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Posted 7 Feb 2009 Report post

Dear All, The following write is from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Migration_of_Kambojas Love and


regards,Sreenadh====================================Migration of Kambojas
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Etymology

Kamboja Kingdom

Kamboja Location

Kambojas and Sakas

in Indian Literature

Mahabharata

Panini

Manusmrti

Kautiliya

Migrations

Bengal

Sri Lanka

Cambodia

This box: view talk edit

Probable Kamboja migration routes. See: Kambojas and Cambodia

References to Kambojas abound in ancient literature, and this may have been just the expansion of an Indo-Iranian tribe with
both Indic and Persian affinities from their homeland in the present-day Afghanistan-Pakistan region along the foothills of the
Himalayas towards Bengal, along the coast to Gujarat, to Sri Lanka, and possibly further to Cambodia.

Contents
[hide]
1 Kambojas, Sakas etc enter Indian Mainland
1.1 Military defeats1.2 The Kambojas in Mathura
1.2.1 King Moga or Maues: Probably a Scythianised Kamboj king
1.3 The Kambojas in West/Southwest India1.4 The Kambojas in South India1.5 Kambojas in Tibet and Bengal
2 Kambojas in Sri Lanka3 Kambojas in Indochina4 References5 Recommended reading6 See also

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[edit] Kambojas, Sakas etc enter Indian Mainland


During second/first century BC, in their advance from their original home in Central Asia, one stream of the Kambojas, allied with
the Sakas and Pahlavas had proceeded to Sindhu, Sauvira and Surastra; while the other stream allied with Yavanas appears to
have moved to Punjab and Uttar Pradesh [1] [2] [3].
There are important references to the warring Mleccha hordes of the Sakas, Yavanas, Kambojas, Pahlavas etc in the Bala Kanda
of the Valmiki Ramayana[4].
Indologists
like H. C. Raychadhury, B. C. Law, Satya Shrava and others see in these
verses the clear glimpses of the struggles of the Hindus with the mixed
invading hordes of the barbaric Sakas, Yavanas, Kambojas, Pahlavas etc
from north-west.[5]
The time frame for these struggles is second century BCE downwards.
Raychadhury fixes the date of the present version of the Valmiki
Ramayana around/after second century CE.[6]
The invading hordes of the Sakas, Yavanas, Kambojas, Pahlavas, Abhiras etc from the north-west had entered Punjab, United
Province, Sindhu, Rajasthan and Gujarat in large numbers, wrested political control of northern India from the Indo-Aryans and
had established their respective kingdoms/principalities in the land of the Indo-Aryans [7] [8].
There is also a distinct prophetic statement from the Vana Parava of the Mahabharata that the
Mlechha (Barbaric) kings of the Sakas, Yavanas, Kambojas, Bahlikas,
Abhiras etc will rule the earth (i.e India) unrighteously in Kaliyuga [9] [10].
According to scholars like Edward Washburn Hopkins, H. C. Ray Chaudhury etc, this is too clear a statement to be ignored or
explained away [11].
In fact, when this statement was written, the people mentioned above
had already ruled India. If this were the only place where the names
occurred, it might be regarded as a part of an interpolation in mass.
But the people described here as foreign invaders are all mentioned
repeatedly as barbarians and fierce warriors from the west. The
Kambojas, Sakas, Yavanas are portrayed as famous fighters [12] wearing especially fine metal armors, expert cavalrymen [13]
and their overthrow is alluded to [14]. So also the Shanti Parva of Mahabharata [15]
stigmatises the Yavanas, Kambojas, Gandharas, Kiratas and Barbaras as
the sinners (un-rightous people) who are said to be wandering on this
earth from the time of Treta age having customs similar to those of
chandalas and wild animals [16].

Silver coin depicting the "Yavana" Greco-Bactrian king Demetrius I of Bactria (r.c. 205-171 BCE), invader of India around 180
BCE.
Obv. Draped and wearing an elephant scalp, symbol of his conquest of India.
Rev. Youthful, naked Heracles,
crowning himself with right hand, with lion skin and upright club
resting on his left arm. Greek legend: BASILEOS DIMITRIOU "King
Demetrius".

The above referred to statement from Vana Parava of Mahabharata, couched as it is in the form of prophecy in true puranic style,
alludes to a historical situation (second/first century BC downwards) which followed the collapse of Maurya and Sunga dynasties
in North India [17].
That the Kambojas, Sakas, Yavanas etc indeed became rulers and masters of the earth (Aryan India) in Kaliyuga (post Mauryan
era) is also attested from the Kalki Purana where a short dialogue between the Dharma and the Kalki (king Pramati or
Chandragupta II Vikramaditya per V. S. Aggarwal) [18] [19],
woefully deplores the forced occupation of the earth (Indian mainland)
by the unrighteous rulers of the Kambojas, Sakas, Savaras, Mlecchas,
Barbaras etc who are blamed to have spread adharma and chaos all around
[20].

[edit] Military defeats


This chaotic situation of Aryan India is said to have ended with the destruction of these Saka, Kamboja, Yavana, Parsika hordes
by king Vikramaditya of Ujjaini (c. 60 BC) and the establishment of the Vikrama era [21] [22] [23] [24] [25]. Around 78-102 CE,
Gautamiputra Satkarni defeated the Yavanas, Sakas and Pahlavas and assumed the title of sakayavanpallavanidusana (destroyer
of the Sakas, Yavanas and Pahlavas.)

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[edit] The Kambojas in Mathura


Sufficient evidence exists that around Christian era, Yavanas,
Kambojas and the Sakas had occupied the heartland of India, that is,
the modern state of Uttar Pradesh
Gargi-Samhita, Yuga Purana refers, in the form of a prophecy, to the invasion of Panchala, Mathura, Saketa and Pataliputra by
the Yavanas [26].
Though the Kambojas are not specifically mentioned in this passage, it goes without saying that the term Yavanas in YugaPurana definitely included the Kambojas and probably also the Sakas.
It is notable that after massive intrusion of India by Sakas, Kambojas, Yavanas, Pahlavas around Christian era, the term Yavana
had also become synonymous with Mlechcha and was a common designation for all foreign tribes irrespective of whether they
were Yavanas, Sakas, Kambojas or others [27].
Passages exist in the Mahabharata, Vayu Purana [28] and Matsya Purana [29] which include the Kambojas among the Yavanas
and designate both as Yavanas.
There is another reason for this too. The culture of the Kambojas had been substantively altered due to their intimate contacts
with the Yavanas. Both people are attested to follow common culture, social customs and manners like supporting short cropped
hair [30], non-entertainment of Brahmanas in their countries [31] and observing two varna (Arya and Dasa) social system instead
of chatur-varna observed by the Indo-Aryans etc [32].
The Yonakambojesu expression in Ashoka's R.E XIII as well as in the Buddhist text Majjhima Nikaya [33] powerfully attests very
close relations of the Kambojas with the Yavanas.
Thus, it is not unusual that the Kambojas have sometimes been
indiscriminately included among the Yavanas and addressed as such, in
the later Sanskrit literature.
According to Buddha Parkash: "Along with the Sakas, the Kambojas had also entered India and spread into whole of North India,
especially in Panjab and Uttar Pradesh. Mahabharata contains references to Yavanas and Kambojas as having conquered
Mathura[34]....There is also a reference to the Kambojas in the Lion Capitol inscriptions of Saka Satrap (Kshatrapa) Rajuvula
found in Mathura " [35].

Coin of Rajuvula (1st century CE).

Jayswal writes: "Mathura was under outlandish people like the Yavanas and Kambojas... who had a special mode of fighting"
[36].
Shashi Asthana comments: "Epic Mahabharata refers to the siege of Mathura by the Yavanas and Kambojas" [37] [38].
According to Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona: "Mahabharata reference mentions the Yavanas-Kambojas as
settled in the outlying parts of Mathura city" [39] [40].
The following verse from Mahabharata composed around the beginning of Christian era strongly attests the Kambojas and
Yavanas in control of Mathura:
tatha Yavana Kamboja Mathuram.abhitash cha ye.|ete ashava.yuddha.kushaladasinatyasi charminah.|| 5 || [41].
The Mathura Lion Capital discovered in 1896 from Saptarsi mound in the south-eastern part of Mathura city housed in the British
Museum, London, contains an epigraph in Kharoshthi characters which refers, among others, to Yuvaraja Kharaosta Kamuio and
Aiyasi Kamuia, the chief queen of the Great Satrap (Mahakshatrapa) Rajuvula. After fresh and thorough critical review of Mathura
Lion Capital inscriptions, S. Konow has arrived at results and conclusions which are different from the earlier scholars.
According to Konow's findings, Rajuvula's chief queen was Aiyasi Kamuia who was the daughter of Yuvaraja Kharaostas, himself
also a Kamuia.
By rigorous linguistic analysis, Konow has also established that name Kamuia/Kamuio of Lion Capital inscriptions is the
Kharoshthised form of Sanskrit Kamboja, Kambojaka or Kambuja [42] [43] [44].
See Main Article "Kamuia"
Thus, there is both literary as well as inscriptional evidence which amply attests the presence of ancient Kambojas in Mathura.
See also: [3] (India and Central Asia) and [4] (Yona)

[edit] King Moga or Maues: Probably a Scythianised Kamboj king


Scholars are at variance regarding the ethnic
background of king Moga (other variants of the name are Moa, Maua,
Mauaka, Muki, Mevake, Maues etc). According to many scholars including Dr Vincent Arthur Smith, Henry Miers Elliot, H. A.
Rose, Firoze Cowasji Davar, Chandra Chakravarty etc, Maues or Moga was a Parthian king [45]. Several other scholars believe
that he was a Scythian king.
However, another and later view is that king Moga or Maues belonged to Kamuia clan which fact is born out by Mathura Lion
Capital Inscriptions. Arta is said to be the elder brother of king Maues [46]. Yuvaraja Kharaosta Kamuio was son of Arta as is
attested from Kharaosta's own coins [47]. Princess Aiyasi Kamuia, the chief queen of Kshatrapa Rajuvula, was the daughter of
this Crown prince (Yuvaraja) Kharaosta Kamuio [48]. Many scholars including S. Konow recognise the names Kamuia & Kamuio
(q.v) of the Mathura Lion Capital Inscriptions as the Kharoshthi/Prakritic forms of Sanskrit/Pali Kambojika or Kamboja [49]. Thus,
according to Konow and his line of scholars, king Moga, his brother Arta, Yuvaraja Kharaostas (Kharoshtha) Kamuio, and

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princess Aiyasi Kamuia were all from the Kamui or Kamboja/Kambojaka or Kambuja lineage [50] [51].

Indian-standard coin of King Moga or Maues.


The obverse shows a rejoicing elephant holding a wreath, symbol of
victory. The Greek legend reads '` '` "` ` (Great
King of Kings Maues). The reverse shows a seated king, or possibly Buddha. Kharoshthi legend: RAJATIRAJASA MAHATASA
MOASA (Great King of Kings Maues).

Some scholars insist that Moga or Maues was of Saka extractions, but
there is absolutely no definitive evidence so far to link Moga to Saka
ethnicity. Scholars link Moga to the Sakas merely based on his
so-called Saka-sounding names like Moa, Maua, Maues, Muki or Mevake etc which are said to be variants of Scythian name
'Mauakes', 'Mauekes' or 'Mauaces' [52] [53] [54]. This Saka-name criteria is not a very convincing reasoning to identify king
Maues as of Saka extractions.
As is well known, during few centuries preceding the Christian era, there had occurred extensive social and cultural admixture
among the Kambojas and Yavanas; the Sakas and Pahlavas;
and the Kambojas, Sakas, and Pahlavas. ... such that their cultures and
social customs had become almost identical. The culture of Kambojas was
modified as a result of their contacts, first with the Yavanas and
later, it went further modification as a result of their contacts with
the Sakas and Pahlavas etc [55].
This extensive social and cultural admixture due to time and space
proximity had led to adoption of similar customs, dress mode, language
and social manners among the various frontier peoples of north-west.
While ruling over middle and lower Indus valley--Drangiana and
Archosia--, both the Sakas and Pahlavas were closely associated and no
wonder it is not always possible to distinguish them apart. The close
association of the Sakas and Pahlavas etc in this period is
demonstrable from various sources and it is highly probable that the
tribes from eastern Iran invading or entering India contained diverse
elements including Iranians [56]. It
is therefore, little more than a convenient nomenclature which labels
the princes of the family of Maues as Sakas and those of the family of
Vonones as Pahlavas [57].
Thus, we see that the identification of Maues as Saka prince is merely
a CONJECTURE and is based simply on so-called SAKA-SOUNDING names which
is no conclusive evidence at all. If one accepts above argument, then
how to explain surname Kamuia used after the names of king Moga's family members? Is Kamuia also attested as a clan name
among the ancient Sakas/Scythians anywhere? The answer is simply no [58].
As stated before, there is no unanimity on the ethnicity of king Moga and his family.

Greek-standard silver tetradrachm of Maues. The obverse shows Zeus


standing with a sceptre. The Greek legend reads '` '`
"` ` ((of the) Great King of Kings Maues). The reverse shows Nike standing, holding a wreath. Kharoshthi
legend. Taxila mint.

Scholars like V. A. Smith say that he was a Parthian king[59] [60]. H. A Rose also agrees with Smith and regards king Maues as
an Indo-Parthian king [61]. Chandra Chakravarti, though accepts Kamuia as Kambojika or Kambojika, regards Moga as of
Parthian ethnicity [62]. Others say that he was Saka
king. S. Konow and some later scholars like R K. Mukerjee, J.L. Kamboj,
K. S. Dardi and others following Konow think that king Moga belonged to
the Kambojika or Kambuja ethnicity.
According to Thomas, the epigraphs of Mathura Lion Capital exhibit a mixture of Saka and Persian nomenclature. This tells us
that Aiyasi Kamuia and Kharaosta Kamuio were from the Persian/Iranian denominations hence more likely from Kamboja
ethnicity.
" The nomenclature of the early Sakas in India shows an admixture of Scythian, Parthian and Iranian elements. .... " [63].
Even the northern Kshatrapas are stated to be of mixed Saka/Persian ethnicities.
Thomas: " It would seem probable that the tribes from eastern Iran who had invaded India included diverse elements mingled

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indistinguishably together, so that, it is not possible to assert that one dynasty was Parthian while another was Saka. .." etc [64].
Thus, the ethnic surnames Kamuia/Kamuio used with the names of princess Aiyasi and Yuvaraja Kharaosta (or Kharahostes) of
Mathura Lion Capital
inscriptions should give more than enough credibility to the view that
king Moga and his family belonged to 'Kamuia' or 'Kamboja/Kambuja'
clan. It is reasonable to think that the Kamboja clan of king Moga had
become some what Scythianised in social customs, culture and mannerism due to its extensive exposure to the next-door vast
community of Central Asian tribes which had followed Scythian
culture. Under such a scenario, it is absolutely not unusual for the
Kamboja family of king Maues or Moga to have borne names which may
sound somewhat Scythian or mixture of Scythian and Parthian.
Probably, this is the clue to king Moga's ethnic identity.
Therefore, King Maues or Moga and his family were most probably from Kambojan rather than Scythian lineage [65].
There are some European and Indian scholars who consider the Kambojas to be a Scythian off-shoot and/or a (royal) clan of the
Sakas/Scythians [66] [67] [68] [69] [70].
If this view is accepted, it immediately blows off any mist and
confusion about true ethnicity of king Moga and his family. But
according to some Scholars, originally, the Kambojas may have been Aryan not Iranian/Scythian in culture [71].

[edit] The Kambojas in West/Southwest India


The Kamboja hordes
of the second/first century BCE have left indelible foot prints in the
names of mountains, rivers, and some geographical places in western
India. The Kamb/Kambuh river and Kamboh/Kambo mountain in Sindh [72] remind us of Sanskrit Kamboja. The Kamboi (ancient
town/port) in Patan district, Khambhoj in district Anand, Kambay (port/town and Gulf) ... all in Saurashtra; Kumbhoj/Kambhoj (an
ancient town) in Kolhapur in Maharashtra; and the Coimbatore city of Tamil Nadu in southern India carry unmistakable footprints
of the Kambojas. There is also an ancient Kambhoj caste living near Nanded in Maharashtra (See links: [5] , [6] ) [73] which could
be a dwindling remnant of the ancient Kambojas settled in South-west India.
As noted below, there are numerous ancient Sanskrit references which
profusely affirm that the Kambojas had indeed been in occupation of
territories in south-western and southern India, in the post-Christian
times.
Jyotirvidhbhrana, a Sanskrit Treatise on Astrology is generally attributed to Kalidasa in its last Stenzas, (but probably, it was
authored by someone of Jaina persuasion around 7th century).
In chapter 22, verse 14, the author writes: 'He (Sahasanka) destroyed
the pride of Dravidas, also the king of Lata, defeated the king of
Gauda and conquered Gurjardesa, king of Dhara (westerm Malwa) and king
of Kambojas and conducted him with success' [74].
In chapter 20, verse 46 of Jyotirvidhbhrana, the author states: 'The
people of Kamboja, Gauda, Andhraka, Malava, Surajya and Gurjaras, even
to this day sing the glory of Sahasanka (alias Vikarmaditya alias
Chandra Gupta II), showing with the liberality of gifts of gold' [75].
These references seem to imply that once Vikarmaditya had conquered
Lata, Dhara (western Malwa), Saurashtra, Gujaradesa and as well as
vanquished the Sakas, Kambojas,
Gurjaras intruders of Gujarat/Saurashtra/Malawa from northwest, these
aliens had become his subjects for sometime and started paying tributes
to the great Gupta king Vikarmaditya (Chandra Gupta II) for his great
benevolent rule---hence this Jyotirvidbhrana tradition. From this
reference, it also becomes understandable that once these foreign
warlike intruders had been subjugated, many of them must have joined
the armed forces of the Gupta rulers in large numbers and some of them
like General Bhattarka, founder of Maitraka dynasty
of Gujerat, had obtained placements in key positions. This
Jyotirvidhbhrana reference definitely locates the Kambojas in
south-western India i.e. near Lata, Saurashtra and western Malwa
somewhere.
Markendeya Purana [76] lists the Kambojas and Pahlavas (Indo-Parthians) among the countries of Udichya division i.e
Uttarapatha, but another chapter of the same Markendeya Purana also refers to other settlements of the Kambojas and Pahlavas
and locates them in the south-west of India as neighbor to Sindhu, Sauvira and Anarta (north Saurashtra) countries [77] [78] [79]
[80] [81].
Geographical list of Brihat Samhita of Varaha Mihira (6th century CE) specifically places the Kambojas with the Pahlavas in the
south-west division (nairrtyam dizi = southwest direction), Sind, Saurashtra/Kathiawar, contiguous to Malwa and Dravida
countries [82] [83] [84] [85] [86].
Similarly, in his list of countries, Alberuni (973 AD --1048 AD) also assigns the Kamboja kingdom in the south-west (Nairita)
quadrant of India [87].

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Arthashastra of Barhaspatya [88] refers to the Kamboja as a great country (Mahavishaya) and locates it adjacent to the Dasrana
country (eastern Malwa), east of Gujarat [89]. Distance between Kamboja and Dasarna country is stated to be 80 Yojna [90].
Vishnudharmottara Purana [91] also includes the Kambojas in the list of Janapadas of south-west India [92].
Raajbilaas, a medieval era text also locates a Kamboj
settlement in the neighborhood of Kachcha, Sorata or Saurashtra and
Gurjara countries of south-west India [93].
Interestingly, Agni Purana locates two Kamboja settlements in India itself...(1) Kambhoja in south-west India and (2) Kamboja in
southern parts of India [94].
The Garuda Purana
which was composed comparatively late, also locates a Kamboj
principality/settlement in the neighborhood of Ashmaka, Pulinda,
Jimuta, Narashtra, Lata and Karnata countries, and also specifically
informs us that this section of Kambojas were living in southern division of India (dakshina.path.vasinah) [95].
But like Agni Purana, some recensions of Garuda Purana mention two Kamboja settlements within India proper. ...one in southwest India and the second in southern India [96].
Some Buddhist inscriptions found in the Pal caves located about a mile north-west of Mhar in Kolaba district of Maharashtra, in
Bombay Presidency, contains a reference to a Chief of a Kamboj dynasty (Prince Vishnupalita
Kambhoja) as ruling in Kolaba
Quote this
(near Bombay) probably around first century of Christian era [97].
The above post-Christian Sanskrit references abundantly establish the historical fact that in wake of major events of second/first
century BCE, some sections of Central Asian Kambojas in alliance with the Sakas and Pahlavas, had spread and settled into
western and south-western parts of India [98].
The Kambojas in/around west, south-west India are also attested from inscriptions of king Sahasiva Raya of Sangama Dynasty
(1336-1478), kings Harihara & Deva Raya of Narasinga Dynasty (1496-1567), and from the references of king Vishnuvardhana of
Hoiyasala Dynasty/Mysore (of 12th c CE).
Due to the above cited literary/inscriptional evidence, some
historians like Aiyangar, Banerjee etc have located their Kamboja in
Sindhu and Gujarat [99]. Obviously,
their Kamboja refers to the post-Christian settlements of Kambojas in
western/or south-western India and is not the original Kamboja of the
Sanskrit/Pali literature.
According to History of Ceylon, 'the Kambojas who inhabited a region bordering upper Indus, had, at one time, established
themselves in a country near Sind....It was from this people that a section had migrated to Ceylone and settled in the island
during pre-Christian times' [100] According to Fergusson: "The Cambojas seem to have been a people inhabiting the country
between Candahar and Cabul,
who when the nomadic tide was setting eastwards, joined the crowd, and
sought settlements in the more fertile countries within the Indus ( or
Sind)" [101]
Biography of Shankara Acharya based on his religious itineraries refers to Kambhoja located in Saurashtra comprising Girnar,
Somnath, Prabhasa and other regions and a Kamboja located in Central Asia adjacent to Daradistan but lying north of Kashmir.
This eighth-century reference clearly attests two Kamboja settlements, one of which specifically fixed in Saurashtra [7] [102].
Some historians have also invested western Kshatrapas, especially the Kshahrata Kshatrapas with Kamboja ethnicity [103].

[edit] The Kambojas in South India


Interestingly, Kambhoja Raja Kathalu is very popular in Andhra
traditions. The story deals with the militaristic exploits of a fierce
and adventurous king of the Kambojas. It probably relates to some
historical brush the Andhraites might have had with the intruding
hordes of the Kambojas/Pahlavis around Christian era.

[edit] Kambojas in Tibet and Bengal


A branch of Central Asian Kambojas seems also to have migrated eastwards towards Tibet in the wake of Kushana (1st century)
or else Huna (5th century) pressure and hence their notice in the chronicles of Tibet (Kam-po-tsa, Kam-po-ce, Kam-po-ji) and
Nepal (Kambojadesa).[104] Burmese chronicles refer to them as Kampuchih. Later, these Kambojas appear to have moved
towards Assam from where they may have invaded Bengal during the bad days of the Palas and wrested north-west Bengal from
them. R. R. Diwarkar writes: "The
Kambojas of ancient India are known to have been living in north-west,
but in this period (9th c AD), they are known to have been living in
the north-east India also, and very probably, it was meant Tibet" [105] Benjamin Walker remarks: A
Branch of Kambojas (originally living in north-west of India) seems to
have migrated eastwards along the Himalayan foothills, hence their
notices in thy Tibetan and Nepalese chronicles [106]. Brahma Purana of 5th c AD mentions the Kambojas around Pragjyotisha
and Tamraliptika.[107] [108]. Buddhist text Sasanavamsa[109] also attests the Kambojas in/around Assam. These Kambojas had
made first bid to conquer Bengal during the reign of king Devapala
(810 AD-850 AD) but were repulsed. A latter attempt was crowned with
success when they were able to deprive the Palas of the suzerainty over
North and West Bengal and set up a Kamboja dynasty in Bengal towards the middle of 10th century AD [110] [111]. According to

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Dr P. C. Bagchi, Dr S Chattopadhya etc: "The Kambojas, a nomadic tribe, lived beyond Himalayas in Central Asia.
One of their branches entered India in very early times and after a
while lost its identity as distinct people by merging into the local
population, but other batches of them must have entered east Tibet and the valley of Mekong
from another direction. By this assumption only, we can explain why the
name Kambuja was given to the kingdom founded in the middle valley of
the Mekong. In eastern Tibet their name can be traced in the name of
the province of Khams and it was probably from this region that the
Kamboja invasion of Assam took place in later times. A branch of them
migrated to North Bengal at an early period though their actual
invasion came at a later date"[112] [113].
Rajyapala, Narayanapala, Nayapala, Dharamapala and Kambojanvayjen Gaudapati, are the known Kamboja kings who ruled in
north-east Bengal. Kamboja rule in north-east Bengal is attested from Dinajpore Pillar Inscription as well as from Irda Tamrapatra
inscriptio found in Irda, District Balasor, Orissa, in 1931 [114].
Dinajpore Pillar inscription refers to a Kamboja king who is described as Kambojanvayjen Gaudapati.. i.e. the lord of Gauda born
in a Kamboja family [115].
In the inscription, this Kamboja king is addressed as Kunjarghataversheyan, which may be his nick-name.
Irda-Tamrapatra inscription gives details of generation after
generation of kings belonging to Kamboja family. King Rajayapala, the
founder father of Pala-Kamboja empire in Bengal specifically refers to
himself as Kamboja.vamshatilaka.paramasaugata.maharajadhiraja.parameshvara.paramabhattaraka Rajyapala [116].
Jaganathaparkasha composed by Pandit Sura Misra in honor of Jagana Natha born in Kamboja family
(Kamboja.kulavatansah.shri. Jagananatha iti prasidhah) refers to him as a famous king ruling in Bengal in 16th century [117] [118]
This shows that the Kamboja rule in some parts of Bengal must have continued, as late as 16th century AD.
See also: Kamboja Dynasty of Bengal

[edit] Kambojas in Sri Lanka


Main article: Kamboja Colonists of Sri Lanka
Inscriptional and Literary Evidence
One section of north-western Kambojas appears to have reached Sri Lanka via Gujarat/Saurashtra, several centuries prior to
Christian era, thus contributing to the colonization
of that island and influencing the social, cultural and economical
lives of its people. This is evident from seven or eight ancient
epigraphic inscriptions found in Anuradhapura which strongly attest the existence of one Kamboja Sangha (Goshatha) [119] and
Grand Kamboja Guilds [120] in ancient Sinhala.
S. Paranavitana: "Several early Brahmi inscriptions of Ceylon
refer to a community of people called Kambojas who then lived in
various parts of Ceylon, and an early Pali text refers to a Kambojagama
in Rohana" [121].
For complete list of Ancient Inscriptions about Kambojas in Sri Lanka, please Click: [8]
These inscriptions are believed to belong to second century BCE (S. Paranavitana).
According to scholars, there is evidence that the Kambojas who in ancient times, inhabited a region bordering upper Indus, had
at one time established themselves in a country near Sind. The authors have also furnished references to the southwards
migration of the Kambojas to a country near Sind[122].
The Sihalavatthu, a Pali text of about the fourth century, also attests a group of people called the Kambojas in Rohana. The third
story of this text, called Metteyya-vatthu, reveals that the Elder named Maleyya was residing in Kamboja-gama, in the province
(Janapada) of Rohana on the Island of Tambapanni (Sri Lanka).
Sasanvamsa attests one Bhikshu Tamalinda
thera, son of Kamboja, living in ancient Sinhala. It also attests a
Kamboja king Srihamsyia, who came from Kamboja and took possession of
Ratanapura in south-west Sinhala [123].

Sri-Lanka, Ancient Sinhala

The second most referenced ethnic group following the Aryan Kambojas
in the ancient epigraphic inscriptions of Anuradhapura are the (Dravidian) Damedas or Tamils. Term Dameda occurs in five
inscriptions. Term Milaka (Mlechcha) referring to the Aborigines of the island i.e the Veddas, occurs twice. Other three terms
Muridi (=Murinda?), Meraya (Maurya?) and Jhavaka each occurs only once.
There is no reference to the name Sinhala as such, in any of these ancient inscriptions. The first ever reference to Sinhala is noted
in 5th century Dipavamsa and then in 6th century Mahavamas. This proves that the Sinhala identity for the majority Sinhlese
speaking Aryan population had evolved much later, down the road.
The above inscriptional and literary evidence shows that the Kamboja

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colonists from north-west had formed an important and pre-dominant
section of ancient Sinhala society, perhaps from several centuries
prior to Christian era. Therefore, they must have been the first Aryan colonists to have reached the island.
The Sinhapura of Ancient Sinhalese
Mahavamsa
traditions reveal that Vijay Simha and his 700 companions, the supposed
ancestors of Sinhalese Aryan population, had migrated from some Simhapura country located in India proper [124].
Mahabharata attests one Sinhapura principality located in north-west of India. This Sinhapura figures prominently in Arjuna's
Digvijay of north-west countries. It is stated to be located contiguous to Ursa (modern Hazara, in Kashmir).
After the Sinhapura, the Epic makes reference to Bahlikas (or Bactrians), Daradas
and Kambojas, thus showing that the Sinhapura of Mahabharata was
located in the north-west adjacent to Kambojas and Daradas of Upper Indus[125] .
Chetiya Jataka also locates one Simhapura in the west[126].
Hiun Tsang, seventh century Chinese visitor also attests one Simhapura (Sang-ho-pu-lo) on east bank of river Indus about 115
miles east of Taxila, which localizes it in upper doab of Jhelum/Chenab [127].
Scholars have located this Sinhapura in upper Salt Range, north-west of Panjab [128].
Tantric literature locates Sambhala (i.e Simhala) and Lankapuri in the SWAT-KASHMIR region [129] [130].
Sinhala, as a personal name is also attested from two Kharoshthi inscriptions found from Loriyan Tangai and Taksashila in
ancient Gandhara[131].
The appellative terms Gamika (=Gamini=Gramini) and Parumaka (=Pramukha) and the corporational terms Puga (=Guild/Sangha)
and Gote
(=Goshati=corporation) etc have been used specifically in reference to
Kambojas in the ancient inscriptions of Sinhala. As attested by Kautiliya's Arthashastra, these republican/corporational terms
were applied to political, military and commercial Sanghas or Guilds of the Kambojas of Uttarapatha
around 4th c BCE. Thus, this evidence suggests that Vijay Simha and his
700 companions, the ancestors of the ancient Sinhalas may have been
from the Kambojan/Gandharan trade group.
The 'shaved-headed tradition' about Vijay and his companions has been referred to in the Mahavamsa. This also alludes to their
close connections with the north-west and especially with the shaved-headed Kambojan group.
Archeological Finds
The most famous and only known locale for lapis lazuli since ancient times was in Badakshan in north Afghanistan
which has been mined for over 6000 years. The Badakshan province
undoubtedly formed a part of ancient Kamboja as we have already proved
above. Archeological finds of lapis lazuli (of Badakshan type) from Sri
Lanka conclusively connect it to Badakshan in Afghanistan, the home of lapis lazuli.
Numerous coins, beads and the intaglios belonging to Bactria/Afghanistan
have also been discovered in Sri Lanka. Apart from lapis lazuli, coins
and intaglios, the contacts between Sri Lanka and the
Kamboja/Gandhara/Bacteria region are further revealed by other articles
of archaeological evidence from recent excavations at various sites. A
fragment of a Gandhara Buddha statute in schist, (yet unpublished), was unearthed from the excavations at Jetavanarama in
Anuradhapura.
All these archaeological finds conclusively establish a very close relationship between Sri Lanka and the north-west communities,
especially, the Kambojans/Gandharans of Afghanistan/Central Asia.
A Merchant Lineage
In the Amarakosha[132], a Sarthavaha
is described as the leader of merchants who have invested an equal
amount of capital and carried on trade with outside markets and are
traveling in a caravan.
It is likely that Vijay Simha, the ancestor of the Sinhalese was the earliest one such Sarthavaha from the Simhapura of the
Kamboja/Gandhara group in North-west India.
According to Mahavamsa traditions, Vijay and his 700 companions had
landed in Sri Lanka in 543 (or 483?) BCE, on the day of Buddha's
heavenly departure. This may actually refer to Vijay's commercial visit
to Sri Lanka for trade with the Damedas/Tamils in Sinhala and then
permanently settling there with his 700 merchant associates. The Dameda/Tamil groups were already settled there with whom
the trade was routinely carried on from the north-west following ancient Kamboja Dvaravati Caravan route and then via the westcoast sea-route starting from Bharukachcha (Bhroach) in Gujarat.
The north-west coast of Sinhala was famous for its fine variety of motis/gems and was known as Moti-mannar.
The south-east coast was also known for its precious stones. The
merchants from north-west Kamboja had an allurement for these specific
products.
It is also significant that early Buddhist literary sources from
north India refer to the northerners as being involved in trade in
horses [133].
Evidence exists that horse merchants from Kamboja were in active trade

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as far as Ceylone. This trade had been going on with eastern, western
and southern India as late as medieval ages. King Devapala (810-850 AD) of Bengal, king Vallabhadeva (12th century AD) of
Assam and King Vishnuvardhana of Hoysala (1106 - 1152 AD) of Mysore located in extreme southern tip of India had powerful
fleets of Kamboja horses in their cavalry.
Don Martino write the horse dealers from north-west Kamboja had been
carrying out trade in horses with Sri Lanka following west-coast of
India since remote antiquity. "The Kambojas came to Sri Lanka
probably as horse-dealers and a colony of them may have settled
permanently in Anuradhapura in company with Yavanas when the city was
in zeninth of its glory" [134].
E. Muller also writes that (with time) the Kambojas had adopted the Mussalman creed and used to trade all along the west coast
of India from Persian Gulf down to Ceylone and probably further-east[135].
More evidence exists which points to closer links of north-west Kambojas/Gandharas with the ancient Sinhalese.

[edit] Kambojas in Indochina


Main article: Kambojas and Kambodia
Some ambitious Kamboja families from Gujarat/Saurashtra or those from Sinhala appear to have ventured into Indochina around
third or fourth century CE, originally as merchants/traders, later joined by some Kshatriya Kamboja chieftain. They managed to
found a small Kamboja colony north of Funan, which later grew into powerful Kamboja empire under the Varman kings. If
the European traders, located thousands of miles away could do it in
eighteenth century in India, the Kamboja adventurers from
Gujarat/Surastra or Sri Lanka could have done it in fifth century in nearby Indochina too. The Kambojas as traders and as ethnic
community
were already flourishing in Sri Lanka at this time as is evident from
the archaeological evidence presented above. With one little step
forward, they were in Indochina. The ruling family of Varman kings of Cambodia proudly trace their lineage to the Kambujas or
Kambojas. King Kambu (Sanskrit Kamboj), the legendary patriarch of Kambuja (Kamboja) ruling family of Cambodia was, to all
probability, a warrior/scholar Kamboja chieftain from Sinhala or else from Gujarat. The tradition among north-Indian Kambojas
lends adequate credibility to this view.

This article is part of


the History of Cambodia series

Early history of Cambodia

Funan (68 AD 550 AD)

Chenla (550 AD 802 AD)

Khmer Empire (802 AD 1431 AD)

Charktomok (1437 AD 1525 AD)

Lovek (1525 AD 1593 AD)

Dark ages of Cambodia


(1593 1863)

Loss of Mekong Delta to Vit Nam

French Colonial Rule (18631953)

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Post-Independence Cambodia

Cambodian Civil War (19671975)

Coup of 1970

Vit Nam War Incursion of 1970

Khmer Rouge Regime (19751979)

CambodianVietnamese War (19751989)

People's Republic of Kampuchea (19791993)

199293 UNTAC

Modern Cambodia (1993present)

Timeline

[edit this box]

Several noted scholars like Buddha Parkash, P. C. Bagchi, B. R.


Chatterjee, J. Fergussan, R. K. Mukerjee, Bombay Gezetteer, J. L.
Kamboj, Chandra Chakraberty, Daniel George Edward, Ramchandra Narayan
Dandekar, V Raghavan, Mahesh Kumar Sharana and several others have
accepted a direct historical and political connection between the Indian Kambojas and Kambodia. G. Coedes, an unquestioned
authority on ancient Cambodian history, has also accepted the probability of this connection [136].
One school of scholars including V. A. Smith, Joveau Dubreuil, V.
Venkayya, B. L. Rice, Cadambi Minakshi, G. Coedes etc is convinced that
the Pallava rulers of Kanchi/Southern India were a section from the Iranian Pahlavas. The Pahlavas were a tribe
closely allied to the Kambojas. Thus, some adventurous families from
both the Pahlavas and the Kambojas who are attested to have settled in
south-west India in post-Christian era [137] may indeed have founded the Pallava dynasty of Kanchi and the Kambuja dynasty of
Cambodia respectively.====================================

Quote

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Guest guest

Posted 7 Feb 2009 Report post

Dear Sreenadhji,

It is nice that you sent these two links so that the members can have a look at them. You might have noticed that various sources
have been quoted in these articles but no serious attempt has been made to offer a chronological perspective. Chronologically,
Guests

as seen from the Mahabharata, Ramayana and the puranic sources, the Kambojas were originally from India. They moved out of
India and later on they re-entered India.

Secondly there were Kamboja and Parama-Kamboja and the locations of both should be identified.

Thirdly the statements that Madri was from the Madradesha or from Uttara-Madra and also that she was a Vahlika princess
(Vahliki) and that the Kambojas resided in Vahlika desha are to yet be reconciled.

Regards,

Sunil K. Bhattacharjya--- On Sat, 2/7/09, Sreenadh <sreesog wrote:


Sreenadh <sreesog Migration of Kambojas Date: Saturday, February 7, 2009, 10:12 AM

Dear All, The following write is from: http://en.wikipedia .org/wiki/ Migration_ of_Kambojas Love and
regards,Sreenadh============ ========= ========= ======
Migration of Kambojas
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Articles related to Kambojas

Etymology

Kamboja Kingdom

Kamboja Location

Kambojas and Sakas

in Indian Literature

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Mahabharata

Panini

Manusmrti

Kautiliya

Migrations

Bengal

Sri Lanka

Cambodia

This box: view talk edit

Probable Kamboja migration routes. See: Kambojas and Cambodia


References to Kambojas abound in ancient literature, and this may have been just the expansion of an Indo-Iranian tribe with
both Indic and Persian affinities from their homeland in the present-day Afghanistan-Pakistan region along the foothills of the
Himalayas
towards Bengal, along the coast to Gujarat, to Sri Lanka, and possibly further to Cambodia.

Contents[hide]

1 Kambojas, Sakas etc enter Indian Mainland


1.1 Military defeats
1.2 The Kambojas in Mathura
1.2.1 King Moga or Maues: Probably a Scythianised Kamboj king
1.3 The Kambojas in West/Southwest India
1.4 The Kambojas in South India
1.5 Kambojas in Tibet and Bengal
2 Kambojas in Sri Lanka
3 Kambojas in Indochina
4 References
5 Recommended reading

Guest guest

Quote

Posted 7 Feb 2009 Report post

Dear Sunil Bhattacharjya ji, If the Kambojas - * Are from Kamboja in Russia (from Central Asia) with enough archaeological
evidence to prove the same. * Speak the language Galccha (a language of indo-europian language family with too many sanskrit
similar words) * Migrated to India through Gujrat (Western cost of india) and Kalinga (Orissa; eastern cost of india) upto Srilanka *
Worshiped Hindu gods including Siva, Mitra and the Tantric godes. * Were a kshetriya/rajaput tribe with much antiquity. * They
Guests

had good astrological, astronomical and tantric knowledge and tradition Then it can solve many of the historical puzzles that we
encounter in our study. Let us consider some more relevant questions- * Why 6th century Mihira who revised indian astrology
was of Saka dipa origin? (Kamboja connection) * Why the 15th century astrologers like Nrisimha Daivajna and family who reenergized indian astrology lived in Golagrama near Pratishtrana in Salivahana kingdom in Maharashtra/Karnataka? (Again a
Kamboja connection?) * Why the ancient non-vedic rishi horas (such as skanda hora, brihat prajapatya etc) are still written in
Sanskrit (an Indo Europian language) even though they don't seems to have much connection with the Vedic tropical astrological
tradition? (Aganin a Kamboja Sanskrit like language connection?) There could be numerous similar other questions as well. The
point I want to emphasis is that such a proposal and connected study might well be able to point to the origin of the Tantric
culture and the source of some unique knowledge (unconnected to vedas) that spread in India during the ancient past. (Actually
Kambojans are also Indians, since the the Jambu Dipa and Hindu religion covered and existed in almost the whole of Asia during
the ancient past). It seems that a major secret and answer hides in the story of Kambojas. This is the very reason I became
interested in those articles. It also seems that there is much evidence already collected by many about the Kamboja culture and
connection. Love and regards,Sreenadh , Sunil Bhattacharjya <sunil_bhattacharjya wrote:>> Dear Sreenadhji,> > It is nice that

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you sent these two links so that the members can have a look at them. You might have noticed that various sources have been
quoted in these articles but no serious attempt has been made to offer a chronological perspective. Chronologically, as seen
from the Mahabharata, Ramayana and the puranic sources, the Kambojas were originally from India. They moved out of India
and later on they re-entered India.> > Secondly there were Kamboja and Parama-Kamboja and the locations of both should be
identified. > > Thirdly the statements that Madri was from the Madradesha or from Uttara-Madra and also that she was a Vahlika
princess (Vahliki) and that the Kambojas resided in Vahlika desha are to yet be reconciled.> > Regards,> > Sunil K.
Bhattacharjya> > --- On Sat, 2/7/09, Sreenadh sreesog wrote:> > Sreenadh sreesog Migration of Kambojas> > Saturday,
February 7, 2009, 10:12 AM> > > > > > > Dear All,> The following write is from: http://en.wikipedia .org/wiki/ Migration_
of_Kambojas > Love and regards,> Sreenadh> ============ ========= ========= ======> > Migration of Kambojas>
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia> Jump to: navigation, search> > > > Articles related to Kambojas> > Etymology> >
Kamboja Kingdom> > Kamboja Location> > Kambojas and Sakas> > in Indian Literature> > Mahabharata> > Panini> >
Manusmrti> > Kautiliya> > Migrations> > Bengal> > Sri Lanka> > Cambodia> > > This box: view talk edit> > > > Probable
Kamboja migration routes. See: Kambojas and Cambodia> References to Kambojas abound in ancient literature, and this may
have been just the expansion of an Indo-Iranian tribe with both Indic and Persian affinities from their homeland in the present-day
Afghanistan-Pakistan region along the foothills of the Himalayas towards Bengal, along the coast to Gujarat, to Sri Lanka, and
possibly further to Cambodia.> > > > > > Contents[hide]> > 1 Kambojas, Sakas etc enter Indian Mainland > > 1.1 Military
defeats> 1.2 The Kambojas in Mathura > > 1.2.1 King Moga or Maues: Probably a Scythianised Kamboj king> 1.3 The Kambojas
in West/Southwest India> 1.4 The Kambojas in South India> 1.5 Kambojas in Tibet and Bengal> 2 Kambojas in Sri Lanka> 3
Kambojas in Indochina> 4 References> 5 Recommended reading>

Guest guest

Quote

Posted 7 Feb 2009 Report post

Dear Sunil Bhattacharjya ji, Here is a small and interesting paragraph I found in net about the Kambojas ================================BUDDHA
TO VISAKHA: "Suppose that one were to exercise kingship, rule, &
sovereignty over these sixteen great lands replete with the seven
Guests

treasures, i.e., over the Angas, Maghadans, Kasis, Kosalans, Vajjians,


Mallas, Cetis, Vansans, Kurus, Pacalas, Macchas, Surasenas, Assakas,
Avantis, Gandharans, & Kambojans: It would not be worth
one-sixteenth of this Uposatha endowed with eight factors. Why is that?
Kingship over human beings is a meager thing when compared with
heavenly bliss. .." [ Anguttara Nikaya III.70 Muluposatha Sutta The
Roots of the Uposatha Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu.] (from:
http://www.accesstoinsight.org/canon/sutta/anguttara/an03-070.html)The Kambojas, commands my greatest and highest
appreciation, for it has been very
glorious very noble and very ancient past. It's a fact of history that
Kambojas are indeed more ancient than most of the present days castes
found in Panjab. Their history is indeed very glorious. If you analyse
critically, many modern castes of north-west have been derived from the
Kamboj people. There are are several matching clan names amongst the
Kambojs and the modern Rajputs... The Rajput being merely an
occupational term, the Rajputs with Kamboja gotra names are
undoudbtedly an off-shoot from early Medieval Kambojas. This is because
clan/Gotra name is very foundamental where as the tribe name and caste
name are not and can transfer/change. (from: http://www.punjabi.net/talk/messages/45120/24495.html)
================================ Love and regards,Sreenadh , "Sreenadh" <sreesog wrote:>> Dear Sunil
Bhattacharjya ji,> If the Kambojas -> * Are from Kamboja in Russia (from Central Asia) with enough> archaeological evidence to
prove the same.> * Speak the language Galccha (a language of indo-europian language> family with too many sanskrit similar
words)> * Migrated to India through Gujrat (Western cost of india) and> Kalinga (Orissa; eastern cost of india) upto Srilanka> *
Worshiped Hindu gods including Siva, Mitra and the Tantric godes.> * Were a kshetriya/rajaput tribe with much antiquity.> * They
had good astrological, astronomical and tantric knowledge and> tradition> > Then it can solve many of the historical puzzles that
we encounter in> our study. Let us consider some more relevant questions-> * Why 6th century Mihira who revised indian
astrology was of Saka> dipa origin? (Kamboja connection)> * Why the 15th century astrologers like Nrisimha Daivajna and
family> who re-energized indian astrology lived in Golagrama near Pratishtrana> in Salivahana kingdom in
Maharashtra/Karnataka? (Again a Kamboja> connection?)> * Why the ancient non-vedic rishi horas (such as skanda hora, brihat>
prajapatya etc) are still written in Sanskrit (an Indo Europian> language) even though they don't seems to have much connection
with the> Vedic tropical astrological tradition? (Aganin a Kamboja Sanskrit like> language connection?)> There could be
numerous similar other questions as well.> The point I want to emphasis is that such a proposal and connected> study might
well be able to point to the origin of the Tantric culture> and the source of some unique knowledge (unconnected to vedas) that>
spread in India during the ancient past. (Actually Kambojans are also> Indians, since the the Jambu Dipa and Hindu religion
covered and existed> in almost the whole of Asia during the ancient past).> It seems that a major secret and answer hides in the
story of> Kambojas. This is the very reason I became interested in those> articles. It also seems that there is much evidence
already collected by> many about the Kamboja culture and connection.> Love and regards,> Sreenadh> > , Sunil Bhattacharjya>

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sunil_bhattacharjya@ wrote:> >> > Dear Sreenadhji,> >> > It is nice that you sent these two links so that the members can have>
a look at them. You might have noticed that various sources have been> quoted in these articles but no serious attempt has
been made to offer a> chronological perspective. Chronologically, as seen from the> Mahabharata, Ramayana and the puranic
sources, the Kambojas were> originally from India. They moved out of India and later on they> re-entered India.> >> > Secondly
there were Kamboja and Parama-Kamboja and the locations of> both should be identified.> >> > Thirdly the statements that
Madri was from the Madradesha or from> Uttara-Madra and also that she was a Vahlika princess (Vahliki) and> that the
Kambojas resided in Vahlika desha are to yet be reconciled.> >> > Regards,> >> > Sunil K. Bhattacharjya> >> > --- On Sat,
2/7/09, Sreenadh sreesog@ wrote:> >> > Sreenadh sreesog@> > Migration of Kambojas> > > > Saturday, February 7, 2009,
10:12 AM> >> >> >> >> >> >> > Dear All,> > The following write is from: http://en.wikipedia .org/wiki/> Migration_ of_Kambojas>
> Love and regards,> > Sreenadh> > ============ ========= ========= ======> >> > Migration of Kambojas> > From
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia> > Jump to: navigation, search> >> >> >> > Articles related to Kambojas> >> > Etymology> >>
> Kamboja Kingdom> >> > Kamboja Location> >> > Kambojas and Sakas> >> > in Indian Literature> >> > Mahabharata> >> >
Panini> >> > Manusmrti> >> > Kautiliya> >> > Migrations> >> > Bengal> >> > Sri Lanka> >> > Cambodia> >> >> > This box:
view talk edit> >> >> >> > Probable Kamboja migration routes. See: Kambojas and Cambodia> > References to Kambojas
abound in ancient literature, and this may have> been just the expansion of an Indo-Iranian tribe with both Indic and> Persian
affinities from their homeland in the present-day> Afghanistan-Pakistan region along the foothills of the Himalayas towards>
Bengal, along the coast to Gujarat, to Sri Lanka, and possibly further> to Cambodia.> >> >> >> >> >> > Contents[hide]> >> > 1
Kambojas, Sakas etc enter Indian Mainland> >> > 1.1 Military defeats> > 1.2 The Kambojas in Mathura> >> > 1.2.1 King Moga or
Maues: Probably a Scythianised Kamboj king> > 1.3 The Kambojas in West/Southwest India> > 1.4 The Kambojas in South
India> > 1.5 Kambojas in Tibet and Bengal> > 2 Kambojas in Sri Lanka> > 3 Kambojas in Indochina> > 4 References> > 5
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Dear All, Given below is a write-up from : http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Kambojas Love and


regards,Sreenadh========================================== Kambojas
Articles related to Kambojas Location Language and ethnicity Etymology in Indian Literature Kamboja Migration Horsemen
Ashvakas Kambojas of Panini Kambojas and Manusmriti Parama Kamboja This box: view talk edit The Kambojas are a very
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ancient Kshatriya tribe of the north-western parts of the Indian subcontinent and what is now Afghanistan, frequently mentioned
in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. They apparently belong to the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European family.
Kamboja was ancient name of a country and the tribe settled therein. ...
Kamboja (or Kambuja) is the name of an
ancient Indo-Iranian tribe of Indo-European family, believed to be
located originally in Pamirs and Badakshan in Central Asia. ...
The Kambojas peoples are referenced in
numerous Sanskrit and Pali literature including Sama Veda, Atharvaveda,
Ramayana, Mahabharata, Puranas, Kautiliyas Arthashastra, Yasakas
Nirukata, Buddhist Jatakas, Jaina Canons, ancient grammar books and
plays etc. ...
References to Kambojas abound in
ancient literature, and this may have been just the expansion of an
Indo-Iranian tribe with both Persian and Indic affinities from their
homeland in the Afghanistan-Turkistan region along the foothills of the
Himalayas towards Bengal, along the coast to Gujarat, to Sri Lanka...
The profession of breeding,
domesticating, training and utilizing the horses in warfare had
originated in the vast Steppes of Central Asia. ...
The Ashvakas or Ashvakans are very
ancient people of north-east Afghanistan (Nuristan), modern Pakistan,
including the Chitral-Valley and north-west India . ...
Pini () was an
ancient Sanskrit grammarian born in Shaltura, modern Lahur of
North-West Frontier province of Pakistan. ...
The Manusmriti (Sanskrit
), translated Laws of Manu is a foundational
work of Hindu law and ancient Indian society, written c. ...
Ancient Sanskrit literature reveals
that like the Madras/Uttara Madras and the Kurus/Uttara Kurus, the
ancient Kambojas also had, at least two settlements. ...

For the Bollywood film of the same name see Kshatriya Kshatriya (Hindi:
, from Sanskrit: , ) is one of the four varnas, or castes, in Hinduism.
....

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http://www. ...
Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ...
The Rig Veda
& #2315; & #2327; & #2381; & #2357; & #2375; & #2342;
(Sanskrit & #7771;c praise + veda knowledge) is the earliest of the
four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas. ...

Indo-Iranian can refer to: The Indo-Iranian languages The prehistoric


Indo-Iranian people, see Aryan This is a disambiguation page
& #8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might
otherwise share the same title. ...
For the language group, see Indo-European languages. ...
The Kambojas still live as Kamboj and Kamboh[1] in the greater Punjab, and as Kams/Kamoz/Kaumoj and Katirs/Kamtoz of the
Siyaposh tribe in the Nuristan (former Kafirstan) province of Afghanistan[2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15][16] [17]
[18].
Their numbers have greatly dwindled, and the total population still
known by these forms of their ancient name is currently estimated to be
about 1.5 million. Look up Kamboj in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...
Look up Kamboh in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...
This article is about the geographical region. ...
The lower part of the Bashgul Valley of Nurestan (Afghanistan) is known as Kam. ...
The lower part of the Bashgul Valley of Nurestan (Afghanistan) is known as Kam. ...
The lower part of the Bashgul Valley of Nurestan (Afghanistan) is known as Kam. ...
The Siah-Posh Kafir tribal group of
Kafirstan (present Nuristan) includes five divisions or clans as under:
Katirs, Kams or Kamoz Mumans or Madugals, Kashtoz or Kashtans and
Gourdesh or Istrat. ...
The Siah-Posh Kafir tribal group of
Kafirstan (present Nuristan) includes five divisions or clans as under:
Katirs, Kams or Kamoz Mumans or Madugals, Kashtoz or Kashtans and
Gourdesh or Istrat. ...
Nurestan Province (also spelled Nuristan) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. ...
The term Kafirs in reference to the
Hindukush Kafirs is usually taken to mean infidels or idolators and the
term Kafirstan as The Land of the Infidels. ...
Contents 1 Ethnicity & Language of Kambojas2 Original Home of Kambojas 2.1 Kambysene/Cambysene & Kamboja connection?
3 Kambojas: A Kshatriya Clan4 Ancient Kambojas were a Learned Clan5 Kambojas: Master Horsemen[92]6 Kambojas in Indian
Literature7 The Kambojas and Alexander the Great8 The Kambojas and the Mauryan Empire9 Kambojas' migration to India and
beyond10 Modern Kamboj and Kamboh 10.1 Diaspora10.2 Traditions10.3 During Muslim Rule10.4 Agriculturists10.5 Physical
Characteristics10.6 Kamboj in Sports 11 Kamboja principalities in West/Southwest India12 References13 See also14 External
links Ethnicity & Language of Kambojas

Main article: Ethnicity of Kambojas Numerous classical sources indicate that ancient Kamboja was a center of Iranian civilization.
[19] This is evident from the Mazdean religious customs of the ancient Kambojas,[20] as well as from the Avestan language they
spoke.[21] Kamboja was ancient name of a country and the tribe settled therein. ...
From Ahura Mazda. ...
Yasna 28. ...
Faravahar It is now widely accepted among scholars that the Kambojas were an Avestan speaking group of East Iranians, and
were located mainly in north-eastern Afghanistan and parts of Tajikstan.[22] Some scholars also believe that the Zoroastrian
religion originated in eastern Iran in the land of the Kambojas.[23] Faravahar, The depiction of the Human soul before birth and
after death. ...
Faravahar, The depiction of the Human soul before birth and after death. ...
This article needs to be wikified. ...
The Republic of Tajikistan
( & #1058; & #1086; & #1207; & #1080; & #1082; & #1080; & #1089; & #1090; & #1086; & #1085;),
formerly known as the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic, is a country in
Central Asia. ...
Zoroastrianism was adapted from an
earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very
roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records,
some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ...
Fourth/fifth century Buddhist commentator and great scholar Buddhaghosa [24] has also expressly described the Kambojas as
Parasaka-vanna (i.e of Parasa or Persian affinties).[25][26][27][28]
A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at
Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha,

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Siddhrtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is
traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been
accepted by...
Bhadantcariya Buddhaghosa was a 5th century Indian Theravadin Buddhist commentator and scholar. ...
The tribal name Kamboja has been traced to the royal name Kambujiya of the Old Persian Inscriptions (known as Cambyses to
the Greeks).[29][30][31][32][33][34] [35] [36].
Kamboja (Sanskrit: ) was the ancient name of a Hindu
country, and the Indo-Iranian Kshatriya tribe, the Kambojas, settled
therein. ...
Kelileh va Demneh Persian manuscript copy dated 1429, from Herat, depicts the Jackal trying to lead the Lion astray. ...
Cambyses (or Cambese) is the Greek version of the name of several monarchs of Achaemenid line of ancient Persia. ...
Kambujiya or Kambaujiya was the name of several great Persian kings of the Achaemenid line. This name also appears written as
C-n-b-n-z-y in Aramaic, Kambuzia in Assyrian, Kambythet in Egyptian, Kam-bu-zi-ia in Akkadian, Kan-bu-zi-ia in Elamite, and
Kanpuziya in Susian language. The Khmer of Angkor
believed their mythical ancestors to be the people of "Kamboja" and
traced their lineage to Kambujiya, hence the modern name of Cambodia, "Kampuchea". Kelileh va Demneh Persian manuscript
copy dated 1429, from Herat, depicts the Jackal trying to lead the Lion astray. ...
Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid
Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II
the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the
Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing
some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon...
Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ...
For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ...
Akkadian (linum akkadtum) was a
Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family)
spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and
Babylonians. ...
Elamite is an extinct language, which was spoken in the ancient Elamite Empire. ...
Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ...
The Khmer people are the predominant ethnic group in Cambodia, accounting for approximately 90% of the 13. ...
Map of the Angkor region in Cambodia. ...
Cyrus the Great Cambyses III, son of Cyrus the Great, is famous for his conquest of Egypt (525 BCE), and for the havoc he
wrought upon that country. Image File history File links Cyrus_portrait. ...
Image File history File links Cyrus_portrait. ...
Cyrus redirects here. ...
Cambyses (or Cambese) is the Greek version of the name of several monarchs of Achaemenid line of ancient Persia. ...
Cyrus redirects here. ...
Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th
century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s
BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s
BC Events 529 BC - Cambyses II succeeds his father Cyrus as ruler of
Persia. ...
According to several scholars, "Kambojas were probably the descendants of the Indo-Iranians (East Iranians) popularly known
later on as the Sassanian and Parthians who occupied parts of north western India in first second centuries of the Christian era ".
[37]
Map of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture (red), its expansion into the
Andronovo culture during the 2nd millennium BC, showing the overlap
with the BMAC in the south. ...
Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ...
Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as
depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force
on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and
intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE.
Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ...
For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ...
An era is a long period of time with different technical and colloquial meanings, and usages in language. ...
Original Home of Kambojas Main article: Kamboja Location Analysis of ancient Sanskrit texts[38] and inscriptions[39] place the
Kambojas, Gandharas, Yavanas (Greeks), Madras, and the Sakas in the Uttarapatha - the northern division of Jambudvipa
(the innermost concentric island continent in Hindu scripture).
Geographically, this area sat along, and was named for, the main trade
route from the mouth the Ganges to Balkh, now a small town in Northern Afghanistan. Some writers hold that Uttarapatha
included the whole of Northern India and comprised very area of Central Asia, as far as the Urals and the Caspian Sea to the
Yenisei and from Turkistan and Tien Shan ranges to as far as the Arctic (Dr S. M. Ali). Kamboja was the name of an ancient
country and the Indo-Iranian warrior tribe settled therein. ...
Gandhra (Sanskrit:

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, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: )
is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern
Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab
and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ...
Yona, Yonaka or Yavana is a Pali word used in ancient India to designate Greeks. ...
Madra or Madraka is the name of an
ancient region and its inhabitants, located in the north-west division
of ancient Indian sub-continent. ...
A cataphract-style parade armour of a Saka royal from the Issyk kurgan. ...
Ancient Buddhist and Brahmanical
texts reveal that Uttarapatha was the name of northern division of
Jambudvipa of ancient Indian traditions. ...
According to Puranic cosmography, the
earth is divided into seven concentric island continents (sapta-dvipa
vasumati) separated by the seven encircling seas, each double the size
of the preceding one. ...
Ganga redirects here. ...
Today Balkh (Persian: ) is a
small town in the Province of Balkh, Afghanistan, about 20 kilometers
northwest of the provincial capital, Mazari Sharif, and some 74 km (46
miles) south of the Amu Darya, the Oxus River of antiquity, of which a
tributary formerly flowed past Balkh. ...
Map of Central Asia showing three
sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a
region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia.
....
Ural may refer to one of the
following: Ural Mountains Ural (region) Ural River Urals Federal
District IMZ-Ural, a Russian motorcycle Ural automobile Ural,
Krasnoyarsk Krai, an urban settlement in Russia This is a
disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title.
....
The Caspian Sea is the largest
enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the
worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ...

& #1045; & #1085; & #1080; & #1089; & #1077; & #1081;
Length 5,550 (4,102) km Elevation of the source m Average discharge
19,600 m/s Area watershed 2,580,000 km Origin ? Mouth Arctic Ocean
Basin countries Russia The Yenisei basin, Lake Baikal, and the cities
of Dikson, Dudinka, Turukhansk, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk...
Trkistan (also spelled Turkistan or Turkestan) is a region in Central Asia, largely inhabited by Turkic people. ...
The Tian Shan (Chinese:
& #22825; & #23665;; Pinyin: Ti & #257;n Sh & #257;n;
celestial mountains) mountain range is located in Central Asia, in the
border region of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and the Xinjiang Uighur
Autonomous Region of western China. ...
The red line indicates the 10C
isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border
Satellite image of the Arctic surface The Arctic is the region around
the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South
Pole. ...
Linguistic
evidence, combined with this literary and inscriptional evidence, has
led many scholars of note to conclude that ancient Kambojas originally
belonged to the Ghalcha-speaking area of Central Asia. For example, Yasaka's Nirukata (II/2) attests that verb shavati in the
sense "to go" was used by only the Kambojas. It has been proven that the modern Ghalcha dialects, Valkhi, Shigali, Sriqoli,
Jebaka (also called Sanglichi or Ishkashim), Munjani, Yidga and Yagnobi, mainly spoken in Pamirs and countries on the
headwaters of Oxus, still use terms derived from ancient Kamboja shavati in the sense "to go". The Yagnobi dialect spoken in
Yagnobe around the headwaters of Zeravshan in Sogdiana, also still contains a relic from ancient Kamboja shavati in the sense
"to go" [40]. Further, the former language of Badakshan was also a dialect of Galcha, said to have been replaced by Persian only
in the last few centuries.[41]
Thus, the ancient Kamboja probably included the Pamirs, Badakshan, and
possibly parts of Tajikstan, including Yognobi region in the doab of the Oxus. On the east it was bounded roughly by Yarkand
and/or Kashgar, on the west by Bahlika (Uttaramadra), on the northwest by Sogdiana, on the north by Uttarakuru, on the
southeast by Darada, and on the south by Gandhara. For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ...

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Map of Central Asia showing three
sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a
region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia.
....
Yaska Acharya is a celebrated Sanskrit scholar and grammarian of ancient India. ...
Nirukta is Vedic glossary of difficult words. ...
For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ...
Yagnobi is a language spoken by abour two and a half thousand people in Tadjikistan. ...
The Pamir languages are a subgroup of
the Iranian languages, spoken in the Pamir Mountains, primarily along
the Panj River and its tributaries in the southern Gorno-Badakhshan
region of Tajikistan around the administrative center Khorog ( ), and
the neighboring Badakhshan province and is in Pamir Area Afghanistan.
....
The Amu Darya (in Persian
& #1570; & #1605; & #1608; & #1583; & #1585; & #1740; & #1575;;
Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly
north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join
the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ...
The Zeravshan or Zarafshan river,
whilst smaller and less well-known than the two great rivers of Central
Asia, the Oxus or Amu-Darya and the Jaxartes or Syr-Darya, is if
anything more valuable as a source of irrigation in the region. ...
Sogdiana, ca. ...
Afghanistan and of Tajikistan. ...
Farsi redirects here. ...
A Doab, meaning two waters in
Persian, is a term used in India and Pakistan for a tract of land
between two confluent rivers. ...
The Amu Darya (in Persian
& #1570; & #1605; & #1608; & #1583; & #1585; & #1740; & #1575;;
Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly
north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join
the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ...
Yarkand, 1868, showing city walls and
gallows Yarkand (modern Chinese name ), pinyin: Shch" also
written Such". Altitude about 1,189 m. ...
Location of Kashgar Kashgars Sunday
market Kashgar (also spelled Cascar[1]) (Uyghur: /; Chinese: ; pinyin:
, ), is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the
Peoples Republic of China. ...
Bactria (Bactriana, also Bhalika in
Indian languages) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the
range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus);
its capital, Bactra (now Balkh), was located in what is now northern
Afghanistan, southern Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan. ...
The Uttaramadra was the northern
branch of the Madra people who are numerously referenced in ancient
Sanskrit and Pali literature. ...
Sogdiana, ca. ...
This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...
Daradas were a people who lived north and north-east to the Kashmir valley. ...
Gandhra (Sanskrit:
, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: )
is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern
Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab
and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ...
Later, some sections of the Kambojas crossed the Hindukush and planted Kamboja colonies in Paropamisadae and as far as
Rajauri. This view is fully supported by the Mahabharata,[42] which specifically draws attention to the Kambojas in the cisHindukush region as being neighbors to the Daradas, and the Parama-Kambojas across the Hindukush as being neighbors to the
Rishikas (or Tukharas) of Ferghana/Sogdiana.
The Hindu Kush or Hindukush
( & #1607; & #1606; & #1583; & #1608; & #1705; & #1588; in
Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern
Areas of Pakistan. ...
The Paropamisadae is an ancient area of the Hindu-Kush, in the Eastern part of Afghanistan. ...

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Rajauri is a town and a notified area committee in Rajauri district in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. ...
For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ...
Ancient Sanskrit literature reveals
that like the Madras/Uttara Madras and the Kurus/Uttara Kurus, the
ancient Kambojas also had, at least two settlements. ...
The Hindu Kush or Hindukush
( & #1607; & #1606; & #1583; & #1608; & #1705; & #1588; in
Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern
Areas of Pakistan. ...
There is mention of Rishikas in the Mahabharata, Brhat Samhita, Markendeya Purana and Ramayana etc. ...
The Tocharians were the easternmost
speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the
Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region,
northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ...
Fergana is a city in the Fergana Valley, capital of the Fargona Viloyati of Uzbekistan. ...
The two separate Kamboja settlements are also substantiated from Ptolemy's Geography, which references a geographical term
Tambyzoi located on the river Oxus in Bactria,[43] and an Ambautai people living on the southern side of Hindukush in the
Paropamisadae.[44] Scholars have identified both the Ptolemian Tambyzoi and Ambautai with Sanskrit Kamboja.[45][46] This
article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ...
Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria
(Bactriana, Bkhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian
languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the
country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus);
its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now...
The Yidga sub-dialect of Galcha Munjani is still spoken on
the southern sides of Hindukush in Paropamisadae, further strengthening
the view that some Kambojas crossed south of the Hindukush. Still
further, Ptolemy Geography[47] attests a tribal people called Komoi located north of Bactria in Sogdiana. It has been pointed out
that the Ptolemian Komoi is classical form of Kamboi (or Kamboika: from Pali Kambojika, Sanskrit Kamboja). This settlement of
the Kamboj is believed to have resulted in the wake of tribal movement of the Scythian Komedes (which included Parama
Kambojas) from Alai Valley/Alai Mountains into the west around second century BCE.
Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bkhtar in Persian, also
Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the
ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush
and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi
(now...
Sogdiana, ca. ...
Pali (IAST: ) is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ...
Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a
classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism,
Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of
India. ...
Approximate extent of Scythia and
Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread
of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ...
Komedes is the classical name applied to the people, who, as the scholars believe, had followed Scythian culture. ...
Ancient Sanskrit literature reveals
that like the Madras/Uttara Madras and the Kurus/Uttara Kurus, the
ancient Kambojas also had, at least two settlements. ...
Alay or Alai is a mountain range that extends from the Tien Shan mountain range in Tajikistan. ...
Alay or Alai is a mountain range that extends from the Tien Shan mountain range in Tajikistan. ...
With time, the trans-Hindukush Kambojas remained
essentially Iranian in culture and religion, while those in the
cis-Hindukush region came partially (or partly) under Indian cultural
influence. This probably is the reason as to why the ancient Kambojas
are believed to have had both Indian as well as Iranian affinities. Still later, some sections of the Kambojas apparently moved
even farther, to Arachosia, as attested by the Aramaic version of Greco-Aramaic inscriptions of king Ashoka found in Kandahar.
Some scholars have identified the original Kamboja with Arachosia, but this view does not seem to be correct.
Arachosia is the ancient name of an area that corresponds to the
southern part of today s Afghanistan, around the city of Kandahar. ...
Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank:
Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC
Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor
Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: (

; IAST transliteration: ,

pronunciation: ) (304 BC"232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya


Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in...

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This article is about the city in Afghanistan. ...
Kambysene/Cambysene & Kamboja connection? Historians believe that, there was a movement of the Eurasian nomads in Iran
in the early centuries of first millennium BCE, in which the Cimmerians
and Yautiya figured prominently. Driven by Medes, these Eurasian nomads
bifurcated into two wings, the right one pushing north-westwards up to
Transcaspiana and the left one wheeling towards the south-east and
penertrating into Afghanistan and Punjab. Closely allied to the Iranian Yautiya were the Kurus, Kambojas and some other clans of
the Scythians, which in later centuries, had sided with Achaemenid Teispes (Cispi), and contributed to the formation of
Achaemenian empire in Iran (Dr Buddha Prakash, Dr C. Chakravarty, Qamarud Din Ahmed etc). Soon these early Scythians
merged with sedentary population of Iranians and became an integral
part of them thus losing all traces of this ancient incursion except
for some place-names, noted by a grammarian, interested in linguistics
or some faint traditions lost in the multitudinous amalgam of legendary
lore. According to Dr Buddha Prakash, the Indian epic Mahabharata, in reality, is a record of Scytho-Iranian invasion of India of
the 9th c BCE.[48][49] Mahabharata abundantly attests that the Kambojas and their kindered migrating Scythian tribes like the
Sakas, Tusharas etc had played a very prominent role in the Kurukshetra war where they had fought under the supreme
command of Sudakshina Kamboja.
Eurasian, also Euroasian or Euro-Asian can mean: Eurasian may be used
as a slang term to refer to people of Asian decent, living in European
countries who have no other traits of being Asian other then the fact
that they look it. ...
For the 2006 historical epic set in Kazakhstan, see Nomad (2006 film). ...
This article is about the geographical region. ...
Kuru or Kurus may be: Kuru (kingdom),
a powerful Indian kingdom during the Vedic period and later a republic
during the Mahajanapada period Kuru Kingdom, a kingdom based on the
historic Kuru kingdom in Indian epic literature Kuru (disease),
neurological, and associated with New Guinea, the Fore, and cannibalism
Kuru...
The Scythians (, also ) or Scyths
([1]; from Greek ), a nation of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who
spoke an Iranian language[2], dominated the Pontic steppe throughout
Classical Antiquity. ...
Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid
Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II
the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the
Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing
some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon...
Teispes (675-640 BC) was the son of Achaemenes and a King of Persia. ...
Missing image Achaemenid empire in
its greatest extent The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient
Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius the Great and
Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia
ruled over territories roughly encompassing some parts of today...
This article is about the political and historical term. ...
The Scythians (, also ) or Scyths
([1]; from Greek ), a nation of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who
spoke an Iranian language[2], dominated the Pontic steppe throughout
Classical Antiquity. ...
The ancient Sanskrit epics, the Ramayana and Mahabharata, laid the cornerstone for much of Hindu religion. ...
For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ...
http://www. ...
Saka is also the name of a town in Hiroshima, Japan; for information on this town, see Saka, Hiroshima. ...
The Tocharians were the easternmost
speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the
Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region,
northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ...
Combatants Pandavas led by
Dhristadyumna Kauravas led by Bhishma Commanders Arjuna Bhima
Yudhishthira Nakula Sahadeva Bhishma Drona Karna Duryodhana Ashwatthama
Strength 7 Akshauhinis 1,530,900 soldiers 11 Akshauhinis 2,405,700
soldiers Casualties Almost Total Only 7 survivors - the five Pandavas,
Krishna, and Satyaki Almost Total Only 3 survivors...
Sudakshina Kamboja is the third king of the Kambojas referred to in the Mahabharata. ...
According to Dr Chandra Chakravarty, the nomadic invaders who had invaded Iran several centuries prior to Christian era were
Scythian tribes of the Kambysene from west of Caspian region i.e. ancient Armenia. Name Kambysene has been attested

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anciently by Strabo which he specifies as a region bordering on Caucasus mountains.[50] It comprised a rugged region through
which a road connecting Albania and Iberia passed.[51] The Greek form of the name is believed to have been derived in the
Hellenistic period from an indigenous name, corresponding to Armenian Kamboean. In Georgian, it is written Kambeovani, in
Arabic, Qambzan. In Sanskrit, it was spoken as Kamboja.
Though not attested prior to Strabo, the region Kambysene is believed
to have born this name since remote antiquity. The tribal people living
around this region were also called by the same name. Strabo also
attests two rivers viz: Cyrus (modern Kura) and Cambysene (modern Jori),[52] the latter was a tributary of the former. According
to Ernst Herzfeld, the names of Cyrus and Cambyses rivers, as well as the Achaemenid names Kurush and Kambujiya, were
derived from two ethnics.[53] Obviously these two ethnics were none else than the ancient Kurus and Kambojas of the Sanskrit
traditions. For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ...
Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ...
For Caspian Sea, go to: Caspian Sea
CASPIAN Consumers Against Supermarket Privacy Invasion and Numbering
(CASPIAN) is a national grass-roots consumer group dedicated to
fighting supermarket loyalty or frequent shopper cards. ...
The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ...
It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ...
Ancient countries of Caucasus:
Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Iberia was a name given by the
ancient Greeks and Romans to the ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli
(4th century BC-5th century AD) corresponding roughly to the eastern
and southern parts of the present day Georgia. ...
The term Hellenistic (established by
the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the
ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by
ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated
by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political
dominance...
Arabic can mean: From or related to
Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also
Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages
of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and
Urdu, among others. ...
Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a
classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism,
Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of
India. ...
Kamboja (Sanskrit:
) was the ancient name of a Hindu country, and the
Indo-Iranian Kshatriya tribe, the Kambojas, settled therein. ...
Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid
Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II
the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the
Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing
some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon...
The name Cyrus (or Kourosh in
Persian) may refer to: [[Cyrus I of Anshan]], King of Persia around 650
BC [[Cyrus II of Persia | Cyrus the Great]], King of Persia 559 BC 529 BC " See also Cyrus in the Judeo-Christian tradition Cyrus the
Younger, brother to the Persian king...
Cambyses or Cambese is Greek version of the name of several monarchs of Achaemenid line of ancient Persia. ...
An ethnic group is a group of people
who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the
basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ...
. The new kuru & #351; coin Kuru & #351; are a Turkish currency subunit. ...
Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a
classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism,
Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of
India. ...
According to Dr Chandra Chakravarty, the name Kambysene of the Greeks translates into Kamboja and the Cyrus into Kuru of
the Sanskrit texts.[54] Dr Chakravarty also states that the hordes, who had participated in the earlier invasion of Iran along with
Yautiyas were the Nordic
Scythians who were living around the Kambysene region, near Mt Caucasus
in ancient Armenia. They were the Kuru-Kambojas of the Sanskrit texts.[55] These Nordic Kuru-Kambojas, later mixed with the
Alpine base "Parsa-Xsayatia" (Purush-Khattis) Iranians[56] and gave birth to the famous Achaemenian dynastic line of Persia.

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This might explain as to why the Achemenians chose to name their famous
kings as Kambujia (Cambyses) and Kurush (Cyrus). Dr Chakravarty further
states that the Kambohs of NW Punjab are the modern representatives of these Scythian Kambysene, whom he calls Scythian
Kambojas.[57]
Dr Chakravarty further writes that a branch of these Scythian Kambysene
had also settled in the north-west India giving name to ancient Kamboja
(Afghanistan); and yet another branch reached Tibetan plateau where they mixed with the locals; and some Tibetans are still
called Kambojas.[58] And through Tibet, they went further to Mekong valley where they were called Kambujas (Cambodians),
now represented by the Chams, still a tall, fair, dolichocephelic people with bilided eyes, of the Mon-Khmers.[59]
Kamboja (Sanskrit: ) was the ancient name of a Hindu
country, and the Indo-Iranian Kshatriya tribe, the Kambojas, settled
therein. ...
The name Cyrus (or Kourosh in
Persian) may refer to: [[Cyrus I of Anshan]], King of Persia around 650
BC [[Cyrus II of Persia | Cyrus the Great]], King of Persia 559 BC 529 BC " See also Cyrus in the Judeo-Christian tradition Cyrus the
Younger, brother to the Persian king...
Kuru or Kurus may be: Kuru (kingdom),
a powerful Indian kingdom during the Vedic period and later a republic
during the Mahajanapada period Kuru Kingdom, a kingdom based on the
historic Kuru kingdom in Indian epic literature Kuru (disease),
neurological, and associated with New Guinea, the Fore, and cannibalism
Kuru...
Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a
classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism,
Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of
India. ...
Norseman redirects here; for the town of the same name see Norseman, Western Australia. ...
Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid
Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II
the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the
Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing
some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon...
For other uses of this term see:
Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to
a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia
(Iran). ...
Look up Kamboh in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...
Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ...
This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ...
For other uses, see Plateau (disambiguation). ...
The Mekong is one of the worlds major rivers. ...
Kambojas are a very ancient people of
north-western parts of ancient India and Afghanistan , frequently
mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ...
This article is about the Cham people of Asia. ...
Kambojas: A Kshatriya Clan In India, the Kambojas obviously belonged to the Kshatriya caste of Indo-Aryan society.
For the Bollywood film of the same name see Kshatriya Kshatriya (Hindi:
, from Sanskrit: , ) is one of the four varnas, or castes, in Hinduism.
....
Caste systems are traditional,
hereditary systems of social classification, that evolved due to the
enormous diversity in India (where all three primary races met, not by
forced slavery but by immigration). ...
The earliest and most powerful reference endorsing the Kshatriya-hood of the Kambojas is Panini's fifth century BCE
Ashtadhyayi. Panini refers to the Kamboja Janapada, and mentions it as "one of the fifteen powerful Kshatriya Janapadas" of his
times, inhabited and ruled by Kamboja Kshatriyas.[60] See: Kambojas of Panini
Indian postage stamp depicting (2004), with the implication that he
used (IPA ) was an ancient Gandharan grammarian (approximately 5th
century BC, but estimates range from the 7th to the 3rd centuries) who
is most famous for formulating the 3,959 rules of Sanskrit morphology
known as the . ...
The Ashtadhyayi
(A & #803;s & #803;t & #257;dhy & #257;y & #299;, meaning
eight chapters) is the earliest known grammar of Sanskrit, and one of
the first works on descriptive linguistics, generative linguistics, or

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linguistics altogether. ...
The political process among the
ancient Aryans appears to have originally started with semi-nomadic
tribal units called Jana (Sanskrit: Jana = tribe). ...
Pini () was an
ancient Sanskrit grammarian born in Shaltura, modern Lahur of
North-West Frontier province of Pakistan. ...
Kamboj warrior The Harivamsa
attests that the clans of Kambojas, Sakas, Yavanas, Pahlavas etc. were
"formerly noble Kshatriyas". It was king Sagara who had deprived the
Kambojas, and other allied tribes, of their Kshatiya-hood[61] and forbade them from performing Svadhyayas and Vasatkaras.[62]
Image File history File links Download high resolution version (400x609, 55 KB) Summary Deepak Kamboj, www. ...
Image File history File links Download high resolution version (400x609, 55 KB) Summary Deepak Kamboj, www. ...
Look up Kamboj in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...
For other uses, see Warrior (disambiguation). ...
The Harivamsha (also Harivamsa;
Sanskrit the lineage of Hari (Vishnu)) is an important work of Sanskrit
literature, containing 16,375 verses. ...
The Harivamsa calls this group of Sakas, Kambojas, Yavanas, Pahlavas and Paradas as "Ksatriya-pungavah", i.e., foremost
among the Ksatriyas. Vayu Purana calls them as "Ksatriya ganah" (Kshatriya hordes).[63][64][65] The Vayu Purana is a Shaiva
Purana, dedicated to Vayu (the wind), containing some 24,000 shlokas. ...
For the Bollywood film of the same
name see Kshatriya Kshatriya (Hindi: , from Sanskrit: , ) is one of the
four varnas, or castes, in Hinduism. ...
Look up Horde in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...
The Manusmriti attests that the Kambojas, Sakas, Yavanas etc were originally "noble Kshatriyas", but were gradually degraded
to the status of Sudras, on account of their neglect of sacred rites and non-entertainment of the Brahmanas in their countries.[66]
The Manu Smriti or Laws of Manu, is one of the eighteen Smritis of the
Dharma Sastra (or laws of righteous conduct), written c. ...
Shudra or Sudra is the fourth Varna in the traditional four-section division in historic Indian society. ...
The Mahabharata
likewise, also notes that the Kambojas, Sakas, Yavanas, Pahlavas, et
al. were originally "noble Kshatriyas", who later got degraded to
barbaric status due to the wrath of the Brahmanas.[67] For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ...
Also, according to numerous Puranas, the military Corporations of the Shakas, Yavanas, Kambojas, Pahlavas and Paradas,
known as five hordes (panca-ganah), had militarily supported the Haihaya and Talajunga Kshatriyas in depriving Ikshvaku king
Bahu (the 7th king in descent from Harishchandra), of his Ayodhya kingdom. A generation later, Bahu's son, Sagara recaptured
Ayodhya after totally destroying the Haihaya and Talajangha Kshatriyas in the battle. Story goes that king Sagara had punished
these foreign hordes by changing their hair-styles and turning them into degraded Kshatriyas.[68] The Puranas are part of Hindu
Smriti; these religious scriptures discuss devotion and mythology. ...
Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ...
Look up Horde in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...
For the Bollywood film of the same
name see Kshatriya Kshatriya (Hindi: , from Sanskrit: , ) is one of the
four varnas, or castes, in Hinduism. ...
The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ...
Harishchandra, in Hindu mythology was one of the kings of the Solar Dynasty. ...
Ayodhya (Hindi:
, Urdu: IAST Ayodhy) is an
ancient city of India, the old capital of Awadh, in the Faizabad
district of Uttar Pradesh. ...
For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ...
Ayodhya (Hindi:
, Urdu: IAST Ayodhy) is an
ancient city of India, the old capital of Awadh, in the Faizabad
district of Uttar Pradesh. ...
For the Bollywood film of the same
name see Kshatriya Kshatriya (Hindi: , from Sanskrit: , ) is one of the
four varnas, or castes, in Hinduism. ...
Look up Horde in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...
The Arthashastra of Kautiliya[69] attests the Kshatriya Shrenis (Corporations of Warriors) of the Kambojas, Surashtras, and some
other nations, and mentions them as living by agriculture, trade and warfare.
The Arthashastra (more precisely Arthastra) is a treatise on
statecraft and economic policy which identifies its author by the names
Kautilya[1] and Viugupta,[2] who are traditionally identified
with the Mauryan minister Cakya. ...

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...
For other uses, see Warrior (disambiguation). ...
Saurashtra, more correctly,
Saurari or Sauraram or Sourashtra, also known as Palkar,
Sowrashtra, Saurashtram, is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in parts of
the Southern Indian State of Tamil Nadu. ...
The legend of Daivi Khadga or Divine Sword detailed in Shantiparva of Mahabharata[70] also powerfully endorses the Kshatriyahood of the Kambojas. The sword as the "symbol of Kshatriya-hood" was wrested by the warrior king Kamboja from the Kosala
king Kuvalashava alias Dhundhumara, from whom it went to another warrior king called Muchukunda.[71] For other uses, see
Legend (disambiguation). ...
The legend of Mahabharata sword appears in the Shantiparva of Mahabharata. ...
The legend of Mahabharata sword appears in the Shantiparva of Mahabharata. ...
For other uses, see Warrior (disambiguation). ...
Epic Mahabharata refers to a king or warrior whom it calls Kamboja. ...
Kosala was an ancient Indian Aryan kingdom, corresponding roughly in area with the region of Oudh. ...
Muchukunda was a great sage who kills Kalayavana, the great Yavana warrior king in the Indian epic Mahabharata. ...
See: Mahabharata Sword The legend of Mahabharata sword appears in the Shantiparva section of Mahabharata. ...
Bhagavata Purana[72] references a king of the Kambojas, and calls him a "powerfully armed mighty warrior" (samiti-salina attacapah Kamboja). The Bhagavata Purana (sometimes rendered as Bhagavatha Purana), also known as the Srimad Bhagavatam,
written c. ...
Kalika Purana[73] refers to a war between the Buddhist king Kali (Maurya Brihadratha) and the Brahmanical king Kalika
(Pusyamitra Sunga), where the Kambojas came as military supporters to Brihadratha, (187-180) BCE. The Purana notes the
Kamboja warriors as Kambojai...bhimavikramaih, i.e. the Kambojas of terrific military prowess", again confirming the Kshatriyahood of the Kambojas. The Kalika Purana is one of the eighteen Upapuranas. ...
A replica of an ancient statue found
among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based
on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhrtha Gautama, a prince of the
Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It
had subsequently been accepted by...
Chandragupta Maurya (ruled
322 & #8211;298 BC), known to the Greeks as Sandracottus, was the
first emperor of the Mauryan empire. ...
Brhadrata was the last ruler of the Indian Mauryan dynasty. ...
Young Indian brahmachari Brahmin A Brahmin (less often Brahman) is a member of the Hindu priestly caste. ...
Pusyamitra Sunga (also Pushyamitra Shunga) was the founder of the Indian Sunga dynasty (185-78 BCE). ...
Brahmanda Purana talks of 21 battles waged by Brahma-Kshatriya sage Parsurama
against the ancient Haihaya dynasty clans of the Indian subcontinent.
The list of Haihaya dynasty clans whom sage Parsurama fought with
includes the Kambojas as well.[74] This ancient evidence again verifies that Kambojas were a Kshatriya clan.
Brahmanda Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious
text , is considered the last of the Puranas, and it once contained
Aadhyatma Ramayana. ...
There are numerous similar references in the Puranas, Mahabharata, Ramayana and other ancient Sanskrit and Pali literature,
that further document the Kshatriya-hood of the Kambojas.
Purana (Sanskrit: , meaning tales of ancient times) is the name of an
ancient Indian genre (or a group of related genres) of Hindu or Jain
literature (as distinct from oral tradition). ...
For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ...
Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a
classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism,
Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of
India. ...
Pli is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ...
Passages in Mahabharata, Puranas and other ancient texts indicate that the Kambojas were 'valiant warriors' ;[75] particularly
'hard to fight with' ;[76] invincible;[77] expert in the use of 'diverse weapons' ;[78] 'wrathful, ferocious and shaved-headed
warriors' ;[79] expert cavalarymen;[80] 'deadly like cobras' ;[81] 'strikers of fierce force' ;[82] 'Death-personified' ;[83] 'of fearful
bearing like Yama' (the god of death);[84] and 'war-loving Kambojas' [85] etc. For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata
(1989 film). ...
The Puranas are part of Hindu Smriti; these religious scriptures discuss devotion and mythology. ...
Ancient Kambojas were a Learned Clan Chudakarma Samskaara of Paraskara Grhya-Sutram [86], Vamsa Brahmana [87] of the
Sama Veda[18], the Epic Ramayana as well as Mahabharata and some other ancient references profusely attest that a section of
the ancient Kambojas also practiced Brahmanism
i.e they had adopted the profession of learning and teaching. Thus we
see that the ancient Kambojas are known to have been great scholars and
teachers. Undoubtedly, they were intimately connected with ancient
famous University of Taxila in Gandhara.

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The Sama Veda
( & #2360; & #2366; & #2350; & #2357; & #2375; & #2342;),
or Veda of Holy Songs, is third in the usual order of enumeration of
the four Vedas, the ancient core Hindu scriptures. ...
For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ...
For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ...
The Brahmana (Sanskrit
) are part of the Hindu Shruti; They are
composed in Vedic Sanskrit, and the period of their composition is
sometimes referred to as the Brahmanic period or age (approximately
between 900 BC and 500 BC). ...
Taxila is an important archaelogical
site in Pakistan containing the ruins of the Gandhran city and
university of Takshashila (also Takkasila or Taxila) an important
Vedic/Hindu[1] and Buddhist[2] centre of learning from the 5th century
BCE to the 2nd century CE. In 1980, Taxila was declared...
Gandhra (Sanskrit:
, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: )
is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern
Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab
and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ...
In Paraskara Gryya-sutram (verse 2.1.2), the Kambojas have been listed at par with the Vasishthas--the cultural heroes of ancient
India. Their social customs are stated to be identical. Rsi Upamanyu, the composer of Rigvedic Hymn (1. 102. 9); and his
son/descendent Kamboja Aupamanyava-- a hallowed sage and teacher mentioned in Vamsa Brahmana of the Sama Veda-- are
some of the very distinguished ancient philosophers/scholars and teachers born of the Kamboja lineage.
Vasishtha (Sanskrit: ), in Hindu mythology was chief
of the seven venerated sages (or Saptarishi) and the Rajaguru of the
Suryavamsha or Solar Dynasty. ...

RSI may refer to: Repetitive strain injury, a disorder affecting bone
and muscle from repetitive movements Rapid sequence induction, a form
of ansthesia Relative strength index, a security market indicator
Radiotelevisione svizzera di lingua italiana, a Swiss radio broadcaster
Research Science Institute, a summer research program held at MIT...
Upamanyu is the name of a Vedic seer who finds reference in Book I, Hymn 102. ...
The Rig Veda
& #2315; & #2327; & #2381; & #2357; & #2375; & #2342;
(Sanskrit & #7771;c praise + veda knowledge) is the earliest of the
four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas. ...
A hymn is a type of song, usually
religious, specifically written for the purpose of praise, adoration or
prayer, and typically addressed to a god or other religiously
significant figure. ...
Kamboja Aupamanyava finds mention in the list of ancient Vedic teachers given in the Vamsa Brahmana (1. ...
The Sama Veda
( & #2360; & #2366; & #2350; & #2357; & #2375; & #2342;),
or Veda of Holy Songs, is third in the usual order of enumeration of
the four Vedas, the ancient core Hindu scriptures. ...
Drona Parva section of Mahabharata amply attests that,
besides being fierce warriors, the entire Kamboja soldiery was also
noted as a learned people.[88]. Benjamin Walker observes: "Kambojas
were not only famous for their furs and woolen blankets embroidered
with threads of gold, their wonderful horses and their beautiful women,
but by epic period, they had become especially renowned as Vedic teachers and their homeland as a seat of Brahmanical
learning" [89]. What is an epic? ...
Map of early Iron Age Vedic India after Witzel (1989). ...
Dr A. D. Pusalkar observes: "The speech of Kambojas is referred to by Yaska as differing from that of other Aryans and Grierson
sees in this reference the Iranian affinities of the Kambojas, but the fact that the Kambojas teachers were reputed for their Vedic
learning shows them to have been Vedic Aryans, so that the Kamboja was an Aryan settlemen"[90] Yaska Acharya is a
celebrated Sanskrit scholar and grammarian of ancient India. ...
Aryan (/erjn/ or /`rjn/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ...
Viveka Nanda and Lokesh Chander write: "The teachers of Kamboja were known for their Vedic learning. Culturally, Afghanistan
then formed part of India...." [91]. See also : Brahmanism of Ancient Kambojas for further details. The Kambojas are a very
ancient people of north-western parts of Indian sub-continent (Central Asia). ...
Kambojas: Master Horsemen[92] Main article: Kamboja Horsemen The
horses of the Kambojas were famous throughout all periods of ancient

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history. Ancient literature is overflowing with excellent references to
the famed Kamboja horses. The Puranas, the Epics, ancient Sanskrit plays, the Buddhist Jatakas, the Jaina Canon, and
numerous other ancient sources, all agree that the horses of the Kambojas were a foremost breed.
The profession of breeding, domesticating, training and utilizing the
horses in warfare had originated in the vast Steppes of Central Asia.
....
The Jatakas form a part of Buddhist canonical literature. ...
JAIN is an activity within the Java
Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice
and data) services. ...
War Horse In Buddhist texts like Manorathpurani, Kunala Jataka and Samangavilasini, the Kamboja land is spoken of as the
"birth place of horses" (Kambojo assnam yatanam.... Samangalavilasini, I, p. 124). Download high resolution version
(1192x922, 461 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...
Download high resolution version (1192x922, 461 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...
The Aruppa-Niddesa of Visuddhimagga of Buddhaghosa mentions Kamboja as the "base of horses" (10/28). Bhadantcariya
Buddhaghosa was a 5th century Indian Theravadin Buddhist commentator and scholar. ...
The Jaina Canon Uttaradhyana-Sutra[93] tells us that a trained Kamboja horse exceeded all other horses in speed and no noise
could ever frighten it.[94] The Bhishamaparva of Mahabharata[95]
lists the best horses from various lands, but places the steeds from
Kamboja at the head of the list, and specifically designates them as
the leaders among the best horses (Kamboja....mukhyanam).[96] In the great battle fought on the field of Kurukshetra, the fast
and powerful steeds of Kamboja were of greatest service (Dr. B. C. Law).
Kurukshetra may refer to: The Kurukshetra war described in the
Mahabharata, an Indian epic The town and district of Kurukshetra in the
Indian state of Haryana This is a disambiguation page " a
navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same
title. ...
Besides, the Ramayana,[97] Kautiliya's Arthashastra,[98] the Brahmanda Purana,[99] Somes'ara's Manasollasa,[100] Ashva.
Chakitsata by Nakula (p. 415), Raghuvamsha[101] and Mandakraanta of Kalidasa, Karanabhaar (Ch 19) of Bhaasa, VamsaBhaskara, Madhypithika,
Karnatakadambari of Nagavarman (verse 96, p 305) and numerous other
ancient texts and inscriptions also make highly laudatory references to
Kamboja horses, and state them the finest breed. For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ...
Brahmanda Purana, one of the major
eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text , is considered the last of
the Puranas, and it once contained Aadhyatma Ramayana. ...
Kalidasas Raghuvamsha tells of the family of Rama and his descendents, including the conqueror Raghu. ...
To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...
Vishnu Vardhana (12th century), the real founder of Hoysala greatness, who later on became ruler of Mysore, made the earth
tremble under the tramp of his powerful Kamboja horses.[102] , For other uses, see Mysore (disambiguation). ...
There were Kamboja steeds in the cavalry of Pandya king Vallabhadeva who is referred to as the proud possessor/rider of the
Kamboja horses and elephants.[103]
The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India,
founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian
cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the
Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ...
These references amply demonstrate that Kamboja horses were
sleek, very powerful and a foremost breed. They have been especially
noted for their great fleetness and remarkable behavior on the battle
field. No doubt, Kamboja steeds were the prized possession of kings and
warriors in ancient times. It was on account of their supreme position in horse (Ashva) culture that the ancient Kambojas were
also popularly known as Ashvakas, i.e. horsemen. Their clans in the Kunar andSwat valleys have been referred to as Assakenoi
and Aspasioi in classical writings, and Ashvakayanas and Ashvayanas in Panini's Ashtadhyayi. The Ashvakas are very ancient
people of north-east Afghanistan. ...
Kunar Valley is a valley in Afghanistan. ...
Swat River flows from Karakorum Mountains to flows into Kabul River in Swat, Sarhad, Pakistan. ...
The Ashvakas or Ashvakans are very
ancient people of north-east Afghanistan (Nuristan), modern Pakistan,
including the Chitral-Valley and north-west India . ...
The Ashvakas or Ashvakans (Paninian
Ashvakayans) are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan
(Nuristan), modern Pakistan , including the Chitral-Valley and
north-west India (Punjab). ...
The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ...
The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ...
The Mahabharata specifically refers to the Kambojas as Ashva-Yuddha-Kushalah, i.e., expert cavalrymen.[104] Similarly,

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Vishnudharmotra Purana also attests that the Kambojans and Gandharans were proficient in cavalry warfare (Ashva-Yuddha).
[105][106][107] For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ...
Dronaparva highly applauds the Kamboja cavalry as extremely fast and fleet i.e. ''Kambojah... yayur.ashvair.mahavegaih''.[108]
Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ...
The Mahabharata, Ramayana, numerous Puranas and some foreign sources amply attest that "Kamboja cavalry-troopers were
frequently requisitioned in ancient wars" (see Ashvaka#Kamboja cavalry in ancient wars). For the television series by Ramanand
Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ...
Purana (Sanskrit: , meaning tales of
ancient times) is the name of an ancient Indian genre (or a group of
related genres) of Hindu or Jain literature (as distinct from oral
tradition). ...
The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ...
Therefore, there is no exaggeration in the Mahabharata statement portraying the ancient Kambojas as horse-lords and masters of
horsemanship. Kambojas in Indian Literature Main article: Kambojas in Indian Traditions
Kambojas find repeated reference in ancient Sanskrit and Pali
literature including Atharvaveda, Paninis Ashtadhyayi, Yasakas
Nirukata, Mahabharata, Ramayana, numerous Puranas, Kautiliyas
Arthashastra, Buddhist Jatakas, Jaina Canons, several Sanskrit plays
and numerous other ancient texts. ...
The Kambojas and Alexander the Great Because the Kambojas were famous for their horses (ashva) and as cavalry-men
(ashvaka) they were also popularly called "Ashvakas". The Ashvakas inhabited Eastern Afghanistan, and were included within the
more general term Kambojas.[109] French scholars like Dr. E. Lamotte also identify the Ashvakas with the Kambojas.[110] [111]
[112] [113] [114] [115]. According to one line of scholars, the name Afghan is evidently derived from Ashvakan, the Assakenoi of
Arrian.[116] See: Origins of the name Afghan
The Ashvakas or Ashvakans are very ancient people of north-east
Afghanistan (Nuristan), modern Pakistan, including the Chitral-Valley
and north-west India . ...
Afghanistan literally means the Land of Afghans. In this case, Afghan is synonymous with Pashtun. ...
Bust of Alexander in the British Museum. The Kambojas entered into conflict with Alexander the Great as he invaded Central
Asia: "The Macedonian conqueror made short shrifts of the arrangements of Darius and over-running Achaemenid Empire,
dashed into Afghanistan and encountered stiff resistance of the Kamboja tribes called Aspasioi and Assakenoi known in the
Indian texts as Ashvayanas and Ashvakayanas".[117] [118] [119] [120]. These Ashvayana and Ashvakayana Kamboj
clans fought the invader to a man. When worse came to worse, even the
Ashvakayana Kamboj women took up arms and joined their fighting
husbands, thus preferring "a glorious death to a life of dishonor".[121] Diodorus
gives a detailed graphic accounts as to how the Ashvakayanas had
conducted themselves when faced with the sudden treacherous onslaught
from Alexander.[122]
Download high resolution version (768x1062, 127 KB)Copy of a Greek
(near contemporary?) bust of Alexander the Great in the British Museum.
....
Download high resolution version
(768x1062, 127 KB)Copy of a Greek (near contemporary?) bust of
Alexander the Great in the British Museum. ...
The British Museum in London, England is a museum of human history and culture. ...
For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ...
Darius (in Persian (Dah-rii-yoosh)) is a common Persian male name. ...
The Persepolis Ruins The Achaemenid
dynasty (Old Persian:Hakamanishiya, Persian: ) - was
a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ...
The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ...
The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ...
Look up Kamboj in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...
Diodorus Siculus (c. ...
Commenting on the heroic resistance and courage displayed
by the Ashvakayanas (Kambojas) in the face of treacerous onslaught of
Alexander, Dr Buddha Prakash remarks: "Hardly could any Thermopylae be more glorious!"[123] For other uses, see Battle of
Thermopylae (disambiguation). ...
The Ashvakas had fielded 30,000 strong cavalry, 30 elephants and 20,000 infantry against Alexander. The
Ashvayans (Aspasioi) were also good cattle breeders and agriculturists.
This is clear from large number of bullocks, 230,000 according to Arrian, of a size and shape superior to what the Macedonians
had known, that Alexander captured from them and decided to send to Macedonia for agriculture.[124] Alexander the Great
Lucius Flavius Arrianus Xenophon (c. ...
Main article: Alexander's Conflict with the Kambojas Greek historians refer to three warlike peoples -viz. ...
The Kambojas and the Mauryan Empire The Mudrarakshas play of Visakhadutta as well as the Jain work Parisishtaparvan refers
to Chandragupta Maurya's alliance with the Himalayan king Parvatka. The Himalayan alliance gave Chandragupta a composite

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army made up of Yavanas, Kambojas, Sakas, Kiratas, Parasikas and Bahlikas (Bactrians) (Mudrarakshas, II).[125]
Allegiance: Maurya Dynasty Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Bindusara Maurya
Reign: 322 BC-298 BC Place of birth: Indian subcontinent Chandragupta
Maurya (Sanskrit: ;
Romanized Greek: Sandrakottos), whilst often referred to as
Sandrakottos outside India, is also known simply as Chandragupta (born
c. ...
Yona, Yonaka or Yavana is a Pali word used in ancient India to designate Greeks. ...
A cataphract-style parade armour of a Saka royal from the Issyk kurgan. ...
The Kiratas are one of the earliest inahbitants of Nepal. ...
The Persians of Iran (officially
named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by
some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Frsi by
native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as
well. ...
Bactria (Bactriana) was the ancient
Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus
Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus), with the capital Bactra (now Balkh).
....
With the help of these frontier warlike clans from the northwest whom Justin brands as "a band of robbers", Chandragupta
managed to defeat, upon Alexander's death, the Macedonian straps of Punjab and Afghanistan, and following this, the corrupt
Nanda ruler of Magadha, thereby laying the foundations of a powerful Maurya Empire in northern and north-western India.
See also Clan (computer gaming) A clan is a group of people united by
kinship and descent, which is defined by perceived descent from a
common ancestor. ...
This article deals with the fourth century BC founder of the Maurya dynasty. ...
For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ...
A strap is a strip, usually of fabric or leather. ...
This article is about the geographical region. ...
Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ...
A representation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which was erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ...
The Kambojas find prominent mention as a unit in the 3rd century BCE Edicts of Ashoka.
Rock Edict XIII tells us that the Kambojas had enjoyed autonomy under
the Mauryas. The republics mentioned in Rock Edict V are the Yonas, Kambojas, Gandharas, Nabhakas and the Nabhapamkitas.
They are designated as araja. vishaya
in Rock Edict XIII, which means that they were kingless i.e. republican
polities. In other words, the Kambojas formed a self-governing
political unit under the Maurya Emperors.[126]
The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars
of Ashoka, as well as boulders and cave walls, made by the Emperor
Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty during his reign from 272 to 231 BCE.
These inscriptions are dispersed throughout the areas of modern-day
Pakistan...
For the village on Guam, see Yona Yona is a Pali word used in ancient India to designate Greek speakers. ...
Gandhra (Sanskrit:
, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: )
is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern
Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab
and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ...
Kambojas affect Buddhism King Ashoka sent missionaries to the Kambojas to convert them to Buddhism, and recorded this fact
in his Rock Edict V. Image File history File links Buddha_image_-_white_stone. ...
Image File history File links Buddha_image_-_white_stone. ...
Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank:
Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC
Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor
Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: (

; IAST transliteration: ,

pronunciation: ) (304 BC"232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya


Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in...
A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ...
Dipavamsa and Mahavamsa attest that Ashoka sent thera Maharakkhita to Yona, and Majjhantika to Kashmra and Gandhara, to
preach Dharma among the Yonas, Gandharas and Kambojas.
The Dipavamsa (Island Chronicle in Pali) is the oldest historical
record of Sri Lanka, believed to be compiled in the 4th century. ...

The Mahavansha, also Mahawansha, (Pli: great chronicle) is a


historical record, often thought to be the oldest written record oh

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history, written in the Pli language, of the Buddhist kings as well
as Dravidian kings of Sri Lanka. ...
Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to:
Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent
India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India,
Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ...
Sasanavamsa specifically attests that Maharakkhita thera went to Yonaka country and established Buddha's Sasana "in the
lands of the Kambojas and other countries"[127] Yona, Yonaka or Yavana is a Pali word used in ancient India to designate
Greeks. ...
Thus, the Zoroastrian as well as some Hindu
Kambojas appear to have embraced Buddhism in large numbers, due to the
efforts of king Ashoka and his envoys. Although it is unknown whether
they were patrons of Buddhistic Hinduism or nastik Buddhism.
Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by
Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC
(although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates
are as late as 600 BC). ...
Bhavna says there are 300 million gods in Hinduism. ...
Nastika is a Sanskrit term meaning: It is the antonym of Astika, or one who sees. ...
See also: Edicts of Ashoka
The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars
of Ashoka, as well as boulders and cave walls, made by the Emperor
Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty during his reign from 272 to 231 BCE.
These inscriptions are dispersed throughout the areas of modern-day
Pakistan...
Kambojas' migration to India and beyond Main article: Migration of Kambojas
References to Kambojas abound in ancient literature, and this may have
been just the expansion of an Indo-Iranian tribe with both Persian and
Indic affinities from their homeland in the Afghanistan-Turkistan
region along the foothills of the Himalayas towards Bengal, along the
coast to Gujarat, to Sri Lanka...
Modern Kamboj and Kamboh The population of the modern people who still call themselves Kamboj (or prikritic Kamboh, or
Kamoz) or Kambhoj
is estimated to be around 1.5 million and the rest of their population,
over the time, submerged with other occupationalized castes/groups of
the Indian subcontinent. Look up Kamboh in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...
Kamboj is very frequently used as surname or last name by many Kambojs, currently living in India. ...
The Kambojs, by tradition, are divided into 52 and 84
clans. 52 line is stated to be descendants of Cadet branch and 84 from
the elder Branch. This is claimed as referring to the young and elder
military divisions under which they had fought the Bharata War. Numerous of their clan names overlap with other Kshatriyas and
the Rajput castes
of the north-west India, thereby suggesting that some of the
Kshatriya/Rajput clans of north-west must have descended from the
Ancient Kambojas.[128]
Combatants Pandavas led by Dhristadyumna Kauravas led by Bhishma
Commanders Arjuna Bhima Yudhishthira Nakula Sahadeva Bhishma Drona
Karna Duryodhana Ashwatthama Strength 7 Akshauhinis 1,530,900 soldiers
11 Akshauhinis 2,405,700 soldiers Casualties Almost Total Only 7
survivors - the five Pandavas, Krishna, and Satyaki Almost Total Only 3
survivors...
For the Bollywood film of the same
name see Kshatriya Kshatriya (Hindi: , from Sanskrit: , ) is one of the
four varnas, or castes, in Hinduism. ...
Rajput constitute one of the major Hindu Kshatriya groups from India. ...
Caste systems are traditional,
hereditary systems of social classification, that evolved due to the
enormous diversity in India (where all three primary races met, not by
forced slavery but by immigration). ...
The Kambojs/Kambohs practiced weapon-worship in the past but the practice is now going out of vogue.[129] Diaspora The
Kamboj or Kamboh living in upper India (Greater Punjab) are identified as the modern representatives of the ancient Kambojas.
They are found as Hindus, Sikhs, Muslims, Buddhists and the Jains. Kambojs are known as adventurous and enterprising people.
Therefore, as a colonists, servicemen, and businessmen, they have also spread, after the partition, into various parts of India,
including a belt of Haryana from Karnal to Yamunanagar, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Ganganagar in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.
There is also minuscule Kambhoj (jaina) community living since olden times near Nanded in Maharashtra, possibly the dwindling
remnant of ancient Kambojas who had settled southwest India around the Christian era. (See links: [19] , [20] ) [130]. The

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community obviously seems to have mixed with the local communities over time and imbibed local cultures and languages. Look
up Kamboj in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...
Look up Kamboh in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...
This article is about the geographical region. ...
Bhavna says there are 300 million gods in Hinduism. ...
A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ...
There is also a collection of Hadith
called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: , Persian: Mosalman or
Mosalmon Urdu: , Turkish: Mslman, Albanian: Mysliman,
Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...
A replica of an ancient statue found
among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based
on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhrtha Gautama, a prince of the
Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It
had subsequently been accepted by...
JAIN is an activity within the Java
Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice
and data) services. ...
This article refers to a colony in politics and history. ...
A Norwegian soldier (a Corporal,
armed with an MP-5) A soldier is a person who has enlisted with, or has
been conscripted into, the armed forces of a sovereign country and has
undergone training and received equipment to defend that country or its
interests. ...
Set out below is an annotated listing
of corporate leaders, who are or have been the head of large or
successful business enterprises, or who are otherwise well known for
their commercial acumen, listed alphabetically by last name. ...
For the town in Hoshiarpur district, see Hariana. ...
Karnal district, in Haryana, India, has an area of 1,967 sq km and its population is 8,85,000. ...
, Yamunanagar
(Hindi:) is a city and a municipal council in
Yamunanagar District in the Indian state of Haryana. ...
For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ...

, Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA: , translation: Northern


Province), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia
and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the
Republic of India. ...
, Rjasthn (Devangar:
, IPA: ) is the largest state of the Republic
of India in terms of area. ...
, Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP)
(Hind: , English: , IPA: ), often
called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. ...
, Maharashtra (Marathi:
, IPA: , translation: Great Nation) is
Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population
after Uttar Pradesh. ...
For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ...
An era is a long period of time with different technical and colloquial meanings, and usages in language. ...
The Tajiks, Siyaposh tribe (Kam/Kamoz, Katir/Kamtoz) of Nuristan, Yashkuns, Swatis, and the Yusufzais of Eastern Afghanistan
and NWFP of Pakistan are said by various scholars to have descended from the ancient Kambojas.[131] According to Gazetteer
of the Bombay Presidency, the Kambus (Kambohs/Kambojs) are an offshoot of the Afghan stock[132] link Tajiks are Central
Asian Iranians or East-Iranians. ...
The lower part of the Bashgul Valley of Nurestan (Afghanistan) is known as Kam. ...
The lower part of the Bashgul Valley of Nurestan (Afghanistan) is known as Kam. ...
The Siah-Posh Kafir tribal group of
Kafirstan (present Nuristan) includes five divisions or clans as under:
Katirs, Kams or Kamoz Mumans or Madugals, Kashtoz or Kashtans and
Gourdesh or Istrat. ...
Nurestan Province (also spelled Nuristan) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. ...
For information on the language spoken in Swaziland, see Swati language. ...
The Yousafzai or Yusufzai (also Esapzey) (Urdu: ) are an Afghan tribe. ...
Traditions The Kambohs are stated to be the ancient inhabitants of Persia.[133]
Anthem Sord-e Mell-e rn Capital (and largest city) Tehran

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Official languages Persian Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic
- Supreme Leader - President Unification - Unified by Cyrus the
Great 559 BCE - Parthian (Arsacid) dynastic empire (first
reunification) 248 BCE-224 CE - Sassanid dynastic empire 224"651
CE - Safavid dynasty...
The Sikh Kamboj of Kapurthala & Jullundur (Punjab) claim descent from Raja Karan. They also have a tradition that their
ancestors came from Kashmir.[134]
Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English,
Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to
Sikhism. ...
Kapurthala (Punjabi: ) is a city in Punjab state of India. ...
small alley in Jalandhar, close to
the fish-market rikshaws with bananas in Jalandhar, close to the
fish-market // Jalandhar is a city in the state of Punjab, India. ...
This article is about the geographical region. ...
Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to:
Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent
India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India,
Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ...
Hindu Kambohs claim to be related to the Rajputs and to have come from Persia through southern Afghanistan.[135] The
Chapter III of Gazetteer of Muzaffarnagar (UP) based on British India census reports of 1881/1891 etc note that about 1200
Muslim and Hindu Kamboj were living in Saharanpur who also claimed to be Rajputs. The Kamboj in Phillaur, District Jullundur,
too claimed to be Suryavanshi Rajputs.[136] The Kambohs of Bijnor
claim that they came from Trans-Indus country and Mr Purser accepts
this as evidently true. Many of the Bijnor Kambohs also have a
tradition that they are of the same ethnic stock as the Chattris or Khatris [137]. "In the Census of 1891, it is reported that the
Kamboh, who lived around Mathura in the United Province (Uttar Pradesh), were originally Kshatriyas" [138] [139] [140]. The
Rajasthan [district Gazetteers] asserts that the Kambohs are probably related to the Khatris [141]. The Hindu Kambohs from
Karnal claim their origin from Garh-Gajni. Their Pandits still pronounce the following couplet at the phera during their marriage
ceremony to give information about their original home: Garh Gajni nikaas, Lachhoti Ghaggar vaas (Trans: Originated from the
fort of Gajni, and settled down in Ghaggar region (in Haryana or Punjab)). One Gajni or Ghazni is located in Afghanistan,
but based on another tradition of the Karnal Kamboj, the eminent
ethnographers like H. A. Rose and several other scholars have
identified this Gajni in Kambay in Saurashtra (port of Vallabhi)[142] Bhavna says there are 300 million gods in Hinduism. ...
Rajput constitute one of the major Hindu Kshatriya groups from India. ...
Persia redirects here. ...
, Muzaffarnagar (Hindi:
, Urdu: ) is a
city and a municipal board in Muzaffarnagar district in the Indian
state of Uttar Pradesh. ...
Anthem God Save The Queen/King
British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi
(1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government
Monarchy Emperor of India - 1877-1901 Victoria - 1901-1910 Edward VII
- 1910-1936 George V - January-December 1936 Edward VIII - 1936-1947
George...
, Saharanpur (Hindi:
, Urdu: ) is a city and a
Municipal Corporation in the state of Uttar Pradesh in northern India.
....
Rajput constitute one of the major Hindu Kshatriya groups from India. ...
Phillaur is a town in the Indian state of Punjab. ...
, Bijnor (Hindi: ,
Urdu: ) variously spelt as Bijnaur and Bijnour, is a city and
a municipal board in Bijnor district in the state of Uttar Pradesh,
India. ...
An ethnic group is a group of people
who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the
basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ...
, Mathura (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is a holy city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ...
, Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: ,
IPA: , translation: Northern Province), [often referred to as U.P.],
located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous
and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ...
A Kshatriya is a member of the
military or reigning order, according to the law-code of Manu the

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second ranking caste of the Indian varna system of four castes, the
first being the Brahmin or priestly caste, the third the Vaishya or
mercantile caste and the lowest the Shudra. ...
Khatri (Punjabi: ,
khatr) is the Punjabi adaptation of Sanskrit word Kshatriya (Hindi:
, khatriya). ...
Karnal district, in Haryana, India, has an area of 1,967 sq km and its population is 8,85,000. ...
For the town in Hoshiarpur district, see Hariana. ...
This article is about the geographical region. ...
Ghazni (Persian: , azn) is a city in eastern Afghanistan, with an estimated population of 149,998 people. ...
Vallabhi (modern Vala) is an ancient city located in Saurashtra peninsula in Gujarat, in western India, near Bhavnagar. ...
Cambay, also known as Khambhat, is a town in Gujarat state, India. ...
Saurashtra in between Gulf of Kutch and Gulf of Khambat. ...
For other uses, see Port (disambiguation). ...
Vallabhi (modern Vala) is an ancient city located in Saurashtra peninsula in Gujarat, in western India, near Bhavnagar. ...
Muslim Kambohs have a tradition that they descended from ancient Kai dynasty of Persia, to which the emperors Kaikaus,
Kaikhusro, Kaikubad, Kai-lehrashab and Darius
all belonged. On the last king of the dynasty having been dethroned,
and expelled from the country, he wandered about some time with his
family and dependents in the neighboring countries and finally settled
in Punjab[143][144][145][146][147].[148][149][150][151][152][153]
There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim
(Arabic: , Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: ,
Turkish: Mslman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an
adherent of the religion of Islam. ...
Persia redirects here. ...
Kai Kaus was an eleventh-century ruler of several provinces on the south shore of the Caspian Sea. ...
Darius (in Persian (Dah-rii-yoosh)) is a common Persian male name. ...
During Muslim Rule Muslim Kambohs/Kambojs were very influential and powerful in the early days of Moghul rule. General
Shahbaz Khan Kamboh was the most trusted general of Akbar [154]. Sheikh Gadai Kamboh was the Sadar-i-Jahan in Akbar's
reign.[155] Numerous other Kamboj are known to have occupied very key civil and military positions during Lodhi, Pashtun and
the Moghul reign in India. The Sayyids and the Kambohs among the Indian Muslims were specially favored for high military and
civil positions during Moghul rule [156] [157] [158] [159] Ain-i-Akbari
of Abu-Al-Fazal Alami informs us that it was a matter of honor to
belong to the Kamboh lineage during the reigns of Mughal emperors like
Akbar and Jahangir etc [160] [161] [162].
The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of
the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated
Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of
Panipat. ...
This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...
For other uses, see Sheikh (disambiguation). ...
Lodhi (also sometimes Lodi) is a
Pashtun tribe, most likely a sub-group of the larger Ghilzai of
Afghanistan and Pakistan who were part of a wave of Pashtuns who pushed
east into what is today Pakistan and India. ...
The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun,
ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting
mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and
southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally
Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ...
This article does not cite any references or sources. ...
The Ain-e-Akbari is a detailed
document recording the administration of emperor Akbars empire written
by Abul-Fazl ibn Mubarak, it also contains details of Hindu beliefs and
practices as well as a history of India. ...
The Kambohs held Nakodar in Jullundur [163] [164] and Sohna in Gurgaon some centuries ago; and the tombs and mosques that
they have left in Sohna show that they must have enjoyed considerable position.[165] Nakodar (pronounced Nuh-Koh-Durh) is a
small town in the Jalandhar District of the state of the Punjab, India. ...
small alley in Jalandhar, close to
the fish-market rikshaws with bananas in Jalandhar, close to the
fish-market // Jalandhar is a city in the state of Punjab, India. ...
, Gurgaon (Hindi:
) is a city in the northern Indian state of
Haryana, and has a population of about 249,000 according to the 2001
national census [2]. Gurgaon is one of Delhis four major satellite

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cities and is therefore considered to be a part of the National Capital
Region...
The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ...
Main article: Kamboj in Muslim and British Era Kamboj or Kambohs (Urdu: ) is an ancient tribe settled in South
Asia. ...
Agriculturists The modern Kamboj are still found living chiefly by agriculture, business and military service which were the chief
professions followed by their Kamboja ancestors some 2500 years ago as powerfully attested by Arthashastra[166] and Brhat
Samhita.[167]
Numerous foreign and Indian writers have described the modern
Kambojs/Kambohs as one of the finest class of agriculturists of India.[168] British colonial writers such as H. A. Rose and Denzil
Charles J. Ibbetson note the Kamboj and Ahir agriculturists as the first rank husbandmen and they rate them above the Jatts.
[169] They occupy exactly the same position in general farming as the Ramgarhias occupy in general industry.
In economics, a business is a legally-recognized organizational entity
existing within an economically free country designed to sell goods
and/or services to consumers, usually in an effort to generate profit.
....
The Arthashastra (more precisely
Arthastra) is a treatise on statecraft and economic policy which
identifies its author by the names Kautilya[1] and Viugupta,[2]
who are traditionally identified with the Mauryan minister Cakya.
....
Sir Denzil Charles Jelf Ibbetson (1847"1908), was an administrator in British India and an author. ...
The people of the Ahir tribe are traditionally cow herders and shepherds. ...
Jatt is a caste of Sikhs who live in Punjab. ...
The Kambojs have made great contributions in agriculture and military fields. The majority of Krishi Pandit awards in
Rajasthan/India have been won by the Kamboj agriculturists[170] . Col Lal Singh Kamboj, a landlord from Uttar Pradesh, was the
first Indian farmer to win the prestigious Padam Shri Award for progressive farming in 1968 from President of India. According to
Dr M. S. Randhawa (Ex-Vice Chancellor, Punjab University), the Kamboj farmers have no equals in industry and tenacity.[171]
, Rjasthn (Devangar: , IPA: ) is the
largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ...
Punjab University can refer to one of
the following: In Pakistan: University of the Punjab, Lahore In India:
Panjab University, Chandigarh This is a disambiguation page: a list of
articles associated with the same title. ...
Physical Characteristics Several
foreign and indigenous observers have described the modern Kambojs as
very industrious, stiff-necked, hardy, turbulent, skillful, provident
and an enterprising race [172]. British commentator, William Crooke, observes that "The Kambohs are a hardy independent
people and do not pay much deference to the leading castes" [173] [174]. Some commentators have described the
Kambohs/Kambojs as ethnically more akin to the Afghans than to any of the "meek Hindu races" of the plains of India wherein
they have now settled for generations.[175] [176] [177] There is a medieval era Persian proverb (verse) current in the north-west to
the effect that of the Afghans, the Kambohs (Kamboj) and the Kashmiris... all three are rogues.[178][179][180] Prof Blochman
comments on this proverb: "This verse is very modern, for during the reigns of Akbar and Jehangir, it was certainly a distinction
to belong to the Kamboh tribe" [181] [182] [183].
For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian
Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that
have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...
Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to:
Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent
India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India,
Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ...
This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...
Nuruddin Jahangir (August 31, 1569 - October 28, 1627) was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1605 until 1627. ...
This old proverb seems to convey the historical fact that in the distant past, the Persians, the Afghans, the Kambojs/Kambohs
and the Kasmiris lived more or less as neighbors and belonged to one inter-related racial group.
The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while
still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak
Persian (locally named Frsi by native speakers) and often refer to
themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ...
Look up Kamboh in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...
Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to:
Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent
India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India,
Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ...
Against the above proverb and with reference to the
Kambohs/Kambojs, other investigators and scholars like Sardar Gurdial

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Singh note that "during the reign of terror, it were the
Kambojs/Kambohs only who were most trusted by the rich bankers for
carrying their cash in the disguise of faqirs" [184]. British ethnographer H. A. Rose also states that: "As agents to the bankers, the
Kambohs are much trusted" .[185][186] The honesty and integrity of the Kamboj/Kamboh community of Punjab is proverbial.[187]
The Kamboj integrity and honesty has also been specifically acknowledged in the Census Report of India, 1881 by Denzil
Ibbetson.[188] The Kambojs are also proverbial in Hindustan for "their sagacity and quickness of apprehension" (perception or
understanding).[189][190] This article does not cite any references or sources. ...
The Kambojs have also been noted for their courage, tenacity and stamina for fighting. They (Kamboj) make excellent soldiers,
being of very fine physique and possessing great courage.....They have
always been noted for their cunning strategy, which now, being far less
'slim' than in former times, has developed into the permissible
strategy of war.[191] [192]. This article is about a military rank. ...
Modern Kamboj are a generally tall, well-built, sharp featured, and generally very fair (gaura varna) race, with brown, sometimes
reddish hair, brown or sometimes gray or blue or green eye color, and long sharp noses. "Pure blood Kamboj ladies are very
beautiful and attractive".[193] Kamboj women have especially been noted for their beauty in ancient times too.[194][195][196]
[197][198] In ancient references, the Kambojas have been described as a very handsome race.[199] Ancient Kamboj princes have
also been noted as tall like towers, exceedingly handsome and of gaura varna,[200] having faces illustrious like the full moon,
[201] lotus eyed,[202] handsome like the lord-moon among the stars.[203] Even Ramayana calls the Kambojas ravisanibha i.e.
with faces illustrious like the Sun.[204] Look up Kamboj in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...
Kamboj in Sports The Kamboj have made outstanding contributions in wrestling, field hockey and Kabaddi.Jodh
Singh, Natha Singh, Hazara Singh, Santa Kharasia, Bakshisha, Chhiba,
Khushal, Chanan and Maula Bakhsh are the few foremost Punjabi Kamboj
wrestlers of yester-years who had earned great name and fame in
wrestling.Olympian
Prithipal was probably the greatest hockey full-back of the 20th
century. Known as King of short-corner and the Mahabahu of Indian
hockey, Prithipal was the first Indian to win both the Arjuna Award, and later Padma Shri Award for his achievements in
hockey.Rasool Akhtar, President of Pakistan Hockey Federation, is one of the greatest hockey Olympians from Pakistan.
He skippered Pakistani Hockey team in the World Cup competition (1982)
which won gold medal by defeating India in the finals. His father, Dr
Gulam Rasool Chaudhury was also a world renowned Hockey Olympian who
had captained Pakistan Hockey team to victories in 1960 Olympics and
later in Asian Hockey Competitions in 1962 and won gold medals for the
first time for Pakistan. He also remained President of Pakistan Hockey Federation
and Chairman of the Selection Committee. Arshad Chaudhury, nephew of Dr
Gulam Rasool Chaudhury is another world renowned Hockey Olympian who
participated in 55 international Hockey competitions out of which
Pakistan won 50 matches. Arshad won three gold, two silver and one
bronze medals in the International Hockey competitions.Er. Mohammad Jehangir (Kamboj), the first Pakistani Japanese to obtain
black belts both in Judo and Karate
had won gold medal in southern Asian Judo Championship. He also won
triple crown by winning three consecutive championships in Judo. From
1977 onwards, Jehangir has bagged several gold and silver medals.Rattan Singh alias Rattu has been the greatest defender in
freestyle Kabaddi.
Ancient Greek wrestlers (Pankratiasts) Wrestling is the act of physical
engagement between two unarmed persons, in which each wrestler strives
to get an advantage over or control of their opponent. ...
A game of field hockey in progress
Field hockey is a sport for men, women and children in many countries
around the world. ...
This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...
The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ...
The Arjuna Awards were instituted in
1961 by the government of India to recognize outstanding achievement in
National sports. ...
Padma Shri (also spelt Padma Shree,
Padmashree, Padma Sree and Padma Sri) is an award given by the
Government of India generally to Indian citizens to recognize their
distinguished contribution in various spheres of activity including the
Arts, Education, Industry, Literature, Science, Sports, Social Service
and public life. ...
This article is about the martial art and sport. ...
For other uses, see Karate (disambiguation). ...
This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...
Kamboja principalities in West/Southwest India Markendeya Purana[205] lists the Kambojas and Pahlavas among the countries
of Udichya division i.e. Uttarapatha,

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but the next chapter (58.30-32) of the same work also refers to other
Kamboja and Pahlava settlements, locating them in the south-west of India neighboring the Sindhu, Sauvira and Anarta (north
Saurashtra) countries.[206] Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ...
Ancient Buddhist and Brahmanical
texts reveal that Uttarapatha was the name of northern division of
Jambudvipa of ancient Indian traditions. ...
The Indus
( & #2360; & #2367; & #2344; & #2381; & #8205; & #2343; & #2369;
& #2344; & #2342; & #2368;) (known as Sindhu in ancient times)
is the principal river of Pakistan. ...
Brhatsamhita of Varaha Mihira (6th century CE) also locates a Kamboja and Pahlava settlement specifically in the south-west
(nairrtyam dizi) of India, neighbouring Sindhu, Sauvira, Saurashtra and Dravida.[207] Varahamihira (505 " 587) was an Indian
astronomer, mathematician, and astrologer born in Ujjain. ...
The Indus
( & #2360; & #2367; & #2344; & #2381; & #8205; & #2343; & #2369;
& #2344; & #2342; & #2368;) (known as Sindhu in ancient times)
is the principal river of Pakistan. ...
This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...
Arthashastra of Barhaspatya[208] refers to the Kamboja as a great country (Mahavishaya) and locates it adjacent to the Dasrana
country (southern Malwa), east of Gujarat.[209]
Kamboja (Sanskrit: ) was the ancient name of a Hindu
country, and the Indo-Iranian Kshatriya tribe, the Kambojas, settled
therein. ...
This article is for the Indian state. ...
Vishnu Dharmottari[210] includes the Kambojas in the list of Janapadas of south-west India.[211] Raajbilaas,
a medieval text, locates a Kamboj settlement in the neighborhood of
Kachcha, Sorata or Saurashtra and Gurjara countries of SW India.[212] Interestingly, Agni Purana locates two Kamboja
settlements in India itself....... Kambhoja in south-west India and Kamboja in southern parts of India.[213]
Agni Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text
believed to be written and compiled in the 10th century, contains
descriptions and details of various incarnations (avatars) of Vishnu.
....
The Garuda Purana
which was composed comparatively late, also locates a Kamboj
principality/settlement in the neighborhood of Ashmaka, Pulinda,
Jimuta, Narashtra, Lata and Karnata countries, and also specifically
informs us that this section of Kambojas were living in southern division of India (dakshina.path.vasinah).[214] Garuda Purana is
one of the Puranas which are part of the Hindu body of texts known as the smriti. ...
But like Agni Purana, some recensions of Garuda Purana rather mention two Kamboja settlements within India proper....one
Kamboja in south-west India and the second Kamboja in southern India.[215] The above post-Christian Sanskrit
references abundantly establish as historical fact, that in the wake of
the major events of the second and first centuries BCE, some groups of Central Asian Kambojas in alliance with the Sakas and
Pahlavas, had settled the western and south-western parts of India. For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ...
Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a
classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism,
Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of
India. ...
Map of Central Asia showing three
sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a
region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia.
....
A cataphract-style parade armour of a Saka royal from the Issyk kurgan. ...
Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ...
IHQ observes: "A branch of the Kambojas known as Apara Kambojas (western Kambojas) is also noticed ".[216] The Kambojas in
and around west, south-west India are also mentioned in inscriptions by king Sahasiva Raya of the Sangama Dynasty (13361478), kings Harihara & Deva Raya of Narasinga Dynasty (1496-1567), and from the references of king Vishnuvardhana of
Hoiyasala Dynasty/Mysore (12th century CE). , For other uses, see Mysore (disambiguation). ...
Due to the above cited literary/inscriptional evidence,
some historians, including Dr Aiyangar and Dr Banerjee, have located
Kamboja in Sindhu and Gujarat.[217]
It seems clear that the Kamboja they refer to are the post-Christian
settlements of Kambojas in western or south-western India and not the
original Kamboja of the Sanskrit/Pali literature. The biography of Shankara Acharya, which is based on religious itineraries, refers
to Kambhoja located in Saurashtra comprising Girnar, Somnath, Prabhasa and other regions and a Kamboja located in Central
Asia adjacent to Daradistan but lying north of Kashmir. This eighth-century reference attests to two Kamboja settlements, one
specifically situated in Saurashtra http://www.geocities.com/advaitavedant/shankarabio.htm. Some historians have also invested

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western Kshatrapas, especially the Kshahrata Kshatrapas with Kamboja ethnicity.[218] Kamboja is ancient name of a country and
the tribe settled therein. ...
Map of Central Asia showing three
sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a
region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia.
....
Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to:
Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent
India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India,
Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ...
This article or section should be
merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that
connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ...
Kambhoja Raja Kathalu is highly popular in Andhra
traditions. The story deals with the militaristic exploits of a fierce
and adventurous Kambojan king. The tale probably relates to a
historical brush between the Andhraites and the intruding Kamboja/Pahlavas hordes in the Christian era.
Andhra Pradesh ( & #3078; & #3074; & #3111; & #3120;
& #3110; & #3143; & #3126; & #3074;), a state in South India,
lies between 1241 and 22N latitude and 77 and 8440E longitude . ...
Kamboja (Sanskrit:
) was the ancient name of a Hindu country, and the
Indo-Iranian Kshatriya tribe, the Kambojas, settled therein. ...
Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ...
The Kamboja hordes
of the second/first century BCE have left indelible foot prints in the
names of mountains, rivers and other geographical places in western
India. The Kamb/Kambuh river and Kamboh/Kambo mountain in Sindh[219] are reminiscent of Sanskrit Kamboja. The Kamboi
(ancient town/port) in district Patan, Khambhoj in district Anand, Kambay (port/town and Gulf) ... all in Saurashtra;
Kumbhoj/Kambhoj (an ancient town) in Kolhapur in Maharashtra; and the Koimbatore city of Tamilnadu in southern India carry
the unmistakable footprints of Kambojas. There is also an ancient Kambhoj jaina community living near Nanded in Maharashtra,
possibly the dwindling remnant of ancient Kambojas who had settled southwest India around the Christian era. (See links: [21] ,
[22] ) [220]. The community obviously seems to have mixed with the local communities over time and imbibed local cultures and
languages. Look up Horde in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...
Sindh (Sindh: , Urd: ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ...
Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a
classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism,
Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of
India. ...
Kamboja (Sanskrit:
) was the ancient name of a Hindu country, and the
Indo-Iranian Kshatriya tribe, the Kambojas, settled therein. ...
Kamboi is a an ancient village/town located in Limkheda taluka, in Patan district, in the modern Indian State of Gujarat. ...
For other uses, see Port (disambiguation). ...
Patan is : a city in Nepal (Patan,
Nepal) a city and district in Gujarat (Patan, Gujarat) This is a
disambiguation page & #8212; a navigational aid which lists other
pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...
Look up Kamboja in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...
Look up Anand in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...
Cambay, also known as Khambhat, is a town in Gujarat state, India. ...
The bay at San Sebastin, Spain A headland is an area of land adjacent to water on three sides. ...
Kumbhoj (pronunced as kambhoj) is the name of an ancient town located in Kolhapur district in Maharashtra. ...
Kumbhoj (pronunced as kambhoj) is the name of an ancient town located in Kolhapur district in Maharashtra. ...
Kolhapur
(Marathi:) is a city situated in the south
west corner of Maharashtra, India. ...
, Maharashtra (Marathi:
, IPA: , translation: Great Nation) is
Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population
after Uttar Pradesh. ...
, Coimbatore (Tamil: ), also known as Kovai (Tamil: ), is a major industrial city in India. ...
Tamil Nadu
( & #2980; & #2990; & #3007; & #2996; & #3021;
& #2984; & #3006; & #2975; & #3009;, Land of the Tamils) is a
state at the southern tip of India. ...

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, Maharashtra (Marathi:
, IPA: , translation: Great Nation) is
Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population
after Uttar Pradesh. ...
For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ...
An era is a long period of time with different technical and colloquial meanings, and usages in language. ...
References ^ See refs: An Inquiry into the Ethnography of Afghanistan, 1891, pp. 2, 146, 150, H. W. Bellew; Supplementary
Glossary of Tribes, 1844, p 304, H. M. Ellot; The Tribes and Castes of North-western and Oudh, 1906, pp 119-120, 458, William
Crooke; Report on the Settlement of Land Revenue of Sultanpur Distt. (With) Accompaniment; 1873, p 88, A. F. Millet; Die
Holztempel Des Oberen Kulutales in Ihren Historischen, Religiosen Und Kunstgeschichtlichen ..., 1974, p 26, Gabriele Jettmar;
Report on the settlement of the land revenue of the Sultnpur district. [With] Accompaniments, 1873, p 88, A F. Millett; Paradise
of Gods, 1966, p 331, Qamarud Din Ahmed; Literary History of Ancient India, 1952, p 165, Dr Chandra Chakraverty; Problems of
Indian Society, 1968, p 69, Dr D. Bose; Bhartiya Itihaas ki Mimamsa, p 230, Dr J. C. Vidyalankar; Bani Kanta Kakati Memorial
Lecturers, p 21, Gauhati University; "India and the World", 1964, p 154, Dr Buddha Prakash; Geographical Data in Early Purana,
A Critical Study, 1972, p 168, Dr M. R. Singh; Tribes of Ancient India, 1977, p 322, Dr M. Choudhury; Early History of India, 1942,
p 2, Roshan Rai; History of Poros, 1967, p 12, Dr Buddha Prakash; Kirata-Kriti: The Indo-Mongloloids, Their Contribution to
History and Culture of India, 1974, p 113, Dr S. K. Chatterjee; Cf: Indo-Aryans: contributions towards the elucidation of their
ancient and medival history, 1881, 187, Rajendralala Mitra; Geography from Ancient Indian Coins & Seals, 1989, p 24,
Parmanand Gupta; Pracina Kamboja, jana aura janapada (Ancient Kamboja, people and country), 1981, Dr Jiyalala Kamboja, Dr
Satyavrat Sastri ; History of Origin of Some Clans in India, with Special Reference to Jats, 1992, p 149, Mangal Sen Jindal;
Balocistan: siyasi kashmakash, muzmirat va rujnat, 1989, Munir Amad Marri; :
, , 1996, Cauhdri Mu
ammad Yusuf asan; Folklore of the Punjab, 1971, p 7, Sohindara Singh Wanajara Bedi; Cf: Inscriptions of Asoka:
Translation and Glossary, 1990, p 86, Beni Madhab Barua, Binayendra Nath Chaudhury etc.^ See refs: Mountstuart Elphinstone,
"An account of the kingdom of Caubol", fn p 619; Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, 1843, p 140; Journal of Asiatic Society of
Bengal, 1874, p 260 fn; Die altpersischen Keilinschriften: Im Grundtexte mit Uebersetzung, Grammatik und Glossar, 1881, p 86,
Friedrich Spiegel; Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 133, fn, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Banerjee; The Achaemenids
and India, 1974, p 13, Dr S Chattopadhyaya .^ Cf: There
is an apparent trace of their (Kambojas') name in the Caumogees of
Kaferistan, who may have retreated to the mountains before the advance
of the Turk tribes (Dr H. H. Wilson). See fn 374:15: [1] .^ Cf: "
The tribe (Kambojas), who most likely occupied Paropamisan mountains
and the plains to the northward, which are still famous for their breed
of horses, may have perhaps subsequently extended to east, as we find
traces of the name in the Hindukush, as a part of the Kafirs bearing
the appellation of Kaumojees, which we can scarcely doubt to represent
the ancient denomination Kambojas" (See Ref: Art. XV, Notes on
Sabhaparva of Mahabharata, illustrative of some Ancient Usages and
Articles of Traffic of Hindus, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of
Great Britain and Ireland, 1843, p 140, Royal Asiatic Society of Great
Britain and Ireland).^ Cf: "The geographical title of Kamboja is retained to present days in the Kamoj of Cafferistan"
(See: Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and
Ireland, 1990, p 97, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and
Ireland).^
Cf: "Kambojas must have inhabited the Hindukush mountain and the
adjoining country, as its Kafirs, says Elphinstone, still call them
Kamoj" (Peter weiss: Von existentialistischen Drama zum marxistischen
Welttheater, eine kritische Bilanz, 1971, Otto F. Best).^
Kamarupasasanavali, 1981, p 137, Dimbeswar Sarma, Premadhar Chowdhury,
Rajani Kanta Deva Sarma; Raghuvamsa of Kalidasa, 1991, p 114, M. R.
(Moreshvar Ramchandra) Kale, Kalidasa, Mallinatha.^ Cf: "Thus
traces of the old Kamboja tribe exist at the present day in the
Badakshan and the Pamirs regions. In the west, the tribe (Kamboja), in
the ancient days, seems to have extended as far as the eastern part of
Afghanistan, for here we find peoples who call themselves Kamoja and in
which we can trace probably the survival of the name Kamboja" (See: The Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p 192 ).^ Cf: Die
Kafirs werden Kamoze oder Kamboja genannt (nach Elphinstone) (Adolf Bastian) (See: Die Voelker des Oestlichen Asien Studien
und Reisen, Band I. Die Geschichte der Indochinesen, p 456: See link: [2]) .^ Cf: "A trace of Kambojas, in their original seat,
seems to remain in the Kaumojas of the Hindukush" (See foot note 4: [3]).^ Cf: "The
Kambojas were probably represented by the Kafir tribe of Kamoj. And it
seems not unlikely that a remnant of the Kambojas may have been driven
into the mountains by some of the invaders of the country. Popular
tradition says, in fact, that the Kamoj were driven out of the country
of Candahar (Gandhara)" (Ref: The Sun and the Serpent: p 127-128, Charles Fredrick Oldham: See link: [4].^ See also: Die
altpersischen Keilinschriften: Im Grundtexte mit Uebersetzung, Grammatik und Glossar 1881, Page 86, Fr. (Friedrich) Spiegel):
See link: [5].^ The Journal of the United Service Institution of India, 1871, United Service Institution of India.^ Cf: "The

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Kamoz tribe of the Kafirs are fairly supposed to be the surviving
representatives of the Kambojas of primeval Indian literature, a name
with which scholars have connected that of Cambyses..." (See ref:
The Quarterly Review, 1873, p 537, William Gifford, George Walter
Prothero, John Gibson Lockhart, John Murray, Whitwell Elwin, John
Taylor Coleridge, Rowland Edmund Prothero Ernle, William Macpherson,
William Smith - 1873); Also: Central Asia (in Living Age), 1873, p 781.^ Cf: "The Shia-posh tribe which now resides on the
Hindukush Mountain is said to have descended from Kambojas" (See: The Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p 513; See also:
Geographical Dictionary of Ancient and Medieval India, p 87).^ Revue d'ethnographie also notes that the Kamoze, Hilar, Silar and
Kamoje were the former clans of the Siaposh Kaffirs and they are linked to the Kambojas of Mahabharata (See: Revue
d'ethnographie, 225. See link: [6]).^
See: Mid-Decade World Conference on Women: Bengaladesh Perspective,
1980, (Published in 1981), Women Development Unit, Bhanudatta Misra,
Dimbeswara Sarma.^ A Treatise on Nepali Language, 1978, p 46, Gokul Sinha.^ The Kamboja Janapada, January 1964, Purana,
Vol VI, No 1, Dr V. S. Aggarwala, p 229; Jataka edited by Fausboll, Vol VI, p 210^
Jataka, VI, p 110, Trans. E. B. Cowell; cf: Videvati XIV.5-6; cf:
Herodotus I.140; Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, 1912, p 256, Dr G.
A. Grierson^ Nirukuta II/2; Patanjali's Mahaabhaa.sya is p. 9, in Vol. 1 Kielhorn's Edition^
Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, 1912, p 256, Dr G. A. Grierson;
Purana, Vol V, No 2, July 1963, p 256, Dr D. C. Sircar; Journal
Asiatique, CCXLVI 1958, I, pp 47-48, E. Benveniste; The Afghans
(Peoples of Asia), 2001, p 127, also Index, W. J. Vogelsang and Willem
Vogelsang; Also Fraser 1979; The Cambridge Ancient History: Volume 4,
Persia, Greece and the Western Mediterranean, (c.525 to 479 BC), Volume
4, 1988, p 199, John Boardman, N. G. L. Hammond, D. M. Lewis, and M.
Ostwald; cf Early Eastern Iran and the Atharvaveda, Persica-9, 1980, fn
81, p 114, Dr Michael Witzel who however, locates the Kambojas in
Archosia and Kandhahar^
Bharatiya Itihaas Ki Rup Rekha, p 229-231, Dr Jaychandra Vidyalankar;
Bhartrya Itihaas ki Mimansa, p 229-301, Dr J. C. Vidyalankar; Ancient
Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 217, 221, Dr J. L. Kamboj^
According to other source, Buddhaghosa belonged to second century AD
(See: Freedom, Progress and Society: Essays in honour of Prof K.
Satchidananda Murty, 1966, p 109, B. Subramanian, K. Satchidananda).^ Quoted in: Journal of the Asiatic Society, 1940, p 256,
by India Asiatic Society (Calcutta, Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal.^
See also: Foreign Elements in Ancient Indian Society, 2nd Century BC to
7th Century AD, 1979, p 16, Dr Uma Prasad Thapliyal; Studies in Indian
History and Civilization, 1962, p 351, Dr Buddha Prakash; Cultural
Heritage of India, p 625, Dr Debala Mitra; Indological Studies, 1950, p
78, Dr Bimala Churn Law.^ Inscriptions of Asoka: Translation and Glossary, 1990, p 84, Beni Madhab Barua, Binayendra Nath
Chaudhury.^ Cf: The Sikh Gurus and the Sikh Society: A Study in Social Analysis, 1975, p 139, Niharranjan Ray.^
This view is held by scholars like C. Lassen, S. Levi, M. Witzel, J.
Charpentier, La Valle Poussin, A. Hoffman, A. B. Keith, A. A.
Macdonnel, G. K. Nariman, E. Kuhn, H. W. Bellow, A. D. Pusalkar, S.
Sen, D. R. Bhandarker and numerous others; See also: An Enquiry into
the Ethnography of Afghanistan H. W. Bellow; also see: Sectarianism and
Ethnic Violence in Afghanistan, Musa Khan Jalza^
H. W. Bellow writes: "Darius succeeded, about 521 BC to the empire
founded by Cyrus (Kurush), and enlarged and consolidated by his son and
successor Cambyses (Kambojia, Kambohji). Cyrus, whose mother was called
Mandane (Mandana; perhaps a princess of the Mandan tribe), and said to
be a Mede, and whose father was called Cambyses (Kambohji; probably a chieftain of the Kamboh tribe) having reduced the
Medes and conquered the kingdom of Croesus the Lydian (Ldi), thereby became master of all the territory extending from the
Indus to the Hellespont". (An enquiry into the Ethnography of Afghanistan H. W. Bellow; See also: Sectarianism and Ethnic
Violence in Afghanistan, Musa Khan Jalzai).^ Cf: "Historians tend to believe Kambojas were in fact an Iranian tribe. (Old Iranian
and old Sanskrit are very close languages. All these people called themselves Aryan, from which comes the name Iran). Panini,
the Indian genius of grammar, observed (Panini's Grammar, IV, 1, 175.)
that the word Kamboja meant at the same time the tribe and its king.
Later historians identified the same word in the name of several great Persian
kings, Cambyse (Greek version) or Kambujiya (in Persian) (See: La Valle
Poussin, L'Inde aux temps des Maurya, p. 15 and 40.). Cambyse the
Second is famous for his conquest of Egypt (525 B.C.) and the havoc he
wrought upon this country (ON SOME CAMBODIAN WORDS, Serge Thion, [7]).^
James Hope Moulton writes: "The names Kuru and Kamboja are of disputed
etymology, but there is no reason whatever to doubt their being Aryan.
I do not think there has been any suggestion more attractive than that

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made long ago by Spiegel (Altpers. Keilinsch.'-, 96) that they attach
themselves to Sanskrit Kura
and Kamboja, originally Aryan heroes of the fable, whose names were
naturally revived in a royal house. Spiegel thinks that the myths about
Cyrus may have originated in confusion between the historical and the
mythical heroes. (Kamboja is a geographical name, and so is Kuru often:
hence their appearance in Iranian similarly to-day as Kur and Kamoj".
(Early Zoroastrianism, 2005, Page 45, James Hope Moulton - Kessinger
Publishing).^ Dr Chandra Chakraverty writes: "The Achaemenids were Kamboja-Kuru Scythian
people on the base of Parsa ('Khatti-Puru') tribe. It was a marvelous
racial blend and their culture was a similar good synthesis...."(See:
The Racial History of India, 1944, p 225, Chandra Chakraberty)^
Dr Ranajit Pal: " Toynbee wrote that the Achaemenian universal state
belonged also to the Hinduis, the Pathavis etc. - the Indian Kurus and
Kambojas were linked with Achaemenian history Kurush (Cyrus) was a
Kuru. (Also See: C. Eliot, Hinduism and Buddhism,, part III, pp .652,
654, 449) ".^
Dr Michael Witzel wrote in one of his research articles: "The Old
Persian -s- (as in < asa 'horse') <*ss <sv <c'v
<Indo-European k'w, shares the development of Indo-Iranian c'v >
ss with Saka -ss-, while the rest of Iranian has -sp- (aspa) and Vedic
has -sv- (Asva). This feature and others (cf. further grammatical
features in Witzel 1989, Ch 10) may point to an ultimately
north-eastern (Bactria?) rather than north-western (Urartu/Median)
origin of the Old Persian and thus to a track of immigration from the
North-east via Media to the Persis, somewhat like Nichols' (1997-98)
'southern trajectory'. A North-eastern origin would be close to the
location of the Vedic Parsu". COMMENT: Dr Michael Witzel (Harvard University) seems to convey that the Persians may have
migrated to Persipolis from Balkh or Bactria
in remote antiquity. This is quite a valid and scientific reasoning as
the above extract from Dr Michael Witzel seems to show. This shows that
the Parsa Achaemenids may have off-shot from the Kambojas in remote
antiquity. The remote connection of the Achaemenids to the Kambojas and Kurus
is indeed reflected in the royal name Kuru and Kambujiya/Kambaujiya
which several of the great monarchs of the Achamenean line of rulers
had adopted. Seeing close connections of the Kambojas
(Parama-Kambojas), the Madras (Bahlika-Madras or Uttaramadras) and the
Kurus (Uttarakurus) which tribes were all located in/around Oxus in
Central Asia in remote antiquity, it can be thought that the Kurus, the
Kambojas and the Parsus were a related people. ^ Cf: "Kambujiya
Kambujiyam, Kabujiya, Cambyse. This is the true vernacular orthography
of name which was written Kambyses by the Greeks and Kauvays in Zend
From the name of a king Kambyses was derived the geographical title
of Kamboja (Sanskrit), which is retained to present days in the Kamoj
of CafferstanThe Persian historians do not seem to be aware of the
name Kabus, which was born by the Dilemite sovereigns, is the same with
the Kaus of Romance; yet the more ancient form of Kaubus or kabuj for
latter name, renders the identification also most certain. The
Georgians, even to the present day, name the hero of romance Kapus
still retaining the labial which has merged in the Persian." (See:
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland,
Published 1990, p 97, Cambridge University, Press for the Royal Asiatic
Society [etc.], By Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland).^
D. D. Kosambi Commemoration Volume, 1977, p 287, Damodar Dharmanand
Kosambi, Lallanji Gopal, Jai Prakash Singh, Nisar Ahmed, Dipak Malik,
Banaras Hindu University, Dept. of Ancient Indian History, Culture
& Archaeology, Banaras Hindu University; The Kambojas Through the
Ages, 2005, p 139 seqq, Kirpal Singh; See also: These Kamboja People,
1979, p 162 seqq.^ See Mahabharata verses (12/201/40), (6/11/63-64), 5/5/15, 5/159/20 etc; Also Kirfels text of Uttarapatha
countries of Bhuvankosha; See: Brahama Purana 27/44-53, Vayu Purana 45/115; Brahmanda Purana 12/16-46; Vamana Purana
13/37 etc^ Ashoka's Rock Edicts, V and XIII etc^
Proceedings and Transactions of the ... All-India Oriental Conference,
1930, p 118; cf: Linguistic Survey of India, Vol X, pp 455-56, Dr G. A.
Grierson; cf: History and Archeology of India's Contacts with Other
Countries from the ... , 1976, p 152, Dr Shashi P. Asthana - Social
Science.^ Linguistic Survey of India, X, p. 456^ Mahabharata 2/27/23-25^ Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World,

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History - 2000, p 99,(Editors) Richard J.A. Talbert.^ Geography 6.18.3; See map in McCrindle, p 8.^ For Tambyzoi = Kamboja,
see refs: Indian Antiquary, 1923, p 54; Pre Aryan and Pre Dravidian in
India, 1993, p 122, Dr Sylvain Lvi, Dr Jean Przyluski, Jules Bloch,
Asian Educational Services; Cities and Civilization, 1962, p 172,
Govind Sadashiv Ghurye; Problems of Ancient India, 2000, p 1, K. D.
Sethna; Asiatic Society, Calcutta, Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal,
1956, p 37; Purana, Vol VI, No 2, January 1964, pp 207-208; Journal of
the Asiatic Society, 1956, p 88, Asiatic Society (Calcutta, Royal
Asiatic Society of Bengal); Geographical Data in the Early Puras: A
Critical Study, 1972, p 165, Dr M. R. Singh; Barrington Atlas of the
Greek and Roman World, 2000, p 99, edited by Richard J.A. Talbert History; Neuro-ophthalmology, 2005, p 99 Leonard A. Levin, Anthony C.
Arnold; Purana-vimar'sucika -: Bibliography of Articles on Puranas,
1985, p 133, P. G. Lalye.^ For Ambautai = Kamboja,
see Refs: Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies, Vol. 5,1999, issue 1
(September), Dr. M. Witzel; Indo-Aryan Controversy: Evidence and
Inference in Indian History, 2005, p 257, Laurie L. Patton, Edwin
Bryant; The Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia: : Language, Material
Culture and Ethnicity, 1995, p 326, George Erdosy; Linguistic Aspects
of the Aryan non-invasion theory, Part I, Dr. Koenraad Elst, See Link: [8];
The official pro-invasionist argument at last, A review of the Aryan
invasion arguments in J. Bronkhorst and M.M. Deshpande: Aryan and
Non-Aryan in South Asia, Dr. Koenraad Elst, See link: [9].^
Geography 6.18.3;Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain
& Ireland, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, p
199.^
See: Political and Social Movements in Ancient Panjab (from the Vedic
Age Upto [sic] the Maurya Period) 1964, p 125-128, Dr Buddha Prakash^ Paradise of Gods 1966, p 323-24, Qamarud Din
Ahmed.^ Strabo Geog., 11.14.4^ Strabo Geog., 11.4.5; cf. 11.3.5; see also Fabricius, pp. 146, 160, and map; Trever, p. 113 and
map^ A. Herrmann, in Pauly-Wissowa, X/2, col. 1810, s.v. Kambysene.^
The Persian Empire' Studies in Geography and Ethnography of the Ancient
Near East, Ernst Herzfeld, ed. G. Walser, Wiesbaden, 1968, esp. pp.
344-46); [10]^
Literary History of Ancient India in Relation to Its Racial and
Linguistic Affiliations 1950, p 149, 165, Chandra Chakraberty.^ op cit, pp 37, 149, Dr C. Chakravarty.^
op cit, pp 32-33, Dr C. Chakravarty; The Racial History of India, 1944,
p 225, Chandra Chakraberty: e.g: "The Achaemenids were Kamboja-Kuru
Scythian people on the base of Parsa ('Khatti-Puru') tribe. It was a
marvelous racial blend and their culture was a similar good
synthesis...."; See also: Paradise of Gods 1966, p 330, Qamarud Din
Ahmed: e.g: "It seems therefore, that the Achaemenidae were mixed with
Saka Kuru-Kamboja with the Alpine base Khatti-Purus" (i.e.
Parsa-Xsayatia).^ op cit, pp 37, 149, 165, Dr C. Chakravarty.^ op cit, p 165, Dr C. Chakravarty.^
op cit, p 165, Dr C. Chakravarty; Cf also: History of Origin of Some
Clans in India, with Special Reference to Jats, 1992, p 153, Mangal Sen
Jindal.^ Ashtadhyayi, 4.1.168-175^ Harivamsa 14.19^ Harivamsa, 14.17^ Vayu Purana: v 88.127-43.^ Cultural History from Vayu
Purana, 1973, p 27, fn 185, Reprint of 1946 Edition, published by Deccan College Post Graduate Research Institute, Poona^
Foreign Elements in Ancient Indian Society, 2nd Century BC to 7th Century AD - 1979, p 125, Uma Prasad Thapliyal.^
Manusmriti verses X.43-44^ MBH 13.33.31-32^ Harivamsa 14.1-19^ Arthashastra 11.1.04^ MBH 12.166.1-81^
Sanskrit:Dhundhumarachcha Kambojo Muchukundastato.alabhatMuchukundanMaruttashcha Maruttadapi Raivatah (MBH
12.166.77-78) ^ BHagavata Purana 2.7.35^ Kalika Puranna 20/40^
Brahmanda Purana, 3.41.36; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country,
1981, p 19, Dr J. L. Kamboj; Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 15, S.
Kirpal Singh^
ete Durvarana nama Kambojah (=Kamboja warriors, difficult to be
resisted like wild elephants), Mahabharata 7.112.43; The Indian
Historical Quarterly, 1963, p 124.^ Journal of the American Oriental Society - P 295, American Oriental Society.^
Kambojasainyan vidravya durjayam yudhi bharata.^
Ibid.; The Social and Military Position of the Ruling Caste in Ancient
India, as Represented by the Sanskrit Epic, Edward W. Hopkins, Journal
of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 13, 1889 (1889), pp. 57-376.^ ibid.; Mahabharata 7.112.43-45; mundanetan
....Kambojan.eva... MBH 7.119.23.^
Ashva.yuddha.kushalah: Mahabharata 7.7.14; Vishnudharmotra Purana, Part
II, Chapter 118; Post Gupta Polity (AD 500-700): A Study of the Growth
of Feudal Elements and Rural Administration 1972, p 136, Ganesh Prasad
Sinha; Wisdom in the Puranas 1969, p 64, prof Sen Sarma etc.^ tikshnai.rashivishopamah: Mahabharata 7.112.48-49.^

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tigmavega.praharinam.^ samana.mrityavo.^ Kambojah Yama vaishravan.opamah: MBH 7,23.40-42.^ damshitah krurakarmanah
Kamboja yuddhadurmadah
i.e. lip-biting, hardy and war-intoxicated Kambojas: Mahabarata
7.119.26-28; Traditional History of India: A Digest 1960, p 136,
Govinda Krishna Pillai.^ Paraskara Gryya-sutram verse 2.1.2; Commentary: Pt Harihar.^ Vamsa Brahmana verse 1.18-19.^
Sanskrit:ye tvete rathino rajandrishyante kanchanadhvajah |ete durvarana nama Kamboja yadi te shrutah || 43 ||shurashcha
kritavidyashcha dhanurvede cha nishthitah |sa.nhatashcha bhrisha.n hyete anyonyasya hitaishinah || 44 ||akshauhinyashcha
sa.nrabdha dhartarahhtrasya bharata. | (Mahabharata 7.12.43-44) Translation: "Those
other car-warriors with golden standards, O king, whom you see, and
who, like the wild elephants are difficult of being resisted, they are
called the Kambojas. They are brave, a learned people and are firmly
devoted to the science of weapons. Desiring one another's welfare, they
are all highly united and mutually cooperative. They constitute a full
Akshauhini of wrathful warriors".^ Hindu World, Vol I, Benjamin Walker, p. 520.^
History & Culture of Indian People, The Vedic Age, Dr A. D.
Pusalkar, Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr K. D. Munshi, 1952, pp 259-260; cf:
Location of Kamboja, Purana, Vol VI No1, Jan 1964 pp 212-213; Problems
of Ancient India, 2000, p 224, K. D. Sethna.^ India's Contribution to World and Culture, 1970, p 216, Veveka Nanda, Lokesh
Chandra.^ Journal of American Oriental society, 1889, p 257, American Oriental Society; Mahabharata 10.18.13.^ :Prakrit jaha se
Kamboyanam aiiyne kanthai siya |assai javeyan pavre ayam havayi bahuassuye || (Uttaradhyana Sutra XI.17 20). ^ "....And
such a monk practising the rigours of an ascetic for the sake of a
fuller and more perfect life here and here-after-is superior to all
others like a trained 'Kamboja steed' whom no noise frightens, Iike a
strong irresistible elephant, like a strong bull and a proud lion ".
(See ref: Jivaraja Jaina Granthmala, No. 20, JAINA VIEW OF LIFE: BY T.
G. Kalghati, M.A., Ph.D. Reader in Philosophy, Karnatak University, and
Principal, Karnatak Arts College, Dharwar General Editor Dr. A. N.
Upadhya & Dr. H. L. Jain and Pt. Kailaschand Shastri Published by
LAL CHAND HIRACHAND DOSHI Jaina Sanskriti Samraksaka Sangha, Sholapur.
First Edition 1969, Second Edition 1984 [11]).^ MBH 6/90/3-4^ Tatah Kambojamukhyanam nadijana.n cha vasjinam |Arattanam
mahijana.n sindhujana.n cha sarvashah || 3 ||vanayujana.n shubhrana.n tatha parvatavasinam |ye chapare tittiraja javana
vatara.nhasah || 4 ||(MBH 6/90/3-4) ^ verse 1/6/22^ Arthashastra 2.30.32-34^ Brahmanda Purana II,2.16.16^ Manasollasa
4.4.715-30^ Raguvamsha 4/70^ Ancient India, p 236, Dr S. K. Aiyangar; cf: "The
world being trodden to dust with the troops of his Kambhoja horses
having filled the space with the groups of his victorious standards an
unequalled thunderbolt weapon in splitting the great rock, the d
king " (Mysore Inscriptions, 1983, p 263, B. Lewis (Benjamin Lewis) Rice).^ Verse twelve of the third Asama-patra (1185 AD)
reads: Kambojavajivrajavahnendryantabhavad vallabha deva aye |(Kielhorn, F. (ed) Epigraphia Indica, Vol V, 1898-99, pp 184,
187) ^ Mahabharata, 12/101/5^ Vishnudharmotra Purana attests: "The soldiers of Deccan (Daksinatya) are knowledgeable or
efficient in Khadga fight, the people of Vankala are expert in archery, the hill people are at-ease in stone or sling fight (pasanayudha), the people of Anga, Vanga and Kalinga are expert in fighting from elephants, the Kambojans, Gandharans are expert in
fighting from horse (or as cavalrymen)..." (Vishnudharmotri Purana, Kh. II, Chapter 118).^
Military Wisdom in the Puranas, 1969, p 64, Prof Sen Sarma; See also:
Post-Gupta Polity (A.D. 500-750): A Study of the Growth of Feudal
Elements and Rural Administration - 1972, p 136, Ganesh Prasad Sinha.^
Post-Gupta Polity (A.D. 500-750): A Study of the Growth of Feudal
Elements and Rural Administration, 1972, p 136, Ganesh Prasad Sinha.^ MBH, 7/7/14^ Hindu Polity, Part I & II, 1978, pp 121,
140; Dr K. P. Jayswal.^
Historie du Bouddhisme Indien, p 110, E. Lamotte; See also: History of
Indian Buddhism: From the Origins to the Saka Era, 1988, p 100 History -.^
See also: Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 133, Dr H. C.
Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukerjee; History of Panjab, Vol I, Publication
Bureau, Panjabi University, Patiala, (Editors) Dr Fauja Singh, Dr L. M.
Joshi; History of Poros, 1967, p 89, Dr Buddha Prakash.^ The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 105-06, 129-30, Kirpal
Singh.^
History of Porus, pp 12, 38, Dr Buddha Parkash; Raja Poros, 1990,
Publication Buareau, Punjabi University, Patiala; History of Panjab,
Vol I, (Editors): Dr Fauja Singh, Dr L. M. Josh, Publication Bureau,
Panjabi University, Patiala.^
Ancient Kamboja, People and country, 1981, pp 271-72, 278, Dr J. L.
Kamboj; These Kamboj People, 1979, pp 119, 192, K. S. Dardi.^
East and West, 1950, pp 28, 149/158, Istituto italiano per il Medio ed
Estremo, Editor, Prof Giuseppe Tucci, Co-editors Prof Mario Bussagli,
Prof Lionello Lanciotti. Dr J. W. McCrindle, Dr Romila Thapar, Dr R. C.
Majumdar etc also think that Ashvakas were Kamboja people.^

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Megasthenes and Arrian, p 180; Alexander's Invasion of India, p 38; J.
W. McCrindle; Geographical Data in Early Puranas, A Critical Study,
1972, p 179 Dr M. R. Singh; Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography,
Vol-I, 1966, p 243, William Smith, Phillip Smith; Geographical
Dictionary of ancient and Medieval India, Dr Nundo Lal Dey; Itihaas
Parvesh, 1948, Dr Jaychandra Vidyalankar; Ancient Kamboja, People and
the Country, 1981, p 118, Dr Kamboj etc.^ Panjab Past and Present, pp 9-10.^ Balocistan: siyasi kashmakash, muzmirat va
rujnat, 1989, Munir Amad Marri.^
Pracina Kamboja, jana aura janapada =: Ancient Kamboja, people and
country, 1981, 271-72, 278, Dr Jiyalala Kamboja, Dr Satyavrat Sastri.^ :
by , Chauhdri Muammad Yusuf
asan, 1996 .^ Diodorus in McCrindle, p 270^ Writes Diodorus: "Undismayed by the greatness of their danger, the
Ashvakayanas
drew their ranks together in the form of a ring within which they
placed their women and children to guard them on all sides against
their assailants. As they had now become desperate, and by their
audacity and feats of valour, made the conflict in which they closed,
hot work for the enemy--great was the astonishment and alarm which the
peril of the crisis had created. For, as the combatants were locked
together fighting hand-to-hand, death and wounds were dealt round in
every variety of form. While many were thus wounded, and not a few
killed, the women, taking the arms of the fallen, fought side by side
with their men. Accordingly, some of them who had supplied themselves
with arms, did their best to cover their husbands with their shields,
while the others, who were without arms, did much to impede the enemy
by flinging themselves upon them and catching hold of their shields.
The defenders, however, after fighting desperately along with their
wives, were at last overpowered by superior numbers, and thus met a
glorious death which they would have disdained to exchange for the life
of dishonour" (See: Diodorus in McCrindle, p 269/270; History of
Punjab, 1997, p 229, Editors: Dr Fauja Singh, Dr L. M. Joshi; Classical
Accounts of India, p 112-113; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country,
1981, p 283-286, Dr J. L. Kamboj; The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005,
p 134, Kirpal Singh).^ History of Punjab, Vol I, 1997, p 229.^
History of Panjab, Vol I, p 226, Dr L. M. Joshi, Dr Fauja Singh;
Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, 247, Dr J. L. Kamboj;
: , 1996, p 170,

, Cauhdri Muhammad Yusuf Hasan; Balocistan: Siyasi Kashmakash,


Muzmirat va Rujnat, 1980, Munir Amad Marri; cf: A Historical
Dictionary of Indian Food (Oxford India Paperbacks), p 91, K. T.
Acharya February 2001.^ Sanskrit:asti tava Shaka-Yavana-Kirata-Kamboja-Parsika-Bahlika
parbhutibhihChankyamatipragrahittaishcha Chandergupta Parvateshvarabalairudidhibhiriva parchalitsalilaih samantaad
uprudham Kusumpurama (See: Mudrarakshasa II) ^
Hindu Polity, A Constitutional History of India in Hindu Times, 1978, p
117-121, Dr K. P. Jayswal; Ancient India, 2003, pp 839-40, Dr V. D.
Mahajan; Northern India, p 42, Dr Mehta Vasisitha Dev Mohan etc^ Sasanavamsa (P.T.S.), p. 49^ For overlap of
Kamboj/Kshatriya clan names, see Glossary of Tribes, II, p 444, fn. iii.^ Jatt Tribes of Zira, p 138; Glossary of Tribes, II, p 444^
This Kambhoja country of southern India as hinted at by Syed Siraj ul
Hassanis, in all probability, is the colonial settlement of the
migrating Kambojas, who in alliance with the Sakas, Pahlavas had
entered into and spread into south-western and southern India prior
to/around the beginning of Christian era.^
See various refs like: Ancient Kamboja, people and the Country, 1981,
Dr Kamboj, p 165, 248; Comprehensive History India, Vol II, p 118, Dr
N. K. Shastri; Evolution of Heroic Tradition in Ancient Ounjab, Dr
Buddha Parkash; Bharatbhumi aur unke Nivasi, Dr Jaychandra Vidyalankar,
p 313-14; Political History of Ancient India, Dr Raychaudhury, 1996, p
133 etc.^
Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, 1904, p 14, Bombay (India: State);
Also see: Indo Aryans: Contribution Towards the Elucidation of their
Ancient and Medieval History, 1881, p 186-188, Rajendra Lal Mitra^
Panjab Castes, Denzil Ibbetson, p 148; Glossary of Tribes, H. A. Rose,
p 443; Jatt Tribes of Zira, 1992, p 137, S. S. Gill; Tarikh-i-Kambohan,
p 302, Chouhdri Wahhab ud-Din^
Glossary of Tribes, p 443, H. A. Rose; Panjab Castes, p 148, Denzil

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Ibbetson; Sidhaant Kaumudi, 1966, p 22, Acharya R. R. Pandey^
The Sikh, A. H. Bingley, p 57; Encyclopedia of Sikh Religion &
Culture, 1997, p 24, Dr Gobind Singh Mansukhani, Romesh Chander Dogra^ Glossary of Tribes, Vol II, p 443 fn, H. A. Rose.^ The
Tribes and Castes of the north-western Provinces and Oudh, Vol III, p 119, William Crooke.^ See: Tribes of Ancient India, 1977, p
99, Dr Mamata Choudhury.^ Encyclopedia of Indian Tribes 1995, p 89, Padamashri S. S. Sashi, S. S. Shahi.^ The authors of both
Tribes of Ancient India as well as The Encyclopedia of Indian Tribes also comment that in the Manu Samhita (10.43-44) as well in
Mahabharata (13.33.20-21), the Kambojas, the ancestors of modern Kambohs, along with other tribes like the Yavanas, Sakas,
Dravadas and Daradas
etc have also been described as Kshatriyas, but were degraded to the
state of sudras because of their non-observance of sacred rites and of
their disrespect to the Brahmanas (p 90).^ Rajasthan [district Gazetteers], Edition 2001, p 83, by Rajasthan (India).^ Glossary of
Castes, H. A. Rose, p 444; See entry at Kamboh, Punjabi Mahankosh, Bhai Kahn Singh Nabha etc^ See: Glossary of Tribes and
Castes of Punjab and North-west Frontier Province, Vol II, p 444, H. A. Rose.^ The Tribes and Castes of the North-western
Provinces and Oudh 1906, Page 119-120 William Crooke.^
Vlkerstmme am Brahmaputra und verwandtschaftliche Nachbarn,
Reise-Ergebnisse und Studien 1883, P 80, Philipp Wilhelm Adolf
Bastian.^ The Sikhs, p 57, A. H. Bingley.^ Balocistan: siyasi kashmakash, muzmirat va rujhanat 1989, p 1, Munir Ahmad Marri.^
Supplementary Glossary, p 304, Sir H. M. Eliot.^
In their writings Dr G. S. Mansukhani, R. C. Dogra, Dr J. L. Kamboj, K.
S. Dardi etc. also refers to this tradition among the Muslim Kambojs
claiming relationship with Royal lineage of Persia.^
Also cf: The Indo-Aryans: Contribution Towards the Elucidation of their
Ancient & Mediaeval History, 1881, p 188-89, Rajendra Lal Mitra.^ Kai = Kaiyani = Kawi. Kawi means glory (Median: Farnah,
Khotanese: Pharra)..."In
Avesta, the xwarenah is called 'Kawyan', that is belonging to the Kawis
or Kais. The Kais or Kawis were a partially a legendary dynasty of
Eastern Iranian rulers. Xwarenah can be a creative power used by the
gods or it can be a religious power. But generally it embodies the
concept of good fortune. As a kind of fiery radiance, it would relate
to the word for Sun (Xwar) (Old Iranian: Suvar) (hwar=to shine, xwar=to
grasp)". (Malandra: 1983, p 88).^ Kai or Kawi was a princely title in eastern Iran, or at least in the house of Zarathushtra's
eventual patron, Vishtaspa.
Zarathushtra attaches no pejorative connection to the title Kawi when
it is applied to him. Zarathushtra eventually found a patron, the
Kai/Kawi Vishtaspa, who not only espoused the new faith but protected it and helped propagate it by force of arms [12]^ As the
name Vishtaspa
itself suggests, the Kai dynasty was apparently connected with the
horses since Aspa in Iranian means horse. And so are the Kambojas---the
Ashvakas or Aspasioi/Assakenoi of Arrian. Hence, the Kai ruler
Vishtaspa might have been from the Ashvaka clan of the Kambojas^ The Sikhs, p 57, A. H. Bingley.^ Glossary of Tribes, Vol I, H.
A. Rose^ See: The composition of the Mughal nobility, Concise Encyclopedia Britannica, Online.^ Some Aspects of Afghan
Despotism in India, 1969, pp 23, 59, Iqtidar Husain Siddiqui.^ The Mughal Nobility Under Aurangzeb, 2002, p 21, M. Athar Ali.^
cf: Cultural History of India, 1975, p 261, A. L. Basham.^ Ain-i-Akbari, Abu-al-Fazal, English Trans by H. Blochmann, Part I, p
614.^ The Tribes and Castes of the north-western Provinces and Oudh, Vol III, p 120, William Crooke.^ Gazetteer of the Bombay
Presidency, 1899, p 14, Sir James MacNabb Campbell, Reginald Edward Enthoven [13].^ Imperial Gazetteer of India, p 180,
William Wilson Hunter.^ Punjab gazetteers, 1883, bound in 10 vols., without title-leaves, 1883, p 159, Punjab.^ Glossary of
Tribes, p 443, H. A. Rose; Panjab Castes, p 148, Denzil Ibbetson^ Arthashastra(11/1/04)^ Brhat Samhita(5/35)^
Report on the revision of settlement of the Pnipat tahsil & Karnl
parganah of the Karnl..., 1883, pp 1, 89; India and World War 1, 1978,
p 218, DeWitt C. Ellinwood, S. D. Pradhan; The Transformation of Sikh
Society, 1974, p 132, Ethne K. Marenco; Gazetteer of the Montgomery
District (Sahiwal), 1883-84, 1990, p 67, Punjab (Pakistan); Report on
the Revised Land Revenue Settlement of the Montgomery District in the
Mooltan Division, p 49, C. A. Roe and W. E. Purser; Green Revolution,
1974, p 35, Business & Economics etc.^ Panjab Castes, 1974, p 149, D. Ibbetson; Glossary, II, pp 6 & 442, H. A. Rose.^ Origin of
names of Castes and Clans, 2004,Principal Sewa Singh.^ Out of Ashes, p60, Dr M. S. Randhawa.^ A. H. Bingley, H. A. Rose,
William Crooke etc.^ The Tribes and Castes of the north-western Provinces and Oudh, Vol III, 1896, p 119, William Crooke.^ Cf:
Babu Sambhuchandra Mukerjee remarks: "Generally, they are independent of Brahmin and Kshatriya influence, and do not pay
deference to the leading castes"
(See ref: Indo-Aryans: contributions towards the elucidation of their
ancient and medival history, 1881, p 187, Rajendralala Mitra, Mitra).^
See: Indo Aryans: Contribution Towards the Elucidation of their Ancient
and Mediaeval History, 1881, p 187, Rajendra Lal Mitra .^ See also: Tribes and Castes of North-western Province and Oudh, p
118, William Crooke.^
cf also: The Sikhs, p 57, A. H. Bingley; These Kamboj People, 1979, p
192, S Kirpal Singh Dardi; See also The Kambojas Through the Ages,

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2005, p 219.^ . Agar kahat ul rijal uftad, azeshan uns kamgiriEke Afghan, doyam Kamboh soyam badzat Kashmiri |Ze Afghan hila
bhi ayad, ze Kamboh kina bhi ayad,Ze Kashmiri nami ayad bajuz andoho dilgiri || (Roebuck's Oriental Proverbs, Part I. p. 99). ^
However, Richard F. Burton (Arabian Nights, Vol. 10, pp. 178-219) presents this proverb in the following form: Agar kaht-imardurn uftad, az n sih jins kam gr;Eki Afghn, dovvum Sind,{NOTE:
For "Sind" Roebuck (Oriental Proverbs Part i. p. 99) has Kunbu
(Kumboh) a Panjbi peasant and others vary the saying ad libitum.}siyyum badjins-i-Kashmr: Trans: Though of men there be
famine yet shun these three Afghan, Sindi and rascally Kashmiri. [14]. See also [FN#404] of [15]^
In one version of it, the three rogues stated are the Sindis, the Jats
and the Kashmiris......See: Lady Burton, Arabian Nights, Vol IV, p 92;
Tribes and Castes of North-western Province and Oudh, p 120, William
Crooke.^ Ain-i-Akbari, Abu-al-Fazal, English Trans by H. Blochmann, Part I, p 614.^ The Tribes and Castes of the north-western
Provinces and Oudh, Vol III, p 120, William Crooke.^ Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, 1899, p 14, Sir James MacNabb
Campbell, Reginald Edward Enthoven .^ Rajasthan [district Gazetteers], 2001, p 77, Rajasthan (India).^
Glossaray of Tribes of Punjab and North-west Printier Province, H. A.
Rose, p 444-445; Punjab Castes, Sir Denzil Charles Ibbetson, Language
Deptt., Punjab, Edition 1976, p 201-202.^
Rajasthan [district Gazetteers], 2001, p 77, by Rajasthan (India);
These Kamboj People (Historical & Cultural Study), 1979, p 345;
Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 358, Kirpal Singh.^ cf also: Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 129, Dr J.L.
Kamboj.^ See also: Kamboj Itihaas, 1972, p 87-88, H. S. Thind.^ See: Ref: The Ain-i-Akbari of Abul Fazl, Vol I, p 399, translated
by Blochmann and Jarrett, Read under Shahbaz Khan.^ Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals Part - II - P 126, Satish
Chandra.^
The Sikhs and the Wars by Reginald Holder From Panjab: Past &
Present Vol IV, Part I, 1970, S. No 7, Edited by Dr Ganda Singh.^ Cf: The Kamboh Sikhs are numerous in Kapurthala and they
make very good soldiers, being of fine physique and very courageous (See Ref: The Handbook of the Fighting Races of India,
1899, p 82, P. D. Banerjee).^
History of Origin of Some Clans in India, with Special Reference to
Jats, 1992, p 149, Mangal Sen Jindal; Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005,
p 359, Kirpal Singh.^ "They
(Kambojas) were not only famous for their furs and skins embroidered
with threads of gold, their woolen blankets, 'their wonderful horses
and their beautiful women', but by the epic period, they became
especially renowned as Vedic teachers and their homeland as a seat of
Brahmanical learning" (See: Hindu World, Vol I, p 520, Prof Benjamin Walker).^ See also: Ancient Kamboja, People and the
Country, 1981, p 228, Dr J. L. Kamboj; And also: Mahabharata 11.25.1-5.^ Cf also: Kamboja was one of the sixteen countries in
ancient India, noted for its beautiful women (See:
A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms: With Sanskrit and English
Equivalents and a Sanskrit-Pali...1987, p 195, author William Edward
Soothill, Lewis Hodous); (See also: A Dictionary of Chinese
Buddhist Terms: With Sanskrit and English Equivalents and a
Sanskrit-Pali, 1995, p 195, Lewis Hodous - Reference); (and also: Entry Cam B" Qu`c ( =Kamboja) in Buddhist Dictionary of
Vietnamese-English[16]).^ cf also: "One
hundred (charming) Kamboj maidens, wearing jeweled earrings with
circlets of gold upon their arms and adorned with rings and necklaces
of the finest gold; one hundred elephants, snowy white, robust and
broad-backed, adorned with gold and jewels, carrying their great trunks
curved over their heads like plowshares, could not even begin to equal
one sixteenth part of the value of one step of one circumambulation" (See: Buddhist Sanskrit Vinaya Text, Caitya-pradaksinagatha^ Stupa, Sacred Symbol of Enlightenment: See link: [17].^ Mahabharata 7.23.43^ See: Mahabharata 8.56.113-114;
Mahabharata; MBH 7.92.72-76^ Mahabharata 8/56/111^ Mahabharata 8/56/110-114^ Mahabharata 1/67/31^ Ramayana
1/55/2^ Markendeya Purana verse 57.35.^ Markendeya 58.30-32^ . nairrtyam dizi dezah Pahlava Kamboja Sindhu
Sauvirah/hemagiri Sindhu Kalaka Raivataka surastra Badara Dravidah/ (Brhatsamhita 14/17-19). See also: India as Seen in the
Brhatsamhita of Varahamihira, 1969, Dr A. M. Shastri, Reader in Ancient Indian History & Culture, Nagpur University^ Ed. F. W.
Thomas, pp 20-22.^ Indian Historical Quarterly, XXVI-2, 1950, p 127^ V. D. I.9.6.^ Geographical. Data in Early Puranas, 1972, p
163, 206^ . sorata gurjara kachcha-kamboja-gauda rukha: (Raajbilaas 1/122) ^ Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p 127; Ancient
Kamboja, People and Country, 1981, p 305.^ Pulinda Ashmaka Jimuta Narrashtara nivasinah/ Carnata Kamboja Ghata
dakshinapathvasinah// (Garuda Purana 1/15/13).^ e.g: "The
people of Pulinda, Ashmaka and Jimutanya, as well Kambhojas, Karnatas
and Ghatas are Dakshinapathvasi (i.e live in southern quarter); the
people of Amvasthas, Dravidias, Lattas, Kambojas, Strimukhas, Sakas and
Anarthas (Anartas) are Nairritis (i.e live in south-west quarter)"...See Garuda Purana, Trans: Manmatha Nath Dutt, 1908, p 148.^
Indian Historically Quarterly, 1963, p 127.^ Ancient India, p 7, S. K. Aiyangar; Public Administration in Ancient India, p 56, P. N.
Banerjee^ Ancient India, III, pp 94, 125, Dr T. L. Shah^ Sind, p 44, M. R. Lamrick.^
This Kambhoja country of southern India as hinted at by Syed Siraj ul
Hassanis, in all probability, is the colonial settlement of the
migrating Kambojas, who in alliance with the Sakas, Pahlavas had

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entered into and spread into south-western and southern India prior
to/around the beginning of Christian era. Henry Walter Bellew MRCP (1834-1892) was an Indian-born British medical man and
author. ...
Mountstuart Elphinstone (1779 November 20, 1859) was a Scottish statesman and historian, associated
with the British government of India. ...
Friedrich (von) Spiegel (July 11, 1820, Kitzingen - December 15, 1905, Mnchen) was a German orientalist. ...
The Hindu Kush or Hindukush
( & #1607; & #1606; & #1583; & #1608; & #1705; & #1588; in
Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern
Areas of Pakistan. ...
For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ...
The Medes were an Iranian people of Aryan origin who lived in the western and north-western portion of present-day Iran. ...
Look up Kamboh in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...
http://www. ...
Croesus Croesus (IPA pronunciation: ,
CREE-sus) was the king of Lydia from 560/561 BC until his defeat by the
Persians in about 547 BC. The English name Croesus come from the Latin
transliteration of the Greek , in Arabic and Persian ,
Qrun. ...
Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of zmir and Manisa. ...
Ethnography ( ethnos = people and
graphein = writing) is the genre of writing that presents varying
degrees of qualitative and quantitative descriptions of human social
phenomena, based on fieldwork. ...
http://www. ...
Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a
classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism,
Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of
India. ...
Aryan (/erjn/ or /`rjn/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ...
Indian postage stamp depicting
(2004), with the implication that he used (IPA ) was an ancient
Gandharan grammarian (approximately 5th century BC, but estimates range
from the 7th to the 3rd centuries) who is most famous for formulating
the 3,959 rules of Sanskrit morphology known as the . ...
This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ...
Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a
classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism,
Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of
India. ...
Kuru or Kurus may be: Kuru (kingdom),
a powerful Indian kingdom during the Vedic period and later a republic
during the Mahajanapada period Kuru Kingdom, a kingdom based on the
historic Kuru kingdom in Indian epic literature Kuru (disease),
neurological, and associated with New Guinea, the Fore, and cannibalism
Kuru...
Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid
Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II
the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the
Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing
some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon...
Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ...
Today Balkh (Persian: ) is a
small town in the Province of Balkh, Afghanistan, about 20 kilometers
northwest of the provincial capital, Mazari Sharif, and some 74 km (46
miles) south of the Amu Darya, the Oxus River of antiquity, of which a
tributary formerly flowed past Balkh. ...
Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria
(Bactriana, Bkhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian
languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the
country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus);
its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now...
Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid
Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II
the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the

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Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing
some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon...
. The new kuru & #351; coin Kuru & #351; are a Turkish currency subunit. ...
Ancient Buddhist and Brahmanical
texts reveal that Uttarapatha was the name of northern division of
Jambudvipa of ancient Indian traditions. ...
Deccan College, Pune Deccan College
Post-Graduate and Research Institute is a post-graduate institute of
Archeology and Linguistics in Pune, India. ...
The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ...
Archery is the practice of using a bow to shoot arrows. ...
Map of the Mahajanapadas Earliest reference to Angas () occurs in Atharava Veda (V.22. ...
Genera Calicalicus Schetba Vanga
Falculea Artamella Leptopterus Cyanolanius Oriolia Euryceros Tylas
Hypositta Xenopirostris The vangas are a group of little-known small to
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The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ...
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one of the eighteen Smritis of the Dharma Sastra (or laws of righteous
conduct), written c. ...
For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ...
Yona, Yonaka or Yavana is a Pali word used in ancient India to designate Greeks. ...
Saka is also the name of a town in Hiroshima, Japan; for information on this town, see Saka, Hiroshima. ...
Daradas were a people who lived north and north-east to the Kashmir valley. ...
This does not cite any references or sources. ...
This does not cite any references or sources. ...
This does not cite any references or sources. ...
The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ...
For other uses, see Clan (disambiguation). ...
See also Kamboja KingdomEtymology of KambojaIndia Kamboja or Kamvoja is a kingdom grouped among the western
kingdoms in the epic Mahabharata. ...
Kamboja (or Kambuja) is the name of
an ancient Indo-Iranian tribe of Indo-European family, believed to be
located originally in Pamirs and Badakshan in Central Asia. ...
External links Some Kshatriya Tribes Of Ancient India, The Kambojas, by Dr. B. C. LAW: [23]Kamboj Society - Ancient Kamboja
Country Categories: Kambojas | Indo-European | Warriors | Punjabi tribes | History of India | History of Afghanistan | Social groups
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Results from FactBites:

Migration of Kambojas - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4330 words)

The culture of Kambojas was modified as a result of their contacts, first with the Yavanas and later, it went further modification as
a result of their contacts with the Sakas and Pahlavas etc (Dr D. Sircar, Dr J. Kamboj).
The Kambojas
in/around west, south-west India are also attested from inscriptions of
king Sahasiva Raya of Sangama Dynasty (1336-1478), kings Harihara and
Deva Raya of Narasinga Dynasty (1496-1567), and from the references of
king Vishnuvardhana of Hoiyasala Dynasty/Mysore (of 12th c CE).
King Kambu (Sanskrit Kamboj), the legendary patriarch of Kambuja (Kamboja) ruling family of Cambodia was, to all probability, a
warrior/scholar Kamboja chieftain from Sinhala or else from Gujarat.

Kambojas - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4776 words)

Kambojas
are a very ancient people of north-western parts of ancient India and
Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the

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Rig Veda.
The Kambojas still live as Kamboj and Kamboh in the greater Panjab, and as Kams/Kamoz and Katirs/Kamtoz of the Siyaposh
tribe in the Nuristan province of Afghanistan.
There were Kamboja steeds in the cavalry of Pandya king Valabhadeva who is referred to as the proud possessor/rider of the
Kamboja horses and elephants.==========================================

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