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Description:
An inertial navigation system (INS) is a navigation aid that uses a computer, motion
sensors (accelerometers) and rotation sensors (gyroscopes) to continuously
calculate via dead reckoning the position, orientation, and velocity (direction and
speed of movement) of a moving object without the need for external references.
An Inertial Navigation System consists of the following:
An Inertial Measurement Unit
Instrument support electronics
Navigation computers calculate the gravitational acceleration and doubly integ
rate the net acceleration to maintain an estimate of the position of the
host vehicle.
Two common systems used in Inertial Navigation:
1. Stable Platform systems
---painsert
How it works?

## The gyros of a type known as integrating gyros give an output proportional t

o the angle through which they have been rotated

## Output of each gyro connected to a servomotor driving the appropriate gimba

l, thus keeping the gimbal in a constant orientation in inertial space

The gyros also contain electrical torque generators which can be used to crea
te a fictitious input rate to the gyros

Applications of electrical input to the gyro torque generators cause the gimbal
torque motors/servos to null the difference between the true gyro input rate an
d the electrically applied bias rate. This forms a convenient means of cancellin
g out any drift errors in the gyro.

## Figure 2-Gimbaled System Example

2. Strapdown System

## Horizontal/vertical accelerations computed analytically using Direction Cosine

Matrix (DCM) relating body coordinated and local level navigation coordinate

## Direction Cosine Matrix (DCM) computed using strapdown body

mounted gyro outputs

painsert
Figure 3-Strapdown System

## Equipment is expensive (\$250,000/system) - older systems had relatively

high failure rates and were expensive to maintain

newer systems are much more reliable but still expensive to repair

## Initial alignment is necessary - not much of a disadvantage for commercial

airline operations (12-20 minutes)

References:
Mohinder S. Grewal, "Global Positioning Systems, Inertial Navigation, and Integration"
Wiley-Interscience; Book&Disk edition (December 15, 2000)
Savant, C.F. et al. Principles of Inertial Navigation McGraw-Hill (1961)
Wie, Bong Space Vehicle Dynamics and Control AIAA Education Series (1998)