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Dynamic Analysis of a Complex

Pneumatic Valve Using Pseudobond


Graph Modeling Technique
Amir Zanj
Ph.D. Candidate
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Flinders University,
Adelaide 5001, Australia

Hamed Hossein Afshari


Ph.D. Candidate
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
McMaster University,
Hamilton, ON, L8S 4L7, Canada

In this work, the dynamic behaviors of a complex pneumatic reducer valve have been studied through the pseudobond graph modeling technique. This modeling approach graphically describes the
energy and mass flows among pneumatic valve components during
real operational conditions. State equations have been derived
from the pseudobond graph model and have been numerically
solved by MATLAB-SIMULINK. To validate the accuracy of the model,
simulation results are compared with the real data of an experimental setup and good agreements between them are reported. The
main advantage of the proposed model over other conventional
approaches such as fluid dynamics theories is that it provides a
physical model which accurately predicts the systems dynamic
responses without any need to run huge computer programs or establish expensive experimental setups. [DOI: 10.1115/1.4023666]
Keywords: pseudobond graph, pneumatic valve, dynamic
analysis, energy systems

Introduction

The field of pneumatics is a branch of technology which deals


with the study and application of the pressurized gas to produce
mechanical motions. A pneumatic reducer valve is a regulator that
automatically cuts off the gas flow at a certain point of the pressure. It is used to reduce the high pressure of supply lines or tanks
to a safe working level for various applications. The performance
of a pneumatic system is strongly influenced by the dynamic characteristics of its components. The bond graph technique has been
introduced as a graphical tool to model dynamic systems based on
the component functions. Its fundamental idea is based on representing the power transition between connected components by a
combination of effort and flow variables. A comprehensive
description of the bond graph technique and its applications in the
modeling and control of dynamic systems has been presented in
several Refs. [15]. Afshari et al. have modeled a hydraulic pressure regulator through the bond graph technique. Then they performed a sensitivity analysis to investigate effects of modeling
uncertainties on the systems overall response [6]. More recently,
Zanj et al. have investigated the effects of modeling uncertainties
on the dynamic response of an indirect hydraulic regulator
through a sensitivity analysis [7]. Dasgupta et al. have studied the
dynamics of several hydraulic systems, such as a pilot operated
relief valve [8] and a direct operated relief valve with directional
damping [9,10], using the bond graph technique. Other studies
Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the
JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT, AND CONTROL. Manuscript received
July 18, 2010; final manuscript received January 16, 2013; published online March
28, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Marco P. Schoen.

which employed the bond graph technique include the modeling


of complex hydraulic systems such as a pilot operated relief valve
[11], a proportional piloted valve [12], a proportional solenoidcontrolled valve [13], fluid networks [14], a pump with variable
displacement [15], and optimization-based approaches [16]. Li
and Ngwompo introduced a new approach to design control laws
for mechatronic systems through a bond graph perspective [17].
More recently, the pseudobond graph technique has been introduced as an extension to the bond graph method, when the product
effort-flow does not have a physical dimension of power [5]. It
has recently found many applications, especially in modeling
thermo-fluid systems [4]. It is important to note that there are two
main approaches in the bond graph context for modeling thermal
systems [1,4,14,18]. The first approach is the energy bond graph
(or conventional approach), where the temperature and entropy
flow are introduced as the effort and flow variables, respectively.
The second approach is the pseudobond graph where the temperature and heat flow are considered as the effort and flow variables,
respectively. However, based on the case study, each approach
may have its own advantages and disadvantages. Tan et al. have
presented a pseudobond graph model for the isothermal and isentropic flow of an ideal gas in pipe lines [19]. Zhu and Barth have
employed the pseudobond graph method to perform the passivity
analysis and then designed a controller for a pneumatic actuator
system [20]. Furthermore, Karnopp have employed the pseudobond graph technique to model thermal energy transportation
systems [21] and compressible thermo-fluid systems [22].
The presented study concentrates on finding a nonlinear dynamic
model for a pneumatic reducer valve using the pseudobond graph
technique. This model contains physical characteristics of each element and provides the transient and steady-state response of the
system. After deriving state equations from the pseudobond graph
model, they will be numerically solved using MATLAB-SIMULINK. The
main contribution of this work is to find an accurate pseudobond
graph model and derive corresponding state equations which
describe the nonlinear dynamics of a complex multidomain system
such as the pneumatic valve. System dynamics include equations of
three correlated mechanical, pneumatic, and thermal domains.
Modeling experiences imply that it is impossible to accurately analyze the dynamic performance of such a pneumatic valve using
conventional techniques such as fluid dynamics. Furthermore, to
model the valves dynamic behavior, the pseudobond graph technique may have following advantages over the energy bond graph
technique:
(1) The conservation of the flow variable is easily represented
by a 1-junction in the model.
(2) In spite of the conventional bond graph, the thermal model
derived from this approach is readily connected to other
parts, including mechanical and pneumatic domains.
(3) The constitutive relationships among basic thermal elements are still linear and easy to compute for the derivation
of the state equations.
(4) Most of the thermodynamic processes such as heat flow,
heat storage, and conversion of heat and work to internal
energy are easily expressed via the pseudobond graph
model.
Finally, to validate the accuracy of the modeling process, an experimental setup is established and the modeling results are compared with the real data of the experimental setup.

Pneumatic Reducer Valve System

The under-studied pneumatic reducer valve is extensively used


in the actuation part of propulsion systems. A 3-dimensional
graphical image of the pneumatic valves cross-section is depicted
in Fig. 1. Furthermore, its 2-dimensional technical drawing with
component descriptions is depicted in Fig. 2. The pneumatic reducer valve is basically composed of three parts interacting with

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Fig. 1 A 3-dimensional representation of the pneumatic valve


cross-section

each other. As presented in Fig. 2, the first part is in the right side
of the valve and consists of the main adjusting screw (21), the
adjusting spring (19), and a flexible shock boot (20). By manually
twisting the adjusting screw, an initial compression is made in the
connected spring (19). The main role of this part is to adjust the
outlet pressure equal to the desired value. The second part is in
the left side and designed to eliminate the effects of external disturbances and reduce undesirable oscillations produced by gas
flow variations. The main part of the pneumatic valve is the third
part, which reduces the pressure of the inlet gas flow. It consists
of the feedback pipe (13), filter (2), spindle (12), control orifice
(14), and the outlet chamber (4). The spindle movement changes
the cross-sectional area of the control orifice (14). Thus, the gas
pressure can be reduced by moving the spindle toward the right
side. The control orifice has the most important role among all of
the components: to reduce the inlet gas pressure by changing its

Fig. 2

034502-2 / Vol. 135, MAY 2013

effective area. A relief valve (5) is installed near the outlet part (4)
to decrease undesirable oscillations produced at the starting time.
The relief valve (5) consists of a spring (17), adjustable screw
(22), and a piston (16).
As shown in Fig. 2, after the inlet gas enters into the chamber
(3) and passes through the control orifice (14), its pressure will
drop. The gas flow then circulates into the three available directions, including the relief direction of the chamber (5), the feedback line (13), and the outlet direction (4). By passing the gas
flow into the feedback pipe, the spindle is pushed to the right side
and thus, the adjusting spring (19) will be compressed. The shock
boot (20) is keeping the inside pressure (11) equal to the atmosphere pressure. The pressure of chamber (4) is adjusted by regulating the area of the control orifice (14). In order to eliminate
undesirable oscillations of the spindle, high viscose oil is circulated into the chamber (9) by using the piston (15). The high viscose oil is operating similar to a viscose damper. The piston (15)
is inserted to separate these two different circuits of oil and gas
circulations. Now, assume that the pressure of the inlet flow (1)
entering into the pneumatic system is initially dropped. As a result
of decreasing the flow pressure in chamber (3), the pressure of
chamber (4) and, subsequently, the pressure of chamber (10) will
drop and the spindle will be forced to move to the right side. In
the new balance condition, the control orifice area increases and,
therefore, the effect of the initial pressure drop is cancelled out.
Consequently, the outlet pressure of the pneumatic valve is tuned
to the predetermined value.

Pseudobond Graph Modeling and State Equations

In order to investigate the heat and mass transitions among different components of the pneumatic valve, the pseudobond graph
method is proposed. Applying the pseudobond graph method to
this case study not only provides more accurate results over the
energy bond graph approach (the conventional approach), but also
computes the physical quantities such as the process enthalpy and
entropy. Furthermore, it has the advantage of linear relations
between its effort and displacement or flow when the specific heat

A 2-dimensional technical drawing of the pneumatic reducer valve

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and the thermal conductivity are constant. In the designation of


the pseudobond graph model for the pneumatic valve:

Pressure and temperature are modeled as lumped variables.


Heat transfer to the environment is assumed to be
negligible.
Each orifice is considered as an isentropic element.
The outer pressure is assumed to be equal to the atmospheric
pressure.
The masses of the spring and the shock boot are also taken
into account.
The gas flow has the characteristics of a compressible flow.
The springs have constant elasticity modules and follow the
Hook relation.
Both the viscous and the Coulomb friction are regarded in
the gas circulations.

The pseudobond graph model of the pneumatic valve is depicted


in Fig. 3. In the proposed model, the system is decomposed into
compressible volumes and several bonds denoting the interactions
among them. Considering the technical drawing of Fig. 2, four
chambers are separately modeled as capacity elements. Each bond
of the pseudobond graph model is used here to present the transmission of just one of the energy, mass, or volume quantities. Then,
other thermodynamic parameters, such as temperature or pressure,
can easily be calculated via elementary thermodynamics relations.
To derive the pseudobond graph model, first the effort and flow
resources of the system must be specified. Bond 58 and bond 59
denote the main inflow resources of the valve, whereas bond 18
and bond 19 denote the main outflow resources. The outflow part
of the relief valve is also denoted by bond 41 and bond 42. To circulate the gas flow into chamber (4), it must pass through the control orifice with a variable diameter. A little part of the operating
gas flows into chamber (10) through the feedback pipe. Thus, in the

Fig. 3

pseudobond graph model, chamber (4) is connected to chamber


(10) through bonds 20 and 24.
Bonds 19 and 2 represent the main part of the gas flow that
passes into the outlet chamber (4). By increasing the relief valve
diameter, a small quantity of the gas flow will pass through chamber (5) and enter the surrounding environment. In the next step,
the pseudobond graph model is connected to the bond graph
model of the mechanical components by using capacity elements.
The pneumatic valve has two mass elements, including the spindle
and the relief valve piston. Bonds 53 and 54 present the momentum and position of the spindle, respectively. Bonds 47 and 48
also represent the relief valve inertia and capacity, respectively.
The shock absorber part of the valve is a viscous damper that
directly affects the spindle motion by bond 55. Now, considering
the number of storage elements in integral causality of the model,
it is concluded that 19 state variables are required to describe the
nonlinear model of the pneumatic valve (see Table 1).
After creating the pseudobond graph model, it would be easy to
derive the nonlinear state equations through the corresponding
pseudobond graph rules and several relations that reflect the pneumatic valves physics. To obtain more information in this area,
refer to Ref. [4]. In this way, state space differential equations
which describe the pneumatic valves dynamics are obtained and
classified as follows:
(I) State equations describing volumes of different chambers
as
q_ 1 0

(1)

Chamber 3 with a constant volume: q_ 10 0

(2)

Chamber 1 with a constant volume:

Chamber 4 with a variable volume: q_ 35

a p47 b p53

I47
I53

(3)

Pseudobond graph model of the pneumatic reducer valve

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Table 1

State variables of the pneumatic valve dynamic model

Symbol

Name of the state variable

q1
q2
q3
q10
q11
q12
q29
q30
q31
q32
q35
q36
q40
q43
q44
q48
p47
q54
p53

Volume of chamber 1
Energy of chamber 1
Mass of gas in chamber 1
Volume of chamber 3
Energy of chamber 3
Mass of gas in chamber 3
Energy of chamber 4
Mass of gas in chamber 4
Energy of chamber 10
Mass of gas in chamber 10
Volume of chamber 4
Volume of chamber 10
Energy of chamber 5
Mass of gas in chamber 5
Volume of chamber 5
Position of the relief valves orifice
Momentum of relief valves orifice
Spindle position
Spindle momentum

Mass of gas in chamber 5: q_ 43 m_ 5  m_ out

(14)

Mass of gas in chamber 10: q_ 32 m_ 13

(15)

(IV) State equations describing positions of components


p47
Position of the relief valves orifice: q_ 48 0:01
I47
Position of the spindle: q_ 54 0:01

c p47
I47

(4)

Chamber 10 with a variable volume: q_ 36

d p53
I53

(5)

(II) State equations describing energies of different chambers


as
Energy of chamber 1: q_ 2 Sf 58  E_ h5

(6)

Energy of chamber 3: q_ 11 E_ h7  E_ h13

(7)

Energy of chamber 4:

q_ 29



a p47 b p53
_
E16  p4

I47
I53
_
_
_
 Eh19  Eh27  Eh20
(8)

Energy of chamber 5: q_ 40 E_ h27  E_ h38 

p5 cp47
I47

p10 p53 d
Energy of chamber 10: q_ 31 E_ h21 
I53

(9)

(10)

(III) State equations describing the mass pneumatic gas in different chambers
Mass of gas in chamber 1: q_ 3 Sf 59  m_ 1

(11)

Mass of gas in chamber 3: q_ 12 m_ 1  m_ 14

(12)

Mass of gas in chamber 4:


K54

q_ 30 m_ 14  m_ 4  m_ 5  m_ 13
(13)

Momentum of the relief valves orifice:


q48
p_ 47 c p5 a p4  0:01
c48

In this section, MATLAB-SIMULINK is used to numerically solve


the derived state equations and provide the dynamic responses of
the valve system. The block-diagram scheme of the solution pro034502-4 / Vol. 135, MAY 2013

(18)

Momentum of the spindle:


q54 R55 p53

c54
I53

(19)

All of the preceding parameters are explained in Table 1. Each parameter index denotes the corresponding bond number displayed
in the pseudobond graph scheme of Fig. 3. The mass flow rate values of the state equations are computed using the thermodynamical relations of Ref. [4]. The variable areas of the control
orifice and relief valve are obtained in terms of their positions as

p
D2  x2h sin2 2a
(20)
Aco
4 cosa co
Arv pDr y

(21)

The only resistive element of the pseudobond graph model is


defined as
3
D
R55 p lL
4
d

(22)

There are two inertial elements in the provided model, including


the spindle mass I53 and the relief piston mass I47 . The capacitance modules of elastic components of the valve are defined as
C48

1
k48

(23)

C54

1
k54

(24)

where k48 is the capacitance module of the relief valve spring and
k54 is the equal capacitance module of the shock boot, adjusting
spring, and auxiliary spring. Considering the different elastic elements of the pneumatic valve, the equivalent capacitance module
of the valve is obtained as



Kws xmax dws KSy1 xmax  Kaxs daxs  xmax  Kws xmin dws KSy1 xmin  Kaxs daxs  xmin
xmax  xmin

Simulation Results and Discussions

(17)

(V) State equations describing momentums of components

p_ 53 b p4 d p10  0:01
Chamber 5 with a variable volume: q_ 44

p53
I53

(16)

(25)

cedure is depicted in Fig. 4. The system parameters, state variables, and effort/flow sources are inputs to the solution procedure.
The numerical integration method of ODE 45 is used to compute
the state variable values from the state differential equations. Profiles of the gas pressure moving into chambers (1), (3), (4), and
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Fig. 4 Block-diagram of the solution procedure in the MATLAB-SIMULINK environment

Fig. 5

Profiles of the gas pressure in different chambers

Fig. 6

Profile of the control orifice cross-sectional area

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Fig. 7

Profiles of the gas flow rate in the pneumatic valve

(10) are depicted in Fig. 5. As demonstrated in the upper part of


Fig. 5, when a gas flow of pressure pin 330 bars is entering into
chamber (1), the pressure of chamber (3) will rapidly increase.
However, there is a small delay in time for it to follow the desired
profile. This delay is the resultof the choking condition occurring
in the valve inlet. In the lower part of Fig. 5, the oscillatory
growth of p4 is depicted. It results from two factors, including
oscillations of the spindle at the starting time and the compressibility characteristic of the gas flow. The spindle oscillatory behavior is a reaction to the isentropic waves appearing in chambers (3)
and (4). Parameters P1, P3, P4, and P10 of Fig. 5 are related to the
system state variables as

Fig. 8

034502-6 / Vol. 135, MAY 2013

P1

R q2
;
Cv q1

P3

R q11
;
Cv q10

P4

R q29
;
Cv q35

P10

R q31
Cv q36
(26)

Figure 6 presents the profile of the control orifice cross-sectional


area with respect to the applied pressure input. This area is changing
as a linear function of the spindle position, q53. As presented in
Fig. 6, the orifice area significantly decreases at the starting time
and, therefore, the valve resistance is consequently increasing to
adjust the pressure of chamber (4). In continuation, by increasing the
gas pressure, the spindle is forced to move toward the direction that

Profile of the gas temperature in different chambers

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Fig. 9 Profile of the gas inlet pressure passing into chamber (3)

opens the valve completely. Then, the gas pressure will drop until a
balance condition is provided among the different components.
Profiles of the gas flow rate in different chambers of the pneumatic valve are presented in Fig. 7, where m_ 1 ; m_ 4 ; m_ 13 ; and m_ 14
denote gas flow rates in the valve inlet, outlet, feedback line, and
control orifice, respectively. As demonstrated, the flow rate of the
outlet gas remains in an appropriate range during the operational
period. It is important to note that after opening the pneumatic
valve, there is a high amount of gas flow rate. Profiles of the temperature variations in different chambers are also depicted in
Fig. 8. As demonstrated in Fig. 8, the temperature profiles significantly increase at the starting time. However, after producing a
balance condition among the valve components, the temperature
profiles will remain constant. The initial increment in the temperature profiles is the result of the gas accumulation in the pneumatic
chambers. The parameters T1, T3, T4, and T10 of Fig. 8 are related
to the system state variables as
T1

1 q2
1 q11
1 q29
1 q31
; T3
; T4
; T10
Cv q3
Cv q12
Cv q30
Cv q32

the reservoir tanks and the main tank, respectively. To run the experimental setup, first the start valve and the discharge valve are
closed. Then the charge valve is opened to provide the reservoir
tanks with the expected pressure. The charge valve is closed when
the collector pressure approaches 300 bars. Then the discharge
valve is opened to increase the height of the water existing in the
main tank. During the main tank evacuation, the pressure of air
within the main tank, which is called ullage, should be kept
constant. If the test starts without a proper volume of the ullage,
severe oscillations may occur in the mechanical components of the
valve. For these tests, the initial volume of the ullage is 15 liters.
Before starting the experiment, the ullage pressure is about 5
bars. In order to regulate the initial pressure of the ullage, a low
pressure air capsule is installed in the test rig. In the next step, the
discharge valve and, subsequently, the start valve, will be opened.
An initial shock that is produced by opening the start valve is then
eliminated using the damper. Now the pneumatic valve is ready to

(27)

The profile of the gas inlet pressure passing into chamber (3) is
depicted in Fig. 9. It is assumed that the inlet flow remains at a
constant temperature. The inlet pressure is actually a step function, where the pneumatic valve is used to reduce it with a constant slope.

Experimental Setup

To validate the accuracy of the pseudobond graph model, an experimental setup is designed. A schematic representation of this
experimental setup is depicted in Fig. 10. It consists of the main
tank, five reservoir tanks, the start valve, electrical servo-valves,
the investigated pneumatic valve, the damping valve, an equal orifice, pressure gauges, air flow meter, and a capsule. Each of the
five reservoir tanks has a volume of 30 liters and is under 300 bars
pressure. Electrical servo-valves are used to charge and discharge
Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control

Fig. 10

A schematic diagram of the experimental setup

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Fig. 11 Comparison of the simulated and real outlet pressure

Fig. 12 Comparison of the simulated and real outlet mass flow

dynamically regulate the outflow pressure. To model the resistance characteristics of the components located after the pneumatic
valve, an equal orifice is designed and installed after the flow meter. The experiment is performed in approximately 150 s, which is
034502-8 / Vol. 135, MAY 2013

the time required to evacuate the five reservoir tanks from 300
bars to 30 bars.
Having captured the experimental results, it is possible to compare them with the pseudobond graph results. Most of the
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fluctuations observed in the experimental profiles are due to the


imperfect operation of the discharge pump. This kind of fluctuation
consequently affects the values captured by the pressure gauges
and flow meters and, therefore, the accuracy of the experimental
results is decreased. It is interesting to note that, due to the occurrence of the shock condition in the components located behind the
pneumatic valve, the downstream oscillations cannot affect the
upstream flow after the valve. Figure 11 shows a comparison
between the simulated and experimental data of the valve outlet
pressure. Figure 12 also presents a comparison between the simulated and experimental data of the outlet mass flow rate. As demonstrated in Figs. 11 and 12, there are good agreements between the
pseudobond graph and the experimental data, especially for the
steady-state response. These comparisons indicate the good accuracy of the pseudobond graph modeling technique in predicting the
dynamic response of the pneumatic reducer valve.

Conclusion

In this research, a nonlinear dynamic model for a complex


pneumatic valve has been provided through the use of the pseudobond graph method. After deriving state equations of the nonlinear model, the transient and steady responses of the system are
investigated in MATLAB-SIMULINK environment. Simulation profiles
imply the appropriate performance of the valve to reduce the
inflow gas pressure in a reasonable amount of time. It is also concluded from the simulation results that the outflow pressure is sensitive to the structural parameters of the valve such as the control
orifice area, piston diameter, main spring stiffness, etc. To verify
the accuracy of the modeling process, the simulation results are
compared to the real data of an experimental setup. The results of
the comparison validate the accuracy of the proposed pseudobond
graph model under working conditions. The main advantage of
the proposed method over other conventional methods, such as
fluid mechanic theories, is the ability to predict the dynamical
response with no requirements to set up additional experiments or
run huge numerical programs that are both expensive and timeconsuming.

Nomenclature
a
Aco
Acr
Afb
Arv
Ae
b
c
Cp
Cv
C48
C54
d
D
Dco
Df
Doutco
Dp
Dr
e
E_ h
I47
I53
Kaxs
KSy1
Kws
K54

lower surface of relief piston


cross-sectional area of control orifice
control area of relief valve
cross-sectional area of feedback pipe
cross-sectional area of relief valve
cross-sectional area of outlet pipe
ending surface of the spindle
upper surface of relief piston
specific heat capacitance
specific heat capacitance
capacitance module of relief valve
capacitance module of spindle
area of adjusting spring plate
diameter of spindle
main diameter of truncated cone
diameter of feedback pipe
outer diameter of control orifice
diameter of piston
relief valve diameter
upper surface of spindle
heat flux
inertial module of relief valve
inertial module of spindle
capacitance module of returning spring
capacitance module of shock boot
capacitance module of adjusting spring
capacitance module of main valve

Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control

K48
L
m_ i
Pi
pi
qi
R55
Sei
Sfi
Ta
Ti
x
y
a
c
d
daxs
dws
l

capacitance module of relief spring


effective length of the spindle
gas flow rate
pressure of chamber i
momentum state variable
position state variable
resistance module of viscous gas
source of effort
source of flow
extended temperature
temperature of main chamber
spindle position
position of relief valve head
spindle angle of attack
specific heat ratio
clearance of the spindle piston
initial displacement of returning spring
initial displacement of adjusting spring
gas viscosity

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