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1.0.

Objective
1.1. To study the performance of digital communication system when it
is corrupted by noise.
1.2. To study the performance of digital communication system when it
is under the influence of inter-symbol interference (ISI) only.
1.3. To study the performance of digital communication system when it
is both under the influence of inter-symbol interference (ISI) and
corrupted by noise.

2.0.

Theory
In communication systems, the waveform present at the receiver
(user) is unknown until after it is received otherwise, no information would
be transmitted and there would be no need for the communication
system. More information is communicated to the receiver when the user
is more surprised by the message that was transmitted. That is, the
transmission of information implied the communication of messages that
are not known ahead of time (a priori). Noise limits our ability to
communicate. If there were no noise, we could communicate messages
electronically to the outer limits of the universe by using an infinitely small
amount of power.
The two primary considerations in the design of a communication system

are as follows:
1.

The performance of the system when it is corrupted by noise. The


performance measure for a digital system is the probability of error
of the output signal. For analog systems, the performance measure
is the output signal-to-noise ratio.

2.

The channel bandwidth that is required for transmission of the


communication signal.
There are numerous ways in which the information can be

demodulated (recovered) from the received signal that has been corrupted
by noise. Some receivers provide optimum performance, but most do not.
Often a suboptimum receiver will be used in order to lower the cost. In
addition, some suboptimum receivers perform almost as well as optimum
ones for all practical purposes.

Figure 1. General binary communication system.

Figure 1 shows a general block diagram for a binary communication


system. The receiver input r(t) consists of the transmitted signal s(t) plus
channel noise n(t). For baseband signalling, the processing circuits in the
receiver consist of low-pass filtering with appropriate amplification. For
bandpass signalling, such as OOK, BPSK and FSK, the processing circuits
normally consist of a super heterodyne receiver containing a mixer, an IF
amplifier and a detector. These circuits produce a baseband signalling
analog output r0(t).
The analog baseband waveform r0(t) is sampled at the clocking time
t = t0 + nT to produce the samples r0(t0 + nT), which are fed into a
threshold device (a comparator). The threshold device produces the binary
serial-data waveform m(t).
3.0.

Equipments
3.1.
Personal Computer (PC)
3.2. Matlab Software

4.0.

Safety Precaution
4.1. Make sure all the equipment is turn off after the experiments is
done.
4.2. Make to put back all the equipment to its place.
4.3. Do not conduct experiment with wet hand.
4.4. Always wear lab coat.

5.0.

Procedure
5.1. Part 1
a) The following Matlab function M-file are given which represents a
basic digital communication system that transmits an Amplitude
Shift Keying (ASK) signal n the presence of nose in the channel:
1. test_noise
2. binseq_tx
3. binseq_det
The function of these files is explained n the result.
b) The main specifications for the ASK signal (bit rate, sampling
frequency, voltage amplitude, number of bits in a packet and
number of packets) is identified in the files.
c) The 2 missing files is created before the system is executed. The
files are:
1. a function to generate bytes of pseudorandom binary sequence.
2. a Q-function.
d) The 2 function is completed, Matlab program is executed and the
value of the following parameter tabulated.
1. Voltage amplitude
2. Sampling frequency
3. Bit rate
4. Bit error packet error
5. Number of bits for the whole transmission
6. Theoretical BER
7. Measured BER
8. Measured packet error rate (PER)
e) Steps (d) is repeated by varying the following parameters.
1. Voltage amplitude, A=2, 3, 4 and 5 (V) with sampling frequency
= 10 and bit rate = 1.
2. Sampling frequency, fsamp = 2,6,14 and 10 Hz with voltage
amplitude = 10 and bit rate = 1.
3. Bit rate =2, 3, 4 and 5 bits/sec with voltage amplitude =1 and
sampling frequency = 10
4. Two graph is plotted with is a graph of BER against each of the
varying parameters for both theoretical and measured BERs and
a graph of BER against SNR (dB) for each of the varying
parameter for theoretical and measured BERs.
The results for each graph is comment.
5.2. Part 2
a) By going back to its original state, the performance of the system if
it is under the influence of inter-symbol interference (isi) without
noise is considered and the coding of the program is identified and
changed.
b) The step (d), (e) and (f) is repeated and comment.

5.3. Part 3
a) The performance of the system if it is under the influence of both isi
and noise is considered and the coding of the program is identified
and changed.
b) The step (d), (e) and (f) is repeated and comment.
c) The overall results obtained in Part 1, Part 2 and Part 3 is compared
and contrasted.