Dynamic analysis of a complex pneumatic valve using pseudobond graph modeling technique

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Dynamic analysis of a complex pneumatic valve using pseudobond graph modeling technique

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Graph Modeling Technique

Amir Zanj

Ph.D. Candidate

Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Flinders University,

Adelaide 5001, Australia

Ph.D. Candidate

Department of Mechanical Engineering,

McMaster University,

Hamilton, ON, L8S 4L7, Canada

In this work, the dynamic behaviors of a complex pneumatic reducer valve have been studied through the pseudobond graph modeling technique. This modeling approach graphically describes the

energy and mass flows among pneumatic valve components during

real operational conditions. State equations have been derived

from the pseudobond graph model and have been numerically

solved by MATLAB-SIMULINK. To validate the accuracy of the model,

simulation results are compared with the real data of an experimental setup and good agreements between them are reported. The

main advantage of the proposed model over other conventional

approaches such as fluid dynamics theories is that it provides a

physical model which accurately predicts the systems dynamic

responses without any need to run huge computer programs or establish expensive experimental setups. [DOI: 10.1115/1.4023666]

Keywords: pseudobond graph, pneumatic valve, dynamic

analysis, energy systems

Introduction

with the study and application of the pressurized gas to produce

mechanical motions. A pneumatic reducer valve is a regulator that

automatically cuts off the gas flow at a certain point of the pressure. It is used to reduce the high pressure of supply lines or tanks

to a safe working level for various applications. The performance

of a pneumatic system is strongly influenced by the dynamic characteristics of its components. The bond graph technique has been

introduced as a graphical tool to model dynamic systems based on

the component functions. Its fundamental idea is based on representing the power transition between connected components by a

combination of effort and flow variables. A comprehensive

description of the bond graph technique and its applications in the

modeling and control of dynamic systems has been presented in

several Refs. [15]. Afshari et al. have modeled a hydraulic pressure regulator through the bond graph technique. Then they performed a sensitivity analysis to investigate effects of modeling

uncertainties on the systems overall response [6]. More recently,

Zanj et al. have investigated the effects of modeling uncertainties

on the dynamic response of an indirect hydraulic regulator

through a sensitivity analysis [7]. Dasgupta et al. have studied the

dynamics of several hydraulic systems, such as a pilot operated

relief valve [8] and a direct operated relief valve with directional

damping [9,10], using the bond graph technique. Other studies

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the

JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT, AND CONTROL. Manuscript received

July 18, 2010; final manuscript received January 16, 2013; published online March

28, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Marco P. Schoen.

of complex hydraulic systems such as a pilot operated relief valve

[11], a proportional piloted valve [12], a proportional solenoidcontrolled valve [13], fluid networks [14], a pump with variable

displacement [15], and optimization-based approaches [16]. Li

and Ngwompo introduced a new approach to design control laws

for mechatronic systems through a bond graph perspective [17].

More recently, the pseudobond graph technique has been introduced as an extension to the bond graph method, when the product

effort-flow does not have a physical dimension of power [5]. It

has recently found many applications, especially in modeling

thermo-fluid systems [4]. It is important to note that there are two

main approaches in the bond graph context for modeling thermal

systems [1,4,14,18]. The first approach is the energy bond graph

(or conventional approach), where the temperature and entropy

flow are introduced as the effort and flow variables, respectively.

The second approach is the pseudobond graph where the temperature and heat flow are considered as the effort and flow variables,

respectively. However, based on the case study, each approach

may have its own advantages and disadvantages. Tan et al. have

presented a pseudobond graph model for the isothermal and isentropic flow of an ideal gas in pipe lines [19]. Zhu and Barth have

employed the pseudobond graph method to perform the passivity

analysis and then designed a controller for a pneumatic actuator

system [20]. Furthermore, Karnopp have employed the pseudobond graph technique to model thermal energy transportation

systems [21] and compressible thermo-fluid systems [22].

The presented study concentrates on finding a nonlinear dynamic

model for a pneumatic reducer valve using the pseudobond graph

technique. This model contains physical characteristics of each element and provides the transient and steady-state response of the

system. After deriving state equations from the pseudobond graph

model, they will be numerically solved using MATLAB-SIMULINK. The

main contribution of this work is to find an accurate pseudobond

graph model and derive corresponding state equations which

describe the nonlinear dynamics of a complex multidomain system

such as the pneumatic valve. System dynamics include equations of

three correlated mechanical, pneumatic, and thermal domains.

Modeling experiences imply that it is impossible to accurately analyze the dynamic performance of such a pneumatic valve using

conventional techniques such as fluid dynamics. Furthermore, to

model the valves dynamic behavior, the pseudobond graph technique may have following advantages over the energy bond graph

technique:

(1) The conservation of the flow variable is easily represented

by a 1-junction in the model.

(2) In spite of the conventional bond graph, the thermal model

derived from this approach is readily connected to other

parts, including mechanical and pneumatic domains.

(3) The constitutive relationships among basic thermal elements are still linear and easy to compute for the derivation

of the state equations.

(4) Most of the thermodynamic processes such as heat flow,

heat storage, and conversion of heat and work to internal

energy are easily expressed via the pseudobond graph

model.

Finally, to validate the accuracy of the modeling process, an experimental setup is established and the modeling results are compared with the real data of the experimental setup.

in the actuation part of propulsion systems. A 3-dimensional

graphical image of the pneumatic valves cross-section is depicted

in Fig. 1. Furthermore, its 2-dimensional technical drawing with

component descriptions is depicted in Fig. 2. The pneumatic reducer valve is basically composed of three parts interacting with

C 2013 by ASME

Copyright V

cross-section

each other. As presented in Fig. 2, the first part is in the right side

of the valve and consists of the main adjusting screw (21), the

adjusting spring (19), and a flexible shock boot (20). By manually

twisting the adjusting screw, an initial compression is made in the

connected spring (19). The main role of this part is to adjust the

outlet pressure equal to the desired value. The second part is in

the left side and designed to eliminate the effects of external disturbances and reduce undesirable oscillations produced by gas

flow variations. The main part of the pneumatic valve is the third

part, which reduces the pressure of the inlet gas flow. It consists

of the feedback pipe (13), filter (2), spindle (12), control orifice

(14), and the outlet chamber (4). The spindle movement changes

the cross-sectional area of the control orifice (14). Thus, the gas

pressure can be reduced by moving the spindle toward the right

side. The control orifice has the most important role among all of

the components: to reduce the inlet gas pressure by changing its

Fig. 2

effective area. A relief valve (5) is installed near the outlet part (4)

to decrease undesirable oscillations produced at the starting time.

The relief valve (5) consists of a spring (17), adjustable screw

(22), and a piston (16).

As shown in Fig. 2, after the inlet gas enters into the chamber

(3) and passes through the control orifice (14), its pressure will

drop. The gas flow then circulates into the three available directions, including the relief direction of the chamber (5), the feedback line (13), and the outlet direction (4). By passing the gas

flow into the feedback pipe, the spindle is pushed to the right side

and thus, the adjusting spring (19) will be compressed. The shock

boot (20) is keeping the inside pressure (11) equal to the atmosphere pressure. The pressure of chamber (4) is adjusted by regulating the area of the control orifice (14). In order to eliminate

undesirable oscillations of the spindle, high viscose oil is circulated into the chamber (9) by using the piston (15). The high viscose oil is operating similar to a viscose damper. The piston (15)

is inserted to separate these two different circuits of oil and gas

circulations. Now, assume that the pressure of the inlet flow (1)

entering into the pneumatic system is initially dropped. As a result

of decreasing the flow pressure in chamber (3), the pressure of

chamber (4) and, subsequently, the pressure of chamber (10) will

drop and the spindle will be forced to move to the right side. In

the new balance condition, the control orifice area increases and,

therefore, the effect of the initial pressure drop is cancelled out.

Consequently, the outlet pressure of the pneumatic valve is tuned

to the predetermined value.

In order to investigate the heat and mass transitions among different components of the pneumatic valve, the pseudobond graph

method is proposed. Applying the pseudobond graph method to

this case study not only provides more accurate results over the

energy bond graph approach (the conventional approach), but also

computes the physical quantities such as the process enthalpy and

entropy. Furthermore, it has the advantage of linear relations

between its effort and displacement or flow when the specific heat

the pseudobond graph model for the pneumatic valve:

Heat transfer to the environment is assumed to be

negligible.

Each orifice is considered as an isentropic element.

The outer pressure is assumed to be equal to the atmospheric

pressure.

The masses of the spring and the shock boot are also taken

into account.

The gas flow has the characteristics of a compressible flow.

The springs have constant elasticity modules and follow the

Hook relation.

Both the viscous and the Coulomb friction are regarded in

the gas circulations.

in Fig. 3. In the proposed model, the system is decomposed into

compressible volumes and several bonds denoting the interactions

among them. Considering the technical drawing of Fig. 2, four

chambers are separately modeled as capacity elements. Each bond

of the pseudobond graph model is used here to present the transmission of just one of the energy, mass, or volume quantities. Then,

other thermodynamic parameters, such as temperature or pressure,

can easily be calculated via elementary thermodynamics relations.

To derive the pseudobond graph model, first the effort and flow

resources of the system must be specified. Bond 58 and bond 59

denote the main inflow resources of the valve, whereas bond 18

and bond 19 denote the main outflow resources. The outflow part

of the relief valve is also denoted by bond 41 and bond 42. To circulate the gas flow into chamber (4), it must pass through the control orifice with a variable diameter. A little part of the operating

gas flows into chamber (10) through the feedback pipe. Thus, in the

Fig. 3

(10) through bonds 20 and 24.

Bonds 19 and 2 represent the main part of the gas flow that

passes into the outlet chamber (4). By increasing the relief valve

diameter, a small quantity of the gas flow will pass through chamber (5) and enter the surrounding environment. In the next step,

the pseudobond graph model is connected to the bond graph

model of the mechanical components by using capacity elements.

The pneumatic valve has two mass elements, including the spindle

and the relief valve piston. Bonds 53 and 54 present the momentum and position of the spindle, respectively. Bonds 47 and 48

also represent the relief valve inertia and capacity, respectively.

The shock absorber part of the valve is a viscous damper that

directly affects the spindle motion by bond 55. Now, considering

the number of storage elements in integral causality of the model,

it is concluded that 19 state variables are required to describe the

nonlinear model of the pneumatic valve (see Table 1).

After creating the pseudobond graph model, it would be easy to

derive the nonlinear state equations through the corresponding

pseudobond graph rules and several relations that reflect the pneumatic valves physics. To obtain more information in this area,

refer to Ref. [4]. In this way, state space differential equations

which describe the pneumatic valves dynamics are obtained and

classified as follows:

(I) State equations describing volumes of different chambers

as

q_ 1 0

(1)

(2)

a p47 b p53

I47

I53

(3)

Table 1

Symbol

q1

q2

q3

q10

q11

q12

q29

q30

q31

q32

q35

q36

q40

q43

q44

q48

p47

q54

p53

Volume of chamber 1

Energy of chamber 1

Mass of gas in chamber 1

Volume of chamber 3

Energy of chamber 3

Mass of gas in chamber 3

Energy of chamber 4

Mass of gas in chamber 4

Energy of chamber 10

Mass of gas in chamber 10

Volume of chamber 4

Volume of chamber 10

Energy of chamber 5

Mass of gas in chamber 5

Volume of chamber 5

Position of the relief valves orifice

Momentum of relief valves orifice

Spindle position

Spindle momentum

(14)

(15)

p47

Position of the relief valves orifice: q_ 48 0:01

I47

Position of the spindle: q_ 54 0:01

c p47

I47

(4)

d p53

I53

(5)

as

Energy of chamber 1: q_ 2 Sf 58 E_ h5

(6)

(7)

Energy of chamber 4:

q_ 29

a p47 b p53

_

E16 p4

I47

I53

_

_

_

Eh19 Eh27 Eh20

(8)

p5 cp47

I47

p10 p53 d

Energy of chamber 10: q_ 31 E_ h21

I53

(9)

(10)

(III) State equations describing the mass pneumatic gas in different chambers

Mass of gas in chamber 1: q_ 3 Sf 59 m_ 1

(11)

(12)

K54

q_ 30 m_ 14 m_ 4 m_ 5 m_ 13

(13)

q48

p_ 47 c p5 a p4 0:01

c48

the derived state equations and provide the dynamic responses of

the valve system. The block-diagram scheme of the solution pro034502-4 / Vol. 135, MAY 2013

(18)

q54 R55 p53

c54

I53

(19)

All of the preceding parameters are explained in Table 1. Each parameter index denotes the corresponding bond number displayed

in the pseudobond graph scheme of Fig. 3. The mass flow rate values of the state equations are computed using the thermodynamical relations of Ref. [4]. The variable areas of the control

orifice and relief valve are obtained in terms of their positions as

p

D2 x2h sin2 2a

(20)

Aco

4 cosa co

Arv pDr y

(21)

defined as

3

D

R55 p lL

4

d

(22)

the spindle mass I53 and the relief piston mass I47 . The capacitance modules of elastic components of the valve are defined as

C48

1

k48

(23)

C54

1

k54

(24)

where k48 is the capacitance module of the relief valve spring and

k54 is the equal capacitance module of the shock boot, adjusting

spring, and auxiliary spring. Considering the different elastic elements of the pneumatic valve, the equivalent capacitance module

of the valve is obtained as

Kws xmax dws KSy1 xmax Kaxs daxs xmax Kws xmin dws KSy1 xmin Kaxs daxs xmin

xmax xmin

(17)

p_ 53 b p4 d p10 0:01

Chamber 5 with a variable volume: q_ 44

p53

I53

(16)

(25)

cedure is depicted in Fig. 4. The system parameters, state variables, and effort/flow sources are inputs to the solution procedure.

The numerical integration method of ODE 45 is used to compute

the state variable values from the state differential equations. Profiles of the gas pressure moving into chambers (1), (3), (4), and

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Fig. 5

Fig. 6

Fig. 7

Fig. 5, when a gas flow of pressure pin 330 bars is entering into

chamber (1), the pressure of chamber (3) will rapidly increase.

However, there is a small delay in time for it to follow the desired

profile. This delay is the resultof the choking condition occurring

in the valve inlet. In the lower part of Fig. 5, the oscillatory

growth of p4 is depicted. It results from two factors, including

oscillations of the spindle at the starting time and the compressibility characteristic of the gas flow. The spindle oscillatory behavior is a reaction to the isentropic waves appearing in chambers (3)

and (4). Parameters P1, P3, P4, and P10 of Fig. 5 are related to the

system state variables as

Fig. 8

P1

R q2

;

Cv q1

P3

R q11

;

Cv q10

P4

R q29

;

Cv q35

P10

R q31

Cv q36

(26)

area with respect to the applied pressure input. This area is changing

as a linear function of the spindle position, q53. As presented in

Fig. 6, the orifice area significantly decreases at the starting time

and, therefore, the valve resistance is consequently increasing to

adjust the pressure of chamber (4). In continuation, by increasing the

gas pressure, the spindle is forced to move toward the direction that

Fig. 9 Profile of the gas inlet pressure passing into chamber (3)

opens the valve completely. Then, the gas pressure will drop until a

balance condition is provided among the different components.

Profiles of the gas flow rate in different chambers of the pneumatic valve are presented in Fig. 7, where m_ 1 ; m_ 4 ; m_ 13 ; and m_ 14

denote gas flow rates in the valve inlet, outlet, feedback line, and

control orifice, respectively. As demonstrated, the flow rate of the

outlet gas remains in an appropriate range during the operational

period. It is important to note that after opening the pneumatic

valve, there is a high amount of gas flow rate. Profiles of the temperature variations in different chambers are also depicted in

Fig. 8. As demonstrated in Fig. 8, the temperature profiles significantly increase at the starting time. However, after producing a

balance condition among the valve components, the temperature

profiles will remain constant. The initial increment in the temperature profiles is the result of the gas accumulation in the pneumatic

chambers. The parameters T1, T3, T4, and T10 of Fig. 8 are related

to the system state variables as

T1

1 q2

1 q11

1 q29

1 q31

; T3

; T4

; T10

Cv q3

Cv q12

Cv q30

Cv q32

the reservoir tanks and the main tank, respectively. To run the experimental setup, first the start valve and the discharge valve are

closed. Then the charge valve is opened to provide the reservoir

tanks with the expected pressure. The charge valve is closed when

the collector pressure approaches 300 bars. Then the discharge

valve is opened to increase the height of the water existing in the

main tank. During the main tank evacuation, the pressure of air

within the main tank, which is called ullage, should be kept

constant. If the test starts without a proper volume of the ullage,

severe oscillations may occur in the mechanical components of the

valve. For these tests, the initial volume of the ullage is 15 liters.

Before starting the experiment, the ullage pressure is about 5

bars. In order to regulate the initial pressure of the ullage, a low

pressure air capsule is installed in the test rig. In the next step, the

discharge valve and, subsequently, the start valve, will be opened.

An initial shock that is produced by opening the start valve is then

eliminated using the damper. Now the pneumatic valve is ready to

(27)

The profile of the gas inlet pressure passing into chamber (3) is

depicted in Fig. 9. It is assumed that the inlet flow remains at a

constant temperature. The inlet pressure is actually a step function, where the pneumatic valve is used to reduce it with a constant slope.

Experimental Setup

To validate the accuracy of the pseudobond graph model, an experimental setup is designed. A schematic representation of this

experimental setup is depicted in Fig. 10. It consists of the main

tank, five reservoir tanks, the start valve, electrical servo-valves,

the investigated pneumatic valve, the damping valve, an equal orifice, pressure gauges, air flow meter, and a capsule. Each of the

five reservoir tanks has a volume of 30 liters and is under 300 bars

pressure. Electrical servo-valves are used to charge and discharge

Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control

Fig. 10

dynamically regulate the outflow pressure. To model the resistance characteristics of the components located after the pneumatic

valve, an equal orifice is designed and installed after the flow meter. The experiment is performed in approximately 150 s, which is

034502-8 / Vol. 135, MAY 2013

the time required to evacuate the five reservoir tanks from 300

bars to 30 bars.

Having captured the experimental results, it is possible to compare them with the pseudobond graph results. Most of the

Transactions of the ASME

imperfect operation of the discharge pump. This kind of fluctuation

consequently affects the values captured by the pressure gauges

and flow meters and, therefore, the accuracy of the experimental

results is decreased. It is interesting to note that, due to the occurrence of the shock condition in the components located behind the

pneumatic valve, the downstream oscillations cannot affect the

upstream flow after the valve. Figure 11 shows a comparison

between the simulated and experimental data of the valve outlet

pressure. Figure 12 also presents a comparison between the simulated and experimental data of the outlet mass flow rate. As demonstrated in Figs. 11 and 12, there are good agreements between the

pseudobond graph and the experimental data, especially for the

steady-state response. These comparisons indicate the good accuracy of the pseudobond graph modeling technique in predicting the

dynamic response of the pneumatic reducer valve.

Conclusion

pneumatic valve has been provided through the use of the pseudobond graph method. After deriving state equations of the nonlinear model, the transient and steady responses of the system are

investigated in MATLAB-SIMULINK environment. Simulation profiles

imply the appropriate performance of the valve to reduce the

inflow gas pressure in a reasonable amount of time. It is also concluded from the simulation results that the outflow pressure is sensitive to the structural parameters of the valve such as the control

orifice area, piston diameter, main spring stiffness, etc. To verify

the accuracy of the modeling process, the simulation results are

compared to the real data of an experimental setup. The results of

the comparison validate the accuracy of the proposed pseudobond

graph model under working conditions. The main advantage of

the proposed method over other conventional methods, such as

fluid mechanic theories, is the ability to predict the dynamical

response with no requirements to set up additional experiments or

run huge numerical programs that are both expensive and timeconsuming.

Nomenclature

a

Aco

Acr

Afb

Arv

Ae

b

c

Cp

Cv

C48

C54

d

D

Dco

Df

Doutco

Dp

Dr

e

E_ h

I47

I53

Kaxs

KSy1

Kws

K54

cross-sectional area of control orifice

control area of relief valve

cross-sectional area of feedback pipe

cross-sectional area of relief valve

cross-sectional area of outlet pipe

ending surface of the spindle

upper surface of relief piston

specific heat capacitance

specific heat capacitance

capacitance module of relief valve

capacitance module of spindle

area of adjusting spring plate

diameter of spindle

main diameter of truncated cone

diameter of feedback pipe

outer diameter of control orifice

diameter of piston

relief valve diameter

upper surface of spindle

heat flux

inertial module of relief valve

inertial module of spindle

capacitance module of returning spring

capacitance module of shock boot

capacitance module of adjusting spring

capacitance module of main valve

K48

L

m_ i

Pi

pi

qi

R55

Sei

Sfi

Ta

Ti

x

y

a

c

d

daxs

dws

l

effective length of the spindle

gas flow rate

pressure of chamber i

momentum state variable

position state variable

resistance module of viscous gas

source of effort

source of flow

extended temperature

temperature of main chamber

spindle position

position of relief valve head

spindle angle of attack

specific heat ratio

clearance of the spindle piston

initial displacement of returning spring

initial displacement of adjusting spring

gas viscosity

References

[1] Karnopp, D. C., Margolis, D. L., and Rosenburg, R. C., 2000, System Dynamics,

Modelling and Simulation of Mechatronic Systems, John Wiley and Sons, New

York.

[2] Karnopp, D. C., 1983, Alternative Bond Graph Causal Patterns and Equation

Formulations for Dynamic Systems, ASME J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control,

105(2), pp. 5863.

[3] Thoma, J. U., 1990, Simulation by Bond Graph, Springer Verlag, Berlin.

[4] Borutzky, W., 2010, Bond Graph Methodology, Development and Analysis of

Multidisciplinary Dynamic System Models, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

[5] Thoma, J., and Bouamama, B. O., 2000, Modelling and Simulation in Thermal

and Chemical Engineering, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

[6] Afshari, H. H., Zanj, A., and Novinzadeh, A. B., 2010, Dynamic Analysis of a

Nonlinear Pressure Regulator Using Bond Graph Simulation Technique,

Simul. Model. Pract. Theory, 18, pp. 240252.

[7] Zanj, A., Karimi, H., Gholi, A. J., and Shafiee, M., 2012, Dynamic Modeling

of Indirect Hydro-Control ValveBondgraph Approach, Simul. Model. Pract.

Theory, 28, pp. 6580.

[8] Dasgupta, K., and Karmakar, R., 2002, Dynamic Analysis of a Pilot Operated

Pressure Relief Valve, Simul. Model. Pract. Theory, 10, pp. 3549.

[9] Dasgupta, K., and Karmakar, R., 2002, Modelling and Dynamics of SingleStage Pressure Relief Valve With Directional Damping, Simul. Model. Pract.

Theory, 10, pp. 5167.

[10] Dasgupta, K., and Watton, J., 2005, Dynamic Analysis of Proportional Solenoid Controlled Piloted Relief Valve by Bond Graph, Simul. Model. Pract.

Theory, 13, pp. 2138.

[11] Shin, Y. C., 1991, Static and Dynamic Characteristics of a Two Stage Pilot

Relief Valve, ASME J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control, 113(2), pp. 280288.

[12] Zung, P. S., and Perng, M. H., 2002, Nonlinear Dynamic Model of a TwoStage Pressure Relief Valve for Designers, ASME J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control, 124(1), pp. 6266.

[13] Maiti, R., Saha, R., and Watton, J., 2002, The Static and Dynamic Characteristics of a Pressure Relief Valve With a Proportional Solenoid-Controlled Pilot

Stage, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part I, 216, pp. 143156.

[14] Margolis, D. L., and Yang, W. C., 1985, Bond Graph Models for Fluid Networks Using Modal Approximation, ASME J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control,

107(3), pp. 169175.

[15] Schoenau, J. G., Burton, R. T., and Kavanagh, G. P., 1990, Dynamic Analysis

of a Variable Displacement Pump, ASME J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control,

112(1), pp. 122132.

[16] Wu, Z., Campbell, M. I., and Fernandez, B. R., 2008, Bond Graph Based

Automated Modeling for Computer-Aided Design of Dynamic Systems,

ASME J. Mech. Design, 130(4), p. 041102.

[17] Li, P. Y., and Ngwompo, R. F., 2005, Power Scaling Bond Graph Approach to

the Passification of Mechatronic Systems With Application to Electrohydraulic

Valves, ASME J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control, 127(4), pp. 633641.

[18] Gawthrop, P. J., 1999, Thermal Modelling Using Mixed Energy and Pseudo

Bond Graphs, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part I, 213(3), pp. 201216.

[19] Tan, J., Stelson, K. A., and Janni, K. A., 1994, Compressible-Flow Modeling With

Pseudo Bond Graphs, ASME J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control, 116(2), pp. 272280.

[20] Zhu, Y., and Barth, E. J., 2008, Passivity-Based Impact and Force Control of a

Pneumatic Actuator, ASME J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control, 130(2), p. 024501.

[21] Karnopp, D. C., 1978, Pseudo Bond Graphs for Thermal Energy Transport,

ASME J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control, 100(3), pp. 165169.

[22] Karnopp, D. C., 1979, State Variables and Pseudo Bond Graphs for Compressible Thermofluid Systems, ASME J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control, 101(3), pp.

201204.

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