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Surface sources of water include rivers, streams, lakes, ponds, etc. There is large
variation in the water yield of the surface sources, which vary from season to season. The
development, reliability and quantity of water may depends on the following
The selection of the site for collection works,
preparation and control of the catchments area,
The choice of the type of reservoir,
The treatment of reservoir sites as well as operation of the reservoir

All sources of water can be broadly classifiedas follows:
Surface sources.
v Streams
v Lakes
v Ponds
v Rivers
v Stored rain water
v Impounded reservoirs

Ground surfaces
v Porous pipe galleries
v Wells
v Infiltration galleries
v Springs



Rain fall directly affects the quantity of surface water. As the rain fall is not
uniform through the year, the quantity of surface water a I so has large variations.
The discharge in rivers and streams remains max in rainy season and min in
If the quantity of water in summer is too sufficient to meet the demands it is
stored in impounded reservoirs.
The site for the dam or impounded reservoir should he very carefully selected as
discussed curlier.
In hilly areas having large lakes, the construct ion of artificial reservoirs is not


The capacity of the storage reservoirs depends on the rates of inflow, losses and
demand or outflow.

For determining the capacity of the storage reservoir to be constructed, these are
to be calculated first
The inflow and outflow values are to be determined for various months of the
The deficits and surpluses of water are calculated, and the storage capacity is
made equal to the total deficit.
For remaining on the safer side, the dry year in which the inflow was minimum
and the outflow was max is generally chosen for this purpose.









This method is not common in determining the capacity of the reservoir to he
In the method the stream flow data at the site of the reservoir are determined.
In ease of large reservoir monthly inflow raters are calculated, whereas in case of
s reservoirs the daily inflow data are collected.
In case the exact outflow data at the site of reservoir are not available, the data at
other points of the stream or on nearby streams are collected and adjustments are
made for the exact site.

Hydrograph showing yield & consumption

The maximum cumulative total deficit is determined from the hydrograph, Which
is equal to the minimum storage capacity of the reservoir.
The exposed area of the water surface increases due to construction of the
reservoir, which increases the evaporation losses
Sometimes the losses due is the evaporation and seepage are so huge that the
very purpose of constructing the reservoir is not fulfilled.
Seepage front the reservoir should also he added in the losses while determining
the capacity of the reservoir.

ANS = 5.22 million litres/hour.


The water table of underground water generally corresponds to water level of
Stream River, and sea depending on their position. The elevation of the ground
water table
fluctuates with the rainfall, temperature, barometric pressure , tides, rate of
pumping from wells and other natural conditions. Practically it has been seen that
all ground water is in motion.
Therefore, as in a surface stream for movement slope is required, in time same
way Water table requires slope or hydraulic gradient to cause flow. Mostly
follows the topography of the ground surface above it as shown
If the hydraulic gradient is ignore, greater will be the velocity and greater the
water flow.
Ground water flow also depends on the characteristics of the aquifer, the finer the
material; there will be more resistance to flow.
In gravel acqtnfcr the velocity of ground water flow may be 10 to 20 m/day with
gradient of I in 800 to 1 iti 400. Under natural conditions hydraulic gradient more
than I 5000 are rarely found.
Wells of good yield are generally developed in aquifers where velocity is about
2.0 ni/day.

It is not possible to determine very accurately the specific yield of a water bearing
stratum, in the laboratory, because it is not possible to collect 100% undisturbed
The other reason is also that short column of undisturbed sample cannot represent
the whole big underground sub-soil stratum.
Permeability is the capability of a formation of soil to pass water through it. It is
measured by the coefficient of permeability

Permeability is defined as the rate of flow of water through as aquifer of unit

cross-sectional areas, under unit hydraulic gradient at 15C temperature.
Sometimes ground water reappears at the ground surface in the forms of springs.
Springs generally can supply initial quantity of water, hence these can not he used
as source of water to big towns.
Good developed springs (when more numbers are combined together) can be
used as water supply sources for small hill towns. Due to presence of sulphur in
certain springs, they discharge hot water
Such hot water springs are only useful for taking dips for the cure of certain skin
disease patients. These are not useful for public water supply. Generally springs
are formed under following circumstances.
When the surface of the earth drops sharply below the normal ground water table


When a fissure in an impervious stratum allows artesian water to flow in the form of

When the surface of the earth drops sharply the water bearing stratum is exposed
to the atmosphere and springs are formed.
Fig shows formation of such springs resulting front an overflow of the ground
water table.
This type of spring is also called as Gravity or snow springs and water table to
such springs varies with the rainfall.
The most common type of spring. This is formed when an impervious stratum
which is supporting the ground water reservoir becomes out crops.
The storage capacity of these types of springs is very small which ceases after a
drought. These springs can be developed by constructing a cut off trench.
Fig. 4.3 shows the formation of springs when ground water rises through a fissure
in the upper impervious stratum. These are also known as Artesian springs and
generally have constant rate of because water comes out by a constant pressure.

Ground Water
It is the common practice to construct pucca tank (collecting tank) at the point of
springs to collect the spring water and prevent its wastage.
To safeguard against the. contamination of water, these tanks are covered from
three sides with masonry walls, and roof is provided at the top.
At the front side door is provided which is closed during nights. and it prevents
the wild animals to contaminate the water also.
In Garhwal districts these collecting works are known as Diggis .

We have seen earlier that ground water travels towards lakes, rivers or streams,
this water which is traveling can be intercepted by digging a trench or by
constructing a tunnel with holes on sides at right angle to the direction of flow of
underground water.
These underground tunnel used for tapping underground water near rivers, lakes
or streams are called Infiltration Galleries . Underground water may be allowed
to enter these infiltration galleries from both sides or one side as desired.
The yield from these galleries may be as much as I .5x 0 litres/daylmetre length of
the infiltration gallery. Sometimes these are also known as longitudinal walls,


When there is large quantity of ground water existing over a wider area, it can be
cheaply collected by laying porous pipes or pipes with open joints in the full area
at some distance.
These longitudinal and cross pipes will be given a slope such that they bring the
water towards a point, where a well is constructed to take out the water.
These porous pipes should be surrounded with gravel and broken stone pieces to
increase their intake capacity.


The measurement of an open well yield can be determined by the following method
By actual pumping method
By theoretical calculations.
The yield of well is determined by pumping out water from it.
In this method first the water is withdrawn from the well at very high rate,
then the rate of pumping is reduced and adjusted by the trial and error such
that the water level in the well remains constant.
At this point the rate of percolation inside the well and the rate of pumping,
both become equal.
The rate of pumping is determined, which is equal to the yield of the well.
Generally this test is done during summer to determine the yield of the well in
dry weather.

Sometimes the yield of the well is determined by determining the rate of

percolation inside the well. In this method first of all the water level iuside the
well is depressed considerable by pumping at very high rate.
Now the pumping is stopped and the rate of rise in water level inside the well
is actually determined by calculating the quantity of water percolating inside
the well. This true method is generally known as Recuperating Test Method.

When the water is pumped from a well at high rate its water level is lowered due
to which water table in its vicinity is also lowered and hydraulic gradient assumes
a slope towards the well as shown below
The line 0 depressed water (able is called An inverted cone of Depression . The
base of the cone w lies over the original water table is called Circle of and the
inclined side of it called as Draw down curve .
The yield of the well depends on the following factors.
v H, the static head or the height of the top water table from the impervious
tra turn.
v h, the depth of water in the well just after pumping.
v R, the radius of circle of influence.
v r, the radius of the well.
v p, porosity and fineness of the soil.
v Inclination of the aquifer.


This type of the tube-well is in maximum use, and most of the state Government
departments construct only this type of tube-wells. In this tube-well a strainer or
screen is placed against all the water bearing stratums through which tube-well
passes. The construction strainer is done by wrapping and soldering or welding
the fine wire mesh

Fig. Illustrates the section through such a type of tube-well. The diameter of outer
hell of these wells varies from 15 c to 100 cm. The diameter of the pipe drawing
the water varies from 2.5 cm to 90cm. The size of the tube-well is usually denoted
by the diameter of the inner pipe which draws water Sometimes graved is
packed around
the outside of the screen or strainer pipe to a thickness of at least 8 cm,which
helps in checking the entry of sand particles in the tube-well and increasing the
yield of the well.
This type of tube-well is not suitable for very fine sandy water bearing stra turns,
because finer strainers may he checked and the yield of the tube-well will he
considerably reduced.
These types of tube-wells are not commonly used. the yield from these wells
is also not more.
These wells mainly draw their yield from their bottom acquifer only. Fig. 4.12
shows the section through such a well. In case of open well the water is drawn

from tile topmost water hearing stratum and ill - few cases From the second
aquifer front the ground


Fig. 4.t3 clearly illustrates the section through such type of tube-well.
It essentially consists of a slotted wrought iron pipe, passing through the main
water-bearing stratum.
Usually slots of 25 ttimx3 ni ill are formed at 10 to 12 mm c/c spacing in the pipes
by means of slotting machines.
The slotted portion of the pipe is surrounded all around by mixture of gravel and
known as shrouding.
The shrouding is filled in between the easing pipe and the slotted pipe, during
withdrawing the casing pipe.
In the beginning the water is pumped at high rate, which withdraws fine sand and
soil particles with the water, there by forming a cavity which is filled by

The high rate panpipe is continued till the required quantity of shrouding rcaches
at its proper place, and clear water starts coming. As shrouding is tube done in
these wells, the size of the casing pipe is more than that required in the
construction of strainer type tube well for the sante sue tube well.


Climatic conditions.
Size of the community.
Living standard of the people.
Industrial and commercial activities.
These are the factors affecting the water demand