z B - x B is the distance between

Point R and Point M (i.e. the distance

RM)

Eqs 9.29 and 9.30 can be written as follows

61

R

ME

=

E

RM

(9.31)

obtain the another 2 lever-arm-rule equation as

follows

R

ME

=

M

RE

(9.32)

E

RM

=

M

RE

(9.33)

balances are not necessary

62

phase) and E (the amount of the extract phase),

and the location of point M can be obtained by

measuring (using a ruler) the distance RE, RM,

and/or ME

63

in Figure 9.6 on Page 55, if 30,000 kg/h of ternary mixture of 40 wt% of A, 20% of B, and

40% of C was fed into a decanter (a mixer and

settler) operating at 25 oC, what would the flow

rates of two liquid streams leaving the decanter

be?

R kg/h

A = ?%

B = ?%

C = ?%

30,000 kg/h

A = 40%

B = 20%

C = 40%

E kg/h

A = ?? %

B = ?? %

C = ?? %

64

the composition of z A = 0.40 , z B = 0.20 , and

zC = 0.40 is located

B

0.0 1.0

Given overall

component

0.1

0.9

0.2

0.8

0.3

0.7

0.4

Raffinate

Phase

0.6

0.5

0.5

0.6

0.4

0.7

0.3

0.8

0.2

0.9

Extract

Phase

0.1

1.0

0.0

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 C

65

Raffinate Phase

Extract Phase

A = 78% (x A = 0.78)

B = 13% (x B = 0.13)

C = 9% (xC = 0.09)

Basis 1 h of operation

Overall Balance

30,000 = R + E

(9.34)

Species B balance

6, 000 = 0.13R + 0.24E

66

(9.35)

gives

E = 19,091 kg

R = 10,909 kg

12, 000 = 981.8 + 11,263.7

12, 000 12,245.5

to each other for species C balance, if we want

higher accurate answer, a new tie-line has to

drawn with a few adjustment (this is, in fact, a

trial & error technique)

67

Note that the trial & error technique is commonly employed to solve an extraction problem,

especially for a single-stage extraction

extraction problems for the counter-current cascade system (i.e. more than one equilibrium

stage)

68

extraction cascade with N equilibrium stages in

Figure 9.7

with N equilibrium stages

(from Separation Process Principles by Henley, Seader, and Roper, 2011)

A enters the system with the flow rate of F and

the concentration of the solute of x A or x A

o

rate of S and the concentration of the solute of

yA

N +1

69

flow rate of Rj and the solute concentration of

x A , and, finally, exits the system with the flow

j

flow rate of E j and the solute concentration of

yA ; the extract stream exits the system with

j

solute of yA

F or Ro

S or E N +1

x A or x A

o

yA

N +1

70

yD

N +1

xA

RN

E1

xD

yA

yD

be established as follows

S + F = E1 + RN

(9.36)

yA S + x A F = yA E1 + x A RN

N +1

(9.37)

yD S + x D F = yD E1 + x D RN

N +1

(9.38)

71

3 independent equations, we need another 2

equations

curve (because it is the stream leaving stage 1),

this gives a relationship between yA and yD

1

it must be related to the raffinate-phase curve,

which yields a relationship between x A and x D

N

mentioned above, we shall have 5 equations for

5 unknowns, which will enable us to solve for all

unknowns

72

graphically using a 3-component diagram with a

solubility (or equilibrium) curve

the following equations:

S + F = M = E1 + RN

(9.39)

yA S + x A F = z A M = yA E1 + x A RN

N +1

(9.40)

yD S + x D F = z D M = yD E1 + x D RN

N +1

(9.41)

calculations

73

Since x i and yi

N +1

M

computed as follows

zA =

yA S + x A F

N +1

yA S + x A F

N +1

S +F

(9.42)

zD =

M

yD S + x D F

N +1

yD S + x D F

N +1

S +F

(9.43)

Hence,

the composition of the feed can be specified (Point F see Figure 9.8)

the composition of the solvent can be

specified (Point S see Figure 9.8)

74

M

M

and 9.43)

obtained from the external mass balance calculations

(from Separation Process Principles by Henley, Seader, and Roper, 2011)

75

9.39-9.41, we obtain the facts that

Points E1 and RN must be on the extractphase curve and the raffinate-phase curve,

respectively

A straight line E1RN must pass through

Point M

Since x A is known and it must be on the

N

and the value of x D is known (by reading from

N

the diagram)

Once Point RN can be located, and we have

already had Point M, Point E1 can then be

specified, as illustrated in Figure 9.8

76

stage 1 gives

F + E 2 = E1 + R1

F - E1 = R1 - E2

(9.44)

stage 1 + 2 yields

F + E 3 = E1 + R2

F - E1 = R2 - E 3

(9.45)

stage 1 to stage N results in

F + S = E1 + RN

F - E1 = RN - S

77

(9.46)

streams E2 and R1 passes through each

other

streams E 3 and R2 passes through each

other

streams S and RN passes through each

other

streams

the differences of all pairs of the passing streams

are all equal to F - E1 or D

78

through Points E1 and F

The difference of RN - S (= F - E1 = D)

can be also depicted by drawing a line that

passes through Points S and RN

Since the difference of RN - S is equal to

that of F - E1 , these two lines meet at the same

point (i.e. Point P in Figure 9.9)

Note that, if we let D = P , it means mathematically that

F - E1 = P

79

F = E1 + P

(9.47)

obtain the fact that

RN = S + P

(9.48)

R +E = M

(9.22)

F , E1 , and P must be on the same line

and that F is the intermediate point between Point E1 and Point P

RN , S , and P must be on the same line

and that RN is the middle point between

Point S and Point P

80

the meeting point (Point P) is called the operating point

lines and the location of the operating point

(from Separation Process Principles by Henley, Seader, and Roper, 2011)

1, they are in equilibrium with each other, which

means that there is Point R1 on the raffinatephase curve connecting to Point E1 by a tie-line

81

however, we can draw the tie-line that passes

through Point E1 by interpolating from the

nearest two tie-lines

Drawing a tie-line from Point E1 to the raffinate-phase curve yields Point R1 , as illustrated

in Figure 9.10

passing streams and that the difference of

R1 - E 2 must pass through Point R1 and Point

P

82

stages for a partially miscible extraction system

(from Separation Process Principles by Henley, Seader, and Roper, 2011)

P and passing through Point R1 until we reach

the extract-phase curve, we obtain Point E 2

From Point E 2 , we, once again, draw a tieline to the raffinate-phase curve and obtain

Point R2

83

E 3 on the extract-phase curve

the number of equilibrium stages is obtained

equilibrium stages can be determined using a

3-component diagram

stages as illustrated in Figure 9.10 is based on

the fact that

84

S

the solvent-to-feed ratio is higher

F

S

the

ratio is lower than the maximum

F

ratio

S

ratio leads to the infinity

F

S

() number of stages, while the maximum F

ratio results in the fact that no raffinate phase is

The minimum

85

L

ping operations, minimum

(or minimum reflux

V

L

in the distillation operation) occurs when

ratio:

D

the operating line touches or intersects with the

equilibrium line

S

minimum

takes place when the operating line

F

coincides () with the tie-line, which

is the equilibrium line for the LLE operation

lines coincides with tie-lines; note that each operating line gives Point P at various locations

86

E1

S

F

ratio

(from Separation Process Principles by Henley, Seader, and Roper, 2011)

S

ratio

determine the minimum

F

In Figure 9.11, Point P1 is the operating point

that is farthest away from Point RN

87

S

used for determining the minimum

ratio

F

The line P1F is extended to the extract-phase

curve and reaches the curve at Point E1

As per Figure 9.8, the intersection of the lines

E1RN and SF is Point M, at which the material

E1 + RN = M = S min + F

(9.49)

z A M = yA S min + x A F

M

z A (S + F ) = yA S min + x A F

M

(9.50)

S min

F

xA - zA

F

z A - yA

M

88

(9.51)

x A = 0.28 (28%)

F

yA = 0 (0%)

S

z A = 0.22 (22%)

M

S min

ratio of

F

S min

0.28 - 0.22

=

= 0.27

F

0.22 - 0

If the slope of the tie-line is upward toward the

raffinate side (as will be shown in Figure A and B

on Pages 93 and 94), the tie-line will be extended

to the left hand side (LHS) of the 3-component

diagram

89

S

the minimum

ratio (or Point P1 ) is the point

F

that is closest to Point S

S min

ratio is similar to

F

the case when the slope of the tie-line is downward

S

For the maximum

ratio, consider Figure

F

9.8 (on Page 75)

According to the lever-arm rule, if the amount

of solvent (S ) increases, the distance FM becomes

longer, which means that Point M moves toward

Point S

90

S

The maximum

ratio occurs when Point M

F

S max

reaches the extract-phase curve, and the

F

ratio can be computed as follows

S max

F

( )

xA - zA

F

(z )

AM

max

max

- yA

(9.52)

no raffinate phase is formed, and only a single

stage is needed, which is impractical

S min

S

The operating

must be between

and

F

F

S max

S

; normally, the optimal

is approximately

F

F

S

1.5 min

F

91

at 30 oC using pure water as a solvent

The final raffinate contains no higher than 5%

of acetone on the water-free basis

S

F

ratios, as well as the number of equilibrium stages

Determine the minimum and maximum

S

required for two intermediate

ratios between

F

S

ratios

the minimum and maximum

F

The flow chart of this extraction operation

and the 3-component diagram for this operation

is as shown in the Figure A

92

Figure A

(from Separation Process Principles by Henley, Seader, and Roper, 2011)

S

ratios are illustrated in Figure B

F

93

Figure B

(from Separation Process Principles by Henley, Seader, and Roper, 2011)

Feed is a mixture of 30% acetone and 70%

Solvent is pure water; thus, Point S can

be specified

94

on the line AC (at Point B, the concentration of acetone is 5% and the concentration

of water is 0%water-free ), which corresponds to Point RN of 4% (or 0.04 mole

fraction) [i.e. Point B in Figures A and B]

The line SRN or SB can then be drawn, which

can be extended to the left hand side (LHS) of

the 3-component diagram

S

ratio takes place when the

The minimum

F

tie-line that starts from Point F is extended to

the point on the extended SB line that is closest

to Point S , and Point E1 on the extract-phase

in Figure B)

curve is then obtained (= Point Dmin

95

B (or

Subsequently, the lines SF and Dmin

E1RN ) can be drawn, and Point M min is obtained;

M

fraction)

S

Accordingly, the minimum ratio can be comF

puted as follows

S min

F

xA - zA

F

z A - yA

M

0.30 - 0.19

=

= 0.58

0.19 - 0

S

ratio is obtained when Point

The maximum

F

M reaches the extract-phase curve, which gives

( )

the value of z A

max

96

S max

F

S max

F

( )

xA - zA

F

(z )

AM

max

max

- yA

0.3 - 0.03

=

0.03 - 0

S max

F

= 9.0

S

ratio must be between

Hence, the operating

F

0.58-9.0

S

Choose the

ratio of 1.75 (or S = 1.75F ) as

F

S

ratio, which results in Point M

the operating

F

with the concentration of acetone (solute) of

zA =

M

zA

yA S + x A F

S

yA S + x A F

S

S +F

=

=

2.75F

(1.75F ) + (F )

97

= 0.11

of

zD =

yD S + x D F

S

M

S +F

(0)(1.75F ) + (0.7)(F ) 0.7F

=

=

= 0.25

2.75F

(1.75F ) + (F )

M

zD

yD S + x D F

Figure A

already drawn (which passes through Point M),

and Point RN is already located (= Point B in

Figure A) the line RN M can then be drawn and

extended to the extract-phase curve at Point E1

(= Point D in Figure A)

98

line FE1 (or FD ) and the line SRN (or SB )

can then be drawn and extended to the LHS of

the diagram; these 2 lines meet at Point P

Drawing a line Point E1 (or D ), using a tieline, until reaching the raffinate-phase curve,

Point R1 (or L1 ) is specified

Draw the line L1P and Point E 2 can be specified on the extract-phase curve, and by using

Point E 2 and the corresponding tie-line, Point

R2 is subsequently located

99

until we reach Point RN , and the number of

equilibrium stages is eventually obtained

S

For the case of the

ratio of 1.75, the numF

ber of stages was found to be 4

S

ratio of 3.0

Try doing it yourself for the

F

(the number of stages is 2)

100

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