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3.5.10 Mechanical Design


Pressure vessel for use in the chemical industries are designed and fabricated according
to ASME BPV code. Each of the codes provides a complete self-consistent set of rules.
It is very important that the design should be carried out using only one code, and never
permitted to mix and match rules from different codes. Figure 3.13 show the step of
mechanical design of distillation column.

41
.

42
Figure 3.13

3.5.10.9.1

Step of mechanical design of distillation column

Material of Construction (MOC)

The most characteristics to be considered when choosing a material of construction


(MOC) are (Sinnott, R.K., 2005):
i.

Mechanical properties

ii.

The effect of temperatures on the mechanical properties

iii.

Corrosion resistance

iv.

Special properties required; such as thermal conductivity

v.

Ease of fabrication forming, welding, casting

vi.

Availability in standard sizes and plates, sections, tubes

vii.

Cost
The basic material of construction that are used in the fatty acid industry is one of

the 300 series stainless steels. Based on NPCS Board of Consultants& Engineer, the
common construction material for vessel for splitting of oils and distillation column is
stainless steel (grade 316). Type 304 stainless steel may be used in fatty chemical
processing at temperatures up to 150C and Type 316 stainless steel is used above that
temperature (Rice, E.E., 1979). At high temperature, fatty acid are very corrosive to
carbon steel. Type 304 stainless steel is not much more resistant than type 316 stainless
steel. Since the operating temperature is above 300C, stainless steel 316 is the best
suitable for material of construction. The table 3.10 show the general properties of
stainless steel 316.The trade name stainless steel 316 covers a range of nickel,
chromium and molybdenum. The components in stainless steel have the following
functions:
a

Nickel increases toughness and greater strength at high temperatures

Chromium improves hardness, abrasion resistance, corrosion resistance


and resistance to oxidation.

Molybdenum increases the strength of the steel at high temperature.

Table 3.10 General properties of stainless steel 316 (Source: Davis J.R.,
1994)

43
7.90g/cm3
0.50 kJ/kg.K
1392-1444C
14.6 W/m.K
17.5m/m.K

Density
Specific heat
Melting point range
Thermal conductivity@20C
Coefficient of heat expansion
3.5.10.9.2

Design Pressure

The design pressure normally be 5% to 10% above the normal working pressure to
prevent spurious operation of the relief valve during minor process upsets (Sinnot, R.K.,
2005).
Design pressure, take as 10% above l.4 bar = 1.4 bar x 1.1
= 1.54 bar
= 0.154 N/mm2
3.5.10.9.3

Design Temperature

Operating temperature = 378.2 oC =651.2 K


Design temperature, take as 10% above 651.2 K

= 651.2 x 1.1
= 716.3 K

By interpolation from the table 3.11, the maximum allowable stress = 105 N/mm2
Table 3.11
Material

Stainless steel 18Cr/8Ni

Data for Typical Design Stress (Source: Sinnott, R.K., 2005)

Strength

0-50

Design stress at temperature C (N/mm2)


100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500

(N/mm2)
520

175

150 135 120

Tensile

115

110

105 105 100

Mo 2 percent (316)

3.5.10.9.4

Vessel Thickness

The minimum thickness of column required and other designs are calculated based on
equation below;

t=

Pi D i
( 3.46)
2 SE1.2 Pi

95

44
Therefore, minimum thickness required,

t=

0.154 x 2330
2 x 105 x 11.2 x 0.154
1.71mm

Add 2 mm of corrosions allowance = 3.71 mm 4 mm


Although the calculated vessel thickness is approximately 4 mm, the minimum thickness
required is assumed to be 9 mm because the guidelines stated that for a vessel with a
diameter more than 2 to 2.5 meter, a thickness 9 mm is the minimum (Sinnott, R.K.,
2005).
Table 3.12

Minimum practical wall thickness (Source: Sinnott, R.K., 2005).


Vessel diameter (m)
1
1 to 2
2 to 2.5
2.5 to 3
3 to 3.5

Minimum thickness (mm)


5
7
9
10
12

A much thicker wall is needed at the column base to withstand the wind and dead
weight loads. As a first trial, divide the column into five sections, with the thickness
increasing by 2 mm per section. Try 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18 mm.
3.5.10.9.5

Dead weight of vessel

The rough estimate of the weight of vessel by using the average thickness 14 mm.
Take

Cw = 1.15 for distillation column


Dm = 2.33 +

14 103 = 2.344 m

Hw = 26 m
t = 14 mm

W v =240C w Dm ( H v + 0.8 Dm ) t(3.47)

45

W v =240 x 1.15 x 2.344 ( 26+0.8 x 2.344 ) 14


= 252471.7074 N
= 252 kN

Weight of plates

Plate area=

2
d=
2
2
4
4 (2.33 ) = 4.26 m

Weight of a plate including liquid on it = 1.2 x 4.26 = 5.11 kN


46 plates

= 46 x 5.11 = 235.06 kN

Insulation

Mineral wool insulation density= 130 kg/m3


Approximately volume of insulator = dht = x 2.33 x 26 x 75 x10-3 = 14.27m3

Weight of insulation=V x insulation x g = 14.27 x 130 x 9.81 = 18199 N


Double this to allow for fitting = 36 kN
Total weight:
Shell

252

Plates & contents

235

Insulation

36

Total

523 kN

46
3.5.10.9.6

Wind loading

Take dynamic wind pressure as 1280 N/m2, corresponding to 160kph (100 mph).
Mean diameter, including insulation, Deff = Dc + 2(tshell + tinsulation )

(3.48)

= 2.33 +2 (14+75)x10-3 = 2.51 m


Loading (per linear meter),

W =P w Deff

(3.49)

Bending moment at bottom tangent line

M x=

Wx

3.5.10.9.7

3213
x 262=1,085,994 Nm
2
Analysis of stress

Pressure stresses:

L=

0.154 x 2.33 x 103


=4.98 N /mm2
4 x 18

h=

Pi D
(3.44 )
4t

Pi D
( 3.50)
2t

0.154 x 2.33 x 103


=9.96 N /mm 2
2 x 18

Dead weight stress:

w =

wv
(3.51)
( Di +t ) t
3

523 x 10
=3.94 N /mm2 ( compressive)
(2330+18)18

Bending stresses:

= 1280 x 2.51 =3213 N/m

47
Do = 2330 + (2 x 18) = 2366 mm

I v=

64

(Do4-Di4)

I v=

(3.52)

( 23664 23304 ) =9.15 x 1010 mm4


64

b =

M Di
+t (3.53)
Iv 2

b =

1,085,994 x 103 2330


+ 18
2
9.15 x 1010

( )

14. 04 N /mm 2
The resultant longitudinal stress is

3.54
z L + w b )

w is compressive and therefore


2

z (upwind ) =4.983.94+14.04=15.08 N /mm

z ( downwind ) =4.983.9414.04=13.0 N / mm2

15.08

9.96

13.08

9.96

Upwind

Down-wind

48
The greatest difference between the principal stresses will be on the downwind side
(9.96-(-15.08)) =25.04 N/mm2
below the maximum allowable design stress
3.5.10.9.8

c =2 x 10 4

Check Elastic Stability (Buckling)

t
N /mm2 (3.55)
Do

( )

c =2 x 10 4

18
( 2366
)=152.16 N /mm

The maximum compressive stress will occur when the vessel is not under pressure =
3.94 +14.04 = 17.98, well below the critical buckling stress. So, the design is
satisfactory.

3.5.10.9.9

Head and Closure

Stated that the ends of a cylindrical knows as the closed. There are four common types
of closure in cylindrical vessel:
a) Torispherical head
b) Hemispherical heads
c) Ellipsoidal heads
d) Flat head
Table 3.13

Comparison of the head and closures

49
(Source: Lawate. S., & Deshmukh, B.B., 2015)
Torispherical head

Hemispherical heads

Ellipsoidal heads

Made of a dish, with


constant radius

Have a dish with a fixed


radius (CR)

Deeper
Major to minor ratio =2:1

Diagram

Shape

Advantage

Easy and cheaper to


fabricate

3.5.10.9.1

Torispherical head

t=

Strongest shape,
capable of resisting
about twice pressure of
torispherical at same
thickness

0.885 Pi Rc
(3.56)
SE0.1 Pi
Where

Rc =crown radius=Dc =2.33 m


t=

0.885 x 0.154 x 2330


=3.02 mm
105 x 10.1 x 0.154
Add corrosion allowance 3.02 + 2 = 5 mm

3.3.10.9.2 Hemispherical heads

t=

Pi D i
(3.57)
4 SE0.4 Pi

t=

0.154 x 2330
4 x 105 x 10.4 x 0.154
0.85 mm
Add corrosion allowance 0.85 + 2 = 2.85 mm 3 mm

Can withstand for


pressure above 10 bar

50

3.5.10.9.3 Ellipsoidal heads

t=

P i Di
(3.58)
2 SE0.2 Pi

t=

0.154 x 2330
2 x 105 x 10.2 x 0.154
1.71mm
Add corrosion allowance 1.71 + 2 = 3.71 mm 4 mm

3.5.10.9.4

Flat heads

Use a full face gasket C=0.25, De = bolt circle diameter, take as approximately 1.7 m

t=D e

CPi
(3.59)
SE

t=1.7 x 103

0.25 x 0.154
=32.55 mm
105 x 1

Add corrosion allowance = 32.55 + 2 = 34.55 mm 35 mm


Table 3.14

Summary of the minimum thickness

Type of head
Torispherical head
Hemispherical head
Ellipsoidal head
Flat head

Minimum thickness, t
5m
3m
4m
35 m

So, an ellipsoidal head would probably be the most economical. The thickness as being
same as the thickness of the wall. From the calculation, it shows the inefficiency of a flat
cover. It would be better to use a flanged domed head.
Vessel Support Design
The method used to support a vessel depends on the size, shape and weight of the
vessel, design pressure and temperature. Since distillation column is vertical vessel,
skirt support is used in this design. The material used to design skirt support is carbon
steel because it has higher strength and the toughness.

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Type of support

: (s=90o) straight skirt

Type of material

: Carbon steel

Design stress

: 135 N/ mm

Youngs modulus

: 200 000 N/ mm

Skirt height

:1m

3.
Approximate weight

( 4 Di H ) g

( 4 2.33 m 26 m) 1000 kg /m 9.81m/ s

60)

1,087,537.09 N =1088 kN
Weight of vessel

= 523 kN

523+1088 N

Total weight

1611 kN
3.6.10.1

M S=F w

Bending moment

( HV + HS)

M S=3.21

(3.61)

( 26+3 )2
=1350 kNm
2

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3.6.10.2

Bending Stress of Skirt

As the first trial, skirt thickness is taken as the same as the thickness of the bottom
section of the vessel, ts = 18 mm.

bs =

4 Ms

[ ( Dv +t s ) t s Do ]

(3.62)

3
1350 x 103 x 10

4
bs=
ws (test )=

Total weight
(3.63)
[ ( Ds +t s ) t s ]

1611 x 103
=12.13 N /mm2
(2330 mm+18 mm)(18 mm)

ws ( operating )=

Weight of vessel
(3.64)
[ ( D s+ t s ) t s ]

523 x 103
=3.94 N /mm2
(2330 mm+18 mm)(18 mm)
s ( compressive )= bs + ws =17.45+3.94=21.39 N / mm2
s ( tensile ) = bs ws =17.453.94=13.51 N /mm2
Take joint factor, J = 0.85

s ( tensile ) <S s E sin


(3.65)

13.51<135 ( 0.85 ) sin 90

53

13.51<114.75

s ( compressive ) <0.125 E y

t sk
sin
Ds

( )

21.39<0.125 ( 200000 )

(3.66)

18
( 2330
) sin 90

21.39<193
Both criteria are satisfied; adding 2mm for corrosion gives a thickness of 20 mm.
3.6.11 Base ring and anchor bolt design
Assume pitch circle diameter = 2.33 m
Circumference of bolt circle = 2330
Recommended spacing between bolts = 650 mm
Minimum number bolts required, Nb = 2330/650 = 11.26
Closest multiple of Nb = 12
Bending moment at base skirt, MS = 1350 kNm (from previous calculation)
Total weight of vessel, Wt = 523 kN (from previous calculation)
Bolt design stress, fb = 125 N/mm2
The bolt area required is given by:

Ab=

1
Nb f b

4Ms
W (3.67)
Db

4 ( 1350 x 1 03 )
1
Ab=
( 523 x 1 03 ) =2222.76 mm2
(12 x 125)
1.4
Use M64 bolts (BS 4190:1967) root area = 2680 mm2

54

bolt root diameter=

4 Ab
4 x 2222.76
=
=53.2mm

Based on guide rules in selecting the anchor bolt, bolts smaller than 25 mm cannot be
used. So, the bolt root diameter is acceptable (Sinnot, R.K., 2005).
Total compressive load on the base ring per unit length,

Fb =

4Ms
D s

W
(3.68)
D s

2.33 2

4 ( 1350 x 1 03 )

= 388 x 103 N/m


Based ring width, Lb

Lb =

Fb 1
x
(3.69)
f c 10 3
Where:

Lb = base ring width, mm


f c = maximum allowable bearing pressure on the concrete foundation
pad (typically range from 3.5 to 7 N/mm2)
Taking bearing pressure, fc = 5 N/mm2

Lb =

( 388 x 1 03 )
5 x 1 03

=77.6 mm

Therefore, the minimum width of the base ring, Lb is 77.6 mm.


Actual width required:

Lb=Lr +t s +50 mm = 76 + 7 + 50 mm = 133 mm

55
Actual bearing pressure on concrete foundation:

f 'c=

Fb
(3.70)
actual width

388 x 10 3
2
=2.92 N /m m
133 x 10 3
Base ring thickness,

tb :

The required thickness for the base ring is found by treating the ring as cantilever
beam. The minimum thickness is given by:

t b=Lr

3 '
f (3.71)
fr c

Where:

'
c

= actual bearing pressure on base, N/mm2

f r = allowable design stress in the ring material, typically 140 N/mm2


t b=76

3 x 2.92
=19 mm
140

Skirt to be welded ush with outer diameter of column shell.

3.6.12 Manhole design


Manholes, also known as manway are the most widely used maintenance utility
structures that provide access to pipelines for inspection and cleanout. The size of the
manhole should be such that a person can safely travel through the manway segment
and also it removable through the column manholes. Manholes range in diameter from
18 - 24 inches (1,200 mm). Column that have more than 30 tray, manholes should be

56
provided below the bottom tray and above the top tray, intermediate should be placed no
farther than 30 feet (15 tray) apart (Stewart and Lewis, 2012).

Figure 3.14

Manholes in distillation column

3.6.13 Pipe sizing

d , optimum=260 G0.52 0.37 (3.72)


Feed

d , optimum=260(8.469)0.52 (844.49)0.37=65.25 mm
Distillate
0.52

d , optimum=260( 4.6361)

0.37

(845.35)

=47.68 mm

Bottom
0.52

d , optimum=260(3.833)

0.37

(843.22)

Table 3.14

=43.24 mm

Summary of pipe sizing

Stream

d, optimum (mm)

Feed

65.25

d, optimum (in)
2.57

57

Distillate

47.68

1.88

Bottom

43.24

1.70

3.6.14 Flanged design


Flanged joints are used for connecting pipes and instruments to
vessels, for manhole covers, and for removable vessel heads when
ease of access is required. Flanges may also be used on the vessel
body, when it is necessary to divide the vessel into sections for
transport or maintenance. Flanged joints are also used to connect
pipes to other equipment, such as pumps and valves. Standard flanges
are available in a range of types, sizes and materials; and are used
extensively for pipes, nozzles and other attachments to pressure
vessels.

Figure 3.15

Standard flange

58
Table 3.15

Typical standard flange design (All dimensions mm)


(Source; Sinnott, R.K.,2005)

3.6.15 Summary Table of Mechanical Design

59

Table 3.16

Summary table of mechanical design

Equipment label
T-100
Equipment name
Distillation column
Maximum diameter
2.33
m
Total height
26
m
Operating temperature
378.2
C
Design temperature
416
C
Operating pressure
1.4
bar
Design pressure
1.54
bar
Material of construction
316 stainless steel Vessel thickness
4
mm
HEAD AND CLOSURE
Type
Ellipsoidal
Thickness
4 mm
VESSEL SUPPORT
Type support
Straight Skirt support
Material of construction
Carbon steel
Design stress
135 N/mm2
Skirt height
1m
Skirt thickness
14 mm
COLUMN WEIGHT
Dead weight of vessel
252 kN
Weight of plates
235 kN
Weight of insulation
36 kN
Wind loading
3213 N/m
ANALYSIS OF STRESS
Pressure stress:
4.98 N/mm2
L
9.96 N/mm2
h
3.94 N/mm2
Dead weight stress , w
14.04 N/mm2
Bending stress , b
BASE RING AND ANCHOR BOLT
Bolt diameter
53.2 mm
No. of bolt
12
Actual bearing pressure
2.92 N/mm2
Base ring thickness
19 mm
PIPE SIZE
Feed
65.25 mm
Distillate
47.68 mm
Bottom
43.24

From summary table of mechanical design, the material construction for distillation
column is 316 stainless steel. The material is selected after considering the degree of

60
the corrosion and design temperature that take place in the distillation column.
Ellipsoidal head is selected because it is the most economically than torispherical and
hemispherical head. Skirt support is used for tall, vertical distillation column. A column
must be designed to withstand the highest wind speed that is likely to be encountered at
the site during the life of the plant.

REFERENCES

61
Davis J.R., (1994). Stainless steel. ASM International
Geankoplis C.J., (2003). Transport Processes and separation process principles. Prentice
Hall
Henley, E. J., Seader, J. D. (1981). Equilibrium-stage separation operations in chemical
engineering, New York, John Wiley & Sons.
Lawate S., Deshmukh., B.B.,(2015). Analysis of heads of pressure vessel. International
Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 4(2), 759765
Luyben W.L., (2005) .Process Modelling, simulation and control for chemical engineer.
McGraw Hill
Rice, E.E., (1979). Material of construction in the fatty acid industry. Journal of the American
Oil Chemists Society, 56 (11), 754A758A
Sinnot R.K., (2005). Coulson & Richardsons Chemical Engineering, Chemical Engineering
Design. Butterworth Heinemann
Stewart, M. & Lewis, O.T., (2012). Pressure Vessels Field Manual: Common Operating
Problems and Practical Solutions. Gulf Professional Publishing
Turton R., Bailie R. C., Whiting W.B., (2009) Analysis, Synthesis and Design of Chemical
Processes. Pearson Education International