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Gate 2016 solution

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WORKBOOK

Detailed Explanations of

Civil Engineering

Surveying

Fundamental Concepts of

Surveying

T1 : Solution

2

(m)

2.322

0.001

0.000001

2.346

0.025

0.000625

2.352

0.031

0.000961

2.306

0.015

0.000225

2.312

0.009

0.000081

2.300

0.021

0.000441

2.306

0.015

0.000225

2.326

0.005

0.000025

= 0.002584

2

Mean : 2.321

From equation,

Es = 0.6745

and

Em =

0.002584

= 0.01295 metre

8 1

Es

0.01295

=

= 0.00458 metre.

n

8

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Linear Measurements

T1 : Solution

Considered length of chain, l = 20 m

Actual length of chain, l = 20 0.1 = 19.9 m

3

l

True volume = measured volume

l

= 533.9 cu.m

T2 : Solution

Let the permissible error in the angular measurement be

Displacement due to angular error = l sin = 15 sin

Accuracy in linear measurement is 1 in 20

Displacement due to linear error =

Combined error on ground =

15

= 0.75

20

=

1

(15 sin ) 2 + 0.752

30

1

(15 sin ) 2 + 0.752

30

= 0.025

= 0

Angular error is not permitted.

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T3 : Solution

A normal tension of 101.76 N is applied, so, there will be no pull and sag correction.

Corrections required are slope, pull, temperature and standardisation.

Slope correction = L (1 cos )

= 29.786 (1 cos 430) = 0.09182 m

l l

= +0.00397 m

Standardisation correction = L

l

Temperature correction = (T 20) L

= 1.12 105 (10 20) 29.786 = 0.003336 m

Total correction = 0.09182 + 0.00397 0.003336 = 0.09113 m

Correct horizontal distance = 29.786 0.09113 = 29.695 m 29.70 m

T4 : Solution

(i) Correction for pull:

Cp =

(P P0 ) L

AE

= 0.05878 m(+) ve

Ct = (Tm To) L

= 11.5 106 (35 15) 1000

= 0.23 m (+ve)

(iii) Correction for slope:

Cd =

h2

22

=

= 2 10 3 m ( ve)

2 L 2 1000

h

1000 1000

L=

= 0.15625 m ( ve)

6400 1000

R

Total correction = 0.05878 + 0.23 2 103 0.15625 = 0.1305 m

Corrected length of the base line

= 1000 + 0.1305 = 1000.1305 m

CR =

T5 : Solution

Least count for an extended vernier =

Number of divisions of the vernier (n)

10

n

n = 60

10 =

n division of vernier should be equal to (2n 1) divisions of main scale

M = 2n 1 = 119 and N = n = 60

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Surveying and Theodolite

T1 : Solution

Line AB

Departure = 150 sin 75 42 = 150 0.9690 = + 145.35 m

Line BC

Departure = 100 sin 32 48 = 100 0.5417 = + 54.17 m

Line CD

Departure = 300 sin 28 54 = 300 0.4833 = + 144.98 m

Lince DE

Departure = 800 sin 5 36 = 800 0.0976 = + 78.06 m

Total latitude of E = 796.18 262.63 + 84.06+37.04 = 937.71 m

Total departure of E = 78.06 + 144.98 + 54.17 + 145.35 = + 422.56 m

Hence, latitude of point F = 937.71/2 = 468.85 m

and departure of point F = 422.52/2 = + 211.26 m

Total departure of C = 145.35 + 54.17 = 199.52 m

Total latitude of C = 37.04 + 84.96 = 122.0 m

Hence, departure of CF = 211.28 199.52 = 11.76 m

and latitude of CF = 468.85 122.0 = 590.85 m

Hence, length of CF =

=

Bearing of CF,

Hence,

(latitude)2 + (departure)2

(590.85)2 + (11.76)2 = 590.97 m

= 1 824

As the latitude of CF is negative and the departure is positive, the line CF lies in the second quadrant.

Hence, the bearing of line CF is 180 1 824 = 178 5136 = 178.86.

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T2 : Solution

In traverse ABCDE (shown in figure), the point A, D and E are on same line.

Line AB

Length of the line AB = 110 m

Latitude of line AB = +110 cos 83 12 = +13.02 m

Departure of the line AB = +110 sin 83 12 = +109.23 m

Line BC

Length of the line BC = 165 m

Latitude of line AB = +165 cos 30 42 = +141.88 m

Departure of the line BC = +165 sin 30 42 = +84.24 m

1618

E

212 m

D

165

346 6

3042

83 12

A

110 m

latitude = 0

latitude of CA = 0 13.03 141.88 = 154.91 m

and

departure = 0

departure of CA = 0 109.23 84.24 = 193.47 m

Since the latitude and departure are both negative, the line CA lies in the SW quandrant. Its bearing is

given by

tan =

Departure 193.47

=

Latitude

154.91

tan = S51 18 W

or

Length of CA =

=

2

Latitude2CA + DepartureCA

Bearing of AD = bearing of DE = 16 18

From triangle ACD

= (360 346 6) + 16 18

= 13 54 + 16 18 = 30 12

= 346 6 (51 18 + 180) = 114 48

= 51 18 16 18 = 35

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Workbook

CD

CA

=

sin sin

CD = CA

sin

sin35

= 247.85

= 282.62 m

sin

sin 3012

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T1 : Solution

True difference in level of A and B,

H =

(hb ha ) + (hb ha )

2

ha = reading on staff at A when instrument at A

where,

ha = reading on staff at A when instrument at B

H = 1.19 m

Error due to (collimation + curvature + refraction) = hb ha H = 0.13 m

Error due to (curvature + refraction) = 0.0673 d 2

where,

d = distance between station in km

Error due to (curvature + refraction) = 0.0673 (1.2)2 = 0.097 m

Error due to collimation per metre =

0.033

= 2.75 10 5

1200

T2 : Solution

There is no use of Intermediate sight

Fall in elevation =

=

R.L. of first station Fall in elevation =

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Foresight Backsight

0.388 m

R.L. of last station

124.238 m

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Workbook

T3 : Solution

Distance of Ship A from light house = 3.855 9 km

Distance of Ship B from Ship A = 3.855 9 + 3.855 9 km

Distance of Ship B from light house = 3 3.855 9 km

Let the observer at Ship B can see upto h m height of light house

Distance of Ship B from light house = 3.855 h + 3.855 9

2 3.855 3 = 3.855 h

h = 36 m

The height of light house visible to observer at Ship B = (49 36) m

= 13 m

T4 : Solution

Starting from the point 7, the R.L. of point 6 is obtained.

H.I. at point 6 = 194.830 + 2.990 = 197.820 m

R.I. of point 6 = 197.820 4.330 = 193.490 m

H.I. of point 3 = B.M. + 5.390

= 191.620 + 5.390 = 197.010 m

R.L. of point 3 = 197.010 3.910 = 193.100 m

R.L. of point 4 = 197.010 4.730 = 192.280 m

I.S. at point 5 = 197.010 203.300 = 6.290 m

F.S. at point 6 = 197.010 193.490 = 3.520 m

H.I. at point 1 = 193.100 + 6.520 = 199.620 m

I.S. at point 2 = 199.620 192.00 = 7.620 m

BS

IS

FS

HI

RL

Remarks

4.390

199.620

195.230

Point 1

7.620

192.000

Point 2

3.910

6.520

197.010

193.100

Point 3

5.390

191.620

BM

4.730

192.280

Point 4

6.290

203.300

Point 5

Staff inverted

4.330

3.520

197.820

193.490

Point 6

2.990

194.830

Point 7

12.630

13.030

Aritmetic Check

B.S. F.S. = Last R.L. First R.L.

12.630 13.030 = 194.830 195.230 = 0.40 (O.K)

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10

T5 : Solution

As the ends of the bubble lie on the opposite ends of the zero of graduations

where,

Movement of centre, n =

l1

r1

l2

r2

=

=

=

=

n =

Radius of curvature, R =

n=

L=

d=

s=

left end of the bubble when the position of bubble in extreme left

right end of the bubble when the position of bubble in extreme left

left end of the bubble when the position of bubble in extreme right

right end of the bubble when the position of bubble in extreme right

where,

( l1 r1 ) + ( l2 r2 )

=9

2

nLd

s

movement of centre = 9

distance between staff and instrument = 150 m

value per division = 2 mm

difference between staff readings

= 1.452 1.37 = 0.082 m

R =

9 150 0.002

= 32.93 m

0.082

T6 : Solution

s 206265

;

Ln

where s, n and L are combined curvature and refraction correction, no. of division of the level tube and

distance of point under observation respectively

Sensitivity, =

30 =

s 206265

L 1

30L

206265

Correction due to combined curvature and refraction

C = 0.0673 L2 , where L is in km

From equation (i) and (ii),

s =

30L

206265

.....(i)

.....(ii)

= 0.0673 L2 106

L =

30

= 2161.13 m

206265 0.0673 106

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Calculation of Area and Volume

T1 : Solution

By trapezoidal formula.

A + A5

+ A2 + A3 + A 4

V = h 1

2

1001 + 567,641

= 1

By primoidal formula

=

h

( A1 + 4(A2 + A4 ) + 2(A3 ) + A5 )

3

1

(1001 + 4(12,800 + 142900) + 2 92600 + 567641)

3

= 458880.67 m3

=

So difference in capacity is

= 532621 458880.67

= 73,740.33 m3

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Hydrographic Surveying

T1 : Solution

Additive constant, C =

=

Staff intercept, s =

=

Distance of object from telescope,

D =

where,

f+d

25 + 15 = 40 cm = 0.4 m

1.790 1.275

0.515 m

f

s + (f + d )

i

i = stadia interval

50 =

0.25

0.515 + 0.4

i

i = 2.596 mm 2.60 mm

T2 : Solution

s = 1.795 1.090 = 0.705 m,

= 5 44,

2 = 11 28

AB = Ks cos2 + Ccos

= 100 0.705 cos2 5 44 + 0.3 cos 5 44 = 70.095 m

V =

=

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Ks sin 2

+ C sin

2

100 0.705

sin 1128 + 0.3 sin 544 = 7.038 m

2

Copyright

Workbook

13

= 100.00 + 1.400 + 7.038 1.440 = 106.998 m

AB = (Ks + C) cos + h sin

= (95s + 0.45) cos 544 + hsin 544

= (95s + 0.45) 0.995 + h 0.0999

or

946.1962s + h = 697.167

or

h = 697.167 946.1962s

or

...(i)

V = (Ks + C) sin

= (95 s + 0.45) sin 544

= (95 s + 0.45) 0.0999

R.L of B = R.L of A + H.I + V hcos

= 100.00 + 1.450 + (95 s + 0.45) 0.0999 h(0.995)

106.998 = 100.00 + 1.45 + (95 s + 0.45) 0.0999 h 0.0995

or

9.5382 s h = 5.5307

or

h = 9.5382s 5.5307

...(ii)

697.167 946.1962 s = 9.5382 s 5.5307

955.7344 s = 702.698

702.698

= 0.735244 m

955.7344

h = 9.5382 0.735244 5.631 = 1.3819 m

s =

or

= 1.3819

0.735244

= 1.0143 m

2

T3 : Solution

Let the point of intersection of the two grades be C

Now, chainage of point

C = 435 m

RL of point C = 251.48 m

Let the fixed point on the curve be P

Now, chainage of point P = 460 m

T1

L/2

L/2

T2

+ 3%

4%

P

RL of point P = 260 m

It is obvious from the given data that point P lies towards right

of point C.

Let the length of the curve be L and the horizontal distance

between P and C be x. Also R and S be two points on tangents

T1C and T2C respectively and V be a point just below S on

tangent T1C.

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14

Distance x = chainage at P chainage at C = 460 435 =25 m

3

RL of point V = RL of C

25 = 251.48 0.75 = 250.73 m

100

4

also,

RL of point R = RL of Point S = RL of C +

25 = 251.48 + 1.00 = 252.48 m

100

Now PS = RL of P RL of S

=260 252.48 = 7.52 m

and PV = RL of P RL of V

=260 250.73 = 9.27 m

Since the vertical curve to be provided is parabolic, therefore its equation will be of the type

y = kx2

PS = k x

2

PS

PV

x

2

+ x

2

and PV = k + x

2

Hence the length of the curve will be 950 m.

L

25

7.52

2

= L

9.27

+ 25

2

L = 950 m

T4 : Solution

Observation from A to P:

D = ks cos2 = 100 1.65 cos2 2 24 = 164.7 m

sin2 1

= 100 1.65sin4 48 = 6.903

2

2

R.L. of P = 77.750 + 1.420 + 6.903 2.055 = 84.018 m

V = ks

T5 : Solution

Horizontal distance, D = K s cos 2 + C cos

=

f

s cos 2 + C cos

i

D =

D =

=

f

i2

f

k =

i

s cos 2 i + 0

K

s cos 2 i

i

100

s cos 2 10 0.0025 = 0.97s

0.25

i = K = 0.25 cm

T6 : Solution

In triangle BCD,

cos =

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BC 2 + CD 2 BD 2 100 2 + 80 2 95 2

=

2 BC CD

2 100 80

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15

Workbook

cos = 0.4609

In triangle ABC,

cos =

0.4609 =

BC 2 + AC 2 (AB) 2

(Cosine rule)

2 BC AC

11225 AB

7000

AB = 89.44 m

T7 : Solution

tan PAB =

150 3

=

200 4

PAB = 36.87

APC = 305 30 215 30 = 90

ACP = 180 PAB APC

= 53.13 = BCP

BC =

River

True North

B 150m

PB

= 112.5 m

tan BCP

215 30

200m

Pond

305 30

T8 : Solution

Let P and Q be the instrument stations and F be the top of tower

In APQ

APQ = 60 and AQP = 50

PAQ = 180 (50 + 60) = 70

Applying sine rule

QA

PQ

PA

=

=

sin 60 sin 70

sin 50

h2

h1

29

sin 50

= 40.76 m

PA = 50

sin 70

Chimney

sin 60

= 46.08 m

QA = 50

sin 70

50

30

60

P

h2 = QA tan = 46.08 tan 29 = 25.54 m

hence, reduced level of tower top = R.L of line of collimation + h1 (or h2)

R.L. of F from observation at P = 22.5 + 23.533 = 46.033 m

R.L. of F from observation at Q = 20.5 + 25.54 = 46.043 m

hence elevation of F =

(46.033 + 46.043)

= 46.038 m

2

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Tides, Triangulation,

Field Astronomy

T1 : Solution

Lo

ng

.5

0

12

P

Long. 540E

A

B

Lat. 15

Lat. 126

Equator

b = 90 lattitude of A = 90 15 0 = 75

a = 90 latitude of B = 90 126 = 77 54

P = difference of longitude = 54 0 5012 = 3 48

The shortest distance between two points is the distance along the great circle passing through the two

points.

cos P =

sin a sin b

cos p =

=

=

p =

cos3 48 sin 77 54 sin 75 + cos 77 54 cos 75

0.94236 + 0.05425 = 0.99661

4 40 = 47

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6370 47

= 522.54 km

180

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Workbook

17

T2 : Solution

P

b

90

a

C

A

(Lat. 45)

Parallel

of Lat.

45

Great circle

Equator

AB is straight line portion of a great circle; since its length is 300 nautical miles, it subtends 300 minutes

(= 5) at the centre of the earth. AP is the meridian through A. Since AB is due east of the meridian, PAB

= 90. Similarly, BP is the meridian through B, and meets the parallel to latitude through A (45 N) in C. PAB

is, therefore, an astronomical triangle in which side

PA = b = co-latitude of A = 90 45; side AB = p = 5

A = 90

The side PB = a can be calculated by Napiers rule. Thus, sine of middle part = product of cosines of

opposite parts.

a = PB = 45 13108

BC = PB PC

= 45 13108 45 = 13108

Hence, distance BC = 13.108 nautical miles = 13.108 1.852 = 24.275 km.

The angle at B can be found by the application of the sine formula,

i.e.

sin B

sin b

sin A

sin a

sin B

sin 45

sin 90

sin 4513108

log sin 45 13108 = 1.8511345 (subtract)

log sin B = 1.998505; B = 85 0 34

T3 : Solution

Let M be the star having A and B as the upper and lower transits. Since the upper culmination is at the

zenith, Z and A coincide.

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18

Hence, zenith distance of star = zero and Polar distance of the star = AP = ZP = co-latitude of place

90 = 90 or = = 56 10

At the lowest transit of the star at B, its zenith distance = ZB = ZP + PB

= (90 + ) + (90 )

= 180 = 180 2

= 180 112 20 = 6740

Altitude of the star at lower transit = 90 67 40 = 22 20

T4 : Solution

Z

P

A H1

In the astronomical triangle, ZPM, we have

ZM = 90 = 90 2130 = 68 30;

ZP = 90 = 90 48 = 42;

M

A = 140

S

N

Knowing the two sides and the included angle, the third side can be

E

Horizon

calculated by the cosine rule.

Equator

Thus

cos PM = cos ZM cos ZP + sin ZM sin ZP

cos A

= cos 68 30 cos 42 + sin 68 30 sin 42 cos 140

= 0.27236 0.47691 = 0.20455

180 PM = 7812

PM = 10148

Again, knowing all the three sides, the angle H1 can be calculated from the cosine formula, (Eq. 13.2). Thus

cos H1 =

sin ZP sin MP

sin 42 sin10148

0.36650 + 0.15198

= 0.79161

0.65499

H1 = 3740

But H1 is the angle measured in the eastward direction.

Hour angle of the star = 360 H1 = 360 37 40 = 32220

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Photogrammetric Surveying

T1 : Solution

S80 =

At h = 80 m,

15 cm

1cm

=

(1200 80)m 74.67m

R90

15

m

1

1

100

=

=

=

(1200 80) m 1120 100 7467

15

Similarly, at h = 300 m,

S300 =

15 cm

15 cm 1 cm

=

=

(1200 300)m 900 m 60 m

1 cm = 60 m

As a representative fraction, the scale is

R300

15

1

100

=

=

(1200 300) 6000

T2 : Solution

f

H approx . hab

Here,

Copyright

hab =

20 cm

(happrox . 400) m

ab

AB

1

(500 + 300) = 400 m

2

5.112 (cm)

545(m)

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20

Happrox. 400 =

20 545

5.112

or

Happrox. = 400 + 2132.2 = 2532.2 m

The actual ground length is 545 m. The second approximate height is calculated as follows:

H h ab

H approx . hab

Correct AB

Computed AB

H 400

545

; From which H = 400 + 2100 = 2500

=

2532.2 400

553.4

Using this value of H to calculate the co-ordinates, we get

Xa =

2500 500

2.65 = +265;

20

Ya =

2500 500

1.36 = +136

20

Xb =

2500 300

(1.92) = 211.2;

20

Yb =

2500 300

3.65 = +401.5

20

L =

This agrees with the measured length. Hence height of lens = 2500 m.

T3 : Solution

(i) Flying height

We have,

H (m)

12000

H (m)

=

=

0.3 (m)

1

f (m)

(ii) Theoretical ground spacing of flight lines

The ground width covered by each photograph, with 30% side lap is given by

W = (1 Pw) sw

where,

w = width of photograph = 20 cm;

s = scale =

=

= 120

f (m)

30 (cm)

i.e.

1 cm = 120 m;

Pw = 0.30

W = (1 0.3) 120 20 = 1680 m

(iii) Number of flight lines required

The number of flight lines is given by Eq. 14.31 (b), i.e.

N2 =

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L2

+1

(1 Pw )sw

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Workbook

21

L2

24000 m

+1=

+ 1 = 14.2 + 1 16

W

1680 m

(iv) Actual spacing of flight lines: Since the number of flight lines is to be an integral number

number,, the

actual flight lines = 16 and the number of flight strips or spacings = 15. Hence, the actual

spacing is given by

W=

24000

= 1600 m, against the theoretically calculated value of 1680 m

15

Flight map is on a scale of 1:60000 or 1 cm = 600 m. Hence the distance on the flight map corresponding

to a ground distance =

1600

= 2.67 m

600

The ground length covered by each photograph in the direction of flight with an overlap of 60% is

given by L (1 Pl ) sl = (1 0.6) 120 20 = 960m

(vii) Exposure interval

The time interval between exposures is usually the integral number of seconds.

200 1000

m/sec = 55.56 m/sec

60 60

Keeping the exposure interval as an integral number of seconds the adjusted ground distance covered

by each photograph is given by

L = V T = 55.56 (m/sec) 17.0 (sec) = 945 m

(ix) Number of photographs per flight line

The number of photographs per flights line given by

N1 =

L1

+1

1

( Pl ) sl

30000

L1

+ 1 = 31.6 + 1 33

+1 =

945

L

equir

ed is

equired

N = N1 N2 = 33 16 = 528

Copyright

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