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May 16, 2016

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RF-inductor modeling for the 21st century

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RF-inductor modeling for the 21st century

© All Rights Reserved

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- Contin Educ Anaesth Crit Care Pain-2011--239-42
- Experiment 5
- PhysicsElectromagnetismAH_tcm4-726384
- Physics Formulas
- Alternating Current

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HAS SOME SERIOUS SHORTCOMINGS, EVEN AT FREQUENCIES

WELL BELOW THE INDUCTORS SELF-RESONANT FREQUENCY.

A MORE USEFUL MODEL CORRECTLY PREDICTS AN INDUCTORS BEHAVIOR OVER A RANGE OF FREQUENCIES.

RF-inductor modeling

for the 21st century

f the three basic passive componentsresistors, capacitors, and inductorsinductors

are the least ideal and, therefore, the most difficult to model. The importance of a good model

is that it not only tells you which inductor is best

for your application, it also tells you how that inductor will behave in your application.

Since early in the last century, engineers have

recognized the effect of distributed capacitance

within an inductor and the resulting self-resonant

frequency (Reference 1). The resulting simple

model of a single shunt capacitance across a lossy

inductor is therefore nearly 90 years old. This

model needs to be replaced because it does not,

and never has, correctly modeled an inductor.

The old model is easy to understand (Figure 1).

You measure the inductance at some frequency

well below the SRF (self-resonant frequency). You

calculate the capacitance from the SRF using the

following formula:

1

.

C=

(2 SRF)2 L

An important note to make here is that SRF

means self-resonant frequency; it does not mean

series-resonant frequency. The confusion comes

about because a capacitor is series-resonant at its

self-resonant frequency. An inductor is parallelresonant at its self-resonant frequency. The resistance in the model is not the dc resistance of the inductor but, rather, some different value that more

accurately simulates the response around the operating frequency.

This model correctly predicts that the measured

inductance will increase as the frequency apwww.ednmag.com

about measuring the inductance well below the

SRF. The usual formula for the inductance is as follows, where HF is high frequency and LF is low frequency:

L HF

L LF

11(f / SRF)2

but its main use is to estimate how low a frequency you must use to correctly

measure the low-freFigure 1

quency inductance. For

example, at f5SRF/10, the formula predicts an error of only

R

1% in the measured value.

C

Notice that the model has the

capacitor across the series RL

L

circuit. It is unacceptable to put

the capacitor directly across the

inductor, although you may occasionally see such models. A

moments thought reveals that The 90-year-old, three-element

putting the capacitor directly model of an inductor is a single

across the inductor gives infinite shunt capacitance in parallel with

impedance at self-resonance, a lossy inductor.

which is not a useful model.

So far, this old model seems to be workable, particularly with the often-stated rule that it is applicable up to only some arbitrary frequency, such as

SRF/5.

OLD MODEL RUNS INTO DIFFICULTIES

It is impossible to cite one overriding parameter of an inductor that takes precedence over all

others. For example, if you are designing an oscilSeptember 27, 2001 | edn 67

lator or a tuned circuit, Q is the most

this new five-element model is not

important parameter. If you are

something for the fainthearted to conFigure 2

using the inductor as an RFtemplate.

blocking component, however, you are

R1

A PHYSICAL MODEL GETS REAL

R2

interested only in its impedance magSo far, the presented model has been

nitude versus frequency. If you are usa

mathematical

exercise, but you need

ing it in a filter, you want the inducL

C

to answer a question about the physitance to remain constant with frecal inductor: What components, in the

quency.

correct place, give the right sort of reThus, there are three key facets of the

sponse? A more scientific basis for the

inductor to consider: its SRF, its Q as a

model results when you use the known

function of frequency, and its imped- Simply adding a resistor in series with the

characteristics of the constituent parts

ance as a function of frequency. A use- capacitor improves the model in Figure 1.

of a real inductor. Of course, the conful model must correctly simulate all

three facets over several decades of fre- with mathematically, the four-element struction of an inductor is generally so

quency. This model then provides all model of Figure 2 is somewhat un- simple that it is hard to imagine the spethe necessary information as the oper- pleasant, to say the least. A more inter- cific constituent parts. However, you

ating frequency changes.

esting model uses both series and shunt can highlight two specific parts: the

In the old model, it is a simple mat- resistors (Figure 3). The resistor in se- core and the conductive path.

The conductive path is usually copter to calculate the peak-impedance fre- ries with the inductor gives a Q that inquency; it occurs at self-resonance, creases with frequency. The resistor in per, either in wire form or as a thin laywhere, perhaps less obviously, the Q parallel with the inductor gives a Q that er of metal. The century-old skin effalls to zero. It takes some more serious decreases with frequency. The combi- fect then comes into play, and at some

manipulation to discover that the peak nation is therefore widely adjustable to radio frequency, the resistance of this

Q occurs at SRF/=3PSRF/1.7.

give a peak Q at any arbitrary frequen- path will increase with the square root

In practice, manufacturers typical cy. If this frequency is a factor of 10 or of frequency. You could say, for argudata states that Q peaks at a point much more away from the required SRF, then ments sake, that this relationship belower than this =3 factor. The range is the self-capacitance will have little ef- tween resistance and frequency happens

when the skin depth is one-third the

at least 2 to 50, and a range of 3 to 10 is fect on the established peak Q.

quite normal. This range is, of course,

The beauty of this model comes from wire diameter or, alternatively, onefrom inductor family to family and does the simplicity of the equations, where third the conductor thickness.

For isolated copper conductors, the

not represent the variation of a partic- QMAX is the maximum value of Q:

skin depth at various frequencies is simular part. It is impossible to deduce the

ple to calculate (Table 1). The skin

variation from part to part because the

1 R2

QMAX =

,

depth becomes more complicated when

data is unavailable.

2 R1

turns in a winding are close to each othSo, the old model does not correctly

er. This proximity effect, however,

predict the position of the peak Q. Also, and

concerns details that are beyond the

the model fails miserably above self-resR1R 2

scope of this article.

onance, where it predicts that the Q risfQ(MAX ) =

.

2 L

The core loss is another matter. For

es monotonically with frequency to inYou can rearrange the formulas to an air-cored inductor, there is no core

finity. This failure is not very useful

give the resistor values directly from the loss. For a UHF inductor wound on a

either.

Putting a resistor in series with the ca- QMAX value and its frequency position: ceramic or other nonmagnetic core, the

core loss should also be minimal. On

pacitor handles the high Q above self2fQ(MAX)L

the other hand, for iron or ferrite cores,

resonance (Figure 2). Interestingly, this

,

R1 =

the loss will be at least proportional to

approach also allows for variation of the

2QMAX

frequency. Analysis of ferrites used in

peak Q frequency, so that the model can

switched-mode power supplies, for exfit a Q peak frequency up to around and

ample, suggest that for the core loss, the

one-fifth the SRF. However, the model is

R 2 = 2QMAX 2 fQ(MAX )L.

power law of frequency is 1.3 to 1.5.

not good in the sense that the resistor

Theoretical analysis of single-layer

in series with the capacitor rapidly gets

As the QMAX frequency apup into the 1-kV region, and the curve

fit between the predicted Q and the proaches the SRF, there is a

TABLE 1FREQUENCY VERSUS SKIN DEPTH

strong interaction with the selfmeasured Q is not particularly close.

Frequency (kHz)

Skin depth (m)

capacitance. You should, there0.050

9300

CONSTRUCT A BETTER MODEL

fore, expect some degree of it5

930

In contrast with the three-element erative tuning of values. How500

93

model of Figure 1, which is easy to deal ever, working out the math for

50,000

9.3

www.ednmag.com

coils suggests that the self-capacitance

curately plotted and does provide useis a function of the size and

ful data against which you can compare

Figure 3

shape of the coil and is unrelatan alternate model.

ed to the number of turns (Reference

You can achieve a better model by usR2

R1

2). This approximation is good when

ing a different variation with frequency

there are approximately 20 or more

for the series loss resistance, which the

turns equally spaced along the length

impedance equation represents using

L1

but becomes increasingly less valid as

the K=f term. This approach then

the number of turns decreases.

causes another problem with the modA good example of this constant selfel; the dimensions of K become bizarre.

capacitance rule is in the published data

A good approach to this problem is to

on Ohmite (www.ohmite.com) KM-se- The combination of the resistor in series with

normalize the loss resistor to the selfries molded RF inductors, which have the inductor, which gives a Q that increases

resonant frequency. For any inductor

phenolic cores (Table 2). This self-ca- with frequency, and the resistor in parallel with worth modeling, it is a good approxipacitance rule also applies to iron-cored the inductor, which gives a Q that decreases

mation to say that the self-resonant freinductors, such as the 9230 series of with frequency, results in a widely adjustable

quency is simply:

molded RF chokes from JW Miller combination that gives a peak Q at any arbiMagnetics (www.jwmiller.com). The trary frequency.

1

SRF =

.

chokes in the range of 1.2 to 10 mH all

2 LC

have a self-capacitance of approximateX Im(Z)

ly 1 pF.

You can then conveniently write the

Q= =

,

When the number of turns is very

impedance equation as follows, where

R

Re(Z)

small, the self-capacitance within a

0.5mh,1, and RS is the series loss refamily of inductors increases with the where Re(Z) and Im(Z) are the real and sistance:

number of turns, as shown by the SRF imaginary parts of Z, respectively. This

1

Z=

.

data on Coilcraft (www.coilcraft.com) formula allows you to write a script to

1

1

+

Mini Spring air-cored inductors (Table plot Q.

R S (f / SRF) + j2 fL R HF + 1 / j2 fC

3).

An alternative approach is to simuYou can adjust this model to accuThe proof of any model is whether or late the inductor mathematically using

not it agrees with the real-world meas- a general math solver, such as Mathcad. rately fit the manufacturers data, but it

ured response. Unfortunately, most

Although the math is complicated, it also has a couple of extra qualities. For

standard Spice-based simulators cannot is not complicated to just write down example, you can change the value of h

slightly without completely destroying

directly simulate resistors whose values the equation:

the previous response. If you used h on

are a function of frequency. On such

1

the un-normalized frequency, the

simulators it would therefore be necesZ=

.

1

1

change in K necessary to bring the

sary to write a simulation script to step

+

model back close to its previous setting

the frequency, change the resistor valK f + j2 fL R HF + 1 / j2 fC

would be large. In other words, there is

ues, and plot the results. This process is

not necessarily complicated, but it can

This equation represents just two se- a huge gearing effect on the paramecertainly be time-consuming. At least ries circuits, wired in parallel. The re- ters in the un-normalized model. Anthree Spice simulators can handle resis- sistor, RHF, in series with the capacitor, other benefit is that as the self-capacitors that are a function of frequency: modifies the frequency position of the tance changes, the effective loss

PSpice (www.orcad.com), ICAP (www. maximum Q point. It is difficult to use resistance changes appropriately, and

intusoft.com), and SpiceAge (www. RHF to tune the response of the model the model seems more realistic relative

above self-resonance because manufac- to an actual production spread.

thoseengineers.co.uk).

turers data seldom even goes up to the

AN APPLICATION EXAMPLE

CREATE A MATHEMATICAL MODEL

SRF, let alone beyond it.

This model of an inductor is essenThe model of a 0805HQ16N inducThe first thing you need to do for

simulation purposes is decide how to tially the same one that Coilcraft uses to tor (Coilcraft) is a good example beplot Q against frequency. You may re- model its inductors. The only difference cause there is a big curve of its typical

member the definition of Q for a series is that Coilcraft adds in a

TABLE 2CONSTANT SELF-CAPACITANCE RULE

small extra fixed resistor in

resonant circuit:

Inductance

Minimum SRF

Calculated maximum

series with the model given

0L

(H)

(MHz)

self-capacitance (pF)

above. Unfortunately, the

Q=

.

0.15

525

0.61

R

Coilcraft model does not fit

0.47

310

0.56

You can represent a general imped- the Coilcraft-published Q

1.5

160

0.66

ance as Z5R6jX. Thus, you can write data very well. However, the

4.7

90

0.67

published typical data is acthe Q of any general component as

www.ednmag.com

Q in the manufacturers data sheet.

130

The model values are: RHF56V,

120

Figure 4

110

L516.8 nH, C575 pF, RS5

100

1.95V, and h50.54. This new model

90

follows the published typical data to

80

within a Q of approximately 62 but

Q 70

also realistically extrapolates Q beyond

60

the range given in the data sheet (Fig50

ure 4).

40

In the final application, you are real30

20

ly interested in the Q of an actual reso10

nant circuit. From the graph of the in0

ductors Q, you might conclude that

10

100

13103

13104

because the Q is 0 at its SRF, you cant

FREQUENCY (MHz)

use the inductor at this frequency. But

this conclusion is wrong. You need to The new model follows the published data for Q to within approximately 62 but also extrapolates

understand that there is a world of dif- the Q beyond the range in the data sheet.

ference between the Q of a component

and the Q of a resonant circuit. The Q resonate with the inductor.

tor above its self-resonant frequency,

of the inductor is 0 at its self-resonant

Now that you have a representative which is a pointless exercise.

frequency because it appears entirely model of the inductor as a component,

resistive. However, if you were to plot you can predict the overall Q of an ac- MODELING IN PRACTICE

This mathematical model is not easy

the impedance curve given by the mod- tual circuit. For this representation, asel, you would find a sharp peak at the sume that the external capacitor has an to use because the values are interrelatSRF (Figure 5).

arbitrarily high Q. In other words, as- ed. The iterative procedure to arrive at

the values is as follows:

Ultimately, you want to know the se- sume that the capacitor is lossless.

Set the inductor to the low-frelectivity of the resonant circuit in terms

To plot the circuit Q, you now want

quency inductance value.

of the 3-dB bandwidth. The relation- to calculate the circuit in terms of its

Set the capacitance according to

ship between this bandwidth and the Q parallel equivalent. You then use the

the typical self-resonant frequenis:

low-frequency value of the inductance

cy. Guess at 15% higher than the

to evaluate the circuit Q, where RP is the

3 dB BANDWIDTH =

parallel equivalent resistance:

manufacturers minimum SRF in

the absence of other data, where

CENTER FREQUENCY

.

{

}

R

1

/

Re

1

/

Z

P

Q

1

Q=

=

=

.

C=

2 f0 L

2 f0L

(2 SRF)2 L

A self-resonant inductor can have a

1

reasonable Q as a resonant circuit. Un.

Set RHF51V and h50.50; then adfortunately, you cant use an inductor as

2 f0L Re{1 / Z}

just RS until the peak Q is approxa resonant circuit because you never

imately correct.

A comparison of the overall circuit Q

know where this self-resonant frequen If the peak Q is in the wrong place,

cy will be. Manufacturers never tell you to the inductor Q reveals an interesting

you shift it by moving the SRF (adthe spread of self-resonant frequencies, result: The circuit Q is higher than the

justing C) or by changing RHF.

inductor

Q

Making RHF bigger moves the peak

(Figure 6). This

TABLE 3SELF-CAPACITANCE VERSUS NUMBER OF TURNS

Number

Inductance

Minimum SRF

Calculated maximum

Q to a lower frequency.

result is probaof turns

(nH)

(GHz)

self-capacitance (pF)

Repeat moving the peak Q frebly contrary to

one

2.5

12.5

0.06

quency and then bringing the peak

what you have

two

5.0

6.5

0.12

Q amplitude back to the correct

been

taught.

three

8.0

5.0

0.13

value until you are happy with the

The point is

four

12.5

3.3

0.19

peak.

that the inducfive

18.5

2.5

0.22

Now adjust the loss-correction

tor Q is worse

term, h, to modify the Q values leadbecause of the

ing up to the peak. A larger value of

yet this figure is important to design lossy self-capacitance. The external cah will make the low-frequency Q

engineers. Without this information, pacitance is considered lossless and,

readings higher (after the peak Q has

you cant estimate the tolerance on the therefore, increases the overall Q. Note

been set back to its correct value usself-capacitance of the inductor. Thus, that the circuit Q above self-resonance

ing RS). Increasing h also slightly

you cant determine the necessary trim is meaningless; you would need to reslowers the peak Q frequency.

range for the capacitor that you use to onate the inductor with another induc-

www.ednmag.com

Note that if the peak Q occurs at

much less than SRF/5, then the

Figure 5

model will require an additional parallel resistor term. Expect this additional resistor to be necessary for ferrite- and iron-based core materials,

where the Q peak can be as many as 50

times lower than the SRF.

The actual simulation time in this

process is essentially zero. The overall

time necessary depends on how good

you are at changing values to produce

the desired result. This approach is not

elegant, but it does produce a workable

result. You ordinarily will not need to

model that many inductors.

DRAW SOME CONCLUSIONS

100

10

1

IMPEDANCE

(kV)

0.1

0.01

131023

10

100

13103

13104

FREQUENCY (MHz)

A plot of the models predicted impedance versus frequency shows a sharp peak at the inductors

dict where the peak Q of an inductor

occurs relative to its SRF. Manufacturers data suggest that a figure of

150

SRF/fQ(MAX) from 2 to 9 exists

140

F

i

g

u

r

e

6

130

even for the air- or ceramic120

cored inductors. Thus, the typical data

110

on the peak Q frequency of an inductor

100

90

is a vital piece of data to obtain from the

Q 80

manufacturer.

70

To get the best performance from a

60

50

resonant circuit, the inductor Q needs

40

to be as high as possible. To achieve this

30

high Q, use an appropriate family of in20

10

ductors and a value such that the Q

0

peaks near the operating frequency.

100

13104

10

13103

Although inductors are available

FREQUENCY (MHz)

with tolerances as low as 62%, low tolerance does not help greatly when the

inductor is running near SRF/2. The The circuit Q, in a dotted line, is higher than the inductor Q.

implied variation of SRF from its minimum specified value to infinity gives onant point at which a local minimum years of experience designing test-andrise to a greater than 610% uncertain- impedance exists. It is hard enough get- measurement equipment and has spent

ty in the desired tuning frequency. It is, ting data up to self-resonance, let alone the last 15 years designing digital-storage

therefore, important for manufacturers up to the first series resonance. How- oscilloscopes for Gould-Nicolet Technoloto give both the upper and lower limits ever, you should be fairly safe if you gies in the United Kingdom.

of the SRF. Without manufacturers dont subject the inductor to frequendata, users end up inventing their own cies greater than approximately 1.5 References

1. Kolster, Frederick K, The Effects

tolerances for the self-capacitance. In times the quoted minimum SRF.

such cases, a figure of approximately

The key thing to remember is that if of Distributed Capacity of Coils Used

615% is not unreasonable.

the data is not in the data sheet, you in Radio-Telegraphic Circuits, ProFor use as an ac-blocking compo- need to contact the supplier to get it. If ceedings of the Institute of Radio Ennent, the model of an inductor need not enough engineers pester them, manu- gineers, 1 (1913), pg 19 to 34.

2. Medhurst, RG, HF Resistance and

be complicated. All you need to know is facturers will provide the data you

Self-Capacitance of Single-Layer Solethe minimum low-frequency induc- need.k

noids, Wireless Engineer, 24 (1947), pg

tance and the SRF. You know that the

35 to 43 and 80 to 92.

blocking impedance will always be Authors biography

greater than or equal to 2pfL to the Leslie Green has a bachelors degree in

minimum SRF. If you go beyond the electrical and electronic engineering from

SRF, you will eventually hit a series-res- Imperial College (London). He has 20

www.ednmag.com

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