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# 2016

WORKBOOK
Detailed Explanations of

## Try Yourself Questions

Civil Engineering
Surveying

Fundamental Concepts of
Surveying

T1 : Solution
2

(m)

2.322

0.001

0.000001

2.346

0.025

0.000625

2.352

0.031

0.000961

2.306

0.015

0.000225

2.312

0.009

0.000081

2.300

0.021

0.000441

2.306

0.015

0.000225

2.326

0.005

0.000025
= 0.002584
2

Mean : 2.321

From equation,

Es = 0.6745
and

Em =

0.002584
= 0.01295 metre
8 1

Es
0.01295
=
= 0.00458 metre.
n
8

Linear Measurements

T1 : Solution
Considered length of chain, l = 20 m
Actual length of chain, l = 20 0.1 = 19.9 m
3

l
True volume = measured volume
l
= 533.9 cu.m

T2 : Solution
Let the permissible error in the angular measurement be
Displacement due to angular error = l sin = 15 sin
Accuracy in linear measurement is 1 in 20
Displacement due to linear error =
Combined error on ground =

15
= 0.75
20

## Combined error on plan = Scale Combined error on ground

=

1
(15 sin ) 2 + 0.752
30

## and, combined error on plan should be less than 0.025 cm.

1
(15 sin ) 2 + 0.752
30

= 0.025

= 0
Angular error is not permitted.

## Civil Engineering Surveying

T3 : Solution
A normal tension of 101.76 N is applied, so, there will be no pull and sag correction.
Corrections required are slope, pull, temperature and standardisation.
Slope correction = L (1 cos )
= 29.786 (1 cos 430) = 0.09182 m
l l
= +0.00397 m
Standardisation correction = L
l
Temperature correction = (T 20) L
= 1.12 105 (10 20) 29.786 = 0.003336 m
Total correction = 0.09182 + 0.00397 0.003336 = 0.09113 m
Correct horizontal distance = 29.786 0.09113 = 29.695 m  29.70 m

T4 : Solution
(i) Correction for pull:

Cp =

(P P0 ) L
AE

## 0.0645 2.11 106

= 0.05878 m(+) ve

## (ii) Correction for temperature:

Ct = (Tm To) L
= 11.5 106 (35 15) 1000
= 0.23 m (+ve)
(iii) Correction for slope:

Cd =

h2
22
=
= 2 10 3 m ( ve)
2 L 2 1000

## (iv) Correction for mean sea level:

h
1000 1000
L=
= 0.15625 m ( ve)
6400 1000
R
Total correction = 0.05878 + 0.23 2 103 0.15625 = 0.1305 m
Corrected length of the base line
= 1000 + 0.1305 = 1000.1305 m

CR =

T5 : Solution
Least count for an extended vernier =

## Smallest division of the main scale (s)

Number of divisions of the vernier (n)

10
n
n = 60

10 =

## For an extended vernier

n division of vernier should be equal to (2n 1) divisions of main scale

M = 2n 1 = 119 and N = n = 60

## Compass Surveying, Traverse

Surveying and Theodolite

T1 : Solution
Line AB

## Latitude = 150 cos 75 42 = 150 0.2470 = + 37.04 m

Departure = 150 sin 75 42 = 150 0.9690 = + 145.35 m

Line BC

## Latitude = 100 cos 32 48 = 100 0.8406 = + 84.06 m

Departure = 100 sin 32 48 = 100 0.5417 = + 54.17 m

Line CD

## Latitude = 300 cos 28 54 = 300 0.8755 = 262.63 m

Departure = 300 sin 28 54 = 300 0.4833 = + 144.98 m

Lince DE

## Latitude = 800 cos 5 36 = 800 0.9952 = 796.18 m

Departure = 800 sin 5 36 = 800 0.0976 = + 78.06 m
Total latitude of E = 796.18 262.63 + 84.06+37.04 = 937.71 m
Total departure of E = 78.06 + 144.98 + 54.17 + 145.35 = + 422.56 m
Hence, latitude of point F = 937.71/2 = 468.85 m
and departure of point F = 422.52/2 = + 211.26 m
Total departure of C = 145.35 + 54.17 = 199.52 m
Total latitude of C = 37.04 + 84.96 = 122.0 m
Hence, departure of CF = 211.28 199.52 = 11.76 m
and latitude of CF = 468.85 122.0 = 590.85 m
Hence, length of CF =
=

Bearing of CF,
Hence,

(latitude)2 + (departure)2
(590.85)2 + (11.76)2 = 590.97 m

## tan = 11.76/590.97 = 0.0199

= 1 824

As the latitude of CF is negative and the departure is positive, the line CF lies in the second quadrant.
Hence, the bearing of line CF is 180 1 824 = 178 5136 = 178.86.

## Civil Engineering Surveying

T2 : Solution
In traverse ABCDE (shown in figure), the point A, D and E are on same line.
Line AB
Length of the line AB = 110 m
Latitude of line AB = +110 cos 83 12 = +13.02 m
Departure of the line AB = +110 sin 83 12 = +109.23 m
Line BC
Length of the line BC = 165 m
Latitude of line AB = +165 cos 30 42 = +141.88 m
Departure of the line BC = +165 sin 30 42 = +84.24 m
1618

E
212 m
D

165

346 6

3042

83 12
A

110 m

## Now, for the traverse ABC:

latitude = 0
latitude of CA = 0 13.03 141.88 = 154.91 m
and
departure = 0
departure of CA = 0 109.23 84.24 = 193.47 m
Since the latitude and departure are both negative, the line CA lies in the SW quandrant. Its bearing is
given by
tan =

Departure 193.47
=
Latitude
154.91

tan = S51 18 W

or

Length of CA =
=

2
Latitude2CA + DepartureCA

## Since A, D and E are on the same line so,

Bearing of AD = bearing of DE = 16 18
From triangle ACD
= (360 346 6) + 16 18
= 13 54 + 16 18 = 30 12
= 346 6 (51 18 + 180) = 114 48
= 51 18 16 18 = 35

Workbook

CD
CA
=
sin sin
CD = CA

sin
sin35
= 247.85
= 282.62 m
sin
sin 3012

## Levelling and Contouring

T1 : Solution
True difference in level of A and B,

H =

(hb ha ) + (hb ha )
2

## hb = reading on staff at B when instrument at A

ha = reading on staff at A when instrument at A

where,

## hb = reading on staff at B when instrument at B

ha = reading on staff at A when instrument at B

H = 1.19 m
Error due to (collimation + curvature + refraction) = hb ha H = 0.13 m
Error due to (curvature + refraction) = 0.0673 d 2
where,
d = distance between station in km
Error due to (curvature + refraction) = 0.0673 (1.2)2 = 0.097 m

## Error due to collimation = 0.13 0.097 = 0.033 m

Error due to collimation per metre =

0.033
= 2.75 10 5
1200

T2 : Solution
There is no use of Intermediate sight
Fall in elevation =
=
R.L. of first station Fall in elevation =

## R.L. of First station =

Foresight Backsight
0.388 m
R.L. of last station
124.238 m

Workbook

T3 : Solution
Distance of Ship A from light house = 3.855 9 km
Distance of Ship B from Ship A = 3.855 9 + 3.855 9 km
Distance of Ship B from light house = 3 3.855 9 km

Let the observer at Ship B can see upto h m height of light house
Distance of Ship B from light house = 3.855 h + 3.855 9

## 3 3.855 9 = 3.855 h + 3.855 9

2 3.855 3 = 3.855 h

h = 36 m
The height of light house visible to observer at Ship B = (49 36) m
= 13 m
T4 : Solution
Starting from the point 7, the R.L. of point 6 is obtained.
H.I. at point 6 = 194.830 + 2.990 = 197.820 m
R.I. of point 6 = 197.820 4.330 = 193.490 m
H.I. of point 3 = B.M. + 5.390
= 191.620 + 5.390 = 197.010 m
R.L. of point 3 = 197.010 3.910 = 193.100 m
R.L. of point 4 = 197.010 4.730 = 192.280 m
I.S. at point 5 = 197.010 203.300 = 6.290 m
F.S. at point 6 = 197.010 193.490 = 3.520 m
H.I. at point 1 = 193.100 + 6.520 = 199.620 m
I.S. at point 2 = 199.620 192.00 = 7.620 m
BS

IS

FS

HI

RL

Remarks

4.390

199.620

195.230

Point 1

7.620

192.000

Point 2

3.910

6.520

197.010

193.100

Point 3

5.390

191.620

BM

4.730

192.280

Point 4

6.290

203.300

Point 5

Staff inverted

4.330

3.520

197.820

193.490

Point 6

2.990

194.830

Point 7

12.630

13.030

Aritmetic Check
B.S. F.S. = Last R.L. First R.L.
12.630 13.030 = 194.830 195.230 = 0.40 (O.K)

## Civil Engineering Surveying

10

T5 : Solution
As the ends of the bubble lie on the opposite ends of the zero of graduations

where,

Movement of centre, n =
l1
r1
l2
r2

=
=
=
=

n =

n=
L=
d=
s=

left end of the bubble when the position of bubble in extreme left
right end of the bubble when the position of bubble in extreme left
left end of the bubble when the position of bubble in extreme right
right end of the bubble when the position of bubble in extreme right

where,

( l1 r1 ) + ( l2 r2 )

## (20 11) + (20 11)

=9
2
nLd
s

movement of centre = 9
distance between staff and instrument = 150 m
value per division = 2 mm
= 1.452 1.37 = 0.082 m

R =

9 150 0.002
= 32.93 m
0.082

T6 : Solution
s 206265
;
Ln
where s, n and L are combined curvature and refraction correction, no. of division of the level tube and
distance of point under observation respectively

Sensitivity, =

30 =

s 206265
L 1

30L
206265
Correction due to combined curvature and refraction
C = 0.0673 L2 , where L is in km
From equation (i) and (ii),

s =

30L
206265

.....(i)
.....(ii)

= 0.0673 L2 106

L =

30
= 2161.13 m
206265 0.0673 106

## Plane Table Surveying,

Calculation of Area and Volume

T1 : Solution
By trapezoidal formula.
A + A5

+ A2 + A3 + A 4
V = h 1

2
1001 + 567,641

## + 12,800 + 92,600 + 142,900 = 532621 m3

= 1

By primoidal formula
=

h
( A1 + 4(A2 + A4 ) + 2(A3 ) + A5 )
3

1
(1001 + 4(12,800 + 142900) + 2 92600 + 567641)
3
= 458880.67 m3

=
So difference in capacity is

= 532621 458880.67
= 73,740.33 m3

## Tacheometric, Curve and

Hydrographic Surveying

T1 : Solution
=
Staff intercept, s =
=
Distance of object from telescope,

D =
where,

f+d
25 + 15 = 40 cm = 0.4 m
1.790 1.275
0.515 m
f
s + (f + d )
i

50 =

0.25
0.515 + 0.4
i

i = 2.596 mm  2.60 mm

T2 : Solution

## Instrument P at station A and staff held vertical at B:

s = 1.795 1.090 = 0.705 m,
= 5 44,
2 = 11 28
AB = Ks cos2 + Ccos
= 100 0.705 cos2 5 44 + 0.3 cos 5 44 = 70.095 m
V =
=

Ks sin 2
+ C sin
2
100 0.705
sin 1128 + 0.3 sin 544 = 7.038 m
2

Workbook

13

## R.L of B = R.L. of A + H.I + V h

= 100.00 + 1.400 + 7.038 1.440 = 106.998 m

## Instrument Q at station A and staff held normal at B:

AB = (Ks + C) cos + h sin
= (95s + 0.45) cos 544 + hsin 544
= (95s + 0.45) 0.995 + h 0.0999
or

## 70.095 = (95 s + 0.45) 0.995 + 0.0999h

946.1962s + h = 697.167

or

h = 697.167 946.1962s

or

...(i)

V = (Ks + C) sin
= (95 s + 0.45) sin 544
= (95 s + 0.45) 0.0999
R.L of B = R.L of A + H.I + V hcos
= 100.00 + 1.450 + (95 s + 0.45) 0.0999 h(0.995)
106.998 = 100.00 + 1.45 + (95 s + 0.45) 0.0999 h 0.0995

or

9.5382 s h = 5.5307

or

h = 9.5382s 5.5307

...(ii)

## From equation (i) and (ii)

697.167 946.1962 s = 9.5382 s 5.5307
955.7344 s = 702.698
702.698
= 0.735244 m
955.7344
h = 9.5382 0.735244 5.631 = 1.3819 m

s =

or

= 1.3819

0.735244
= 1.0143 m
2

T3 : Solution
Let the point of intersection of the two grades be C
Now, chainage of point

C = 435 m

RL of point C = 251.48 m
Let the fixed point on the curve be P
Now, chainage of point P = 460 m

T1

L/2

L/2

T2

+ 3%

4%
P

RL of point P = 260 m
It is obvious from the given data that point P lies towards right
of point C.
Let the length of the curve be L and the horizontal distance
between P and C be x. Also R and S be two points on tangents
T1C and T2C respectively and V be a point just below S on
tangent T1C.

14

## From the figure above we get

Distance x = chainage at P chainage at C = 460 435 =25 m
3
RL of point V = RL of C
25 = 251.48 0.75 = 250.73 m

100
4
also,
RL of point R = RL of Point S = RL of C +
25 = 251.48 + 1.00 = 252.48 m
100
Now PS = RL of P RL of S
=260 252.48 = 7.52 m
and PV = RL of P RL of V
=260 250.73 = 9.27 m
Since the vertical curve to be provided is parabolic, therefore its equation will be of the type
y = kx2

PS = k x
2

PS
PV

x
2

+ x
2

and PV = k + x
2

## 22.5 + 0.45 L = 0.5 L 25

Hence the length of the curve will be 950 m.

L
25
7.52
2
= L
9.27
+ 25
2

L = 950 m

T4 : Solution
Observation from A to P:

## s = 2.880 1.230 = 1.65 m

D = ks cos2 = 100 1.65 cos2 2 24 = 164.7 m
sin2 1
= 100 1.65sin4 48 = 6.903
2
2
R.L. of P = 77.750 + 1.420 + 6.903 2.055 = 84.018 m

V = ks

T5 : Solution
Horizontal distance, D = K s cos 2 + C cos
=

f
s cos 2 + C cos
i

D =

D =
=

f
i2

f
k =
i

s cos 2 i + 0

K
s cos 2 i
i
100
s cos 2 10 0.0025 = 0.97s
0.25

i = K = 0.25 cm

T6 : Solution
In triangle BCD,

cos =

BC 2 + CD 2 BD 2 100 2 + 80 2 95 2
=
2 BC CD
2 100 80

15

Workbook

cos = 0.4609

In triangle ABC,

cos =

0.4609 =

BC 2 + AC 2 (AB) 2
(Cosine rule)
2 BC AC
11225 AB
7000

AB = 89.44 m

T7 : Solution

tan PAB =

150 3
=
200 4

PAB = 36.87
APC = 305 30 215 30 = 90
ACP = 180 PAB APC
= 53.13 = BCP
BC =

River
True North
B 150m

PB
= 112.5 m
tan BCP

215 30

200m

Pond

305 30

T8 : Solution
Let P and Q be the instrument stations and F be the top of tower
In APQ
APQ = 60 and AQP = 50
PAQ = 180 (50 + 60) = 70
Applying sine rule

QA
PQ
PA
=
=
sin 60 sin 70
sin 50

h2
h1

29

sin 50
= 40.76 m
PA = 50
sin 70

Chimney

sin 60
= 46.08 m
QA = 50
sin 70

50
30

60
P

## h1 = PA tan = 40.76 tan 30 = 23.53 m

h2 = QA tan = 46.08 tan 29 = 25.54 m
hence, reduced level of tower top = R.L of line of collimation + h1 (or h2)
R.L. of F from observation at P = 22.5 + 23.533 = 46.033 m
R.L. of F from observation at Q = 20.5 + 25.54 = 46.043 m
hence elevation of F =

(46.033 + 46.043)
= 46.038 m
2

Tides, Triangulation,
Field Astronomy

T1 : Solution
Lo
ng
.5
0
12

P
Long. 540E

A
B

Lat. 15
Lat. 126
Equator

## In the spherical triangle ABP,

b = 90 lattitude of A = 90 15 0 = 75
a = 90 latitude of B = 90 126 = 77 54
P = difference of longitude = 54 0 5012 = 3 48
The shortest distance between two points is the distance along the great circle passing through the two
points.

cos P =

sin a sin b

cos p =
=
=
p =

## cos P sina sinb + cosa cosb

cos3 48 sin 77 54 sin 75 + cos 77 54 cos 75
0.94236 + 0.05425 = 0.99661
4 40 = 47

## Distance AB, arc radius central angle =

6370 47
= 522.54 km
180

Workbook

17

T2 : Solution
P
b
90

a
C

A
(Lat. 45)

Parallel
of Lat.
45

Great circle
Equator

AB is straight line portion of a great circle; since its length is 300 nautical miles, it subtends 300 minutes
(= 5) at the centre of the earth. AP is the meridian through A. Since AB is due east of the meridian, PAB
= 90. Similarly, BP is the meridian through B, and meets the parallel to latitude through A (45 N) in C. PAB
is, therefore, an astronomical triangle in which side
PA = b = co-latitude of A = 90 45; side AB = p = 5
A = 90
The side PB = a can be calculated by Napiers rule. Thus, sine of middle part = product of cosines of
opposite parts.

## log cos a = 1.8478292

a = PB = 45 13108
BC = PB PC
= 45 13108 45 = 13108
Hence, distance BC = 13.108 nautical miles = 13.108 1.852 = 24.275 km.
The angle at B can be found by the application of the sine formula,
i.e.

sin B
sin b

sin A
sin a

sin B
sin 45

sin 90
sin 4513108

## log sin 45 = 1.8494850

log sin 45 13108 = 1.8511345 (subtract)
log sin B = 1.998505; B = 85 0 34
T3 : Solution
Let M be the star having A and B as the upper and lower transits. Since the upper culmination is at the
zenith, Z and A coincide.

18

## Civil Engineering Surveying

Hence, zenith distance of star = zero and Polar distance of the star = AP = ZP = co-latitude of place

90 = 90 or = = 56 10
At the lowest transit of the star at B, its zenith distance = ZB = ZP + PB
= (90 + ) + (90 )
= 180 = 180 2
= 180 112 20 = 6740
Altitude of the star at lower transit = 90 67 40 = 22 20

T4 : Solution
Z

## Since the azimuth of the star is 140 E, it is in eastern hemi-sphere.

P
A H1
In the astronomical triangle, ZPM, we have
ZM = 90 = 90 2130 = 68 30;
ZP = 90 = 90 48 = 42;
M
A = 140
S
N
Knowing the two sides and the included angle, the third side can be
E
Horizon
calculated by the cosine rule.
Equator
Thus
cos PM = cos ZM cos ZP + sin ZM sin ZP
cos A
= cos 68 30 cos 42 + sin 68 30 sin 42 cos 140
= 0.27236 0.47691 = 0.20455

180 PM = 7812
PM = 10148

## Declination of the star = 90 101 48 = 11 48 = 11 48 S

Again, knowing all the three sides, the angle H1 can be calculated from the cosine formula, (Eq. 13.2). Thus
cos H1 =

sin ZP sin MP

## cos 6830 cos 42 cos10148

sin 42 sin10148

0.36650 + 0.15198
= 0.79161
0.65499

H1 = 3740
But H1 is the angle measured in the eastward direction.
Hour angle of the star = 360 H1 = 360 37 40 = 32220

Photogrammetric Surveying

T1 : Solution

S80 =

At h = 80 m,

15 cm
1cm
=
(1200 80)m 74.67m

## As a representative fraction, the scale is

R90

15
m
1
1
100
=
=
=
(1200 80) m 1120 100 7467
15

Similarly, at h = 300 m,

S300 =

15 cm
15 cm 1 cm
=
=
(1200 300)m 900 m 60 m

1 cm = 60 m
As a representative fraction, the scale is

R300

15
1
100
=
=
(1200 300) 6000

T2 : Solution
f
H approx . hab

Here,

hab =
20 cm
(happrox . 400) m

ab
AB
1
(500 + 300) = 400 m
2

5.112 (cm)
545(m)

## Civil Engineering Surveying

20

Happrox. 400 =

20 545
5.112

or
Happrox. = 400 + 2132.2 = 2532.2 m
The actual ground length is 545 m. The second approximate height is calculated as follows:

H h ab
H approx . hab

Correct AB
Computed AB

H 400
545
; From which H = 400 + 2100 = 2500
=
2532.2 400
553.4
Using this value of H to calculate the co-ordinates, we get

Xa =

2500 500
2.65 = +265;
20

Ya =

2500 500
1.36 = +136
20

Xb =

2500 300
(1.92) = 211.2;
20

Yb =

2500 300
3.65 = +401.5
20

L =

## (265 + 211.2)2 + (136 401.5)2 = 545

This agrees with the measured length. Hence height of lens = 2500 m.
T3 : Solution
(i) Flying height
We have,

H (m)
12000
H (m)
=
=
0.3 (m)
1
f (m)

## Height above datum = 3600 + 400 = 4000 m

(ii) Theoretical ground spacing of flight lines
The ground width covered by each photograph, with 30% side lap is given by
W = (1 Pw) sw
where,
w = width of photograph = 20 cm;
s = scale =

## H (m) 3600 (m)

=
= 120
f (m)
30 (cm)

i.e.

1 cm = 120 m;
Pw = 0.30
W = (1 0.3) 120 20 = 1680 m
(iii) Number of flight lines required
The number of flight lines is given by Eq. 14.31 (b), i.e.

N2 =

L2
+1
(1 Pw )sw

Workbook

21

L2
24000 m
+1=
+ 1 = 14.2 + 1 16
W
1680 m

(iv) Actual spacing of flight lines: Since the number of flight lines is to be an integral number
number,, the
actual flight lines = 16 and the number of flight strips or spacings = 15. Hence, the actual
spacing is given by

W=

24000
= 1600 m, against the theoretically calculated value of 1680 m
15

## (v) Spacing flight lines on flight map

Flight map is on a scale of 1:60000 or 1 cm = 600 m. Hence the distance on the flight map corresponding
to a ground distance =

1600
= 2.67 m
600

## (vi) Ground distance between exposures

The ground length covered by each photograph in the direction of flight with an overlap of 60% is
given by L (1 Pl ) sl = (1 0.6) 120 20 = 960m
(vii) Exposure interval
The time interval between exposures is usually the integral number of seconds.

## V = 200 km per hour =

200 1000
m/sec = 55.56 m/sec
60 60

## (viii) Adjusted ground distance between exposures

Keeping the exposure interval as an integral number of seconds the adjusted ground distance covered
by each photograph is given by
L = V T = 55.56 (m/sec) 17.0 (sec) = 945 m
(ix) Number of photographs per flight line
The number of photographs per flights line given by

N1 =

L1
+1
1

( Pl ) sl

30000
L1
+ 1 = 31.6 + 1 33
+1 =
945
L

## (x) Total number of photograph rrequir

equir
ed is
equired
N = N1 N2 = 33 16 = 528